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BONE

DISORDERS

ARTHRITIS

DEFINITION
is a form of joint disorder
that involves
inflammation of one or
more joints. There are
over 100 different forms
of arthritis. The most
common form,
osteoarthritis
(degenerative joint
disease), is a result of
trauma to the joint,
infection of the joint, or
age. Other arthritis forms
are rheumatoid arthritis,
psoriatic arthritis, and
related autoimmune
diseases. Septic arthritis
is caused by joint
infection.

SIGNS AND
SYMPTOMS
Regardless of the type of
arthritis, the common
symptoms for all arthritis
disorders include varied
levels of pain, swelling,
joint stiffness and
sometimes a constant
ache around the joint(s).
Arthritic disorders like
lupus and rheumatoid
can also affect other
organs in the body with
a variety of symptoms.

PICTURES

BONE
CANCER

BONE
DISORDERS

SPINA
BIFIDA

is an uncommon cancer
that begins in a bone.
Bone cancer can begin in
any bone in the body, but
it most commonly affects
the long bones of the
arms and legs. Several
types of bone
that can affect both
children and adults,

DEFINITION
is a congenital
malformation in which
there is something wrong
with the bone in the
vertebral column,
exposing the spinal cord
which should be protected
within the vertebral
column. It is caused by
the incomplete closing of
the embryonic neural
tube. Congenital
malformation means a
birth defect.
The central nervous

may vary based on the


type of bone cancer, but
pain is the most
commonly experienced
symptom. Bone cancer
most often occurs in the
long bones of the body
(arms and legs), so
these are the most
common sites for pain.
Keep in mind that not all
bone tumors are
cancerous; some are
benign. Bone pain is
more often related to a
benign condition, like an
injury, than it is to
cancer.

SIGNS AND
SYMPTOMS
If the opening occurs at
the top of the spine, the
patient's legs are more
likely to be completely
paralyzed, and there will
be other problems with
movement elsewhere in
the body. If the openings
are in the middle or the
base of the spine,
symptoms tend to be
less severe.

PICTURES

system includes the brain,


nerves and spinal cord.
The spinal cord consists of
nerve cells and nerve
bundles that connect
every part of the body to
the brain

LEUKEMIA

is cancer of the body's


blood-forming tissues,
including the bone
marrow and the lymphatic
system.
Many types of leukemia
exist. Some forms of
leukemia are more
common in children.
Other forms of leukemia
occur mostly in adults.
Leukemia usually starts in
the white blood cells. Your
white blood cells are
potent infection fighters
they normally grow and
divide in an orderly way,
as your body needs them.
But in people with
leukemia, the bone
marrow produces

Leukemia symptoms
vary, depending on the
type of leukemia.
Common leukemia
Fever or chills
Persistent fatigue,
weakness
Frequent or severe
infections
Losing weight without
trying
Swollen lymph nodes,
enlarged liver or spleen
Easy bleeding or
bruising
Recurrent nosebleeds
Tiny red spots in your
skin (petechiae)

abnormal white blood


cells, which don't function
properly