general consideration
The current through the channel
is
V
I=
R
+

VGS
D
Semiconductor
Here, we are assuming that V << VT (we will see why, later on)
The channel resistance, R (W is the device width):
R=
L
q n aW
L
q ns W
I = W ci (VGS VT) V /L
1
MOSFET transconductance
In most MOSFET applications, an input signal is the gate voltage VG
and the output is the drain current Id.
The ability of MOSFET to amplify the signal is given by the
output/input ratio: the transconductance, gm = dI/dVGS.
I = W ci (VGS VT) V /L
From this:
gm = V W ci /L
I and gm
I and gm
High carrier mobility and short gate length L are the key features of FETs
2
Drain
Gate
2 m
+

VGS
D
Semiconductor
When no drain voltage V is applied, the entire channel has the same
potential as the Source, i.e. VCH = 0.
In this case, as we have seen, nS = (ci/q) (VGS VT)
where VGS is the gate source voltage and VT is the threshold voltage
When the drain voltage V is applied, the channel potential changes
from VCH = 0 on the Source side to VCH= V on the drain side.
In this case, the induced concentration in the channel also depends
on the position.
4
+

VGS
D
Semiconductor
Semiconductor
nS
VGS > VT
Id
V=0
V1 > 0
V2 > V1
V3 = VGSVT
L
x
6
MOSFET Modeling
1. Constant mobility model
Assuming a constant electron mobility,
n, using the simple charge control
model the absolute value of the electron
velocity is given by,
dV
vn = nF = n
dx
With the gate voltage above the threshold, the drain current, Id, is given by
dV
ns
dx
Id
dV =
dx
W n ci (VGT V )
Id = Wq n
Rewriting,
Where VGT
= VGS VT.
(VGT V )dV =
Id
W n ci
dx
Integrating along the channel, from x=0 (V=0) to x=L (V=VDS), we obtain:
For, VDS << VGT,
For, larger VDS ,
W n ci
Id =
VGT VDS
L
Id =
W n ci
V
VGT DS V DS
L
2
Linear region
Sublinear region
Sublinear
W n ci
V
VGT DS V DS
L
2
W n ci 2
Id = Isat =
VGT
2L
9
Transconductance
Defined as
gm =
dId
dVGS V DS
From the equations for the drain current, Id, derived above, we find that
VDS ,
gm =
VGT ,
where
W
= n ci
L
v=F
vs
Fs =
n
11
1.2
18
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
1.2
Potential (V)
16
14
12
1.2
10
8
6
4
2
0
0
0
1 2 3 4 5
Distance (m)
1 2 3 4 5
Distance (m)
the electric field in the channel in the direction parallel to the semiconductorinsulator interface
dV
Id
v
=
F
=
F=
n
n
n
dx
q nns (V )W
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
1
0.4
1.2
0.2
0
1 2 3 4 5
Distance (m)
Potential, electric field, and surface electron concentration in the channel of a Si MOSFET for VDS = 1 and
1.2 V. L = 5 m, di = 200 , n = 800 cm2/Vs, VGS = 2 V, VT = 1 V.
12
Once the electric field at the drain side of the channel (where the electric field
is the highest) exceeds Fs, the electron velocity saturates, leading to the current
saturation.
In shortchannel MOSFETs, this occurs at the drain bias smaller than the
pinchoff voltage VDS = VGT.
Id
dV =
dx
W n ci (VGT V )
Field at drain
Saturation condition,
Id
dV
F ( L) =
x=L =
dx
W n ci (VGT VDS )
ISAT
Fs =
nci (VGT VSAT )W
13
Saturation current versus gatetosource voltage for 0.5 m gate and 5 m gate
MOSFETs. Dashed lines: constant mobility model, solid lines: velocity
saturation model.
14
gch VGT
V
1 + 1 + GT
VL
q n ns W / L,
where ns=ci VGT/q
gch VGT
V
1 + 1 + GT
VL
gch
I sat
VGT
2
W n ci 2
Id = Isat =
VGT
2L
When FS L << VGT (MOSFET with short gate or early velocity saturation):
Isat =
gch VGT
V
1 + 1 + GT
VL
I sat gch VL
(Note that gch is controlled by VGT)
15
Gate
Source
Drain
Vds= Id R s + VDS + Id R
d
VGS = Vgs Id Rs
VDS = Vds I d (Rs + Rd )
16
dId
gm =
dVgs
Vds =const
dId
g mo =
dVGS V = const
DS
g mo
gm =
1 + g mo R s + gdo ( R s + Rd
dI d
g do =
dVDS
VGS =const
gd =
gdo
1 + gm o R s + g ( R s + R
do
d
)
17
Isat =
gcho Vgt
160
140
120
Drain Current (mA)
140
100
80
60
40
20
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
DraintoSource Voltage (V)
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
DraintoSource Voltage (V)
V
D
Semiconductor
2 VGT VDS
Cgs = Ci 1
+C f
3 2VT VDS
2 VGT
Cgd = Ci 1
3 2VT VDS
+C f
C f c s W
where c 0.5
In saturation, VDS has to be replaced by VSAT (where VSAT = VGT)
This results in
C GS/C i
0.6
C/Ci
0.5
0.4
0.3
CGD/C i
0.2
0.1
0.0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0 1.2
1.4
VDS/VSAT
22