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Chem 16 General Chemistry 1

07 Chemical Reactions

Dr. Gil C. Claudio

First Semester 2014-2015
Table of Contents

1 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations

2 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions

2.1 Stoichiometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Limiting Reactants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


3 Theoretical, Actual, and Percent Yields

4 Types of Chemical Reactions

4.1 Combination and Decomposition Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Displacement Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 Combustion Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


5 Aqueous Reactions
5.1 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions
5.2 Precipitation Reactions . . . . . .
5.3 Acid-Base Reactions . . . . . . .
5.4 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions .



6 Solution Stoichiometry
6.1 Concentration of Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 Dilution of Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3 Stoichiometry in Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


7 Titrations and Calculations for Acid-Base Titrations
























References of these notes
General Chemistry, 10th ed, by Ralph H. Petrucci, F. Geoffrey Herring,
Jeffy D. Madura, and Carey Bisonnette.
Chemistry: The Central Science, 13th ed., by Theodore L. Brown, H. Eugene
LeMay Jr., Bruce E. Bursten, Catherine J. Murphy, Patrick M. Woodward,
and Matthew W. Stoltzfus.

1 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations

The Law of Conservation of Mass
The law of conservation of mass is the scientific law that states that the
total mass of the products of a chemical reaction is the same as the total mass
of the reactants, so that the mass remains constant during the reaction.

Chemical Equations
Chemical reactions are written down in chemical equations. These
equations show what substances reactcalled the reactantsand which
substances are formedcalled the products.
The reactants are written on one side, and the products on the other, with
an arrow pointing from reactants to products showing the path of the


Stoichiometric coefficients are the coefficients used to balance an equation.

Balancing Chemical Equations by Inspection
Chemical equations may be balanced using the following steps:
1. Write the molecular formulae of the reactants and the products, making
sure that the chemical formula of each substance is correct before placing
any coefficient in the equation.
2. Balance each element in the equation by placing a coefficient before each
substance to make the number of each atom in the left (reactants) equal
to the number of the same atom on the right (products).
3. After balancing the equation, check the symbol of every element to verify
if the coefficients are correct. This is done by multiplying the coefficient
by the subscript of each element. The total should be the same on both
sides of the equation.
Balancing: Some Reminders
Take note of the following when balancing the equation:
The subscripts of a compound are never changed, for changing them
would mean changing the identity of the entire molecule.
To make things easier (though not always the first step), start with the
most complex chemical formula, i.e., the formula containing the greatest
number of atoms.
Whenever possible, balance polyatomic ions as a unit and not separately.
Balance the Following Equations PHMB 10e, Example 4-1, p 114
1. NH3 + O2 N2 + H2 O
2. H3 PO4 + CaO Ca3 (PO4 )2 + H2 O
3. C3 H8 + O2 CO2 + H2 O
4. NH3 + O2 NO2 + H2 O
5. NO2 + NH3 N2 H2 O
States of Matter
The state of matter or physical form of reactants and products is shown by
symbols in parentheses.
(g) gas
(l) liquid
(s) solid
(aq) aqueous solution

Reaction Conditions
The Greek capital letter delta, , means that a high temperature is required.

2 Ag2 O(s)
4 Ag(s) + O2 (g)
Other more explicit statement of reaction conditions can be written
350 C, 340 atm

CO(g) + 2 H2 (g) CH3 OH(g)

ZnO+Cr2 O3

2 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions



Stoichiometry refers to quantitative measurements and relationships
involving substances and mixtures of chemical interest.
The balanced chemical equation
2 H2 (g) + O2 (g) 2 H2 O
means that
2x molecules H2 reacts with x molecules O2 to produce 2x molecules H2 O
molecules moles
Stoichiometry Examples PHMB 10e, Examples 4-3 to 4-5, pp 117-118
1. How many moles of CO2 are produced in the combustion of 2.72 mol of
triethylene glycol, C6 H14 O4 , in an excess of O2 ?
2. What mass of CO2 is formed in the reaction of 4.16 g triethylene glycol,
C6 H14 O4 , with an excess of O2 ?
3. What mass of CO2 is consumed in the complete combustion of 6.86 g of
triethylene glycol, C6 H14 O4 ?
1. 16.3 mol CO2
2. 7.31 g O2
3. 11.0 g O2
Combining Other Factors PHMB 10e, Examples 4-6 and 4-7, pp 121-122
Given the reaction
2 Al(g) + 6 HCl(aq) 2 AlCl3 (aq) + 3 H2 (g)
1. An alloy used in aircraft structures consists of 93.7% Al and 6.3% Cu by
mass. The alloy has a density of 2.85 g/cm3 . A 0.691 cm3 piece of the
alloy reacts with an excess of HCl(aq). If we assume that all the Al but
none of the Cu reacts with HCl(aq), what is the mass of H2 obtained?
2. A hydrochloric acid solution consists of 28.0% HCl by mass and has a
density of 1.14 g/mL. What volume of this solution is required to react
completely with 1.87 g Al?
1. 0.207 g H2
2. 23.8 mL HCl solution


Limiting Reactants

The Limiting Reactant

The Limiting reactant (or limiting reagent) is the reactant present in the
smallest stoichiometric quantity in a mixture of reactants.
The quantity of the product formed is determined by the complete
consumption of the limiting reactant.
When the masses of the reactants are given, it does not necessarily mean
that all reactants are used up in the reaction. Most of the time, one of the
reactants is the limiting reagent while the rest are in excess.
The limiting reagent is determined by comparing the possible molar
combinations of the reactants given the moles of the reactants present.
The reagent which is not in excess is the limiting reagent.
Determining the Limiting Reactant PHMB 10e, Examples 4-12 and 4-13, pp
Phosphorus trichloride, PCl3 , is a commercially important compound used
in the manufacture of pesticides, gasoline additives, and a number of other
products. Liquid PCl3 is made by the direct combination of phosphorus and
P4 (s) + Cl2 (g) PCl3 (l)
1. What is the maximum mass of PCl3 that can be obtained from 125 g P4
and 323 g Cl2 ?
2. What mass of P4 remains?
1. 417 g PCl3
2. 31 g P4 remaining

3 Theoretical, Actual, and Percent Yields

Theoretical Yield
Stoichiometry gives us a theoretical yield of the products, that is, the
maximum amount of the product when all the limiting reagent is consumed
in the reaction. But in reality, we do not always obtain theoretical yields. The
quantity of product that is actually produced is called the actual yield. There
are many reasons for this:
Not all products are collected carefully during the experiment
the reactants may undergo side reactions
or not all of the limiting reagent is consumed.
Percent Yield
Thus in real experiment, the amount of products actually obtained in a
reaction is called the actual yield, which is oftentimes less than the theoretical
yield. The percent yield relates the actual yield to the theoretical yield.
Percent yield =

actual yield
theoretical yield

Theoretical, Actual, and Percent Yields PHMB 10e, Example 4-14, p 133
Billions of kilograms of urea, CO(NH2 )2 , are produced annually for use as
a fertilizer using the reaction
NH3 (g) + CO2 (g) CO(NH2 )2 (s) + H2 O(l)
The typical starting reaction mixture has a 3:1 mole ratio of NH3 to CO2 . If 47.7
g urea forms per mole of CO2 that reacts, what is the
1. theoretical yield;
2. actual yield; and
3. percent yield?
1. theoretical yield = 60.1 g CO(NH2 )2
2. actual yield = 47.7 g CO(NH2 )2
3. percent yield = 79.4%
Adjusting Reactants PHMB 10e, Example 4-15, p 134
When heated with sulfuric or phosphoric acid, cyclohexanol, C6 H11 OH, is
converted to cyclohexene, C6 H10 . The chemical equation is
C6 H11 OH(l) C6 H10 (l) + H2 O(l)
If the percent yield is 83%, what mass of cyclohexanol must we use to obtain
25 g of cyclohexene?
ANSWER: 37 g C6 H11 OH

4 Types of Chemical Reactions


Combination and Decomposition Reactions

Combination Reactions
A combination reaction is a chemical reaction in which two or more
substances combine to form a single product.
For example, magnesium metal burns brilliantly in air to produce magnesium
2 Mg(s) + O2 (g) 2 MgO(s)
Decomposition Reaction
In a decomposition reaction one substance undergoes a reaction to produce
two or more other substances.
For example, many metal carbonates decompose to form metal oxides and
carbon dioxide when heated

CaO(s) + CO2 (g)



Displacement Reactions

Displacement Reactions
In a displacement reaction, an element reacts with a compound, displacing
an element from it.
A + BX AX + B
Some examples are
Zn(s) + 2 HBr(aq) ZnBr2 (aq) + H2 (g)
Mn(s) + Pb(NO3 )2 (aq) Mn(NO3 )2 (aq) + Pb(s)


Combustion Reactions

Combustion Reactions
A combustion reaction is a chemical reaction that proceeds with evolution
of heat and usually also a flame.
most combustion involves reaction with oxygen, as in the burning of a
For example, the combustion of propane, C3 H8 , a gas used for cooking, is
described by the equation
C3 H8 (g) + 5 O2 (g) 3 CO2 (g) + 4 H2 O(g)

5 Aqueous Reactions

The Nature of Aqueous Solutions

A homogeneous mixture (or solution) is a mixture of elements and/or
compounds that has a uniform composition and properties within a given
However, the composition and properties may vary from one sample to
The solvent is the solution component in which one or more solutes are
Usually the solvent is present in greater amount than are the solutes and
determines the state of matter in which the solution exists.
A solute is a solution component that is dissolved in a solvent.
A solution may have several solutes, with the solutes generally present
in lesser amounts than is the solvent.
An electrolyte is a substance that provides ions when dissolved in water.
A strong electrolyte is a substance that is completely ionized in solution.
E.g., NaCl.
A weak electrolyte is a substance that is only partially ionized in solution
in a reversible reaction. E.g., CH3 COOH.
A nonelectrolyte is a substance that is essentially non-ionized, both in the pure
state and in solution. E.g., CH3 OH.


Precipitation Reactions

Precipitation Reaction
A precipitate is an insoluble solid that deposits from a solution as a result
of a chemical reaction.
A reaction in which one of the products is a precipitate is called a
precipitation reaction.
An example is the formation of PbI2 , a water-insoluble yellow solid.
2 KI(aq) + Pb(NO3 )2 (aq) 2 KNO3 (aq) + PbI2 (s)
Net Ionic Equations
A net ionic equation represents a reaction between ions in solution in such
a way that all nonparticipant (spectator) ions are eliminated from the equation.
The equation must be balanced both atomically and for net electric charge.
Net Ionic Equations: An Example
Given the reaction
AgNO3 (aq) + NaI(aq) AgI(s) + NaNO3 (aq)
Since the strong electrolytes dissociate in water

(aq) + I (aq) AgI(s) + 
(aq) + 
Ag+ (aq) + 
Removing the spectator ions, we get the net ionic equation
Ag+ (aq) + I (aq) AgI(s)
Predicting Precipitation Reactions
To predict whether a precipitate forms when we mix aqueous solutions of
two strong electrolytes
1. note the ions present in the reactants,
2. consider the possible cation-anion combinations, and
3. use tables or guidelines to determine if any of these combinations is
A Solubility Guideline
Follow the lower-numbered guideline when two guidelines are in conflict.
This leads to the correct prediction in most cases.
1. Salts of group 1 cations (with some exceptions for Li+ ) and the cation are
2. Nitrates, acetates, and perchlorates are soluble.
3. Salts of silver, lead, and mercury(I) are insoluble.
4. Chlorides, bromides, and iodides are soluble.
5. Carbonates, phosphates, sulfides, oxides, and hydroxides are insoluble
(sulfides of group 2 cations and hydroxides of Ca 2+ , Sr 2+ , and Ba 2+ are
slightly soluble).
6. Sulfates are soluble except for those of calcium, strontium, and barium.

Sour taste
Provide H+ ions
React with active metals
to give H2
Produce CO2 when added
to limestone (CaCO3 )
Neutralize bases

Bitter taste
Provide OH ions
Slippery feeling

Neutralize acids

Another Solubility Guideline

Soluble ionic compounds
Cl , Br , I

important exceptions
Compounds of Ag+ , Hg22+ , and Pb 2+
Compounds of Sr 2+ , Ba 2+ , Hg22+ , and Pb 2+

Insoluble ionic compounds


important exceptions
Compounds of NH+4 , the alkali metal cations,
Ca 2+ , Sr 2+ , and Ba 2+
Compounds of NH+4 , the alkali metal cations
Compounds of NH+4 , the alkali metal cations,
Ca 2+ , Sr 2+ , and Ba 2+

Predicting Precipitation Reactions PHMB 10e, Example 5-2, p 159

Predict whether a reaction will occur in each of the following cases. If so,
write a net ionic equation for the reaction.
1. NaOH(aq) + MgCl2 (aq) ?
2. BaS(aq) + CuSO4 (aq) ?
3. (NH4 )2 SO4 (aq) + ZnCl2 (aq) ?
1. Mg(OH)2 (s)
2. BaSO4 (s) + CuS(s)
3. all soluble


Acid-Base Reactions

Properties of Acids and Bases

Some Common Acids and Bases
citrus fruits, vinegar, carbonated beverages, tomatoes, black coffee, gastric
fluid, vitamin C, aspirin, ant venom, battery acid, muriatic acid, sulfuric acid
household ammonia, soaps and detergents, baking soda, lye, milk of
magnesia, oven cleaners, drain cleaners, antacids.

An acid can be defined as a substance that provides hydrogen ions (H+ ) in
aqueous solution.
Based on the Arrhenius theory of acids.
HCl(g) + H2 O(l) H3 O+ (aq) + Cl (aq)
HCl(aq) H+ (aq) + Cl (aq)
Strong and Weak Acids
Strong acids have a strong tendency for producing H+ ions. They
are molecular compounds that are almost completely ionized into and
accompanying anions when in aqueous solution.
HCl, HBr, HI, HClO4 , HNO3 , H2 SO4
Weak acids are molecular compounds that have a weak tendency for
producing H+ ions; weak acids are incompletely ionized in aqueous solution.
CH3 COOH(aq) H+ (aq) + CH3 COO (aq)
The Arrhenius definition of a base is a substance that produces hydroxide
ions (OH ) in aqueous solution.
NaOH(aq) Na+ (aq) + OH (aq)
A strong base is a base that is completely ionized in aqueous solution.
LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH, Ca(OH)2 , Sr(OH)2 , Ba(OH)2
A weak base is a base that is partially ionized in aqueous solution in a
reversible reaction.
NH3 (aq) + H2 O(l) NH+4 (aq) + OH (aq)
Ion-Product Constant of Water
Dissociation of water
H2 O H+ + OH
The ion-product constant for water, Kw
Kw = [H+ ][OH ] = 1.0 1014 at 25 0 C (or Kw = [H3 O+ ][OH ])
A solution for which [H3 O+ ] = [OH ] is said to be neutral.
pH is the negative logarithm of the hydronium ion concentration.
pouvoir hydrogene which means hydrogen power
Equations of pH
pH = -log [H3 O+ ] (or pH = -log[H+ ])
pOH = -log [OH ]
pH + pOH = 14

pH < 7.0
pH = 7.0
pH > 7.0

solution is acidic
solution is neutral
solution is basic

[H3 O+ ] > [OH ]

[H3 O+ ] = [OH ]
[H3 O+ ] < [OH ]

Neutralization Reactions
In a neutralization reaction, an acid and a base react in stoichiometric
proportions, so that there is no excess of either acid or base in the final solution.





H2 O(l)

The net ionic equation is

H+ (aq) + OH (aq) H2 O(l)
Examples of Acid-Base Reactions
Mg(OH)2 , a base, is found in milk of magnesia.
Mg(OH)2 (s) + 2 H+ (aq) Mg 2+ (aq) + 2 H2 O(l)
Calcium carbonate is present in limestone and marble
CaCO3 (s) + 2 H+ (aq) Ca 2+ (aq) + H2 O(l) + CO2 (g)
Writing Equations for Acid-Base Reactions PHMB 10e, Example 5-3, p 165
Write a net ionic equation to represent the reaction of
1. aqueous strontium hydroxide with nitric acid;
2. solid aluminum hydroxide with hydrochloric acid.
1. 2 H+ (aq) + 2 OH (aq) 2 H2 O(l)
2. Al(OH)3 (s) + 3 H+ (aq) Al 3+ (aq) + 3 H2 O(l)


Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
An oxidation-reduction (or redox) reaction is one that involves a
simultaneous oxidation and reduction of reactants.
A reduction process is one in which electrons are gained and the
oxidation state of some atom decreases.
Oxidation is a process in which electrons are lost and the oxidation state
of some atom increases.
An oxidation state relates to the number of electrons an atom loses, gains, or
shares in combining with other atoms to form molecules or polyatomic ions.
Oxidation State Change
Given the reaction below with the oxidation states
Fe2 O3 (s)
Fe = +3
O = -2

3 CO(g)
C = +2
O = -2

2 Fe(l)
Fe = 0

3 CO2 (g)
C = +4
O = -2

Changes in oxidation state

Fe gains electrons, from +3 to 0. Thus Fe2 O3 (not just Fe) is reduced.
C loses electrons, from +2 to +4. Thus CO (not just C) is oxidized.
O does not change its oxidation state.

Identifying Oxidation Reduction Reactions PHMB 10e, Example 5-4, pp

Indicate whether each of the following is an oxidation reduction reaction.
1. MnO2 (s) + 4 H+ (aq) + 2 Cl (aq) Mn 2+ (aq) + 2 H2 O((l) + Cl2 (g)
2. H2 PO4 (aq) + OH (aq) HPO42 (aq) + H2 O(l)
1. MnO2 is reduced to Mn 2+ . Cl is oxidized to Cl2
2. This is not an oxidation-reduction reaction.
Oxidation and Reduction Half-Reactions
Given the redox reaction of zinc metal in copper (II) sulfate solution
Zn(s) + CuSO4 (aq) ZnSO4 (aq) + Cu(s)
the net ionic equation is
Zn(s) + Cu 2+ (aq) Zn 2+ (aq) + Cu(s)
The two half-reactions are

Cu (aq) + 2 e
Zn(s) + Cu 2+ (aq)

Zn 2+ (aq) + 2 e
Zn 2+ (aq) + Cu(s)

Some Assumptions of Redox Reactions

1. The reactions we are dealing with all occur in water solutions. This
means that the ionic molecules readily dissociate to their ionic species,
and that the ions that are most of the time involved in the reaction. This
also means that water can be involved as either a reactant or a product.
2. Redox reactions most of the time occur in either acidic or basic medium,
thus the reactions involve either H+ or OH as either reactants or
Ion Electron Method: Acidic Medium
1. Separate the net ionic equation into two half-reactions (HR). Each HR
contains the species with the same atoms aside from O and H.
2. Balance first all the atoms aside from O and H.
3. Then balance O and H.
(a) Balance O by adding H2 O to the side of the HR lacking in O.
(b) Balance H by adding H+ to the side of the HR lacking in H.
4. Balance the charge by adding e to the side with the greater total
positive charge.
Since we are dealing with redox reactions, one of the HR loses
electrons (e at the right side of the HR) and the other HR gains
the electrons (e at the left side of the HR).
5. Balance the electrons by multiplying an integer so that the number of
electrons lost is equal to the number of electrons gained.
6. Add the two half-reactions, and cancel all the species that appear on
both sides of the reaction.

Ion Electron Method: Basic Medium

The procedure for balancing redox reactions in basic medium follow the
same steps as the one for the acidic medium, with two additional steps in the
1. For every H+ in the final reaction, add the same number of OH to both
sides of the reaction. The H+ and OH in one side of the reaction are then
combined to form H2 O.
2. Cancel all excess H2 O present in both sides of the equation.
An Example in Acidic Medium
In the reaction of sodium oxalate and potassium permanganate in
hydrochloric acid medium, the unbalanced chemical reaction can be written
HCl(aq) + Na2 C2 O4 (aq) + KMnO4 (aq) CO2 (g) + KCl(aq) + MnCl2 (aq) +
H2 O(l) + NaCl(aq)
Removing the spectator ions from the chemical equation and temporarily
removing water and the H+ ions, we can simplify the equation to
C2 O42 (aq) + MnO4 (aq) CO2 (g) + Mn 2+ (aq)
The two half-reactions are:
C2 O42 (aq) CO2 (aq) MnO4 (aq) Mn 2+ (aq)
The balanced half reactions are
5 C2 O42 (aq) 10 CO2 (aq) + 10 e 10 e + 16 H+ (aq) + 2 MnO4 (aq) 2
Mn 2+ (aq) + 8 H2 O(l)
Adding the two half-reactions and bringing back the spectator ions, the final
answer is
16 HCl(aq) + 5 Na2 C2 O4 (aq) + 2 KMnO4 (aq) 10 CO2 (aq) + 2 KCl(aq) + 2
MnCl2 (aq) + 8 H2 O (l) + 10 NaCl(aq)
An Example in Basic Medium
I2 (aq) + Cl2 (aq) + NaOH(aq) NaH3 IO6 (aq) + NaCl(aq) + H2 O(l)
The net ionic equation is
I2 + Cl2 H3 IO62 + Cl
The two half-reactions are
I2 H3 IO62 Cl2 Cl
18 OH (aq) + 7 Cl2 (aq) + I2 (aq) 2 H3 IO62 (aq) + 14 Cl (aq) + 6 H2 O(l)
Bringing back the spectator ions
I2 (aq) + 7 Cl2 (aq) + 18 NaOH(aq) 2 NaH3 IO6 (aq) + 14 NaCl(aq) + 6 H2 O(l)


Examples: Redox Reactions in Acidic Medium

Ni 2+ (aq) + IO4 (aq) Ni 3+ (aq) + I (aq)
O2 (g) + Br (aq) H2 O(l) + Br2 (aq)
Ca(s) + Cr2 O72 (aq) Ca 2+ (aq) + Cr 3+ (aq)
IO3 (aq) + Mn 2+ (aq) I (aq) + MnO2 (aq)
Cr2 O72 (aq) + Cl (aq) Cr 3+ (aq) + Cl2 (g)
Examples: Redox Reactions in Basic Medium
SO2 (g) + I2 (aq) SO3 (aq) + I (aq)
Zn(aq) + NO3 (aq) NH3 (aq) + Zn 2+ (aq)
ClO (aq) + CrO2 (aq) Cl (aq) + CrO42 (aq)
K(s) + H2 O(l) K+ (aq) + H2 (g)
CN (aq) + MnO4 (aq) CNO (aq) + MnO2 (aq)
Disproportionation Reactions
In a disproportionation reaction, the same substance is both oxidized and
One example is the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide H2 O2
2 H2 O2 (aq) 2 H2 O(l) + O2 (g)
Another is the disproportionation of S2 O32 in acidic solution
S2 O32 (aq) + H+ (aq) S(s) + SO2 (g) + H2 O(l)
Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
An oxidizing agent (or oxidant) makes possible an oxidation process by
itself being reduced.
A reducing agent (or reductant) makes possible a reduction process by
itself becoming oxidized.
Identifying Oxidizing and Reducing Agents PHMB 10e, Example 5-8, p
Hydrogen peroxide, H2 O2 , is a versatile chemical. Its uses include
bleaching wood pulp and fabrics and substituting for chlorine in water
purification. One reason for its versatility is that it can be either an oxidizing
or a reducing agent. For the following reactions, identify whether hydrogen
peroxide is an oxidizing or reducing agent.
1. H2 O2 (aq) + 2 Fe 2+ (aq) + 2 H+ (aq) 2 H2 O(l) + 2 Fe 3+ (aq)
2. 5 H2 O2 (aq) + 2 MnO4 (aq) + 6 H+ (aq) 8 H2 O(l) + 2 Mn 2 (aq) + 5 O2 (g)
1. H2 O2 is an oxidizing agent
2. H2 O2 is a reducing agent


6 Solution Stoichiometry

Concentration of Solutions

Molarity is the number of moles of solute per liter of solution.

moles solute
volume (L) solution


n = MV

Not volume of solvent.

One litre of a solution usually contains either slightly more or slightly
less than 1 litre of solvent because the process of dissolution causes the
volume of liquid to increase or decrease.
Calculating Molar Quantities PHMB 10e, Example 4-8, p 124
A solution is prepared by dissolving 25.0 mL ethanol, CH3 CH2 OH
(d = 0.789 g/mL) in enough water to produce 250.0 mL solution. What is the
molarity of ethanol in the solution?
ANSWER: 1.71 M


Dilution of Solutions

Solution Dilution
The principle of dilution is that the same amount of solute is present in
concentrated solution (small volume) as in the larger volume of a diluted
n = MV

V1 M1 = V2 M2

Preparing a Solution by Dilution PHMB 10e, Example 4-10, p 126

A particular analytical chemistry procedure requires 0.0100 M K2 CrO4 .
What volume of 0.250 M K2 CrO4 must be diluted with water to prepare 0.2500
L of 0.0100 M K2 CrO4 ?
ANSWER: 10.0 mL


Stoichiometry in Solutions

Stoichiometry of Reactions in Solution

The appropriate stoichiometric factor is used to solve the stoichiometry
of reaction in solution. The only difference is that moles is calculated from
A Reaction in Solution PHMB 10e, Example 4-11, p 128
A 25.00 mL pipetful of 0.250 M K2 CrO4 is added to an excess of AgNO3 (aq).
What mass of Ag2 CrO4 will precipitate from the solution?
K2 CrO4 (aq) + 2 AgNO3 (aq) Ag2 CrO4 (s) 2 KNO3 (aq)
ANSWER: 2.07 g


7 Titrations





Titration is a procedure for carrying out a chemical reaction between two
solutions by the controlled addition (from a buret) of one solution to the other.
The equivalence point of a titration is the condition in which the
reactants are in stoichiometric proportions. They consume each other,
and neither reactant is in excess.
An indicator is an added substance that changes color at the equivalence
point in a titration.
Titration of Vinegar PHMB 10e, Example 5-9, p 179
Vinegar is a dilute aqueous solution of acetic acid produced by the bacterial
fermentation of apple cider, wine, or other carbohydrate material. The legal
minimum acetic acid content of vinegar is 4% by mass. A 5.00 mL sample of
a particular vinegar is titrated with 38.08 mL of 0.1000 M NaOH. Does this
sample exceed the minimum limit? (Vinegar has a density of about 1.01 g/mL)
ANSWER: 4.53 %, it exceeds the minimum limit
Standardizing a Solution PHMB 10e, Example 5-10, p 180
A piece of iron wire weighing 0.1568 g is converted to Fe 2+ (aq) and requires
26.24 mL of a KMnO4 (aq) solution for its titration. What is the molarity of the
KMnO4 (aq)?
5 Fe 2+ (aq) + MnO4 (aq) + 8 H+ (aq) 5 Fe 3+ (aq) + Mn 2+ (aq) + 4 H2 O(l)
ANSWER: 0.02140 M KMnO4