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Before we discuss the expulsion of the Banu Nadir, we'll discuss personal events

of the prophet PBUH. In paticular the marriages that took place around and befo
re this time.
We need to understand what is happening in the personal life after the prophet P
BUH. After the death of Khadija RA, its said for many months the prophet PBUH wa
s not seen smiling. Eventually a sahabiat suggested to marry again and she said
"if you want an elderly lady then Sauda, if you want a younger lady than Aisha".
So the next wife of the prophet PBUH after Khadija was Sauda. Her previous husba
nd was Sukran ibn Amar, the brother of Suhair ibn Amar. He died an early death i
n the Meccan era. When she converted to Islam her family cut her off so she had
no one to take care off her. So the prophet PBUH married her probably in Shawwal
in the 10th year of the dawah. She was also the oldest, and a rather large lady
and would walk slowly. She herself tells her this: in the farewell Hajj she ask
ed permission from the prophet PBUH to leave early to avoid the crowds because s
he was of a large build and walked very slowly. From this we get the fiqh positi
on: anyone who has any need, the elderly and weak etc can leave and go to Mecca
early during Hajj.
In the Madinah era, around the 6th, 7th year, she began to feel perhaps the prop
het PBUH might divorce her. So she said "I have no jealousy of your other wives,
and I want to be with you so that I can be resurrected among your wives, so tak
e my night and give it to Aisha". So she gave up her night to Aisha. When she di
d this Allah revealed Surah Nisa verse 128: "If a women fears her husband will a
bondan her or leave her or not treat her in a good manner, then she can negotiat
e something with him and these conditions are good". This too is a blessing from
Allah. Aisha RA was the prophet PBUH's famous wife but he was fair to all his w
ifes. So its as if Allah gifted the prophet PBUH to have a double share with Ais
ha RA.
She died early in the time of Umar RA and buried in baqee ul gurkat. This is the
2nd wife after Khadija.
As for Aisha: she has so much to mention. She was the one whom the prophet PBUH
said in a dream an angel carrying a lady toward him and the angel said "this is
your wife". And the prophet PBUH uncovered the hijab and it was Aisha RA. And th
is is from Bhukari and it indeed did come to pass. The nikah was done in Mecca,
but the marriage was consumated in the 2nd year of the Hijrah.
The 4th wife was Hafsa bint Umar. And Hafsa was married right at this time. Most
likely she was born five years before the da'wah began. And she was married at
a very young age around 12 to one of the early converts, Kunays. And she migrate
d with Kunays to Abyssinia. We don't know much about Kunays - all we know is he
participated in Badr and Uhud thus was a blessed sahaba. We know however he died
after Uhud because of the wounds. Hafsa was very pained at this: she was lonely
and suffering. Umar RA feels for her, and goes to Uthman ibn Affan and asks Uth
man "what do you think of Hafsa?" This is how it was done: the wali would go the
potential husband and offer the daughter/sister. However Uthman's first wife, t
he daughter of the prophet PBUH who passed away at Badr, remained queit and said
"I think that I don't want to get married right now". But something else is goi
ng on that Umar RA dosent know.
Umar RA felt grief at this. Uthman was a noble man, wealthy etc but he rejected
Umar's daughter. So from Umars perspective he is saying "I dont like your daught
er". So Umar RA went to Abu Bukr and says the same thing "what do you think of H
afsa?" And Abu Bukr is already married! Anyway Abu Bukr said "let me think about
it" but he dosent return at all for days. He dosent even know what to tell Umar
. At this Umar RA said "this was much more painful to me than Uthmans rejection"

. According to some books it mentions Umar RA went to complain to the prophet PB

UH about Uthman and Abu Bukr that they turned Hafsa down. The prophet PBUH said
"Hafsa will marry someone better than Uthman, and Uthman will marry someone bett
er than Hafsa". Umar RA did not get it until finally the prophet PBUH himself pr
oposed to Hafsa. Abu Bukr RA afterwards told Umar "the prophet PBUH told him abo
ut Hafsa himself and I could not tell you". SubhanAllah it tells us the human na
ture of the prophet PBUH: he gained advice from Uthman and Abu Bukr. And indeed
Abu Bukr said "had the prophet PBUH"
And Aisha RA used to say Hafsa RA was her main competition for the prophet PBUHs
company and love. She had the same tounge as her father, the wit etc. She was y
oung. Its even reported some issues happened between the prophet PBUH and Hafsa
and according to one narration the prophet PBUH gave one talak. However at this
Jibreel AS came down and said "she is one who fasts all the time and prays all t
he time and she shall be your wife in Jannah". Allah intervened in this dispute.
Jibreel AS himself came down and said "take her back". Its said once there was
another dispute and she was crying, and Umar RA came and saw her crying: but of
course when your son in law is the prophet PBUH you can never side against him.
So Umar RA said to her "perhaps you had another dispute with him, walahi if he d
ivorces you I will never speak to you".
Hafsa RA was one of the few ladies who learned to read and write. The mushaf wri
tten in the time of Umar RA, Hafsa took it - the original mushaf of Islam. The f
irst ever written: Hafsa was the one who took it when Umar RA died, and when Uth
man wanted to copy it, he had to get it from Hafsa, and then copy it and send it
all over the city. Its said she died at 41 or 45, and Marwan ibn Al Hakm, the k
halif at the time did janaaza salah over her.
The prophet PBUH then married Zainab bint Kuzayma. This is not the same person a
s Zainab bint Jahsh who is the prophet PBUHs cousin from the Quraysh. Shes not f
rom Quraysh, rather she is from the tribe of Najd. And she in fact died in Madin
ah - she was one of two wives who died during the prophet PBUH life. The marriag
e was very short - some say three months, some say five months and some say eigh
t months. we have hardly any details about her. One report said: she was married
to the cousin of the prophet PBUH in the days of Jaheleya. He divorced her and
so Ubayda ibn Harith married her. He was one of the three who fought in the muba
raza in Badr. He was the oldest out of Humza and Ali, his leg was cut off and he
was killed. Zainab bint Kuzayma was known as ummal masaqeen. She was very gener
ous, every caring. That was her kunya even before the coming of Islam: it shows
her pure heart and nobility. So probably around the 3rd year of the Hijrah the p
rophet PBUH married her, but she lives only for a few months after this and pass
es away in Rabbi Awwal in the 4th year of the Hijrah. She was the first to be bu
ried in Baqee ul Gurgat.
It is said Zainabs mother is the most noble mother in law in the history of mank
ind. She had five daughters: all five of them marry people of import. Two of the
m become ummah ha tul mo'mineen. Zainab had a half sister who also married the p
rophet PBUH later on. And that is, Maymoona bint Harith. Maymoona and Zainab wer
e half sisters and both married the prophet PBUH. The third daughter was ummal f
adal bint Harith, Abbas's wife. And Ummal fadal gave birth to Abdullah ibn Abbas
and Al Fadal ibn Abbas - two very famous sahabah. A fourth daughter, Lubaba tul
Sughra married Al Waleed ibn Mughira, and his son is Khalib ibn Waleed. Thus Za
inabs mother grandson is Khalid. The last daughter was another very famous sahab
ia - Asma bint Umais. She was married to Ja'far ibn Abu Talib. And she became a
widow at the death of Ja'far. She was the one whom the prophet PBUH visited her,
consoled her and said "do not cry over my brother, his children are now my chil
dren". In the khilafa of Abu Bukr RA, he married Asma a few months after and she
gave birth to the son of Abu Bukr, Muhammad ibn Abi Bukr. His mother is Asma bi
nt Umais. And after Abu Bukr's death, Asma married Ali ibn Abi Talib, Ja'far's y
ounger brother. And she gave sons to Ali RA too. So he was married Ja'far, Abu B

ukr and Ali. The youngest sister, Salma bint Umais was married to Humza RA and t
hey had a daughter together, Umara. And when Humza RA died the sahaba all argued
to take care of her, and the prophet PBUH gave her to Ja'far because his wife i
s Umara's aunty.
A few months later the prophet PBUH married Umme Salama, her real name was Hind
bint Abi Umayya - we've heard her names so many times. She is well known - she w
as of those who put water on her head and she's running around the battlefield.
When Uhud took place, she's married to Abu Salama (Adbullah ibn Asad) was a cous
in of the propeht PBUH from the mothers side. All of the wives of the prophet PB
UH had immense imaan and a great contribution to Islam. She had immigrated both
of the immigrations and she was the very first lady to migrate to Madinah. And A
bu Salama was known for his gentle manners and characteristics. In the battle of
Uhud he was wounded severly, and passed away a few months later. On his death b
ed she comes to him and this shows the love they had: she said "If a man of Jann
ah dies and his wife never remarries, she will automatically go to Jannah with h
im. But if a women of Jannah dies, and the husband dosen't remarry he will go to
Jannah too". SubhanAllah she is trying to inform him in the best of ways that "
I won't marry after you". Abu Salama said "will you obey me?" And she said "yes
of course!" He told her "marry someone after I die." And he made a dua on his de
athbed: "Oh Allah bless her with a husband better than me who will take care of
her and never harm her". What a husband subhanAllah. The prophet PBUH said "neve
r is anyone inflicted with a calamity.." and note if Allah had wanted she could
have heard it from anyone else. But her husband tells her this hadith directly t
hat "never is anyone inflicted with a calamity and he is patient and makes the d
ua 'inna lilahe...'".
So Umme Salama instantly said this dua when Abu Salama died but she still said "
how can it be possible that someone will be better than Abu Salama?". Abu Bukr R
A proposed to her and she turned down - subhanAllah she wasn't satisfied with th
is. After a while the prophet PBUH and look at her wisdom. She was known for her
great wisdom and her lineage. Islamically there's nothing wrong with taking lin
eage as one of the factors for marriage. Even the prophet PBUH she dosen't say y
es immediately: she says "I am very honoured you are interested in me but there
are three things you should know:
1. I am a women that has jealousy and you are a man that already has wives - I a
m worried that jealousy will act up and displease you, which will displease Alla
2. I am a women coming on in my age and I am not young (he was mid 30s +).
3. I am a women that has family (four children)."
So the prophet PBUH said "as for your jealousy I will make dua. As for your age,
I am inflicted with the same calamity as you." Notice his humour. "And as for y
our family they are my family". Obviously Umme Salama then marries the prophet P
BUH, sometime in the 4th year of the Hijrah. The most important story is that of
Hudabiya when the prophet PBUH dosen't know what to do; the sahabah are irritat
ed, Umme Salama was the one who said "don't negotiate with them, just stand up,
do it and they will follow you". So the prophet PBUH took the advice and when th
e sahabah saw this, they began racing to cut their hair. And Umme Salama lived a
very long life, she died in the year 59H. And Abu Hurrairah led her janazah. So
Umme Salama was the 6th wife of the prophet PBUH, but the 4th at the time becau
se two had passed away.
Zainab bint Jash is the next wife and her story is very complicated. And note at
her marriage this was when the laws of hijab were revealed. Salah and zakat and
fasting is all revealed, hajj is delayed until the very end, but hijab was one
of the latter laws to be revealed around end of 4th year/beginning of the 5th ye

We now return to the main story of the seerah back to the gazawa of the prophet
As we mentioned right at the end of Uhud Abu Suffyan had said "we will meet agai
n one year from now". Uhud took place in the third year of the Hijrah, thus in t
he month of Sha'ban in the 4th year of Hijrah, the prophet PBUH left with around
1500 sahabah and camped once again at Badr. At Uhud they agreed "we will meet a
gain at Badr". And the prophet PBUH camped there for more than a week waiting fo
r an army to show up but no army showed up. And he assigned Ali ibn Abu Talib to
be the flag bearer. And it shows us the Quraysh were not able to live up to the
ir promise. They in fact gathered an army of 2000 - but they were half hearted a
nd not into it. They marched out of Mecca but alot of talk, and back and forth a
nd they just called it quits. They gave an excuse and said "this year has been d
ifficult, there's been a draught, there has been little rain, we need to take ca
re of our families and be strong to fight but its been a difficult year". Of cou
rse the muslims did not complain, they were there at Badr, waiting. But in any c
ase the Quraysh abandoned the entire fight and we see from this the tide is shif
ting: the muslims are getting stronger.
Gazwa Dha tul Riqat was another gazwa that took place. No fighting took place bu
t it was important. Ibn Ishaaq places this gazwa right now i.e. in the 4th year
during Sha'ban, however people such as Bhukari said it occured after the battle
of Khaybar. And there is evidences of both sides. But one of the main evidences
to show it took place right now is the story of Jaabir. In it he says "my father
was maryted at Uhud, and I got married and the prophet PBUH did not I was marri
ed". So the prophet PBUH does not know Jaabir is married - and Jaabir got marrie
d right after Uhud so this suggests this gazwa took place now.
This Gazwa Dha tul Riqat involved a tribe called Gatafaan who was known for thei
r lack of morals, looting, robbery etc and its said they wanted to raid the musl
ims pre-emptively. At this the prophet PBUH led an army of 700 men and the proph
et PBUH camped outside Gatafaan. No battle took place but a number of things. Du
ring this gazwa Allah revealed the salah of battle (salaat ul Quhaf). The imam w
ill pray the full salah, and the sahabah behind him will take shifts in praying.
One group will pray, the other will guard and then they will change over. So th
e two groups take shifts praying but the imam prays the full prayer. The second
incident was regarding a miracle that took place. On the way back from Gatafaan
it was a hot summers day in the desert. It was the sunnah of the prophet PBUH to
march straight after Fajr and when it got too hot he would stop. So the sahabah
walked as long as they could after Fajr and they reached a valley where they pl
anned to stop. All of the sahabah rushed to any shade they could find under a tr
ee, mountain and small crevece they could find. And indeed everyone was tired, a
nd they aren't worried about an enemy attacking so the sahabah fell asleep. And
the prophet PBUH also fell asleep under a tree.
Now a bedouin of Gatafaan who was following the prophet PBUH and the army saw an
opportunity. He had agreed to assassinate the prophet PBUH so when he saw the p
rophet PBUH was all by himself, he walked all the way through the muslim camp, a
nd came to the prophet PBUH, took the prophet PBUHs sword from the tree and unsh
eathed it. At this point in time the prophet PBUH wakes up. He's a bedouin, not
a warrior but still he has a weapon. So he shook the weapon in front of the prop
het PBUH. So the man said "are you scared of me?" and the prophet PBUH said "no
I am not". And in the process the man begins to tremble out of his fear. Accordi
ng to one report he asked "who will protect you from me?" And the prophet PBUH s
aid "Allah". When he said 'Allah' the sword dropped instantly. And so the prophe
t PBUH picked it up, turned it around and said "now who will protect you from me
?" At this the man said "be the better of the two who took the sword" i.e. have
mercy. So the prophet PBUH said "will you say the shahada?" The man was honest a

nd said no but did say "I won't fight against you ever again".
Jaabir narrates this story in Bhukari: he said all the sahabah were tired, and w
ere all asleep under some shade. Suddenly they heard the prophet PBUH saying "co
me here" and they went to the prophet PBUH who explained the story. And Jaabir s
ays the prophet PBUH did not do anything - he forgave the man, and let him go ba
Another incident was that of the two sahabah who were protecting the army and ca
ravan of the muslims at night time. They were assigned to check and ensure Gataf
aan wouldn't attack again. The sahabah were Ammar ibn Yasir and Abad, and Abad s
aid "I'll be the first watchman and you can be the second". So Ammar went to sle
ep. Abad stood up in salah to pray at a time when one of the mushriks of Gatafaa
n fired an arrow. And it went straight into Abads body so he pulled it out and c
ontinued praying. Another arrow came in, pulled that one out and this happened a
gain to the point Abad thought he was going to faint. At this he woke Ammar up w
ho fought off that mushrik. Ammar asked "why didn't you break your salah and wak
e me up?" Abad said "I was reciting a surah and I didn't want to break it". He l
oved salah so much he didn't so much. And he said "I swear by Allah were in not
for the fact I would have failed in the duty the prophet PBUH gave, I would have
carried on in my salah".
The last incident was that of Jaabir and its a story ibn Hajar said you can deri
ve 100 benefits from. Who was Jaabir? Jabir bin Abdillah is one of the most famo
us Companions of the Prophet PBUH. He was from the Ansar, and accepted Islam as
a young boy. His father was the famous warrior Abdullah b. Haram. Jabir was perh
aps the youngest Companion to witness and participate in the blessed 'Treaty of
Aqaba,' before the hijra of the Prophet. He was also blessed to live an extremel
y long life. Because of this, Jabir became one of the most profuse narrators of
hadith, earning his name in the top five Companions in terms of quantity of hadi
th narrated.
So Jaabir narrates this very well known hadith which happened at the time of thi
s Gazqa in the first person. He says "as we were coming back from the gazwa, my
camel was the oldest and the weakest camel. And I was straggling behind the enti
re army. And I was in a very sad mood because my father had died at Uhud. And he
left a big loan, and I had seven sisters (no brothers and he is the oldest). Al
l of my worry and grief are piling on me. However I heard a voice who said "who
is that in the back". I looked up and said "this is Jaabir". And the prophet PBU
H said "why are so sad?"" And he explained his father died, and he has seven sis
ters etc and all he has is a old camel. The prophet PBUH asked him "are you marr
ied?" Jaabir said "yes". The prophet PBUH asked "Did you marry a virgin or widow
/young girl or older girl?" He said an older girl. So the prophet PBUH said "why
didn't you marry a young girl, you will play with her and she with you". Its a
conversation a young man will understand - the prophet PBUH is trying to cheer h
im up. So he said "I wanted to marry someone who would take care of my sisters a
nd not add one to their number". The prophet PBUH said "you've done right". This
shows marrying a young, old, virgin etc depends on the circumstance. In this ca
se he married someone older which was of his benefit so she can help take care o
f Jaabirs sisters.
The prophet PBUH then told Jaabir to stop his camel, and the prophet PBUH stoppe
d his own camel. Notice this is Jaabir just a kid in Madinah, but the prophet PB
UH is having a one on one conversation with him. And so the prophet PBUH mounted
the camel, said 'Bismillah!' and Jaabir said "it had become the fastest camel I
had ever seen". And he caught up with the prophet PBUH and now he is happy that
he has a young, fast camel. But when he catches up with the prophet PBUH, the p
rophet PBUH says to him "sell it to me". The young man, and it was out of care f
or his sisters, he said "no I cannot". He said "no" to the prophet PBUH! The pro
phet PBUH said again "sell it to me!" When Jaabir saw the prophet PBUH really wa

nts it he said "ok just take it". The prophet PBUH said "no sell it to me". Jaab
ir said "how much will you give?" The prophet PBUH said "a dirham" which is noth
ing for a camel. Jaabir said "no!" and walahi you can see the young age of Jaabi
r. He said "how much?" And the prophet PBUH "ok two dirhams". Its still a joke.
So Jaabir kept on increasing the price when it reached 40 dirhams. Even still it
wasn't great but it was something. And also Jaabir said "Let me ride it back to
Madinah and I'll sell it to you".
And subhanAllah when the camel got fast, Jaabir was now at the front of the army
eager to get home. But the prophet PBUH said "don't just barge in to your famil
y, let the crier come to the city and let the family be aware you are coming". T
he prophet PBUH is encouraging the two to have intimacy - he's encouraging her a
nd him to dress up. This shows us the frankness of the prophet PBUH. So the next
morning he comes to the prophet PBUHs masjid. The prophet PBUH said "have you p
rayed two raka'at?" Jaabir said "no" and so he prayed. Then the prophet PBUH tol
d Bilal RA "weigh the 40 dirham and give him some more". And Jaabir had brought
the camel, took the money and walked away. So the prophet PBUH told Jaabir to co
me back. He said "you forgot your camel is here". But Jaabir said "I sold it to
you". The prophet PBUH said "Oh Jaabir, do you think I will cheat you out of you
r camel? Take the money and take the camel". SubhanAllah. This whole ploy was ju
st to give Jaabir money in a way that Jaabir dosen't feel its sadaqah. The whole
story is just a joke - why? So Jaabir is given some money. And there are so man
y benefits from this hadith. And walahi it shows us the care the prophet PBUH ha
d. He went all the way back to the army, saw Jaabir, tried to cheer up him, and
devises a whole plot to get that money in his hand. SubhanAllah. Our prophet PBU
H himself is encouraging Jaabir and is telling them explicit things. This hadith
is always mentioned aswell in the fiqh of selling and buying. Most important th
e fact that you can bargain - bring the price up and down. You can say 'no' to s
omeone elder and senior to you. And you can put conditions to the contract. Jaab
ir said "let me ride it back first then you can take it". There are many more le
ssons we can derive from the hadith of Jaabir.