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PREAMBLE(NOTPARTOFTHESTANDARD)
Inordertopromotepubliceducationandpublicsafety,equaljusticeforall,abetterinformedcitizenry,theruleoflaw,worldtradeandworld
peace,thislegaldocumentisherebymadeavailableonanoncommercialbasis,asitistherightofallhumanstoknowandspeakthelawsthatgovern
them.
ENDOFPREAMBLE(NOTPARTOFTHESTANDARD)
BRITISHSTANDARD
BSEN
13000:2004

CranesMobilecranes
TheEuropeanStandardEN13000:2004hasthestatusofaBritishStandard
ICS53.020.20

NOCOPYINGWITHOUTBSIPERMISSIONEXCEPTASPERMITTEDBYCOPYRIGHTLAW
ii

Nationalforeword
ThisBritishStandardistheofficialEnglishlanguageversionofEN13000:2004.ItsupersedesBS1757:1986whichiswithdrawn.
TheUKparticipationinitspreparationwasentrustedbyTechnicalCommitteeMHE/3,Cranesandderricks,toSubcommitteeMHE/3/5,Mobile
cranes,whichhastheresponsibilityto:
aidenquirerstounderstandthetext
presenttotheresponsibleinternational/Europeancommitteeanyenquiriesontheinterpretation,orproposalsforchanges,and
keepUKinterestsinformed
monitorrelatedinternationalandEuropeandevelopmentsandpromulgatethemintheUK.
Alistoforganizationsrepresentedonthissubcommitteecanbeobtainedonrequesttoitssecretary.
Crossreferences
TheBritishStandardswhichimplementinternationalorEuropeanpublicationsreferredtointhisdocumentmaybefoundintheBSICatalogue
underthesectionentitledInternationalStandardsCorrespondenceIndex,orbyusingtheSearchfacilityoftheBSIElectronicCatalogueorof
BritishStandardsOnline.
Thispublicationdoesnotpurporttoincludeallthenecessaryprovisionsofacontract.Usersareresponsibleforitscorrectapplication.
CompliancewithaBritishStandarddoesnotofitselfconferimmunityfromlegalobligations.
Summaryofpages
Thisdocumentcomprisesafrontcover,aninsidefrontcover,theENtitlepage,pages2to108,aninsidebackcoverandabackcover.
TheBSIcopyrightnoticedisplayedinthisdocumentindicateswhenthedocumentwaslastissued.
Amendmentsissuedsincepublication
Amd.No.

Date

Comments

Key:=mandatory,=ifrequired,=notrelevant,L=loadtest,F=functionalcheck,V=visualcheck

ThisBritishStandardwaspublishedundertheauthorityoftheStandardsPolicyandStrategyCommitteeon4January2006
BSI4January2006
ISBN0580472728
iii

EUROPEANSTANDARD
NORMEEUROPENNE
EUROPISCHENORM
EN13000
June2004
ICS53.020.20
Englishversion

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CranesMobilecranes
AppareilsdelevagechargesuspendueGruesmobilesKraneFahrzeugkrane
ThisEuropeanStandardwasapprovedbyCENon22April2004.
CENmembersareboundtocomplywiththeCEN/CENELECInternalRegulationswhichstipulatetheconditionsforgivingthisEuropean
Standardthestatusofanationalstandardwithoutanyalteration.Uptodatelistsandbibilographicalreferencesconcerningsuchnationalstandards
maybeobtainedonapplicationtotheCentralSecretariatortoanyCENmember.
ThisEuropeanStandardexistsinthreeofficialversions(English,French,German).Aversioninanyotherlanguagemadebytranslationunder
theresponsibilityofaCENmemberintoitsownlanguageandnotifiedtotheCentralSecretariathasthesamestatusastheofficialversions.
CENmembersarethenationalstandardsbodiesofAustria,Belgium,Cyprus,CzechRepublic,Denmark,Estonia,Finland,France,Germany,
Greece,Hungary,Iceland,Ireland,Italy,Latvia,Lithuania,Luxembourg,Malta,Netherlands,Norway,Poland,Portugal,Slovakia,Slovenia,Spain,
Sweden,SwitzerlandandUnitedKingdom.

ManagementCentre:ruedeStassart,36B1050Brussels
2004CENAllrightsofexploitationinanyformandbyanymeansreservedworldwideforCENnationalMembers.Ref.No.EN
13000:2004:E
1

Contents

page

Scope

Normativereferences

Termsanddefinitions

10

Safetyrequirementsand/orprotectivemeasures

13

4.1

Structuresandcomponents

13

4.1.1

General

13

4.1.2

Loadeffects

14

4.1.3

Limitstates

19

4.2

Equipmentanddevices

21

4.2.1

Generalprinciples

21

4.2.2

Controlstation

21

4.2.3

Protectionagainstfallingtools

23

4.2.4

Seats

24

4.2.5

Controlsandcontrolsystems

24

4.2.6

Limitingandindicatingdevices

26

4.2.7

Steeringsystem

30

4.2.8

Brakingsystems

31

4.2.9

Protectiondevices

33

4.2.10

Hydraulicandpneumaticsystemsandcomponents

35

4.2.11

Pressurevesselsandfueltanks

36

4.2.12

Electricandelectronicandcomponentsandrelatedphenomena

37

4.2.13

Hooksandhookblocks

37

4.2.14

Specificrequirementsforsparetyres/wheels

37

4.2.15

Specificrequirementsforpinjointedjib/flyjibconnections

38

4.3

Visibility

38

4.3.1

Craneoperator'sfieldofview

38

4.3.2

Lighting

38

4.4

Noiseandnoisereduction

38

4.4.1

Noiseandnoisereductionatsourcebydesign

38

4.4.2

Noisereductionbyinformation

39

4.5

Fireprotection

39

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4.5.1

Fireresistance

39

4.5.2

Fireextinguisher

39

4.6

Requirementsfortransportandtravel

39

Verification

40

5.1

Methodsofverification

40

5.2

Testproceduresandconditions

42

5.2.1

General

42

5.2.2

Conceptualverificationbycalculation

42

5.2.3

Conceptualverificationbyexperiment

42

5.2.4

Examinationaftertest

42

5.2.5

Testreport

42

5.3

Verificationbasedonnoiseemissionvalues

43

Informationforuse

43

6.1

Formatofinstruction

43

6.1.1

General

43

6.1.2

TechnicaldataandInformation

43

6.2

Instructionsforuse

44

6.2.1

General

44

6.2.2

Craneoperatorinstructions

45

6.3

Instructionsforassembly,erection,disassemblyandtransport

46

6.4

InstructionsformaintenanceandInspection

46

6.4.1

General

46

6.4.2

Instructionsformaintenance

46

6.4.3

Instructionsforinspection

47

6.5

Instructionsfortraining

47

6.6

Instructionsforspareparts

47

Marking

47

7.1

Machinemarking

47

7.2

Warningsigns

47

7.3

Graphicsymbols

47

7.4

Markingofcraneparts

48

7.5

Markingofoutriggers

48

AnnexA(normative)Examplesofmobilecranetypes

50

AnnexB.1(informative)Majorpartsoftelescopiccranes

52

AnnexB.2(informative)Majorpartsoflatticejibcranes

53

AnnexC(normative)Listofhazards

54

AnnexD(normative)Loadeffectsofcombinedmotions

57

AnnexE(normative)Craneoperator'sseatdimensions

61

E.1

General

61

E.2

Dimensionsofcranedriver'sseat

61

E.3

Otherdimensionsoradjustments

61

AnnexF(normative)Rigidbodystability:Loadeffectsduetoacceleration

63

AnnexG.1(normative)Noisetestcodeformobilecranes

65

G.1.1

Introduction

65

G.1.2

Normativereferences

65

G.1.3

Termsanddefinitions

65

G.1.4

Descriptionofmachineryfamily

65

G.1.5

Soundpowerleveldetermination

66

G.1.5.1

Basicstandardtobeused

66

G.1.5.2

Positioningofthecrane

66

G.1.5.3

Microphonepositions

66

G.1.5.4

Measurementandcalculationprocedure

66

G.1.6

Emissionsoundpressureleveldetermination

67

G.1.6.1

Basicstandardtobeused

67

G.1.6.2

Craneoperatorposition

67

G.1.6.3

Specificationsconcerningthecraneoperatingcabin

67

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G.1.6.4

Specificationsrelatingtowindspeed

G.1.6.5

Measurementandcalculationprocedure

67
67

G.1.7

Configuration

68

G.1.8

Operatingconditions

68

G.1.8.1

General

68

G.1.8.2

Testprocedure

68

G.1.9

Informationonmeasurementuncertainties

69

G.1.10

Informationtoberecorded

69

G.1.11

Informationtobereported

69

G.1.12

Declarationandverificationofnoiseemissionvalues

69

AnnexG.2(normative)Noisemeasurement,testreport

71

G.2.1

Generaldata

71

G.2.2

Measurementspermotion

72

AnnexH(normative)Limitvaluesforstructuralandfinegrainsteeltypes

74

AnnexJ.1(normative)Minimumrequirementsforspecificationofhoist/derrickgears

75

AnnexJ.2(normative)Minimumrequirementsforspecificationofslewinggears

77

AnnexJ.3(normative)Minimumrequirementsforspecificationoftravelgears

79

AnnexJ.4(normative)Minimumrequirementsforspecificationofdrums

81

AnnexK.1(normative)Minimumrequirementsforthespecificationofliftinghooks

83

AnnexK.2(normative)Minimumrequirementsforspecificationofsheaves

84

AnnexK.3(normative)Minimumrequirementsforspecificationofhookblocks

86

AnnexK.4(normative)Minimumrequirementsforthespecificationofhydrauliccylinders

88

AnnexK.5(normative)Minimumrequirementsforthespecificationofslewrings

90

AnnexL(normative)Proofofcompetence

92

L.1

General

92

L.2

Proofofcompetenceforsteelstructures

92

L.2.1

General

92

L.2.2

Methodofpermissiblestresses

92

L.2.3

Methodofpartialsafetycoefficientsandlimitingstresses

92

L.3

Proofofcompetencefornonsteelstructures

93

L.4

Proofofcompetenceforloadbearingcomponents

93

L.4.1

General

93

L.4.2

Proofofcompetenceformechanisms

93

L.4.3

Proofofcompetenceforropes

93

L.4.4

Proofofcompetenceforchains

93

L.4.5

Proofofcompetenceforothercomponents

94

L.5

Proofofcompetenceofrigidbodystabilityofthecrane

94

L.6

Proofofcompetenceexperimental

94

L.6.1

Structuraltests

94

L.6.2

Rigidbodystabilitytests

94

AnnexM(normative)Testofsteeringsystemsforoffroadmobilecranes

95

M.1

Testconditions

95

M.2

Testprocedure

95

M.3

Permittedsteeringcontroleffort

95

AnnexN.1(informative)Windspeedasafunctionofelevation

96

AnnexN.2(informative)Impactpressureasafunctionofelevation

97

AnnexN.3(informative)StormwindmapofEurope

98

AnnexP(normative)Efficiencyofsheavesets
AnnexQ(informative)Manufacturerssign

99
100

AnnexR(normative)Certificateforwirerope,requirements

101

AnnexS(normative)Certificateforchain,requirements

102

AnnexT(informative)Testprocedures:Selectionofloadcases

103

AnnexU(normative)Testcertificate

104

AnnexV(informative)Selectionofasuitablesetofcranestandardsforagivenapplication

105

AnnexZA(informative)

106

RelationshipbetweenthisEuropeanStandardandtheEssentialRequirementsofEUDirective98/37EC

106

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Foreword
Thisdocument(EN13000:2004)hasbeenpreparedbyTechnicalCommitteeCEN/TC147CranesSafety,thesecretariatofwhichisheldby
BSI.
ThisEuropeanStandardshallbegiventhestatusofanationalstandard,eitherbypublicationofanidenticaltextorbyendorsement,atthelatest
byDecember2004,andconflictingnationalstandardsshallbewithdrawnatthelatestbyDecember2004.
ThisdocumenthasbeenpreparedbyProductWorkingGroupCEN/TC147/WGP1Mobilecranes,thesecretariatofwhichisheldbyDIN.
ThisdocumenthasbeenpreparedunderamandategiventoCENbytheEuropeanCommissionandtheEuropeanFreeTradeAssociation,and
supportsessentialrequirementsofEUDirective(s).ForrelationshipwithEUDirective(s),seeinformativeannexZA,whichisanintegralpartofthis
document.
AnnexesA,C,D,E,F,G.1andG.2,H,J.1toJ.4,K.1toK.5,L,M,P,R,SandUarenormative.AnnexesB,N.1toN.3,Q,TandVare
informative.
AccordingtotheCEN/CENELECInternalRegulations,thenationalstandardsorganizationsofthefollowingcountriesareboundtoimplement
thisEuropeanStandard:Austria,Belgium,Cyprus,CzechRepublic,Denmark,Estonia,Finland,France,Germany,Greece,Hungary,Iceland,Ireland,
Italy,Latvia,Lithuania,Luxembourg,Malta,Netherlands,Norway,Poland,Portugal,Slovakia,Slovenia,Spain,Sweden,SwitzerlandandUnited
Kingdom.

Introduction
ThisEuropeanStandardisatypeCstandardasstatedinEN1070.
ThisEuropeanStandardhasbeenpreparedtoprovideonemeansformobilecranestoconformwiththeessentialhealthandsafetyrequirements
oftheMachineryDirective.
Themachineryconcernedandtheextenttowhichhazards,hazardoussituationsandeventsarecoveredareindicatedinthescopeofthis
document.
WhenprovisionsofthistypeCstandardaredifferentfromthosewhicharestatedintypeAorBstandards,theprovisionsofthistypeCstandards
takeprecedenceovertheprovisionsoftheotherstandards,formachinesthathavebeendesignedandbuiltaccordingtotheprovisionsofthistypeC
standard.

1Scope
ThisEuropeanStandardisapplicabletothedesign,construction,installationofsafetydevices,informationforuse,maintenanceandtestingof
mobilecranesasdefinedinISO43062withtheexceptionofloadercranes(see3.1.1ofEN12999:2002).Examplesofmobilecranetypesandoftheir
majorpartsaregiveninannexAandB.
Thisstandarddoesnotcoverhazardsrelatedtotheliftingofpersons.
NOTETheuseofmobilecranesfortheliftingofpersonsissubjecttospecificnationalregulations.
MobilecranescoveredbythisEuropeanStandardaredesignedforalimitednumberofstresscyclesandparticularpropertiesofmotions,e.g.
smoothapplicationofthedrivingforcesandloadingconditionsaccordingtoISO43012:groupA1.
Foradutycyclesuchasgrab,magnetorsimilarwork,additionalprovisionsarerequiredwhichareoutsidethescopeofthisEuropeanStandard.
ThehazardscoveredbythisEuropeanStandardareidentifiedbyannexC.
ThisdocumentisnotapplicabletomobilecraneswhicharemanufacturedbeforethedateofpublicationofthisdocumentbyCEN.

2Normativereferences
ThisEuropeanStandardincorporatesbydatedorundatedreference,provisionsfromotherpublications.Thesenormativereferencesarecitedat
theappropriateplacesinthetext,andthepublicationsarelistedhereafter.Fordatedreferences,subsequentamendmentstoorrevisionsofanyofthese
publicationsapplytothisEuropeanStandardonlywhenincorporatedinitbyamendmentorrevision.Forundatedreferencesthelatesteditionofthe
publicationreferredtoapplies(includingamendments).
EN2:1992,Classificationoffires
EN294:1992,SafetyofmachinerySafetydistancetopreventdangerzonesbeingreachedbytheupperlimbs
EN349:1993,SafetyofmachineryMinimumgapstoavoidcrushingofpartsofthehumanbody
EN457:1992,SafetyofmachineryAuditorydangersignalsGeneralrequirements,designandtesting(ISO7731:1986,modified)
EN5471:1996,SafetyofmachineryHumanbodymeasurementsPart1:Principlesfordeterminingthedimensionsrequiredforopenings
forwholebodyaccessintomachinery
EN563:1994,SafetyofmachineryTemperaturesoftouchablesurfacesErgonomicsdatatoestablishtemperaturelimitforhotsurfaces
EN6141:1995,SafetyofmachineryErgonomicdesignprinciplesPart1:Terminologyandgeneralprinciples
EN6261:1994,SafetyofmachineryReductionofrisktohealthfromhazardoussubstancesemittedbymachineryPart1:Principlesand
specificationsformachinerymanufacturers
EN811:1996,SafetyofmachinerySafetydistancestopreventdangerzonesbeingreachedbythelowerlimbs
EN842:1996,SafetyofmachineryVisualdangersignalsGeneralrequirements,designandtesting
EN853:1996,RubberhosesandhoseassembliesWirebraidreinforcedhydraulictypeSpecification
EN854:1996,RubberhosesandhoseassembliesTextilereinforcedhydraulictypeSpecification

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EN856:1996,RubberhosesandhoseassembliesRubbercoveredspiralwirereinforcedhydraulictypeSpecification
EN8942:1997,SafetyofmachineryErgonomicsrequirementsforthedesignofdisplaysandcontrolactuatorsPart2:Displays.
EN8943:1992,SafetyofmachineryErgonomicsrequirementsforthedesignofdisplaysandcontrolactuatorsPart3:Controlactuators
EN953:1997,SafetyofmachineryGuardsGeneralrequirementsforthedesignandconstructionoffixedandmoveableguards
EN9541:1996,SafetyofmachinerySafetyrelatedpartsofcontrolsystemsPart1:Generalprinciplesfordesign
EN982:1996,SafetyofmachinerySafetyrequirementsforfluidpowersystemsandtheircomponentsHydraulics
EN983:1996,SafetyofmachinerySafetyrequirementsforfluidpowersystemsandtheircomponentsPneumatics
EN10053:2002,SafetyofmachineryHumanphysicalperformancePart3:Recommendedforcelimitsformachineryoperation
EN1037:1995,SafetyofmachineryPreventionofunexpectedstartup
EN1070:1998,SafetyofmachineryTerminology
EN10025:1993,HotrolledproductsofnonalloystructuralsteelsTechnicaldeliveryconditions(includesamendmentA1:1993)
EN101132:1993,HotrolledproductsinweldablefinegrainstructuralsteelsPart2:Deliveryconditionsfornormalized/normalizedrolled
steels
EN101372:1995,Platesandwideflatsmadeofhighyieldstrengthstructuralsteelsinthequenchedandtemperedorprecipitationhardened
conditionsPart2:Deliveryconditionsforquenchedandtemperedsteels
EN120772:1998,CranessafetyRequirementsforhealthandsafetyPart2:Limitingandindicatingdevices
EN126441:2001,CranesInformationforuseandtestingPart1:Instructions
EN12999:2002,CranesLoadercranes
EN13586:1999,CranesAccess
EN26385:1990,Ergonomicprinciplesofthedesignofworksystems(ISO6385:1981.
EN6020432:1998,SafetyofmachineryElectricalequipmentofmachinesPart32:Requirementsforhoistingmachines(IEC60204
32:1998)
EN6100064:2001,Electromagneticcompatibility(EMC)Part64:GenericstandardsEmissionstandardforindustrialenvironments(IEC
6100062:1999,modified)
EN613101:1995,SafetyofmachineryIndication,makingandactuationPart1:Requirementsforvisual,auditoryandtactilesignals(IEC
613101:1995)

EN613102:1995,SafetyofmachineryIndication,markingandactuationPart2:Requirementsformarking(IEC613102:1995)
ENISO3411:1999,EarthmovingmachineryHumanphysicaldimensionofoperatorsandminimumoperatorspaceenvelope(ISO3411:1995)
ENISO3744:1995,AcousticsDeterminationofsoundpowerlevelsofnoisesourcesusingsoundpressureEngineeringmethodinan
essentiallyfreefieldoverareflectingplane(ISO3744:1994)
ENISO4014:2000,HexagonheadboltsProductgradesAandB(ISO4014:1999)
ENISO4871:1996,AcousticsDeclarationandverificationofnoiseemissionvaluesofmachineryandequipment(ISO4871:1996)
ENISO53491:2001,MechanicalvibrationMeasurementandevaluationofhumanexposuretohandtransmittedvibrationPart1:General
requirements(ISO53491:2001)
ENISO53492:2001,MechanicalvibrationMeasurementandevaluationofhumanexposuretohandtransmittedvibrationPart1:
Practicalguidanceformeasurementattheworkplace(ISO53492:2001)
ENISO5353:1998,Earthmovingmachinery,andtractorsandmachineryforagricultureandforestrySeatindexpoint(ISO5353:1995)
ENISO6683:1999,EarthmovingmachinerySeatbeltsandseatbeltanchorages(ISO6683:1981+Amendment1:1990)
ENISO7096:2000:,EarthmovingmachineryLaboratoryevaluationofoperatorseatvibration(ISO7096:2000)
ENISO7250:1997,Basichumanbodymeasurementfortechnologicaldesign(ISO7250:1996)
ENISO11201:1995,AcousticsNoiseemittedbymachineryandequipmentMeasurementofemissionsoundpressurelevelsataworkstation
andatotherspecifiedpositionsEngineeringmethodinanessentiallyfreefieldoverareflectingplane(ISO11201:1995)
ENISO116881:1998,AcousticsRecommendedpracticeforthedesignoflownoisemachineryandequipmentPart1:Planning(ISO/TR
11688:1995.
ENISO121001:2003,SafetyofmachineryBasicconcepts,generalprinciplesfordesignPart1:Basicterminology,methodology(ISO
121001:2003)
ENISO121002:2003,SafetyofmachineryBasicconcepts,generalprinciplesfordesignPart2:Technicalprinciples(ISO121002:2003)
ISO261:1998,ISOgeneralpurposemetricscrewthreadsGeneralplan
ISO26311:1997,MechanicalvibrationandshockEvaluationofhumanexposuretowholebodyvibrationPart1:Generalrequirements
ISO3795:1989,RoadvehiclesandtractorsandmachineryforagricultureandforestryDeterminationofburningbehaviourofinterior
materials
ISO3864:1984,Safetycoloursandsafetysigns
ISO43011:1986,CranesandliftingappliancesClassificationPart1:General.
ISO43012:1985,LiftingappliancesClassificationPart2:Mobilecranes.
ISO4305:1991,MobilecranesDeterminationofstability.
ISO43061:1990,CranesVocabularyPart1:General.
ISO43062:1994,CranesVocabularyPart2:Mobilecranes.

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ISO43081:2003,CranesandliftingappliancesSelectionofwireropesPart1:General
ISO43082:1988,CranesandliftingappliancesSelectionofwireropesPart2:MobilecranesCoefficientofutilization
ISO4309:1990,CranesWireropesCodeofpracticeforexaminationanddiscard
ISO4310:1981,CranesTestcodeandprocedures
ISO6309:1987,FireprotectionSafetysigns
ISO7000:1989:,GraphicalsymbolsforuseonequipmentIndexandsynopsis
ISO72961:1991,CranesGraphicsymbolsPart1:General
ISO72962:1996,CranesGraphicsymbolsPart2:Mobilecranes
ISO77522:1985,LiftingappliancesControlslayoutandcharacteristicsPart2:Basicarrangementandrequirementsformobilecranes
ISO8087:1985,MobilecranesDrumandsheavesizes
ISO85662:1995,CranesCabinsPart2:Mobilecranes
ISO/CIE8995:2002,Lightingofindoorworkplaces
ISO116602:1994,CranesAccessguardsandrestraintsPart2:Mobilecranes
ISO116621:1995,MobilecranesExperimentaldeterminationofcraneperformancePart1:Tippingloadsandradii
ISO/CD116622:1995,MobilecranesExperimentaldeterminationofcraneperformancePart2:Structuralcompetenceunderstaticloading
ISO124801:1997,CranesSafeusePart1:General
ISO13200:1995,CranesSafetysingsandhazardpictorialsGeneralprinciples
FEM1.001:1998,Rulesforthedesignofhoistingappliances(3rdedition)
FEM5.004:1994,Rulesforthedesignofthesteelstructuresofgeneralusemobilecranes

3Termsanddefinitions
ForthepurposesofthisEuropeanStandard,thetermanddefinitiongiveninEN1070:1998applies.Forspecificdefinitionandterminology
applicabletomobilecranesthefollowingtermsanddefinitionapply1).ForothertermsanddefinitionISO43061:1990andISO43062:1994apply.

3.1
angleindicator
devicetodisplaytheactualangleofpartsofthecranetothehorizontal,e.g.jibangleindicator,fixedflyjibangleindicator,luffingflyjib
indicator
1)Thedefinitionsarelistedalphabetically.
10

3.2
anglelimiter
devicetolimitthemotionofpartsofthecraneregardingtheirangles,e.g.jibanglelimiter,flyjibanglelimiterand/ormastanglelimiter

3.3
cabin
controlstationwithprotectiveenclosure(see3.6,3.7and3.9)

3.4
crane
machineforcyclicliftingorcyclicliftingandhandlingofloadssuspendedonhooksorotherloadhandlingdevices,whethermanufacturedtoan
individualdesign,inseriesorfrom,prefabricatedcomponents
NOTESuspendedcanincludeadditionalmeansfittedtopreventswinging,rotationoftheloadetc.

3.5
cranelevelindicator
devicetoindicatethelevelledpositionofthecrane

3.6
craneoperatingcabin
cabinprovidedfortheoperationofthecranemotionstomovetheload

3.7
cranetravellingcabin
cabinprovidedforthetransportationofthecranebyroadfromonejobsitetoanother

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3.8
configuration
combinationofstructuralmembers,counterweights,supportoroutriggerposition,hookblockreevingandsimilaritemsassembled,positioned
anderectedaccordingtomanufacturer'sinstructionsandreadyforoperation

3.9
controlstation
permanentpositionofcontrolsonoroffthecrane

3.10
derricking(luffing)limiter
devicetopreventderricking(luffing)motionsofthejiband/orflyjibbeyondspecifiedlimits

3.11
hoistinglimiter
deviceeithertopreventthefixedloadliftingattachmentfrombeingraisedsuchthatitstrikesthecranestructure,oradevicetopreventany
otherspecifiedupperlimitationoftheloadliftingattachmentfrombeingexceeded.Itcanalsoincludeanyotherdesignlimitationimposingarestriction
onlifting

3.12
hookloadindicator
devicetodisplaytheactualmass(weight)oftheload

3.13
indicator
devicewhichprovideswarningsand/ordatatofacilitatethecompetentcontrolofthecranewithinitsdesignparameters

3.14
jiblengthindicator
devicetodisplaytheactualjiblength
11

3.15
loadbearingcomponent
singlepartorassemblyofpartsofacrane,whicharedirectlysubjectedtoloadeffects(e.g.hooks,ropes(stationaryorrunning),traversebeams,
pendantbars,wheels,axles,gears,couplings,brakes,hoists,hydrauliccylinders,shaftsandpins).Incontrastto(steel)structurescomponentscanbe
regardedasindependentunits

3.16
lockindicator
devicetodisplaythelockedconditionofapartorfunction

3.17
loweringlimiter
devicetoensurethatthespecifiedminimumnumberofturnsofropeonthehoistdrumismaintainedatalltimesduringoperation

3.18
mobilecrane
selfpoweredjibcranecapableoftravellingloadedorunloadedwithouttheneedforfixedrunwaysandrelyingongravityforstability.Examplesof
mobilecranesaregivenintheannexesA,B.1andB.2
NOTE1Mobilecranescanoperateontyres,crawlersorwithothermobilearrangements.Infixedpositionstheycanbesupportedbyoutriggers
orotheraccessoriesincreasingtheirstability.
NOTE2Thesuperstructureofmobilecranescanbeofthetypeoffullcircleslewing,oflimitedslewingornonslewing.Itisnormallyequipped
withoneormorehoistsand/orhydrauliccylindersforliftingandloweringthejibandtheload.
NOTE3Mobilecranescanbeequippedeitherwithtelescopicjibs,witharticulatedjibs,withlatticejibsoracombinationoftheseofsucha
designthattheycanreadilybelowered.
NOTE4Loadscanbehandledbyhookblockassembliesorotherloadliftingattachmentsforspecialservices.

3.19
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offroadmobilecrane
mobilecranewhichtravelsonsite(e.g.roughterraincrane,crawlercrane)

3.20
onroadmobilecrane
mobilecranewhichhasthenecessaryequipmenttotravelonpublicroadsandonthejobsite(e.g.allterraincrane,truckcrane)

3.21
partialsafetycoefficient
safetymarginforthemethodoflimitstateschosenasdescribedinannexAofISO86891:1989(seepartialloadcoefficientsP)

3.22
performancelimiter
devicewhichautomaticallypreventsadesignperformancecharacteristicfrombeingexceeded

3.23
radiusindicator
devicetodisplaytheactualradiusoftheload

3.24
ratedcapacity
loadthatthecraneisdesignedtoliftforagivenoperatingcondition(e.g.configuration,positionoftheload).Formobilecranesthemass
(weight)ofthehookblockispartoftheload
12

3.25
ratedcapacityindicator
devicewhichgives,withinspecifiedtolerancelimits,atleastacontinuousindicationthattheratedcapacityisexceeded,andanothercontinuous
indicationoftheapproachtotheratedcapacity

3.26
ratedcapacitylimiter
devicethatautomaticallypreventsthecranefromhandlingloadsinexcessofitsratedcapacity,takingintoaccountthedynamiceffectsduring
normaloperationaluse

3.27
slackropelimiter
devicetoautomaticallypreventdangersfromslackropesituations

3.28
slewpositionindicator
devicetoindicatetothecraneoperatortheactualslewposition

3.29
slewrangeindicator
devicetoindicatetothecraneoperatorthepermittedslewrangefortheselectedconfiguration

3.30
slewinglimiter
devicetopreventslewingbeyondspecifiedlimits

3.31
telescopinglimiter
devicetopreventtelescopingbeyondspecifiedlimits

3.32
windspeedindicator

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devicetoindicatetothecraneoperatortheactualwindspeed

3.33
workingload
loadonthehookplusmass(weight)ofhookandblock

3.34
workingloadfactor
safetymarginforthepermissiblestressmethodchosenasdescribedinannexAofISO86861:1989(seecoefficientsappliedtothespecified
strength F)

4Safetyrequirementsand/orprotectivemeasures
4.1Structuresandcomponents
4.1.1General
Machineryshallcomplywiththesafetyrequirementsand/orprotectivemeasuresofthisclause.Inaddition,themachineshallbedesigned
accordingtotheprinciplesofENISO12100forhazardsrelevantbutnotsignificant,whicharedealtwithbythisdocument(e.g.sharpedges).
Mechanicalhazardscanarisewhenloadsactingonacraneexceedlimitingconditions.Suchanoverloadcancausetheentirecraneand/orits
componentstolosestability(elasticorrigidbody)aswellascausethesupportingstructureand/orcomponentstobesubjectedtofailure.
13

Inordertopreventthispotentialdanger,verificationshallbeprovidedfortheextremevaluesofloadeffectsbasedonallforceswhichact
simultaneouslyonthecranemultipliedbyadequate(partial)safetyfactorstoensurethatthecorrespondingloadinglimitsarenotexceeded.
Thisstandarddefinesloadsandloadcombinationsaswellasspecificvaluesoffactorsandcoefficientstobeappliedtomobilecranes.
Thelimitstateformaterialsandcomponentsshallbeindicatedintheformofnominalvalues,whicharelaiddowninrelationtothenominal
loadeffects(internalforcesorstresses)definedintherelevantstandards.
Allcasesinwhichlimitsareexceededandcanendangerthemechanicalstructure,e.g.creeping,elasticinstability,lossofstability,significant
displacements,fatigueorwear(includingdiscardofropes),uncontrolledmotionsandtemperaturelimitsshallbetakenintoaccount.
Theprocedureforthedesignandcalculationsisdescribedinthisclause.Theprocedureconsistsofidentifyingloadeffects(see4.1.2),determining
thelimitstates(see4.1.3)andtheproofofcompetence(seeannexL).Alternativelyadvancedandrecognizedtheoreticalmethods(e.g.elastokinetic
analysistosimulateloadeffects)orexperimentalmethods(e.g.measurementofloadeffectsortestsfordetermininglimitstatesorstraingaugetesting)
maybeused.Thesemethodsshallprovidethesamelevelofsafety.
4.1.2Loadeffects
4.1.2.1General

Allloadswhichactonthecraneoritssupportingsectionsincludingdeadweights,additionalloads(e.g.duetogravity,windloadsorother
ambientinfluences),testloadsandspecialloadsduringerectionordismantling(ofjibsystems)shallnotcausedamage,suchasfracturing,permanent
deformationsorunintentionaldisplacements.
Loadeffectsshallbedeterminedbasedonanelastostatic/rigidbodykineticmodelofthecraneandloadmodels.Loadsactingonthecraneatthe
sametimeshallbecombinedasgiveninannexD.
Itisassumedthat:
a. thenumberofimportantstresscycles(i.e.stresscyclescontributingsignificantlytofatigue:minimumonestresscycleperlift)isnothigherthan
thenumberofoperatingcycles
b. criticalnotchconditionsareavoidedbycarefuldesignandconstruction
c. therearenopredominantalternatingstresses.
Withtheseassumptionsitisnotnecessarytocarryoutafatigueanalysisontheloadbearingstructure.
Whenconsideringtestloadsthecraneshallbeinthesameconfigurationsasintendedforusewithoutanymodification(e.g.withoutchanging
outriggers,counterweight,counterweightposition).
Whenthemethodofpermissiblestresses(seeL.2.2)isapplied,theworkingloadshallbemultipliedbytheworkingloadfactor.
Whenthemethodofpartialsafetycoefficientsandlimitingstresses(seeL.2.3)isapplied,theworkingloadshallbemultipliedbytheworkingload
factoranditspartialsafetycoefficientsandallotherloadsbytheirrespectivepartialsafetycoefficients.
Loadswithalownumberofstresscyclesandlowamplitudesaretobeseenasmeanvaluesmultipliedbytheworkingloadfactorand/orthe
respectivepartialsafetycoefficients.
Theanalysisofloadeffectswithalternativeadvancedmethods,i.e.fromindividualevents(dynamicfactors)orrepresentativeuseofacraneshall
provideatleastequivalentlevelsofsafety.Itshalltakeintoaccountunfavourableoperatingconditionsandsequencesofmovementsofthecraneand/or
theload.
14

4.1.2.2Windloads

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4.1.2.2.1Windspeedsandpressures

Tocalculatethewindloads,itisassumedthatthewindblowshorizontallyfromthemostunfavourabledirection,butatanelevationrelated
speed.
Thespeedofa3secondwindgustv(z)[m/s]actingonanelevatedpointz[m]anddecisiveforcalculationsisbasedonameanwindspeed
determinedover10minutes [m/s]at10mabovegroundorsealevel.
v(z)=[(z/10)0,14+0,4].
forz=10[m]v(z)=1,4. seeannexN.1
Thequasistaticimpactpressureq[N/m2]isasaresultof:
q=0,625.v(z)2
forz=10[m]q(z)=1,225.

seeannexN.2

Theadmissiblewindspeedforthecraneinserviceandoutofserviceisderivedfromthewindguestspeedv(z)actingonthehighest
elevatedpointtakeninaccountfortheverifications.
4.1.2.2.2Inservicewindloads

Tocalculatethewindloadduringcraneoperationconservatively,thewindgustspeeddeterminedatthehighestelevatedpointvi(max.z)canbe
assumedtoactallovertheheightofthecraneanditsjib.
Preciseelevationrelatedcalculationsofthewindforcesactingonthejibarepermissible,e.g.in10melevationintervals.
Thewindforcesactingonthecraneanditscomponentsaswellasthepertainingimpactpressuresdeterminedshallbecombinedwiththeother
inserviceloads.
Thepermissiblewindspeedvi(max.z)shallbeindicatedintheratedcapacitychartsandintheinstructionmanual.Thereferencevalueusedto
determinetheload(areaexposedtowindpermass(weight)unitofthecapacity)shalllikewisebeindicatedifnototherwiselaiddown,thenthevalueis
1,2m2/t.
NOTE1Value1,2m2/tbasedoncw=1,2.
Thewindloadsactingonthesuspendedloadshallbederivedfromthemaximumliftingheightofthesuspendedload.Specialverificationis
requiredfromcasetocaseforliftingloadswithalargesailarea(>1,2m2/t).
NOTE2Safecraneuseisonlypossiblewithintherangeofthepermissiblewindspeedvi(max.z)whilethecraneisinservice,thespeedatthe
highestelevationcanbemonitoredbymeansofananemometer.Topreventanydanger,inparticular,duetosuddenchangesinwindspeedordirection
duringthepassingofweatherfronts,weatherreportsshouldbetakenintoaccountwhenliftingoperationsarebeingscheduled.Instructionsshouldbe
laiddownintheinstructionmanualprovidingsuitablemeasuresforloweringthecranetoasafeposition.
NOTE3Mobilecranesarenormallyequippedwithjibsystemswhichcanbeloweredquicklyandreadily.Asaresult,thehazardsduetosudden
changesinwindspeedsandincreasesingustspeedatelevatedpointscanbereducedinashorttime,e.g.within5minutes.
4.1.2.2.3Outofservicewindloads(whenthecraneisnotinoperation)

a)Outofservicestormwinds
15

Tocalculatethewindloadswhenthecraneisnotinoperation,anaverage,regionallyvarying,referencewindspeedcanbeassumed.The
referencewindspeedvrefisdeterminedover10minutesat10mabovegroundorsealevel.InEuropethefollowingfiguresareapplicable(seeannex
N.3):
Regions

vref[m/s]

24

24

28

32

36

Thedesignisconsideredsafewhenalltherequiredverificationsincludingtheeffectof3secondelevationrelatedwindgustsarecalculatedbased
onareferencewindspeed(seeformulasin4.1.2.2.1andannexesN.1andN.2).
b)Outofservicelimitingwindspeed
Tocalculatethewindloadeffectwhenthecraneisnotinoperation,thewindgustspeedatthehighestelevatedpointva(max.z)
shallbeconsidered.SeeannexesN.1andN.2.Therequiredsafetyshallbeverifiedforallpermittedconfigurationsand/orpositionsofthe
crane.
Preciseelevationrelatedcalculationsofthewindforcesactingonthejibinsuchaconfigurationand/orpositionarepermissible,e.g.
in10melevationintervals,fortherelevantgustspeeds(3secondgustspeed).
Theforcesonthecraneanditscomponentsresultingfromtheimpactpressureshallbecombinedwiththedeadweightsand,if
required,withothergeometricinfluences(e.g.outoflevelsurfaces).
NOTE1Acranewhichissafewithrespecttotheeffectofthewindspeedsva(max.z)basedoncranespecificlimits,shouldonly
remaininthisconfigurationand/orpositionuptothederivedwindgustspeed.

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Informationshallbeprovidedintheinstructionmanualastowhichmeasuresshallbetakenbythecraneoperatorinorderto
maintainthecraneinsafecondition,e.g.byloweringortelescopinginthejibintheeventthatva(max.z)isexceeded.Instructionsshall
belaiddownintheinstructionmanualprovidingsuitablemeasuresforsecuringthecraneoutofservice.
NOTE2Thesafetyofacraneisonlymaintainedwithintherangeofthepermissiblewindspeedva(max.z)whilethecraneis(inor)
outofservice.Thereforeexceedingofthelimitingwindspeedoutofserviceshouldbepreventedbyplanningaliftincludingtheweather
forecast.
4.1.2.3Loadeffectsonsteelstructures

TheloadsactingonthesteelstructureofgeneralusemobilecranesshallbecalculatedinaccordancewiththeFEM5.004:1994,wherethegroup
classificationA1ofISO43011andISO43012applies.
Ifamobilecraneisdesignedtocarryoutsimultaneousmovements,theloadeffectsoftwoofthesemovementsshallbetakenintoaccount(see
annexD).Asaminimumrequirementtheloadcombinationsoftheloadcases1,2and3inTable1ofFEM5.004:1994shallbecalculated.
4.1.2.4Loadeffectsonnonsteelstructures

Nonsteelstructuresshallbedesignedwithequivalentsafetymarginsasforsteelstructuresfortheirintendedlifetime.Specialcharacteristics(e.g.
tensilecreeping,relaxation,anisotropy,thermalbehaviour)shallbeconsidered.Thetechnicalrequirementsforthesematerialsarenotdealtwithinthis
standard.Sufficientknowledgeandexperienceshallbeprovenbythemanufacturerofthecraneorthesupplierofsuchstructures.
4.1.2.5Loadeffectsonloadbearingcomponents

4.1.2.5.1General

Forthepurposeofthisstandardthetermloadbearingcomponentappliestoallsinglepartsofassembliesofpartsofacrane,whicharedirectly
subjectedtoloadeffects(see3.15).
16

Therearetwodifferentprocedurestodesignthecomponentsofacraneandtoprooftheircompetence.Eitherthecomponentsaredesigned
individually,usingtheapplicablestandardsconcerningloadeffectsandproofcalculationorthepredesignedcomponentshavetobeselected.
Forindividuallydesignedcomponentstheloadeffectsderivedfromtheserviceconditionsshallbeestablishedbythecranedesigner.
Forpredesignedcomponentsthecranedesignerandthecomponentdesigner/suppliershallidentifyandagreeupontherelevantloadeffects
derivedfromtheserviceconditions(see4.1.3.4).
4.1.2.5.2Loadeffectsonmechanisms

Differingfromthe(steel)structures,whichareloadedbyonlyoneimportantstresscycleperoperatingcycle,themechanismsareloadedby
multiplestresscyclesdependingonlinearmovements,distancesandthenumberofrotationalmovements.
Theestimationofthenumberofstresscyclesduringtheassumedlifetimeofthemechanismsisbaseduponthewrittenagreementuponservice
conditionsbetweentheuserandthemanufacturerofthecrane.
Wheretheuseofmechanismsisunknown,thestresscyclesandassumedlifetimeshallcorrespondwiththosevaluesavailablefromprevious
experience.
ThemechanismgroupclassificationshallbeinaccordancewithTable6ofISO43011:1986andTable2ofISO43012:1985(complieswith
T.2.1.3.4ofFEM1.001:1998part2).
4.1.2.5.3Loadeffectsonropes

Theloadsactingonrunningandstationaryropesuseddirectlyforliftingtheloadorsupportingthecranestructureshallbecalculatedfromthe
deadloadsandthenominalworkingloadsasspecifiedinTable1ofFEM5.004:1994,loadcombinationcase1.
ThecoefficientofutilisationdependingonthecranemechanismclassificationshallbeinaccordancewithISO43082.Theinfluencesof
dynamiceffectsandfrictionlossesshallbecovered.ForcraneclassificationA1theworkingloadfactormaybetakenas1.0.Thefrictionlosseshave
tobecalculatedaccordingtoannexP.
4.1.2.5.4Loadeffectsonchains

Theloadsactingonchainsusedascomponentsforliftingtheloadorsupportingthecranestructureshallbetakenasthemaximumvaluefrom
thetwocases:maximumoccurringforceforthemovingchainorcalculatingthedeadloadsandthenominalworkingloadsasdefinedinTable1of
FEM5.004:1994,loadcombinationcase1.
ThechaingroupclassificationshallbeinaccordancewithTable6ofISO4301.1:1986andTable2ofISO43012:1985(complieswithT.2.1.3.4of
FEM1.001:1998part2).
Dynamiceffectshavetobecoveredbyincreasingtheloadwiththeworkingloadfactor.Technicalrequirementsforfrictionlossesarenot
coveredwithinthisstandard.
4.1.2.5.5Loadeffectsonotherloadbearingcomponents

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Theloadsactingonotherloadbearingcomponentsshallbecalculatedasspecifiedin4.1.2.1,iftheyareloadedwithonlyoneimportantstress
cycleperoperatingcycleandtheotherconditionsofclause6ofFEM5.004:1994arefulfilled.
Theclassificationofeachcomponent,whichisloadedbymultiplestresscyclesperoperatingcycle,shallbeinaccordancewith2.1.4ofFEM
1.001:1998,part2.Theloadeffectsforthesecomponentsshallbecalculatedinaccordancewith2.2and2.3ofFEM1.001:1998,part2.

17

4.1.2.6Loadeffectsfordeterminationofrigidbodystability

4.1.2.6.1General

TherigidbodystabilityofthecraneshallbeinaccordancewithISO4305.
ThevaluestobeconsideredfortherigidbodystabilityshallbetakenasspecifiedinTable1and2ofISO4305:1991.
Tippinglinesofmobilecranesdependontheindividualdesign.ExamplesfortippinglinesaregiveninannexAofISO4305:1991.Forcrawler
cranesspecialattentionhastobegiventoforwardorbackwardtippingoverthesprocketand/orfirstroller.
Itisassumedthatthecraneisoperatedonafirmandlevelsurface(upto1%gradientoftheground).Ifgreatergradientsoftheslewingplaneare
allowedbythemanufacturer,specialcapacitychartsshallbeprovided.Aminimumsidegradientof0.5%forcranesonoutriggersand/or1%forcranes
freeontyresorcrawlersshallbetakenintoaccount.
Themaximumvaluesofforcesandpressuresresultingthereofshallcorrespondtotheallowablevaluesoftheinclinationofthecraneleveland
thelimitsshallbeestablishedfortherelevantcapacitycharts.Specialattentionshallbegiventotheelasticdeformationofthecranestructureandthe
cranemovements(slewing,luffing,travellingetc.)increasingthesupportingforcesandgroundpressure.
4.1.2.6.2Stabilityforsuddenreleaseoftheload

Accelerationsduetosuddenreleaseoftheloadcancausetippingbackwardsofthecraneorcancauseunintendedbackwardmotionsofpartsof
thecrane.Insteadofanexactcalculationaverticalupwardforceactingontheunloadedcranewithoutwindloadsmaybeused.
Theverticalupwardforceshallbetakenas10%oftheratedcapacityforcraneswithclassificationA1accordingtoISO43012:.
4.1.2.6.3Stabilityduringerectionanddismantling

Therigidbodystabilityforerectionoftheunloadedcraneanditsdismantlingprocedureshallbeconsideredasaspecialloadingcondition.The
deadloadsandtheadditionalloads(gravitational,windloads,etc.)increasingthetippingmomentshallbeamplifiedwithasafetycoefficient1,1.
4.1.2.6.4Additionaleffects

Thefollowingadditionaleffectsshallbeconsideredtodetermineadequatestabilityofthecrane:
a. Additionaleffectsduetoelasticityofthecrane
Specialattentionshallbepaidtotheelasticbehaviourofthecrane,considering:
effectsduetoelasticdeformationofcarrier,wheels,tyres,crawlersandoutriggers
effectsduetoangledisplacementofthejibsystemduringslewingoftheloadaccordingtodifferentstiffnessofthecarrierindifferent
slewranges.
b. Additionaleffectsduetoacceleration
Accelerationsduetoabruptstarting/stoppingofmovementsofthecraneand/ortheloadcancauseunintendedmovementsofthecrane
and/ortheload(kineticenergy).Todetermineadequatestabilitytoavoidtippingofthecranesufficientpotentialenergyshallbeprovided.
Thesedynamiceffectsshallbecoveredbycalculationorbyasimplifiedprocedureusingatippingangle,seeannexF.
18

4.1.3Limitstates
4.1.3.1General

Limitstatesshallbeasspecifiedbelow.Wherethelimitstatesofmaterialsandcomponentsarenotgivenbelow,theyshallbelaiddownas
writtenagreementbetweenthecranemanufacturerandthesupplierofthesematerialsandcomponentsonthebasisofrecognizedmethodologyand
standards.
Thelimitingvaluesformaterialsshallincludethestaticanddynamic(whererequired)propertiesforstrengthandductilitydependingonthe
dimension,thekindoffabrication(heattreatment),theallowedtemperatureforinandoutofserviceconditions,theelasticpropertiesandtheir
suitabilityfortheproductionprocessanduse.
NOTEThelimitstatesmaybefoundbytestsofmaterialspecimenandofcomponentsorbyapplyingtheoreticalmethodsandusingbasictest
resultsadditionally,ifappropriate.
4.1.3.2Limitstatesforsteelstructures

ThelimitvaluesforstructuralandfinegrainedsteeltypesofcommonuseshallbetakenfromtheTableinannexH(seeTable2ofFEM
5.004:1994).
ThelimitstatesforsteelstructuresshallbecalculatedfromthevaluesoftherelevantEuropeanStandardsformaterialsor,wherenotexisting,the

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specializeddatasheetsforthosematerials,whicharenotcoveredbyharmonizedstandards,asprovidedbythemanufacturersofthesematerials.
Thepermissibleand/orlimitingstressesofstructuralcomponentsandweldsshallbecalculatedbytheyieldstressesandthe(safety)factors
accordingtoL.2.2andL.2.3.
4.1.3.3Limitstatesfornonsteelstructures

ThelimitstatedfornonsteelstructuresshallbecalculatedfromthevaluesoftherelevantEuropeanStandardsformaterialsor,wherenot
existing,thespecializeddatasheetsforthosematerials,whicharenotcoveredbyharmonizedstandards,asprovidedbythemanufacturersofthese
materials.Therequirementsforthesematerialsarenotdealtwithinthisstandard.
4.1.3.4Limitstatesforloadbearingcomponents

4.1.3.4.1Limitstatesformechanisms

Thelimitstatesformechanismsshallbespecifiedbythemanufacturer/supplierofthemechanism.Theyarebaseduponinformationabout
dimensions,loading,assemblyandserviceconditionswhichweretakenintoaccountwhendesigningthecrane.
Theminimumrequirementsforthetechnicalspecificationagreedbetweencranemanufacturerandmanufacturer/supplierofmechanismsshall
bebaseduponuniformformatsgivenfortheparticulartypeofmechanism.Thetechnicalspecificationforgearsanddrumsshallincludetheparameters
shownintherelatedannexes:
Gears:

Hoist/derrickgear

seeannexJ.1

Slowgear

seeannexJ.2

Travelgear

seeannexJ.4

Drums:

Hoist/derrickdrum

seeannexJ.4

4.1.3.4.2Limitstatedforropes

Thedesignofaropesystemincludingitsendterminationshallpermitthedesiredlifetimeundertheestimatedconditionsofservicespecifiedfor
theparticularapplication.Thelimitstatedforropesand/orthecomponentsofthe
19

ropesystemcanbedeliveredeitherfromEuropeanStandardsorfromlongtermexperienceandtestsbythecranemanufacturerand/ortherope
manufacturerorbyotherequivalentexperimentalmethods.
Allropesusedshallhavearopecertificategivingthelimitstatedasdeterminedbytheropemanufacturer(seeannexR).
Thelimitstatesofastationaryropearedeterminedbythedesignoftheropeandgivenastheminimumbreakingloadidentifiedbyseriesof
tensilestrengthtests.
Theminimumbreakingloadoftheropeisthedecisivevalueforthelimitstatedunderthefollowingconditions:
a. craneandmechanismgroupclassificationinaccordancewithISO43012
b. ratioofthepitchdiametersofdrums,sheavesandpulleystothenominaldiameteroftheropeisinaccordancewithISO8087(forrunningropes
only)
c. codeofpracticeforexaminationanddiscardisinaccordancewithISO4309.
NOTEThelimitstatesofarunningropedependonthedesignoftheropeitself,thedesignofdrums,sheavesandpulleysandontheratioofthe
pitchdiameterstothenominaldiameteroftherope.Thelimitstatesofrunningropescanbeidentifiedbytheminimumbreakingloadandthe
permissiblenumberofbendingcycles.
Theminimumbreakingloadshallbecomparedwiththenominalload(seeL.4.3,proofofcompetenceforropes).
Ropeandterminationshallnotbemadebymeansofropeclips(buildingclips).Theuseofropeclipsonthetailandonlyofaropepassing
throughawedgesockettopreventtheropeslidebackthroughthesocketispermitted.
4.1.3.4.3Limitstatedforchains

Allchainsusedascomponentsforamobilecraneshallhaveachaincertificategivingthelimitstatedasdeterminedbythechainmanufacturer
(seeannexS).
NOTEThelimitstatesforchainsarebaseduponinformationaboutdimensions,assembly,serviceconditions,cleaningandmaintenance
conditionsspecifiedbythecranemanufacturerandaWorkercurvegivenbythesupplierinrelationtothestresscyclesoccurringduringtheassumed
lifetime.
4.1.3.4.4Limitstatedforothercomponents

NOTEThelimitstatedforotherloadbearingcomponentsshouldbespecifiedbythemanufacturer/supplierofthecomponent.Theyarebased
uponinformationaboutthedimensions,loading,assemblyandserviceconditionswhichweretakenintoaccountwhendesigningthecrane.
Theminimumrequirementsforthetechnicalspecificationagreedbetweencranemanufacturerandmanufacturer/supplierofcomponentsshall
bebasedupontheuniformformatgivenfortheparticulartypeofcomponent.Thetechnicalspecificationshallincludetheparametersshowninthe
relatedannexes:

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Liftinghooks:

seeannexK.1

Sheaves:

seeannexK.2

Hookblocks:

seeannexK.3

Hydrauliccylinders:

seeannexK.4

Slewrings:

seeannexK.5

4.2Equipmentanddevices
4.2.1Generalprinciples
TheergonomicrequirementsforthegeneraldesignofequipmentanddevicesshallbeinaccordancewithEN5471,ENISO7250,ENISO6385
1andENISO63852.TheprinciplesofEN6261forselectionofmaterialsshallapply.HazardsshallbeavoidedaccordingtoEN294,EN349andEN
811.
Sharpedgesofequipmentanddeviceswhichhavetobeaccessedduringnormaluseshallbeavoidedbymeansaslaiddownin4.2.2.3.
Electricalcablesshallnotbeinstalledtocloseproximitytohotpipesorhoses(e.g.hydraulicsystem,exhaustsystem)thatarelikelytocause
damagetothecables.
4.2.2Controlstation
4.2.2.1General

Controlstationsandcontroldevicesshallbedesignedandplacedtoenablethesafeuseofthecrane.
Controlstationsforthemovementoftheloadand/orthetravellingofthecraneshallbeprovidedwithacabin(craneoperationcabin,crane
travellingcabin).Thisdoesnotapplytotheprovisionofremotecontrols.
Elevatedcontrolstationsshallbesolidlydesignedandbuilt.Theyshallbereliablyattachedtothecrane.Thematerialinthesupportingstructure
shallbefireretardant.Damagetoshockabsorbersorabsorbentmaterialasaresultoffireshallnotallowthecontrolstationtocomeloosefromits
supports.ForguidanceseeISO85662andISO116602.
Thedimensionofrailings(handrail,kneeandfootledge)shallbeinaccordancewithFigures4,7,12andTable6ofEN13586:1999.
4.2.2.2Cabins

Coveringandinsulationofwalls,floorandceilingshallbemadeoffireretardantmaterial,see4.5.1.Thesematerialsshallminimizeoptical
reflectionsdisturbingtheoperator.
Thecabinfloorshallbedesignedtobecleanedeasilywithoutledgespreventingtheremovalofdirt.
Thecabinfloorshallhaveaslipresistantsurface(e.g.bulbplate/checkerplate,openmesh,sandedpaint).
Spaceshallbeavailableinsidethecabinforthestorageofdocumentsneededtosafelyoperatethecrane.Afirstaidboxshallbeavailableatleast
inonecabin.Spaceforafireextinguishershallbeprovidedinoradjacenttoeachcabin(see4.5.2).
Whereacabinroofistobeusedduringassemblyand/ordismantlingthesurfaceshallbeslipresistant.Theloadsarisingfrompersonsstanding
ontheroof,includingtoolsetc.shallbetakenintoconsideration.Aproofloadof1000Nappliedevenlyoveranareaofa125mmdiameterdisc
anywhereonthesurfaceshallnotcausepermanentdeformation.
Wherethesurfaceofthecabinroofisintendedtodrainoffwater,thewatershallnotrundownthewindows.
4.2.2.3Sharpedges

Partsoftheequipmentinsidethecabinwhichareaccessibleduringnormaluseshallnotpresentanysharpedgesorpointswhichcouldcause
injuries.Edgesshallhaveradii(minimum1mm)orbechamfered(minimum1mm1mm)orbecoveredachievinganequivalentlevelofsafety.
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4.2.2.4Emergencyexit

Thecraneoperatingcabinshallhaveexitroutesforemergencyevacuationinatleasttwodirections.Emergencyexitsshallbeeasilyrecognised
andopenedfrominsidethecabin.Theemergencyexitrouteinadirectionotherthanthatofthenormalentrancetothecabinmaytaketheformofan
openingwithasizeofanemergencyexitasspecifiedinISO116602.E.g.:Anopeningwindoworawindowopeningwithaneasilyremovablewindow
paneofthatsizeissuitable.
4.2.2.5Spaceenvelope

Thespaceinsidethecabinshallpermitalloperatingcontrolstobeactuatedfromtheworkingposition.Thespaceshallalsoaffordaccessibilityfor
thesupervision,repairetc.oftheequipmentinsidethecabin.TheminimuminternaldimensionsshallbeinaccordancewithFigure1ofISO8566
2:1995.
Forcranesdesignedexclusivelyforuseinconfinedspaces(e.g.lifting/travellingunderlowheadroomconditions)thecabindimensionscan
deviatefromISO85662.
4.2.2.6Heatingandventilation

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Meansshallbeprovidedtokeeptheairtemperatureinsidetheclosedcabinat18Cminimumatareferenceoutsidetemperatureof10C.The
cabinshallbesuchastoprotectagainstdraughts.
Thecabinshallbeprovidedwithadjustableventilatingequipment.Theequipmentshallbecapableofsupplyingairfromtheoutside.Thefreshair
valveshallbeadjustable.
Heatingmeanswhicharepoweredbygas,petrol,dieselorburningoilshallbeinstalledinsuchawaythatthereisanadequatesupplyoffreshair
toensurecompletecombustionandthattheexhaustgasescannotingressintothecabinregardlessofwinddirectionandspeed.

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4.2.2.7Doorsandwindows

Allcraneoperatingcabindoors,whetherofslidingorswingingtype,shallbeprovidedwithameansofrestraintfrominadvertentopeningor
closingduringtravellingoroperationofthecrane.Thedooradjacenttothecraneoperatorshallopenoutwardorslidebackwardtoopen.Thedoor
shallbecapableofbeingretainedintheopenposition.
Craneoperatingcabindoorsshallbelockablefromtheoutsidebutnottheinside.Thedoorshallalwaysbeabletobeopenedfromtheinside
withoutakeywhetherlockedornot.
Craneoperatingcabinwindowsshallbeequippedwithlatcheswhichguardagainstopeningthewindowsfromoutsidethecabin.
Allcabinwindowsshallbemadeofamaterialwhichwillnotproducesharpedgesifbroken(e.g.toughenedorlaminatedglass)andthatdonot
losetransparencyinexposuretonaturallight.
Roofwindowsshallwithstandorbeprotectedagainstfallingtools,see4.2.3.
4.2.2.8Cabinlighting

Allcabinsshallbeequippedwithlightingtoallowallinformationcontainedwithinthecabin,suchasmanuals,signs,labelsorratedcapacity
charts,tobereadilylegibleduringoperatingconditionsinaccordancewithISO8995.Thelightingshallbeprovidedbyapermanentinstallation.
4.2.2.9Specificrequirementsforcranetravellingcabins

Cranetravellingcabinswithafloorhigherthan0.65mabovegroundshallhaveentrancesandexitswith:
a. stepwidthofmin.300mm
b. stepdepthofmin.80mm
c. footspaceheightofmin.150mm
d. footspacedepthofmin.150mm
Stepsshall:
e. havethesamedistanceofmax.400mmtoeachother
f. bearrangedinonestraightline.
Theaccessshallhaveergonomichandrails.
4.2.2.10Specificrequirementsforcraneoperatingcabins

Cabinswithafloorhigherthan1.0m(tobemeasuredfromgroundlevel)shallbeprovidedwithhandholds.Othercontrolstationsorcrane
operatingcabinswithdoorsopeningoutwardsabove1.0mheightshallbeprovidedrailingswhichpreventtheoperatorfromanaccidentalheadlong
fall.
Cabinswithafloorhigherthan2.5m(tobemeasuredfromgroundlevel)shallbeprovidedwithaplatformandrailings.Theplatformshallhave
enoughspaceforatleasttwopersons.Othercontrolstationsabove2.5mheightshallbeprovidedwithaplatformwithhandholdsandrailings.
4.2.3Protectionagainstfallingtools
Asaminimumtheroofofthecraneoperatingcabinincludingwindowsintheroofshallbeabletowithstandtheimpactofasteelballweighing7
kg,fallingfromaheightof2m,withoutplasticdeformationsexceeding50mm.
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4.2.4Seats
4.2.4.1General

Thecraneoperatingcabinshallbefittedwithaseathavingsufficientadjustmentstoenablethecraneoperatortooperatethecraneaccordingto
theergonomicprinciplesgiveninENV26385.
Theseatshallbeabletobelockedinitsadjustedpositions.Iffootsupportsand/orarmrestsareprovided,accessibilitytothecraneoperators
seatshallbemaintainedandtheoperationofthecraneshallnotbelimited.
NOTETheseatshouldbeprovidedwithanadjustableheadrest.
4.2.4.2Dimensions

TheseatdimensionsshallconformtoannexE.TheSeatIndexPoint(SIP)isgiveninENISO5353.

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NOTEThedimensionsarebasedonEN23411:1988.
4.2.4.3Adjustments

Alladjustmentstoaccommodatethecraneoperatorssizeandweightshallbereadilyachievablewithouttheuseofanytool.
4.2.4.4Vibrations

Thevalueofvibrationstransmittedbythecraneoperator'sseatshallnotexceedthelimitingvaluesspecifiedinISO7096andISO26311.The
weightedaccelerationshallbelessthanthegivenhealthguidancezonesinISO2631a.Thevibrationtransmittedbythecraneoperator's
handles/armrestsshallbemeasuredandvaluedaccordingtoENISO53491andENISO53492.
4.2.4.5Restraintsystem

Ifarestraintsystemisrequired,itshallconformtoENISO6683unlessotherwisespecifiedbyprevailingroadregulations.
Itispreferredtohavetheseatbeltanchorageattachedtotheseatwiththebeltlockingdevicetothesideofthecraneoperator.Anchorageshall
permittherestraintsystemtobereadilyinstalledorreplaced.
4.2.5Controlsandcontrolsystems
4.2.5.1General

AllsafetyrelatedpartsofthecontrolsmentionedinthesubclausebelowshallbeinaccordancewithEN9541:1996category1,allelectronic
evaluationdeviceswithcategory2.
NOTE1Thecraneoperatorinteractsviaamanmachineinterfacewiththemachineinanopenloopsystem.Thisinterfaceconsistsofcontrol
devicesbymeansofwhichthecraneoperatorinitiatesactionsandbyindicatorsthecraneoperatorreceivesinformation.Inadditioncertainmotionsof
thecranearelimitedbymotion/performancelimitersandtheratedcapacitylimiter.Theselimitersfromanintegralpartofthecontrolsystem.
NOTE2Withthepresentstateofartthecontrolsystemofamobilecranewiththecraneoperatorasapartofthesystemcannotpreventevery
dangeroussituation.Thereareseveralinfluenceswhichcannotbeautomaticallycontrolled.Thefollowinglistisnotexhaustive:
windforcesonthecraneand/ortheload
dynamicinfluencesduetoabruptmotions(influencesoutsidethecontrolsystem)
groundconditions
demolitionwork.
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4.2.5.2Controldevices

ControldevicesshallbeinaccordancewithEN6141,EN8943,EN10053andEN613102.Thearrangementandthedirectionofmovements
ofthecontroldevicesshallbeinaccordancewithISO77522.
Thestartingofamovementshallbepossibleonlybyintendedactuationofacontroldeviceprovidedforthispurpose.
Thecraneshallbeprovidedwithmeanstogiveanaudiblewarningtopersonsinthevicinityofthecrane(e.g.whentheengineisstarted,when
motionsareinitiated).Thisdeviceshallonlybeabletobeactivatedbythecraneoperator.ThewarningshallconformtotheappropriateclausesofEN
457.
Controldevicesforextending/retractingtheoutriggerbeamsshallbeinapositionorprovidedwithmeanswherethemovementsofthe
outriggerscanclearlybeseebythecraneoperatorandfromwherecrushingofthecraneoperatorisnotpossible.Ifthehorizontalmovementofthe
outriggersiscontrolledfromgroundlevel,itshallonlybepossibletoaffectthatmovementonthesidewherethecontrolsaresituated.
Withthepresentstateofartitisnotpossibletoprovideacompleteviewofallthedangerzonesfromonecontrolstation.Thereforemeansfor
theviewingofdangerzones(e.g.mirrors,TVCameras)orcontrolstationsatdifferentplacesrelatedtothehazardousmovementshallbeprovided.
Resettingdeviceswherefittedrequireadditionalprotectiontoavoidinadvertentactivation(e.g.keyswitch).
Onsystemswithelectronicselectorswitches(e.g.keyboards)thebreakdownofthepowersupplywithlossofthestoredinformation,the
recoveryofpowersupplyshallresultinaresetwherebynoselectionisactivated.
Toenablethecraneoperatortochecktheselectedconfigurationandcompareiteasilywiththeconfigurationofthemachineitselfthefollowing
shallbeprovided:
symbolsandfiguresatorneartotheconfigurationselectorswitch,or
incaseofcodedinformation(e.g.thumbwheelwithcodenumbers)thecodenumbershallrefertoeachdifferentconfiguration.Eachcode
numbershallbeprintedintherelevantplaceonthecapacitychart.
4.2.5.3Starting

ThestartingsystemshallbeinaccordancewithEN1037.
Meansshallbeprovidedsothatnounintendedmovementofthecraneispossibleuntilthecraneoperatorisintheprescribedoperatingposition
(e.g.armrestswitch,deadmanswitch,seatswitch).
4.2.5.4Stopping

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Allcontroldevicesshallmovetotheneutralposition(stop)whenreleased.
Anenginecutoffwitharedpushbuttonofmushroomtypeonayellowsurface,thatremainsintheoffposition,toenablethestoppingofthe
engine(s)shallbeprovided.Itshallbelocatedataprominentplaceinthecabinwithineasyreachthroughthedoor.Thesestoppingdevicesarerequired
onlyonengine(s)forloadmotionsandarenotrequiredonspecificengine(s)relatedtotravelandoutriggermotionsonly.
NOTEEmergencystopequipmentaccordingtoEN418doesnotreducethestoppingtimefordangerousmotions.Contrarilyemergencystopcan
generateadditionalhazardsduetoinertiaofmovingmassesiftheyarestoppedabruptly(e.g.swingingoftheload).

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4.2.6Limitingandindicatingdevices
4.2.6.1General

TherequirementsofEN120772apply.
4.2.6.2Requirementsforindicators,displaysandlimiters

4.2.6.2.1General

Allinformationprovidedbytheindicatorsanddisplaysshallbevisiblefromthecontrolpositions,includingremotecontrols,wherethat
informationisrequired.
IndicatorsanddisplaystoensuresafeoperationofthecraneshallbeinaccordancewiththeappropriateclausesofEN8942andEN613101.
AudibleindicatorsshallbeinaccordancewithEN457.VisualindicatorsanddisplaysshallbeinaccordancewiththeappropriateclausesofEN842.
AllsafetyrelatedpartsoflimitingandindicatingdevicesmentionedinthesubclausebelowshallbeinaccordancetoEN9541:1996category1,
allelectronicevaluationdeviceswithcategory2.
Iftwoormoremotionscanbecarriedoutsimultaneously,themotion/performancelimitersshalltakeintoaccounttheeffectsofthepossible
combinations.
Theeffectofonemotionuponanothershallalsobetakenintoaccountbythesystemwheremovementofthatmotionmaycauseanotherlimit
ofmotionorcharacteristicofperformancetobeexceeded.
Theresponseofindicatorsanddisplaysshallfollowthecorrespondingmotionwithasuitableprecision(e.g.5%)andspeed,sothattheyalways
showthecurrentsituation.
Forsteppedvalues(e.g.latticejiblength,ortelescopingjiblengthwithlockingpins)theindicatedvaluesshallcorresponddirectlytotherelated
capacitychart.
Atorneartoeachindicatoratthecontrolstation(s)thereshallbealegibleanddurableexplanationofthefunctionofthedevice(preferablybya
symbol,see7.3ore.g.bythepositionofaselectiondevice,byaturnwheelforfallsofhoistingline).
4.2.6.2.2Motionlimiters

Anymotionwhichhasadesignedrestrictionofmovementhastobekeptinthedesignedrange.Thiscanbedoneeitherbymotionlimitersorby
thedesignofthedeviceitself,e.g.limitedstrokeofahydrauliccylinder.
NOTE1Regardingthestateoftheart,itisimpossibletopreventautomaticallyeverydangerousmotionortopreventautomaticallyevery
collision,e.g.manmachine,machinemachine,machinefixedobstacle.
NOTE2Workingspacelimitersand/oranticollisiondevicescanbeprovidedifagreedbetweenmanufactureranduserofthecrane.These
devicescannotpreventhazardsduetoswingingoftheloadand/orthecraneorpartsofthecranecausedbyabruptstartingorstoppingofmovements
causedbyincorrectoperation.
Whereamotionisprovidedwithamotionlimiter,afterthetriggeringofthatmotionlimiter,movementintheoppositedirectiontoasafe
conditionshallbepossiblewithoutresetting.
Motionswithrestrictedvisibilityanddesignrestrictionswhichcannotbeeasilymonitoredbytheoperatorand/orsupervisor,shallbeequipped
withtwoconsecutivemotionlimitersorbyothermeansprovidingthesamelevelofsafety(e.g.twoindependentanglesensors).
Whereamotionisprovidedwithtwoconsecutivelimiters,itshallnotbepossibletooperatethelimitedmotionafterthesecondlimiterhasbeen
activated.Aresetactionisnecessarybeforethemovementintheoppositedirectionispossible.
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4.2.6.2.3Performancelimiters

Amotionshallhaveaperformancelimiterif:
themotionhasadesignedperformancelimitationwhichifexceededcancauseafailureofthestructureorthemechanisms,overturningofthe
craneorfallingoftheload
thereisanexternalinfluencewhichcancausetheperformancelimitationtobeexceeded(e.g.gravity).
NOTEPerformancelimitersareoftenanintegralpartofthesystem(e.g.:agivendiameterofatubeinahydraulicsystemrestrictstheflowof
hydraulicoilandthereforerestrictsthespeedofloweringtheload).
Performancelimitersshalloperateautomaticallywhentherespectiveperformancelimitisreached.
4.2.6.3Mandatorylimitersandindicators

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4.2.6.3.1General

Theratedcapacitylimiter/indicatorshallconformto4.2.6.3.2and4.2.6.3.3forallratedcapacitiesgivenontheratedcapacitychartandthetest
certificateforthecrane.
Aratedcapacitylimiter/indicatorshalloperateautomaticallywithouttheneedforresettingduringaliftingcycle.
Whereacranecanbeoperatedindifferentconfigurations,thereshallbeapreciseandcontinuousindicationofthecraneconfigurationfor
whichtheratedcapacitylimiter/indicatorhasbeenset.Asaminimumrequirement,theconfigurationselectiondeviceshallprovideadirectdescription
oftheconfigurationselected,orindicateacodewhichcanbecheckedagainstaseparatelistofcodes/configurationswhicharegivenonthecapacity
chartorattachedtoit.
Thelocation/designofanyconfigurationselectingdeviceshallpreventalternationofthesettingbytheoperatorfromtheapplicationofaloadto
thereleaseofthatload,butitshallbereadilyaccessiblewhenevertheconfigurationischanged.
Onmobilecraneswhichcanbeoperatedindifferentconfigurations(e.g.onwheels,onoutriggers,differentcounterweights,differentjiblength,
differentnumberoffalls)nounintendedchangeoftheconfigurationselectionshallbepossible(e.g.locationofselectiondevice,separateconfirmation
ofsettings).
NOTENormallythereisnocheck(automaticplausibilitycheck),whethertheselectedconfigurationcorrespondswiththerealconfiguration.
Selectionsofconfigurationsnotreferringtoconfigurationsofthecranepermittedbythemanufacturershallnotallowthecranetooperate.
Thedesignandinstallationofratedcapacitylimitersandindicatorsshallbeabletowithstandoverloadsduringtestandverificationwithout
dismantlingandwithoutaffectingtheirperformance(see5.1).
4.2.6.3.2Ratedcapacitylimiter

Allmobilecraneshavingaratedcapacityofnotlessthan1000kgoranoverturningmomentofnotlessthan40000Nmshallbefittedwitha
ratedcapacitylimiter.
Theratedcapacitylimitershallpreventthecranefromsupportingaloadoutsidethelimitsofthepermittedradii,andoutsidethepositionsand
loadsshownand/ordescribedontheratedcapacitychartandcurrenttestcertificateorthepermissibleworkingloadoftheropes.
Theratedcapacitylimitershalloperate,withlowestpossibleworkingspeed,between100%and110%oftheratedcapacity.Thistoleranceshallbe
achievedbythecompleteinstallationasfittedtothecrane.
Incaseofincreasedtolerancesadditionalstructuralstrengthandstabilityshallbeprovidedtoachievethesamelevelofsafetyasforabove
mentionedstandardtolerance.Thevaluesofincreasedtolerancesshallbegiveninthecranedocumentation.
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Theratedcapacitylimitershalloperatetooverridethecontrolsofthecrane:
a. topreventanymotionthatwillleadtoanoverloadconditionand
b. topreventdangerousmovementsoftheload.
Foramobilecranethemotionsthatshallnormallybeoverriddenbytheratedcapacitylimiterwhentriggeredare:
i. derrickingout
ii. derrickingin
iii. hoisting
iv. telescopingout.
NOTE1Anoverridekeyforii)maybeprovidedwithinthereachoftheoperator(forderrickinginasuspendedload).
NOTE2Thederrickingin/luffinginofagroundedloadisnottobepermitted(see6.2.2.2g).
Theratedcapacitylimitershallnotpreventthecraneoperatorfromreturningthecontrolstothestoppositionandstartinganymotionsthat
willmovethecranetoasafercondition.
Theratedcapacitylimiter,oncetriggered,shallremainactiveuntiltheoverloadhasbeenremoved.
Whenbridgingdevicesarerequiredforoverloadtesting,riggingandderiggingofthecrane,thebridgingdeviceoftheratedcapacitylimitershall
notbeindirectreachofthecraneoperatorandshallbeunderlockandkey(e.g.inaswitchcabinet).Theratedcapacitylimitershallautomatically
returntoitsnormaloperationwhentheengineisshutdownandstartedagain.
4.2.6.3.3Ratedcapacityindicator

Allmobilecraneshavingaratedcapacityofnotlessthan1000kgoranoverturningmomentofnotlessthan40000Nmshallbefittedwitha
ratedcapacityindicator.
TheratedcapacityindicatorshallgivewarningsinaccordancewithEN457andEN842,forallmotionsthatinduceanapproachtotherated
capacityoranexcessoftheratedcapacityasshownontheratedcapacitychartandthetestcertificateforthecrane.
Theratedcapacityindicatorshallwarn:
a. thecraneoperatorbothvisuallyandaudiblyoftheapproachtotheratedcapacity
b. thecraneoperatorbothvisuallyandaudiblyandpersonsinthedangerzoneofthecraneaudiblysothattheycantakeheedofthewarningwhen
theratedcapacitylimiterisactivated
c. personsinthedangerzoneofthecranevisuallyandaudiblywhentheratedcapacitylimiterhasbeenoverridden.

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Warningsforboththeapproachtotheratedcapacity,andfortheratedcapacitybeingexceeded,shallbecontinuous.Thereshallbeaclear
differencebetweenthewarningforapproachandthewarningforoverload.
Theratedcapacityindicatorshallgiveawarningofapproachtotheratedcapacitystartingbetween90%and97.5%oftheratedcapacityofthe
crane.
NOTEThisgivesthecraneoperatortimetoreacttothewarningandpreventthecranefrombeingoverloaded,e.g.slowingdownofmovements,
topreventtheloadfromswinging.
Noprovisionsshallbemadeforthecraneoperatortocancelawarningfromthecontrolstation,exceptfortheaudiblewarningrequiredbya)
andb)abovewhereacancellationfacilitymaybeprovidedforthiswarningthatonlybecomesoperableafterthewarninghasbeenactivefor5seconds.
Ifsuchacancellationfacilityisused,followedbythecranereturningtoaconditionrequiringanaudiblewarning,thewarningshallautomatically
operate.

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Theratedcapacityindicatorshallcontinueitsfunctionwhentheratedcapacitylimiterisoverriddenduringtesting,riggingorderigging.
Provisionscanbemadetocanceltheaudiblewarningduringcalibrationandtestingofthecrane.Provisionscanalsobemadeforariggingsetting
thatinhibitsaudiblewarningsduringtheriggingofthecrane.
Theratedcapacityindicatorshallbesuchthatitsoperation,butnotnecessarilyitsaccuracy,canbecheckedwithoutapplyingloadstothecrane.
4.2.6.3.4Cranelevelindicator

Thecranelevelshallbeindicatedatornearatthecraneoperatingcabinwithintheviewofthecraneoperator.Mobilecranessupportedby
outriggersshallhaveinadditionacranelevelindicatorateachoutriggercontrolstationwherethelevellingmotion(s)canbecontrolled.Thecranelevel
indicatorshallhaveanaccuracybetterthan0,1ofadegree.
4.2.6.3.5Hoistinglimiter

Allcranesshallbefittedwithahoistinglimitertostopallmotionswhichcancausethehookblocktomakecontactwiththejib/jibheadand
causedamage.Bridgingofthehoistinglimitershallonlybepossibleforriggingoperationsandtransport.Thebridgingdevicehastobeofthetypethat
requirestobeheldintheoverrideposition.
4.2.6.3.6Loweringlimiter

Allcranesshallbefittedwithaloweringlimiter.Asaminimumtheloweringlimitershallensurethreeturnsofropeonthedrum.Bridgingthe
loweringlimitershallonlybepossibleforriggingoperations,transportandchangingoftherope.Thebridgingdevicehastobeofthetypethatrequires
tobeheldintheoverrideposition.
4.2.6.3.7Additionalmandatoryindicators

Allmobilecraneshavingaratedcapacityofnotlessthan1000kgoranoverturningmomentofnotlessthan40000Nmthefollowing
indicationsshallbegivenforthecurrentconfigurationandpositionofthecraneunderthefollowingconditions:
continuousdisplayduringcraneoperation:
a)utilisationofrated

forallconfigurations,givenasananaloguedisplaywithmarkingoftheloadingstatusofthecrane(e.g,greenyellowapproachtorated

capacity

capacityratedoverloadcondition)

b)ratedcapacity

forcraneswitharatedcapacityinexcessof5tonnesadisplayofpermittedloadinaccordancewiththeratedcapacityattheactual
radius/outreachorjibangle

c)workingload

forcraneswitharatedcapacityinexcessof5tonnes(indicationofloadonthehookplusmass(weight)ofhookandblock).

NOTEForthepurposeoferrorcheckingoradjustmentsspecialdisplayssupersedingthecontinuosdisplaymaybeselectedtemporarilyduring
craneoperation(s).
selecteddisplay(tobeselectedmanuallybythecraneoperator):
d1)radius/outreach whenthecraneisonradius/outreachrelatedratedcapacities,onnonslewingcranestheoutreachtothetippingaxisshallbedisplayed

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d2)jibangle

whenthecraneisonanglerelatedratedcapacities

d3)flyjibangle

forluffingflyjibconfigurations,whenthecraneisonanglerelatedratedcapacities

e)windspeed

whenthecranehasajibcombinationlengthinexcessof65m,orwherethestowingtimeismorethan5min

f)slewrange

whenthecranehasslewrangerelatedratedcapacities

g)jiblength

fortelescopicjibcranes

h)jiblock

fortelescopicjibswithlockingmechanisms

i)axlelock

forcraneswithaxlelockingmechanisms

j)fallsofhoistingline forallconfigurations
k)slewposition

whenthecraneisonslewrangerelatedratedcapacities

l)travelling(audible oncranes(ontyresandcrawlers)wheretheoperatorhasnoclearviewimmediatelybehindthecranewhentravellingbackwards.Oncranes
warning)

withadditionalcounterweight(seeA.7)whenslewing.

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4.2.6.3.8Additionalmandatorylimiters

Thefollowingmandatorylimitersshallbefittedtothecraneunderthefollowingconditions:
a)maximumandminimumjibangle

forallconfigurations

b)maximumandminimumflyjibangle

forluffingflyjibconfigurations

c)telescoping

fortelescopicjibcranes

d)slewing

wherethereareslewrangerelatedratedcapacities

e)controlstationposition

forcraneswithmoveablecontrolstations

f)mast/Aframeposition

wheremast/Aframeshallbekeptwithinlimits

g)slackropespecialhazard.

onspecialconfigurations(seeA.7)whereslackropemaycausea

4.2.7Steeringsystem
4.2.7.1SteeringOnroadmobilecranes

Thesteeringshallensuresafehandlingofthevehicleatspeedsuptothosepermitted.Thesteeringsystemsshallhavepowerassistancewith
minimum2independentcircuitsandanautomaticindicationifthepowerassistanceofoneofthecircuitsfails.
NOTE1ThesteeringsystemofonroadmobilecranesissubjectedtonationalandEuropeanregulations(e.g.70/311/EECasamended,with
vehiclecategoryN3).
NOTE2SincetheabovecoverssteeringcontroleffortintheeventofasinglefailureitcanbeassumedtomeettherequirementsofA.3.3.5ofEN
ISO121002:2003.
4.2.7.2SteeringOffroadmobilecranes

Thesteeringequipmentshallensuresafehandlingofthevehicle,includingwherethecraneispermittedtotravelwithload,atspeedsuptothose
permittedbythemanufacturer.
Anycraneconformingtotherequirementsof4.2.7.1canbeconsideredtoconformtotherequirementsofthisclause.
30

Foronsitetraveldesignspeedsof25km/handbelowitisnotnecessarytofitadditionalequipmenttocaterforapowerassistancefailure.
Fortraveldesignspeedsonsitegreaterthan25km/hthesteeringshallnotbecomeinoperativebecauseofthefailureofasinglepowersupply
(electric,hydraulic,pneumatic)toeitherthepowerassistanceofthesteeringsystemorthecontrols.
ThepermittedsteeringcontroleffortrequirementsshallbeasgiveninannexM.
Steeringcontrolsforcrawlercranesshallmeettherequirementsof4.2.5.
4.2.7.3SteeringCraneoperatingcabin

Wherethecraneissteeredfromacraneoperationcabinontherotatingupperstructureanindicationofthedirectionofmovementoran
automaticchangeofthedirectionofsteeringdependingonthepositionoftherotatingupperstructureshallbeprovided.
4.2.8Brakingsystems
4.2.8.1Brakingsystemsforcranemotions

4.2.8.1.1General

Thissubclausecoversstaticholdingbrakesanddynamicbrakingsystemsforcranemechanisms(e.g.hoisting,derrickingandslewing
mechanisms).
Smoothdecelerationofeachcranemotionshallbeachievedbyabrakingsystem(e.g.hydraulicbrake,electricbrake,mechanicalfrictionbrake).
Theminimumrequirementsshallbeasfollows:
a. thewearingsurfaceofallbrakedrumsorplatesshallbesmoothandhomogenous
b. thewearingsurfaceofdiskbrakesmaybeofcompoundliningtypeand/orsinusdisctype
c. brakeliningsshallbeadequatelyandpermanentlysecureduringtheireffectivelife
d. drytypebrakeblocksandliningsshallbeprotectedfromoil,greaseandanyenvironmentalconditionswhichmightaffectbrakeperformance
e. wettypebrakesshallbereliablysealedfortheirlifetime
f. wherethedesignofbrakesrequiresinspectionoftheliningsformaintenance,itshallbepossibletoverifythewearoftheliningswithout
dismantling.Toensureeffectiveoperationofthebrakebetweensuchinspectionsormaintenanceperiodseithersufficienttorquereserveoraself
compensatingsystemshallbeprovided
g. brakemechanismsthatrelyuponairorfluidunderpressureoranelectricalorelectromechanicalmechanismforapplicationshallbesuchthat
thebrakeisappliedautomaticallyintheeventoflossofenergyoftheoperatingsystem
h. staticholdingbrakesforsecuringhoistingorderrickingmotionsshallbesuchthatthebrakesareappliedautomaticallyintheeventoflossof
energyoftheoperatingsystem.Thebrakesshallbeconnecteddirectlytothedrive/mechanism

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i. onmechanismswherethedrivecanbedisconnectedfromthedrumfreefalloftheloadand/orpartsofthecraneshallbeavoidedbyadequate
means(e.g.interlockingarrangement).

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4.2.8.1.2Hoistingandderrickingbrake

Theholdingbrakeforhoistingandforderrickingsystemsoperatedbyhoistanddrummechanismsshallbeabletoexertarestrainingtorqueat
least33%greaterthanthemaximumtorquetransmittedfromtheropedrumtothebrakeunderworkingorerectionconditions,whicheverisgreater.
Mechanismswithdynamicbrakingsystems(e.g.hydraulicbrakevalve,electricalbraking)shallhaveasecondaryholdingbrakesystemwhichis
independentofthedynamicbrakesrestrainingthesametorqueasfortheprimaryholdingbrake.
Theholdingbrakeshallperformthefunctionofanemergencybrakeforatleastoneoperationintheeventoffailureofthedynamicbrake
systemtoavoidfreefall.Theholdingbrakeshalloperateautomaticallywhentheenergysupplyisswitchedoff.Thedecelerationinanemergencycase
shallnotleadtodamagetothestructure,ropes,drumsandmechanisms.
NOTEAftersuchanemergencystopitmaybenecessarytocarryoutmaintenance,see6.4.3b).
4.2.8.1.3Slewingbrake

Slewingmechanismsshallbeprovidedwithaholdingbrakeoralockingmechanismtoholdthesuperstructureandjibsystemduringoperation
withloadandduringoutofserviceconditioninasafeposition.Theholdingbrake/lockingmechanismshallwithstandatorquemomentatleast25%
abovethetorquerequiredforholdingtheactingtorquederivedfromwindloadscombinedwiththeinclinationpermittedbythemanufacturer.The
lockingmechanismshallbeabletobeactuatedinallpermissibleslewingpositions.
Thecraneshallbeequippedwithadynamicbrakingsystemwhichallowssmoothdecelerationbythecraneoperator.Thedecelerationshallnot
causeanydamagetothestructureofthecrane.Thedynamicbrakingsystemmaybehydraulic,electricofmechanical.
Ifamechanicalbrakeisusedasholdingbrakeandasdynamicbrakingsystem,differentcontrolsforbothapplicationsshallbeprovided.
4.2.8.2Brakingsystemsfortravelmotions

4.2.8.2.1Onroadmobilecranes

Thebrakingsystemshallensuresafedecelerationofthevehicleatspeedsuptothosepermitted.Thebrakingsystemshallhavepowerassistance
andhaveminimum2independentcircuitswithanautomaticindicationifthepowerassistanceofoneofthecircuitsfails.Aparkingbrakeshallbe
fitted.
NOTEThebrakingsystemofonroadmobilecranesissubjecttonationalandEuropeanregulations(e.g.71/320/EECasamendedwithvehicle
categoryN3).
4.2.8.2.2Offroadmobilecranesontyres

Offroadmobilecranesontyreswithaonsitetraveldesignspeedgreaterthan25km/hshallconformto4.2.8.2.1.Offroadmobilecraneson
tyreswithaonsitetraveldesignspeedof25km/horbelowshallconformeithertotherequirementsof4.2.8.2.1oratleasttothefollowing
requirementsfortravelling,parkingandemergencybrakingsystems.
a)Travellingbrakingsystem
Thetravellingbrakingsystemshallhaveanefficiencyofatleast25%ofgravitationalaccelerationmeasuredonadecelerometerwhen
stoppingonlevel,dryandfirmgroundfromhalfofthemanufacturerspermittedoffroadspeedwheninnormaltravellingorderwithout
load.
b)Parkingbrakingsystem
Besidesthetravellingbrakingsystemaparkingbrakingsystemisrequired.Aparkingbrakingsystemshallbefittedtorestrainallthe
loading,windandgradientconditionsspecifiedbythemanufacturerwhenthecraneisinnormaluse.
32

Thisbrakingsystemshallbecapableofholdingtheunloadedcraneinnormaltravellingorderonagradientnotlessthan15%.It
shallalsobeoperatedbyaseparatesystemtothatforthetravelbraking.Theparkingbrakefunctionmaybeachievedbythetravelling
brake.
Testingshalleitherbebymeansofadecelerometeronlevelgroundorfacingbothupanddownagradientof15%minimum.
c)Emergencybrakingsystem
Anemergencybrakingsystemshallbefittedtogainsufficientdecelerationincaseoffailureofthetravellingbrakesystem.The
emergencybrakingsystemshallbeoperatedbyfullyindependentandeasilyaccessiblecontrols.
Parkingbrakeandemergencybrakecanbecombinedinthesamesystemprovidedthatitispurelymechanicallyoperated.The
emergencybrakefunctionmaybeachievedbythetravellingbrakingsystemand/orparkingbrakingsystem.
4.2.8.2.3Offroadmobilecranesoncrawlers

Offroadmobilecranesoncrawlersshallconformtotherequirementsfortravellingandparkingbrakingsystemsfollowingbelow.

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a)Travellingbrakingsystem
Atravellingbrakingsystemshallbefittedcapableofslowingdownandbrakingsoastoensuresafetyunderalltheoperating,loading,
speedandgradientconditionsspecifiedbythemanufacturerwhenthecraneisinnormaluse.
Ifbrakingduringtravelcansafelyandsmoothlybeappliedbyusingthehydraulicdrivingsystemanadditionaltravellingbraking
systemisnotnecessary.
b)Parkingbrake
Aparkingbrakingsystemshallbefittedtorestrainalltheloading,windandgradientconditionsspecifiedbythemanufacturerwhen
thecraneisinnormaluse.
Thisbrakingsystemshallbecapableofholdingtheunloadedcraneinnormaltravellingorderonagradientnotlessthan15%.It
shallalsobeoperatedbyaseparatesystemtothatforthetravelbraking.Theparkingbrakefunctionmaybeachievedbythetravelling
brake.
Iffrictionlosesinthecrawlerdriveallowadequatebraking,anadditionalparkingbrakesystemandaseparateactivationofthebrake
isnotnecessary.Whendeterminingtheselosesthefrictionand/ortheholdingtorqueinthehydraulicmotorshallbeneglected.
4.2.9Protectiondevices
4.2.9.1Movingparts

Thecontrolstationshallbeprovidedinsuchawaythatthehands,arms,theheadorotherpartsoftheoperatorsbodycannotbecrusheddueto
proximityofmovingparts(e.g.jib,derricking,cylinder).ThesafetydistancesofEN294,EN349andEN811shallapply.
Theslewingringandthehoistsshallhaveprotectiontoavoidtheinsertionofhandsorlimbsintheareasofgearing(pinionprotection).All
pointswherehazardscanoccuratopenropeandchaindrivesandothermovedparts(forhoistdrumsseethefollowingparagraph)shallhavea
protectionagainstcrushing,shearingordrawinginoflimbs.ThesafetydistancesspecifiedinTables1,3,4and5ofEN294:1992andEN811apply.
Thehoistdrums,pulleysofjibs,flyjibs,hookblocksshallbeinstalledinsuchawaythatreevingoperationscanbeconductedwithaminimised
riskoftrappingordrawinginofhandsorarmsintojammingareas.Areaswithremainingrisksoftrappingordrawinginshallbeclearlymarked(see
7.2).
33

Handlesshallbeprovidedonhookblockstoremovetheneedtoapproachthetrappinganddrawinginareas.
Thedesignshallensurethataropeisnotabletojumpoffthedrumorsheavessideways,eveninthecaseofslackrope(e.g.ifthedrumis
providedwithflanges,theprojectionoftheflangesabovetheouterropelayershallbeatleastequalto1,5timestheropediameterincaseofsheaves
thegapbetweentheoutsidediameterofthesheaveandtheinsidefaceofthestirruporprotectivecasingsurroundingthesheaveshallnotexceed1/3of
theropediameteror10mmwhichevervalueisthesmallerone).
4.2.9.2Guardsandrestraints

GuardsandrestraintsshallbeinaccordancewithISO116602andEN953.
4.2.9.3Access

4.2.9.3.1General

Thedesignofaccessforerection,dismantling,maintenance,inspectionandtocontrolstationsshallbeinaccordancetoEN13586.
Deviatingfrom6.6ofEN13586:1999,sideprotectionforplatformsandwalkwaysuptoaheightof2,50misnotrequiredif:
a. safeaccesswithrelatedergonomichandrailsorhandholdsforthreepointsupportareprovided
b. freestandingwidthofwalkwayorplatformisatleast0,5m.
4.2.9.3.2Accesstocontrolstations

Theaccesstothecabinsinthedesignedpositionshallbeinaccordancewithtype1accessofEN13586.
Safeegressfromthecraneoperatingcabinshallbepossibleineveryoperatingpositionofthecrane.Ifthisispossibleonlywithmovableaccess
systems(e.g.movableplatformsormovableladders),instructionsforselection,installationandsafeuseofthisaccesssystemsshallbegiveninthe
manual.
NOTERequirementsfortheemergencyexitaregivenin4.2.2.4.
4.2.9.3.3Accessformaintenance,inspection,erectionanddismantling

Theaccesstocomponentsorpartsofthecraneformaintenance,inspection,erectionanddismantling,shallbeinaccordancewithEN13586.
Ifsafeaccessispossibleonlywithpersonalprotectiveequipment(e.g.safetyharness)and/ormovableaccesssystems(e.g.movableplatformsor
movableladders),instructionsforselection,installationandsafeuseofthisaccesssystemsshallbegiveninthemanual.
4.2.9.4Exhaustsystem

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Exhaustsystemsshallbedesignedsothattheemissionsdonotpresentahazardatcontrolstations.Theexhaustsystemshallbeinstalledinsuch
awaythattheexhaustgasescannotingressintotheclosedcabinsprovidedwiththecraneregardlessofwindconditions.
4.2.9.5Hotsurfaces

Thetemperatureofaccessiblesurfaceslocatedlessthan300mmfromforeseenhandpositionsshallnotexceedthe10secondburningpoint
(lowestvalue)fortherelevantmaterialsgiveninEN563.
NOTEProtectiondevicesmayberequiredtoachievetheabovementionedobjective.
Thisrequirementdoesnotapplytosurfacesheatedbysolarradiation.
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4.2.10Hydraulicandpneumaticsystemsandcomponents
4.2.10.1General

Thehydraulicandpneumaticcomponentsshallbesuchthatthepowersystemcanbeoperatedattheintendedmaximumworkingpressure
(includingthepressureduringoverloadtest)withoutfailureofthecomponents.
ThehydraulicpowersystemshallconformtoEN982.ThepneumaticpowersystemshallconformtoEN983.
Thepowersystemsshallhaveadequatefilterstoavoidcontaminationofthemedium.
Inspectionofhoses,fittingsandcomponentsshallbefeasibleexceptthoselocatedinsideframesetc.Itshallbepossibletoinspectdirectlyor
indirectly(e.g.mirror)theendfittingsandthefirst3dlengthofhoseenteringsuchfittings(wheredistheoutsidediameterofthehose).Ifthisisnot
practicablespecialarrangementsshallbeprovidede.g.fitprotectivevalves,shortinspectionperiods(see6.4.2and6.4.3).
4.2.10.2Hydrauliccomponents

4.2.10.2.1General

Everyhydrauliccircuitshallbefittedwithadeviceforindicatingtheworkingpressure,orshallbeequippedwithapressuremeasurementoutlet
towhichameasuringdevicecanbeconnected.
4.2.10.2.2Hydraulicsteelpipes

Hydraulicsteelpipescompletewiththeirendfittingsshallhaveaminimumsafetyfactorof2,5betweenworkingpressureandburstingpressure.
4.2.10.2.3Hydraulichoses

Forthepurposeofthisstandardhydraulichosesareunderstoodtobecompletewiththeirendfittings.
HydraulichosesshallconformtoEN853,EN854orEN856inrespectoftheirtype.Aminimumsafetyfactorof4betweenworkingpressure
andburstingpressureisrequiredforallhoses.
Thehosesshallbeinstalledinsuchawaythattheminimumbendingradiusisinaccordancewiththehosemanufacturer'sspecification.
Hosessubjectedtoaworkingpressureofmorethan15MPa(150bar)shallnotbefittedwithremovablefittings(e.g.screwtype).
NOTEHoseswithfittingsareconsideredtomeettherequirementiftheassemblyrequirestheuseofdedicatedtooling(e.g.apress)andparts
providedbythehosemanufacturer.
Forhydraulichosescontainingfluidwithaworkingpressureofmorethan5MPa(50bar)and/orhavingatemperatureover50Candwhichare
locatedwithin1,0mofthecraneoperatoratthecontrolstation,deflectingshieldsshallbeprovidedtoprotectthecraneoperatorfromhazardsarising
fromsuddenhosefailurewherenoothercomponentorstructureofthecraneperformsthisfunction.
4.2.10.2.4PressureLimitingvalves

Pressurelimitingprotectivevalve(s)shallbefittedineveryhydrauliccircuittoprovideprotectionagainstexcessofpressure.Theadjustmentof
protectivevalvesshallrequiretheuseoftoolsandbecapableofbeingsealed.Thelimitedpressureshallnotexceed110%ofthemaximumworking
pressure.
4.2.10.2.5Hydrauliccylinders

Loadbearinghydrauliccylinders(e.g.luffing,telescoping,outriggercylinder)shallbefittedwithadevice,whichwillstopthemovementinthe
eventofhoseruptureorpipefracture,e.g.automaticclosinghydraulicbrakevalves,
35

pilotoperatednonreturnvalves(protectivevalves).Thisdeviceshallbeplacedinsideordirectlyconnectedtothecylinder.
Whereitisnecessarytohaveaconnectiononthecylindersideoftheprotectivevalve(e.g.pressuregaugeforratedcapacitylimiter/indicator)
thanintheeventofafailureinthecircuittheflowshallberestrictedtotheextentthattheoperatorcantakeactionbeforeadangeroussituationarises.
Inadditiontotheabove,wheretwocylindersoperateinparallel(e.g.luffing),asuitablevalvesystem(e.g.protectivevalves)shallbeprovidedto
ensurethatintheeventoflossofpressuretoonecylindertheothercylindershallbeprotectedagainstoverloading.Thedesignandlocationofthese
devicesshalllimitthespeedofmotionwhichcanoccurto10%ofmaximumspeedoftherespectivemotion.

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Ifaconnectionisinstalledbetweenacylinderportandavalve(e.g.aprotectivevalve)intheformofaweldedorfittedpipe,thebursting
pressureforthewholeconstructionshallbeatleast2,5timesthemaximumworkingpressuretowhichthecircuitwillbesubjected.
4.2.10.2.6Hydraulictank

Thehydraulictankshallhavecapacitytostoreatleastthefluidthatiscontainedintheentiresystemwhenallcylindersarefullyretracted.In
additionitshallhavesufficientcapacityforoperationofthehydraulicpumpswhenallcylindersarefullyextended.
Thehydraulictankshallhavedevicestomonitortheminimumandmaximumfluidlevel.
Thehydraulictankshallhaveaccessopeninganddrainvalveforcleaning.
Iftheoilreservoirisofthepressurisedtypethenitshallwithstandthemaximumworkingpressurewithaminimumsafetyfactorof2andbe
fittedwithadevicetorelievepressuresabovethemaximumworkingpressureofthetank.
4.2.10.3Pneumaticcomponents

Theburstingpressureforhosescompletewithconnectionsshallbeatleast4timesthemaximumworkingpressure.
Theburstingpressureforpipescompletewithconnectionsshallhaveasafetyfactorof2,5betweennominalworkingpressureandbursting
pressure.
Compressedaircontrolsorsystemsshallbeprotectedsothatincaseoffailureoftheairpressure(e.g.asaresultofpipeorhosefractureorwhen
thepressureisunacceptablylow)relevantmovementsofthecranearestoppedautomaticallyandremainstopped.
Alowpressurewarningdeviceshallbefitted.
4.2.11Pressurevesselsandfueltanks
4.2.11.1Pressurevessels

NOTEPressurevesselsformingapartofamobilecraneshouldbeinconformitywithEUDirective87/404/EEC.
4.2.11.2Fueltanks

Fuelspillageshallnotbepossibleundernormaloperatingconditions.
Thefueltankshallhaveafillerwith:
a. easyaccess
b. provision(s)forlockablefillercap(s)
c. locationoutsideofthecabinsprovidedwiththecrane.
36

Fuelgasesarisingduringfillingorduringoperationshallnotbeabletoenterthecabin.
Thetanklocationandfacilitiesforfillingshallbesuchthatspillageduringfillingofthetankcannotdrainintotheengineorcabinsorintothe
electricalsystem.
Thefueltankshallhavedevicestomonitoratleasttheminimumfuellevel.
Fuelsystemsshallbefirmlyconnectedtothecrane.Thefueltankandfillerfittingsshallbelocatedinsuchawaythatthepossibilityofdamageto
thetankanditsfittingsisminimised.
4.2.12Electricandelectroniccomponentsandrelatedphenomena
4.2.12.1General

ElectricandelectroniccomponentsshallbeinaccordancewithEN6020432.
4.2.12.2Electromagneticcompatibility(immunity)

Forelectromagneticcompatibility(immunity)theelectricalsystemshallconformtoEN6100062.
Whenusingcertifiedcomponentsfortheelectricalsystemfulfillingtherequirementsoftheabovementionedstandardinaccordancewiththe
recommendationsofthesupplier,testingoftheelectromagneticcompatibility(immunity)ofthewholearrangementisnotnecessary.
4.2.12.4Batteries

Batteriesshall:
a. haveacoverontheterminalsthatisnotconnectedtoground
b. beprotectedagainstinadvertentmovements
c. ifthedangerofgasesarisingexists,thebatteryroomshallbeventilated.
4.2.13Hooksandhookblocks

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Hooks/hookblockssuppliedwiththecraneshallbedesignedforthesamesizeandtypeofropeandshallallowthesamemaximumropepullas
thehoist.Thehookfittedtoahookblockshallbecapabletocarrytheloadderivedfromthemaximumropepullandmaximumnumberoffallsforthe
respectivehookblock.
NOTERequirementsfortechnicalspecificationsofhooksandhookblocksaregiveninannexesK.1andK.3.
4.2.14Specificrequirementsforsparetyres/wheels
Wheresparetyres/wheelsareprovided,theyshallbeattachedsothattheycansafelyberemovedorreplacedontothecrane(e.g.personsdonot
havetobeundertheliftedwheelwhileremovingorattachingthesparetyre/wheel).Manualforcesrequiredtohandlethewheel/tyreshallbesmaller
than500N.

37

4.2.15Specificrequirementsforpinjointedjib/flyjibconnections
Provisionshallbemadetoensurethatpersonsdonothavetostandunder/insidesectionstoinsert/removethepinstoavoidshearing/crushing
hazardduringassembly/disassembly.

4.3Visibility
4.3.1Craneoperator'sfieldofview
Theviewofthecraneoperatorwheninprescribedoperatingpositionshallenablehimtoseethefollowingundernormaloperatingconditions:
a. frontview:movementoftheload
b. sideview:movementoftheupper(slewing)structureandthesurroundingoftheworkingarea
c. upperview:movementoftheloadtothetopofthejib
d. rearview:movementoftheupper(slewing)structureandthesurroundingoftheworkingarea.
NOTEFordirectionsb),c)andd)aids(e.g.mirrors,ultrasonicdevices,TVdevices)maybeprovidedtoremedyinadequatedirectview.
Thefrontandtheroofwindowofacraneoperatingcabinshallbeequippedwithmotorisedwindscreenwiper.Thefrontwindowofacrane
operatingcabinshallbeadditionallyequippedwithawasher.Arrangementsshallbeprovidedfordefrosting/demistingthewindows,atleastthefront
window,ofthecabin(s).
Thefrontandtheroofwindowshallbeprovidedwithapermanentlyinstalledadjustablesunvisor/sunscreentoprotecttheoperatorfromthe
glareofthesunbutpermittingtheviewontheload.
4.3.2Lighting
Thecraneshallbeprovidedwithsuitableandadjustablelightingintendedasanaidforthecraneoperatortoilluminatetheimmediatevicinityof
thecraneundernormaloperationalconditions.
Thecraneshallhaveexteriorlightingwhenrequiredforaccessandegress.Thecraneshallhavelightinginthemachineryroomifinspectionis
necessary.

4.4Noiseandnoisereduction
4.4.1Noiseandnoisereductionatsourcebydesign
Themainsoundsourcestobefoundonmobilecranesare:
engine(s)usedforthecranefunctions
pumps,valvesandhydrauliccircuits
cylinders,brakesandothermechanicalcomponents
hoist/derrickgears,slewinggears.
MobilecranesshallbedesignedsothattheAweightedmeasuredsoundpressurelevelinthecraneoperatingcabin,determinedaccordingto
annexG,shallbelessthanorequalto85dB(A).
ItisrecommendedtousethegeneralguidanceinformationgiveninENISO116881onthedesignoflownoisemachinery.
38

NOTE1Thefollowingtechnicalmeasuresarecurrentlyusedtoreducenoiseatsourceonmobilecranes:
choiceoflownoisehydraulicandmechanicalcomponents
useofantivibrationsystemstoreducestructurebornesound
encasementofnoiseradiatingparts
appropriateadjustmentofoperatingspeeds.
NOTE2Theabovelistisnotexhaustive,alternativetechnicalmeasuresfornoisereductionwithidenticalorgreatereffectivenesscanbeused.
NOTE3Thecriterionforassessingtheeffectivenessofthesemeasuresistheactualnoiseemissionvaluesfromthemachineinrelationtoother
machinesofthesamefamilyandnotthenatureofthereductionmeasuresthemselves.
4.4.2NoisereductionbyInformation

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Specificconditionsfornoisereductionduringuseshallbegivenintheinstructionmanual,e.g.keepencasementdevicesclosed,keepcabindoor
andwindowsclosed(ifcompatiblewithsafetyneeds),actuatecontrolssmoothly.
Ifnecessary,forspecialpurposesoutsidetheoperatingcabin,wearingofahearingprotectorshallberecommended.

4.5Fireprotection
4.5.1Fireresistance
Thefloorofthecabinsaswellastheinterior,upholsteryandinsulationshallbemadeoffireretardantmaterial.Thematerialburningrateshall
notexceed150mm/minwhentestedinaccordancetoISO3795.
4.5.2Fireextinguisher
ThecraneshallbeequippedwithaportablefireextinguisherforclassAandBfiresinaccordancewithEN2containingatleast6kgof
extinguishingagent.Thenumber,sizeandtypeoftheextinguishershallbesuitableforthesizeofequipmentonthecrane.Theextinguishershould
preferablybelocatedinacabinorbeaccessibleneartothecontrolstation.Thefilledweightoftheextinguishershallnotexceed20kg.

4.6Requirementsfortransportandtravel
Toavoidrisksduetohazardousmovementsduringtransportandtravel,mechanicallockssecuredtothecraneorhydrauliclockingdevicesshall
beprovided,inparticulartoavoid:
a. unintendedrotationofthesuperstructure
b. unintendedluffingortelescopingofthejib
c. inadvertentextensionofoutriggerbeams.
Meanshavetobeprovidedforthedriverbeforeand/orduringtransporttocheckthatitemsa)toc)areintransportposition(e.g.directvision,
mirrors,warninglights,buzzers).
Meansforlockingofotherstowedcomponentsintendedtobecarriedonthecrane(e.g.hookblock,outriggerplates,counterweight)toavoid
hazardousmovements,shallbeprovided.
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5Verification
5.1Methodsofverification
Thedesignofacraneshallbecheckedbyaconceptualverification(proofofcompetence).
ThisverificationshallbedoneinaccordancewithTable1below.Itshallbecarriedouttoshowadequatesafetyforanyhazard.Theconceptual
verificationisnormallydoneonthefirstcraneofaseriesofcranesofthesametype.
Toensurefitnessforpurposeeverysinglecraneshallbecheckedindividually.Whereaqualitymanagementsystemexists,verificationon
samples(s)ofseries(craneandcomponents)ispermitted.Thisverification(individualcheck)shallbedoneinaccordancewithTable1below.
Configurationsandloadcasesfortheloadtestsshallbeselectedinaccordancewithexperiencefromcalculation,resultsfromconceptualverification
andtheactualresultsfromsinglechecksinserialproduction.
NOTEannexTmaybetakenasguidelinesfortheselectionoftestloads.Testloadsmaybeappliedbyincreasingloadsorincreasing
outreach/radius.
Table1Verificationofsafetyrequirementsincludingtheproofofcompetence(continued)
ConceptualVerification
Sub
clause

4.1.2.3

Safetyrequirement

Calculation

Experiment

Visual
Check

Crane Component

Individual
Check

Loadeffectsonstructures

Loadeffectsonloadbearingcomponents,mechanisms,ropes,chainsandother

4.1.2.4
4.1.2.5

components
4.1.2.6.1

Stability,general

4.1.2.6.3

Stabilityduringerectionanddismantling

L/F

4.1.2.6.4

Stability,effectsduetoelasticity

4.1.2.6.2

Stability,effectsduetoacceleration

Limitstatesforstructures

4.1.3.4

Limitstatesforloadbearingcomponents

4.1.3.4.1

Limitstatesformechanisms

4.1.3.4.2

Limitstatesforropesincludingendfittings

4.1.3.4.2

Ropesystem,diameterofsheavesanddrums

4.1.2.6.4
4.1.3.2
4.1.3.3

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4.1.3.4.3

Limitstatesforchains

4.1.3.4.4

Limitstatesforhooks,sheavesandhookblocks

4.1.3.4.4

Limitstatesforslewring,hydrauliccylinderandothercomponents

4.2.1

Controlstation,pipes,cablesandhoses

4.2.2.2

Controlstation,cabin

4.2.2.3

Sharpedgesandacuteangles

4.2.2.4

Emergencyexit

4.2.2.5

Spaceenvelope

4.2.2.6

Heatingandventilation

4.2.2.7

Doorsandwindows

4.2.2.8

Cabinlighting

4.2.3

Protectionagainstfallingobjects(tools)

4.2.4

Seats,general,dimensionsetc.

4.2.4.4

Seats,vibrations

4.2.5

Controlsandcontrolsystems

4.2.6.3.1

Ratedcapacitylimiter,ratedcapacityindicator

Additionalmandatorylimitersandindicators

4.2.7

Steeringsystems

4.2.8.1

Brakingsystemsforcranemotions

4.2.8.2

Brakingsystemsfortravelmotions

4.2.9.1

Protectiondevices,movingparts

4.2.9.2

Guardsandrestraints

4.2.9.3

Access

4.2.9.4

Exhaustsystem

4.2.9.5

Hotsurfaces

4.2.10

Hydraulicandpneumaticsystems

4.2.11.1

Pressurevessel

4.2.11.2

Fueltanks

4.2.12

Electric/electroniccomponents

4.2.12.2

Electromagneticcompatibility

4.3.1

Craneoperator'sfieldofview

4.3.2

Lighting

4.4

Noiseandnoisereduction

6.1.2

Prohibitionwarning,andinformationsigns

4.2.6.3.2
4.2.6.3.3
4.2.6.3.7
4.2.6.3.8

4.2.12.3

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5.2Testproceduresandconditions
5.2.1General
Thetestproceduresandtestconditionsusedbythemanufacturertoverifythatamobilecraneiscapableliftingratedloadsshallbetakenfrom
ISO4310.Thetestsinclude:
visualinspection
functionalchecks
testswithload:statictests,dynamictests,stabilitytests.
Theselectionofcraneconfigurationsandloadcasestobetestedshallensurethatthestructureandallcomponentsofthecranearesubjectedto
themaximumloadsundertheworstconditionsforeseeablebythemanufacturerwhenthecraneisusedasintended.Thisincludesallpermitted
combinationsofjib,flyjibandluffingflyjibwithallcounterweights,counterweightpositionsandcorrespondingoutriggerpositions.
Loadtestsshallbecarriedoutwiththecraneconfiguredasitisintendedtobeusedwithoutanymodifications(e.g.withoutchangingoutriggers,
withoutextracounterweightorcounterweightinextraposition).
NOTEForthecalibrationoflimitingandindicatingdevicesitmaybenecessarytoliftadditionalloadsondifferentconfigurations.
5.2.2Conceptualverificationbycalculation
Theconceptualverificationbycalculationrequiresadditionaltestswillloadtoverifytheassumptionsandtheresultsofthecalculation.The
selectionoftheloadcasesandconfigurationsforthesetestsshallbedoneforthosecaseswhereminimumsafetyfactorsexist.

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5.2.3Conceptualverificationbyexperiment
Ifverificationduringconceptualverificationisnotdonebycalculation,atestprogramme(loadcasesandconfigurations)shallbesetupwhich
guaranteesthesameadequatesafetyforallconfigurationsandforanyhazardasthatachievedbymeansofcalculation.
Additionallythetestsshallbedonewithminimumandmaximumcounterweight,minimumandmaximumradiusofcounterweightandthe
accordingoutriggerpositions.Thetestloadsshallbeselectedasfollows(forinterpretationoftestpointsseeFigureT.1):
a. testloadsatorneartotheminimum(1),medium(2)andmaximumradius(3)wherethestaticanddynamictestloadcanbeappliedbyincreasing
radiusorload
b. astatictestloadfortheminimumradius(4).
5.2.4Examinationaftertest
Afterthetestathoroughexaminationcheckingforfailuresordefectsshallbemade.
NOTEThepersoncarryingoutanexaminationmayaskforanydismantlingornondestructivetesting,whichisconsiderednecessarytoreveal
potentialdefects.
5.2.5Testreport
Aftertheexaminationareportshallbepreparedlistingtheconclusionsandfindingsofthetestsandexamination.Thetestreportshallidentify
thecranetested,andshallgivethedateandlocationofthetestsandthenameofthetestsupervisor.Itshalllisttheconfigurations,proceduresand
findingsineachcase.RequirementsandanexampleofaformatisgiveninannexU.

42

5.3Verificationbasedonnoiseemissionvalues
Noiseemissionvaluesofmobilecranesshallbemeasured,declaredand,ifneeded,verifiedaccordingtothenoisetestcodegiveninannexG.
NOTEAccordingto1.7.4finannexAofENISO121002:2003,thedecisiontodeterminethesoundpowerlevelistobetakenfromthe
measuredvalueoftheemissionsoundpressurelevel.

6Informationforuse
6.1Formatofinstruction
6.1.1General
TherequirementsofEN126441shallapplytogetherwiththefollowingadditionalinformation:
Aninstructionmanualshallbeprovidedbythesupplier,havingcontentsthataretheresponsibilityofthemanufacturer
Thetextshallbewrittensothatatrainedpersonwillunderstandit,withallinformationbeingexplicitandcomprehensive.
Allpartsshallhaveclearidentificationtowhichcranetheyapply,includingasaminimum:
titleofinstructionmanual
titleofotherparts(ifnecessary)
modelandserialnumberofthecrane
listofcontentswithpagenumbering.
NOTETheinstructionmanualmaybepublishedinseparatevolumes.Whereappropriate,crossreferencestootherpartsshouldbemadetoavoid
unnecessaryrepetition.Clearandsimpleillustrations,diagrams,graphsandtablesshouldbeusedinpreferencetowrittentextandbeplacedadjacentto
anycorrespondingtext.
Theinstructionmanualshallbe:
compliedinthelanguage(s)ofthecountrythecraneisdeliveredto
simpletounderstandandhaveadequateexplanatorynotes
writtenininternationallyrecognizedterms,definitions,unitsandsymbols.
6.1.2Technicaldataandinformation
Theinstructionmanualshallgivethefollowinginformation:
a. adrawingofthecranewithmaindimensions,numberandlocationofmaincomponents
b. adescriptionandexplanationaboutintendeduse,classification(forguidanceseeISO43012),ratedcapacity,designlimitsandserviceconditions,
forwhichthecraneisdesignedandbuilt.Inparticularinandoutofservicewindspeedsandsailareaofload(See4.1.2.2.2)shallbegiven
c. serviceconditionsandactivitiesforwhichthecraneshallnotbeused
d. informationaboutcranemarking(Seeclause7andannexQ)
43

e. ratedcapacitychartsspecifyingtheratedcapacityofthecraneforallitspermittedoperatingconfigurationsreadilyaccessibletothecrane
operatoratthecontrolposition
f. adescriptionofthelimitingandindicatingdevices

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g. adescriptionofthecontrolsystem(s)
h. whereappropriate,adescriptionofemergencyescape(s)
i. importanttechnicaldatafortheassemblysuchasmasses(weights)ofparts,reactionforcesonsupportingparts,powersupply,inservice,outof
serviceandtestconditions
j. whereappropriate,requirementsforoutriggersupportsandcrawlers
k. whereappropriate,thearrangementandamountofthecounterweightincludingthemeansofassemblyanddisassembly
l. wherenecessaryfortransportationandassembly,thedimensionsandmass(weight)ofthecraneorcranepartsandthesupportingorsuspending
instructions,aspredeterminedbythemanufacturer
m. theinstructionmanualandthetechnicaldocumentationdescribingthemachineryshallgive:
thedeclarednoiseemissionvalue(s)ofthemobilecraneinaccordancewith1.7.4finannexAofENISO121002:2003andENISO
4871.ThenoisedeclarationshallconsistofdualnumbernoiseemissionvaluesasspecifiedinENISO4871
thereferencetoannexG,accordingtowhichthedeterminationofthesevalueshasbeencarriedout
therecommendationsasspecifiedin4.4.2
n. whereappropriate,valueofvibrationincludingdescriptionoftestmethodandoperatingconditionsduringmeasurement
o. adrawingindicatingthepositionsofeachwarningsignfixedtothecrane
p. informationforcomponentsandmaterialsrequiringspecialisedrepairtechniques
q. testcertificates(seeannexesR,SandU)
r. specificationforhookblock(s)(seeannexK.3).
Asecondcopyoftheinstructionmanualshallbegivenbythemanufacturerforplanningtheliftingoperation.

6.2Instructionsforuse
6.2.1General
Theinstructionsforuseshallspecifythedutiesofthecraneoperatorbefore,duringandaftercraneoperation.Thecraneoperatorshallbemade
awareaboutthedangerforpeopleenteringtheworkingarea.
Theinstructionmanualshallincluderequirementsfortheusertoensurethattheserviceconditionsarecompatiblewiththecranespecification:
a. checkingtheliftingoperationtobeinaccordancewiththeintendeduseofthecrane(e.g.requiredcranecapacity,workingradius,hookheight),
accordingtoISO124801
b. checkingthesiteconditions(e.gwindincludingsiteeffects,snow,adversetemperature,visibility)
44

c. checkingthatfitnessforpurposeofallparts(e.gcomponents,additionalparts,loadliftingattachment,slings)hasbeenverified
d. checkingground/supportconditionsforthemaximumloadingimposed.
NOTEChecksshouldbemadetoinsurethatthegroundcanwithstandtheforcesimposedbythemobilecrane(outriggers,crawlers,wheels,
etc.).Specialattentionshouldbepaidtohiddengrounddeficiencies,meltingiceoroverflooding.Informationaboutnecessarymeasuresshouldbegiven
ifthegroundconditionisindoubtorthegroundpressureisexceedingthelimitingvalue.
6.2.2Craneoperatorinstructions
6.2.2.1Checksbeforestartingacraneoperation

Beforestartingacraneoperationthefollowingchecksarerequired:
a. evaluationoftheloadingconditionbeforeliftingaload
b. cranepositioning,groundconditions,horizontalsupport
c. check,whereaccessible,theconditionofallropes(includingtheirendtermination(s)),drumsandsheaves
d. indicatorsofthemobilecrane(e.g.loadingcondition,fluidlevel,engineoperation,hydraulicpressure,electricpowersupply,wearlimits,wind
speed)
e. clearandunrestrictedviewoftheloadandworkingarea.Ifnot,checkthecommunicationsystembetweensupervisorandcraneoperator
ensuringsafeoperation
f. requiredcapacityofthecrane,permittedandexpectedgroundpressure
g. correctfunctionofthesafetydevices
h. communicationbetweencraneoperatorandslinger.
6.2.2.2Specificsafetyrequirementsduringoperation

Thefollowingaspectsshallbeconsidered
a. evaluationoftheloadingconditionbeforeliftingaload
b. correctuseofslings(ropeorchain),hookverticalovercentreofgravityofload
c. startingandstoppingofmovements

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d. stoppingofmovementsincaseofemergency
e. combinedmovements
f. approachingthelimitingconditions
g. Prohibitionofthedraggingofloadsincludingtheliftingofanoverloadbyderrickingin
h. precautionstoavoidcontactbetweentheloadortheloadliftingattachmentandthestructure
i. behaviourofthecraneoperatororpersonsinthevicinityofthecraneintheeventofstormorthunderstormwithlightning
j. measurestobetakenafterlightninghitsthecrane
k. measurestobetakeniftheratedcapacitylimiterbridgingdeviceisprovidedandused(see4.2.6.3.2).

45

6.2.2.3Leavingthemobilecraneoutofservice

Thefollowingaspectsshallbeconsidered:
a. outofserviceconditionofthecraneandliftingattachment(e.g.parkingposition)
b. stoptheengine,cutoffthepowersupply
c. lockingthecraneoperationcabin(s)orsecuringthecontrolequipmentd)precautionstobetakenintheeventofstormorthunderstormwith
lightning.

6.3Instructionsforassembly,erection,disassemblyandtransport
Theinstructionsshallspecifythesequenceofoperationsbefore,duringandafterassembly,erection,disassemblyandtransport.Ifappropriate,
theinstructionmanualshallgiveatestprogrammetoverifytheassembly.
Theinstructionsshallhighlightthedangertopersonsenteringtheassembly,erection,disassemblyandtransportationarea.
Theinstructionsshallgiveclearandsafeprocedure(s)forassembly/disassemblyofpinjointedjib/flyjibsections,particularattentionbeingdrawn
tothedangerofunsupportedsectionshinging/falling.

6.4Instructionsformaintenanceandinspection
6.4.1General
Instructionsincludingdrawings,whereappropriate,forthemaintenanceofthecraneallowingtheidentificationofreplacementpartsshallbe
given.
Theinstructionmanualshallgiveinstructionsonspecifictaskstobecarriedoutatdefinedintervals,inordertomaintainthesafeconditionof
thecrane.
Theinstructionmanualshallcontaininformationtoensurethatallmaintenanceoperationscanbecarriedoutsafely.Attentionshallbedrawnto
allhazardswhichmayoccurduringmaintenance.
Theinstructionmanualshallgivethenecessarydetailsforachievingtheadequatelevelofmaintenance.Thisshallbedonebytheprovisionof
schematiccharts,checklistsandtestvalues.
6.4.2Instructionsformaintenance
Themaintenanceoperationshallcover:
preventivemaintenanceamountandperiods(e.g.lubricationintervals,changeoffiltersandwearparts,tyretypeandtyrepressure,tensionor
torquemomentofbolts/screws,inspectionofropes).Partsandtoolsneededforpreventivemaintenanceshallbelistedintheinstructionmanual.Alist
ofchecks,inspections,examinationsandtests,includingthesafeconditionsforcarryingthemout,shallbegivenb)thetimeintervalfortestingin
accordancewiththedesignshallbegiven
c)criteriaandadequaterecordstoenablethedeterminationoftheapproachtothedesignlimitsofthecraneanditscomponentsduringintended
lifetime(e.g.safeworkingperiodofhoists).Ifindicatingorrecordingdevicesareusedtoachievethis,instructionsfortheuseandthemaintenanceof
thedevicesshallbegiven
d)theexaminationandtestprogrammeafteralongoutofserviceperiod,thatmeansifoutofserviceperiodexceedstimeintervalfortesting
accordingtob),andthenecessaryactionsbeforeusingthemobilecraneagainshallbegiven(e.g.lubricating,cleaningofcomponents,checkofcontrol
systemandsafetydevices)
e)warningfortheservicebynonspecialisedpersons,andforreplacementofpartswhicharenotguaranteedtobeinaccordancewiththe
manufacturersspecification
46

f)conditionsforreplacementorrepairofelementsinsteadofreplacementwherenecessaryandappropriate.Themanufacturerorcompetent
personshallconsiderwhethertheoriginalverificationisstillvalidafterrepairorreplacement.
NOTE1GuidanceforconditionmonitoringisgiveninISO124821.
NOTE2Guidanceforperiodicalcheck,inspection,examinationandtestisgiveninISO124801.
6.4.3Instructionsforinspection
Beforefirstuse:
Theinstructionmanualshallgiveinstructionsfortherelevantinspectionsbeforefirstuseafteramaintenanceorrepair.

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Periodicalchecks:
Ifinspectionsarenecessarytoensurethatthecraneissafeforuse,instructionsforperiodicalchecksshallbeprovided,e.g.forholdingbrakes,
forhoistingmotionaccordingto4.2.8.1.2.

6.5Instructionsfortraining
Theinstructionmanualshallgiveinformationforthetrainingofthecraneoperator,todevelopbasicoperationalskillandtoprovidetherequired
knowledgeforthesafeuseofthecrane.Thisincludes:
a. thetechnicaldata,ratedcapacity,safetydevicesnecessarytoknowbeforeoperatingthecrane
b. thecontrolsandtheirlayout
c. thetelephone,radioortelevisioncommunicationsusedforthecontrol
d. safetyadvice,signsandinformation.
NOTEThecraneowner/userisresponsibleforadequatetrainingofthecraneoperators.

6.6Instructionsforspareparts
Asparepartslistshallbeprovidedtocoverthecompletemobilecrane.Thelistshallincludeidentificationandlocationforallitemssuppliedas
replacementpartsorassemblies.
NOTEForfurtherinformationseeISO109731.

7Marking
7.1Machinemarking
ThemanufacturersmachinemarkingincludingtheCEMarkshallbeinaccordancewithannexQ.

7.2Warningsigns
Prohibition,warningandinformationsignsshallbeinaccordancewithISO3864,ISO6309andISO13200.

7.3Graphicsymbols
GraphicsymbolsusedforcontrolsandindicatorsshallbeinaccordancewithISO7000,ISO72961andISO72962.
47

7.4Markingofcraneparts
Partsofthecranewhicharedisassembledandtransportedseparately(e.g.latticejibintersection,partofthecounterweight)shallbeidentifiedby
markingsifthereisariskofunintendedinterchange.
NOTEForconnectingelements(e.g.pins,bolts,screws)separatetransportpositionsonthemainparts(e.g.latticejibintersection)should
preferablybeprovided.
Formainpartswhichneedtobehandledbyusingloadliftingattachments,theweight,thepositionoftheliftinglugsandfornonsymmetrical
partsthecentreofgravityshallbemarkedonthepartitself.Ifthesepartsneedtobehandledincombinationwithotherpartsduring
assembly/disassemblysuchinformationshallbegiveninrespectiveconfiguration/transportdrawings.

7.5Markingofoutriggers
Outriggersshallbemarkedtoshowthefullyextendedpositions.Wherethecraneratedcapacitychartspermitintermediateposition(s)theyshall
alsobemarkedandidentifiedaccordingtothecharts.
49
48

AnnexA
(normative)
Examplesofmobilecranetypes

FigureA.1
Industrialmobile

FigureA.2Mobilecrane

FigureA.3Mobilecrane

withtelescopicjib

withtelescopicandflyjib

crane

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FigureA.5Mobilecrane
withlatticejib
FigureA.4Mobile

FigureA.6Crawlercrane

cranewithluffingfly
jib
*1)

maxTL

Maximumoutputtorqueduetothenominalloadoftherope.SeeTable1
ofFEM5.004:1994,case1thefrictionlossesshallbeconsidered.

TL,m

*2)

TFg

Averageoutputtorquecalculatedunderconsiderationofthespectrum
classaccordingtoT.2.1.3.3ofFEM1.001:1998,part2.

Outputtorqueduetospecialloadingcondition:testload
Additionalspecialloadingconditions(e.g.duringcraneerectionor
dismantlingseeTable1ofFEM5.004:1994,case3II)shallbe
specifiedinanenclosuretothetechnicalspecification.Theenclosure
shallincludeadequateexplanationsandcomments.Minimum
requirementsare:
theoutputtorque
theoperatingtimeofthemechanismrelatingtotheloadspectrum
theaverageoutputrevolutions.

*3)

maxn

Maximumoutputrevolutions

nm

AverageoutputrevolutionsoccurringatthesametimetoTL,m

*4)

TBr

Requiredstaticholdingtorqueofthebrakecalculatedfromthemaximum
outputtorque(maxTL)amplifiedwiththerequiredsafetyfactor(see
4.2.8.1.2).
Specialloadingcasesbyderrickingmechanisms(e.g.theoutputtorque
duetoloadeffectsduringcraneerectionordismantlingshallbe
additionallyconsidered.

*5)

Thedynamicbrakingtorqueresultsfromboththemaximumoutput
torque(maxTL)andthedynamictorqueresultingfromtherequired
brakedeceleration.
Normallyadditionaldataisrequiredtocalculateandtoproducea
dynamicbrake.Thereforethisdatashallbespecifiedinanenclosureto
thetechnicalspecification.Theenclosureshallincludetheadequate
explanationsandcomments.

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50

FigureA.8Mobileharbourcrane
FigureA.7Mobilecranewithadditionalcounterweight
51

AnnexB.1
(informative)
Majorpartsoftelescopiccranes

FigureB.1.1Examplesofmajorparts

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FigureB.1.2Examplesofjibsandjibcombinations
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AnnexB.2
(informative)
Majorpartsoflatticejibcranes

FigureB.2.1Examplesofmajorparts

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FigureB.2.2Examplesofjibsandjibcombinations
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AnnexC
(normative)
Listofhazards
Thisannexcontainsallthesignificanthazards,hazardoussituationsandevents,asfarastheyaredealtwithinthestandard,identifiedbyrisk
assessmentassignificantforthistypeofmachineryandwhichrequireactiontoeliminateorreducetherisk.
ThesignificanthazardsarebaseduponEN1050,thenumberingfollowsthesequenceofEN1050,TableA.1.Alsoshownarethesubclause
referencestothesafetyrequirementsand/orprotectivemeasuresinthisstandard.Beforeusingthisstandarditisimportanttocarryoutarisk
assessmentofmachinetocheckthehazardshavebeenidentifiedintheannex.
TableC.1Listofhazards(Continued)
No

AnnexAofEN
ISO121002:
2003

Significanthazardsandhazardousevents

ENISO
12100
part1

ENISO
12100
part2

Requirement
clause(s)inthis
standard

Mechanicalhazardsdueto

machinepartsofworkplaces

1.3

4.2

3.1,3.2,4 4.1,4.2

accumulationofenergyinsidethemachinery

1.5.3,1.6.3

4.2

3.8,

4.2.10

6.2.2.
1.1

Crushinghazard

1.3

4.2.1

4.2.9

1.2

Shearinghazard

1.3

4.2.1

4.2.2.3,4.2.9

1.4

Entanglementhazard

1.3

4.2.1

4.2.9

1.5

Drawinginortrappinghazard

1.3

4.2.1

4.2.9

1.9

Highpressurefluidinjectionorejectionhazard

1.3.2

4.2.1

3.8

4.2.10.2

Electricalhazards

1.5.1,1.5.2,1.6.3

Thermalhazardsresultingin:

3.1

Burns,scaldsandotherinjuriesbyapossiblecontactofpersonswithobjectsormaterialswithan

1.5.5,1.5.6,1.5.7

4.4
4.4

4.3

3.9,6.2.2 4.2.12,6.2

4.2.9.5

extremehighorlowtemperature,byflamesorexplosionsandalsobytheradiationofheatsources
3.2

Damagetohealthbyhotorcoldworkingenvironment

1.5.5

Hazardsgeneratedbynoise,resultingin:

4.1

Hearingloss(deafness),otherphysiologicaldisorders(e.g.lossofbalance,lossofawareness)

1.5.8

4.2

Interferencewithspeechcommunication,acousticsignals,etc

1.5.8

4.2.2.6
4.2.9.5

4.5

3.2,4

4.4.1,4.4.2

4.5

3.2,4

4.2.5.2,4.2.6.2,
4.4.1,4.4.2

Hazardsgeneratedbyvibration

1.5.9

Hazardsgeneratedbymaterialsandsubstances(andtheirconstituentelements)processedor

4.6

3.2

4.2.4.4

exhaustedbythemachinery:

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54

Hazardsfromcontactwithorinhalationofharmfulfluids,gases,mists,fumesanddusts

1.1.3,1.5.13,

4.8

3.3b,3.4 4.2.2.6,4.2.9.4

4.8

1.6.5
7.2

Firehazardorexplosionhazard

1.5.6,1.5.7

3.4

4.5

Hazardsgeneratedbyneglectingergonomicprinciplesinmachinerydesignas,e.g.hazardsfrom:

8.1

Unhealthyposturesorexcessiveefforts

1.1.2d,1.1.5,

4.9

3.6.1,

4.2.2,4.2.4,

6.2.1,

4.2.5

1.6.2,1.6.4

6.2.3,
6.2.4,
6.2.6
8.2

Inadequateconsiderationofhandarmorfootleganatomy

1.1.2d,2.2

4.9

3.6.2

4.2.5

8.4

Inadequatelocallighting

1.1.4

3.6.5

4.2.2.8,4.3.2

8.6

Humanerror,humanbehaviour

1.1.2d,1.2.2,

4.9

3.6,

4.1,4.2.5,4.2.6,

1.2.5,1.2.8,

3.7.8,

6,7

1.5.4,1.7

3.7.9,5,
6.1.1

8.7

Inadequatedesign,locationoridentificationofmanualcontrols

1.2.2

3.6.6,

4.2.5.2

3.7.8
8.8

Inadequatedesignorlocationofvisualdisplayunits

1.7.1

3.6.7,5.2 4.2.6.2

10

Unexpectedstartup,unexpectedoverrun/overspeed:

10.1

Failure/disorderofthecontrolsystem

1.2.7,1.6.3

10.2

Restorationofenergysupplyafteraninterruption

1.2.6

3.7.2

10.3

Externalinfluencesonelectricalequipment

1.2.1,1.5.11,

3.7.11

4.2.12
4.2.6.2.3

3.7,6.2.2 4.2.5.1
4.2.5.2,4.2.5.3,
4.2.5.4

4.1.2.8
10.4

Otherexternalinfluences(gravity,wind,etc.)

1.2.1

3.7.3

14

Failureofthecontrolcircuit

1.2.1,1.2.3,

3.7,6.2.2 4.2.5.1,4.2.5.2,

1.2.4,

4.2.5.4

1.2.5,1.2.7,1.6.3
15

Errorsoffitting

1.5.4

4.9

3.7,6.2.1 4.2.6,4.2.9

18

Lossofstability/overturningofmachinery

1.3.1

4.2.2

6.2.5

4.1.2,4.1.3

19

Slip,tripandfallofpersons(relatedtomachinery)

1.5.15

4.2.3

6.2.4

4.2.9

Additionalhazardsduetomobility

20

Additionalhazardsrelatingtothetravellingfunction:

20.6

Insufficientabilityofmachinerytobesloweddown,stoppedandimmobilised

3.3.3,3.3.5

21

Additionalhazardslinkedtotheworkposition

21.1

Fallofpersonsduringaccessto(at/from)theworkposition

3.2.1,3.2.3,

4.2.5.2,4.2.8.2

4.2.9.3

3.4.5,
3.4.7
21.2

Exhaustgases/lackofoxygenattheworkposition

3.2.1

4.2.9.4

21.3

Fire

3.2.1,3.5.2

4.5.1,4.5.2

21.4

Mechanicalhazardsattheworkposition

3.2.1,3.4.3,

4.2.2.3

3.3.4,
3.4.2,3.4.4,

55

21.5

Insufficientvisibilityfromtheworkpositions

3.2.1

4.3.1

21.6

Inadequatelighting

3.1.2

4.2.2.8,4.3.2

21.7

Inadequateseating

3.2.2

4.2.4

21.8

Noiseattheworkposition

3.2.1

4.4,5.3

21.9

Vibrationattheworkposition

3.2.1,3.2.2,

4.2.4.4

3.6.3
21.10 Insufficientmeansforevacuation/emergencyexit

3.2.1

4.2.2.4

22

Additionalhazardsduetocontrolsystem:

22.1

Inadequatelocationofmanualcontrols

3.2.1,3.3.1,3.4.5

22.2

Inadequatedesignofmanualcontrolsandtheirmodeofoperation

3.2.1,3.3.1,3.3.3

4.2.5.2

23

Additionalhazardsfromhandlingthemachine,lackofstability

3.1.3

4.1.2,4.1.3

24

Additionalhazardsduetothepowersourcehazardsfromtheengineandthebatteries

3.4.8,3.5.1

4.2,12.4

25

Additionalhazardsfromthirdpersons,unauthorisedstartup/use

3.3.2

4.2.2.7,4.2.5.3,

4.2.5.2

4.2.5.4
26

Additionalhazardsfrominsufficientinstructionsforthedriver/operator

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Additionalhazardsfrominsufficientinstructionsforthedriver/operator

Additionalhazardsduetolifting

3.6

27

Mechanicalhazards:

27.1

27.1.1 Lackofstability

Fromloadfalls,collisions,machinetippingcausedby:
4.1.2.1

4.1.2.6

27.1.2 Uncontrolledloadingoverloadingoverturningmomentsexceeded

4.2.1.4,4.3.3,

4.2.6

4.1.2.6a,4.2.1.3

4.1.2.6.4b,

4.4.2a
27.1.3 Uncontrolledamplitudeofmovements

4.2.5.1,
4.2.6.2.2,
4.2.6.2.3
27.1.4 Unexpected/unintrendedmovementofloads

4.1.2.6e

4.2.5.2,4.2.5.3,

27.1.5 Inadequateholdingdevices/accessories

4.1.2.6e,4.4.1

4.2.6.2.2

27.1.6 Collisionofmorethanonemachine

4.1.2.6b

4.2.6.2.2

27.4

Frominsufficientmechanicalstrengthofparts

4.1.2.3

4.1.2,4.1.3

27.5

Frominadequatedesignofpulleys,drums

4.1.2.4

4.1.2.5,4.1.3.4

27.6

Frominadequateselectionofchains,ropes,liftingandaccessoriesandtheirinadequateintegration 4.1.2.4,4.1.2.5,

4.1.2.5,4.1.3.4

4.1.2,4.1.3,5.2,

4.2.5.4,4.2.8

intothemachine

4.3.1,
4.3.2

27.8

Fromabnormalconditionsofassembly/testing/use/maintenance

4.4.1,4.4.2d

6.2,6.3
28

Electricalhazardsfromlightning

4.1.2.8

6.2.2.2,6.2.2.3

29

Hazardsgeneratedbyneglectingergonomicprinciples,insufficientvisibilityfromthedriving

4.1.2.7,4.4.2c

4.3,6.2.1,6.2.2

position
56

AnnexD
(normative)
Loadeffectsofcombinedmotions
Inthecaseofcrawler,truckandtelescopiccranestheloadismovedbyhoisting(H),slewing(SI),luffing(Lu)(i.e.derricking),travelling(Tr)
andtelescoping(Te),seeFiguresD.1,D.2andD.3.

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FigureD.1Crawlercrane
57

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FigureD.2Craneonoutriggers
58

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FigureD.3Telescopiccraneonoutriggers
Theaccelerationeffectsofthesemotionsactingsimultaneouslyonthecranedependontheircontrol,theserviceconditionsofthecraneand
whethertheloadishoistedfromthegroundorifasuspendedloadishoisted(seeTableD.1).
Ifamobilecraneisdesignedtocarryoutsimultaneousmovements,theloadeffectsoftwoofthesemovementsshallbetakenintoaccount.
Incaseofhoistingagroundedload,onlytheeffectofhoistingaccelerationshallbeconsidered.
TableD.1Loadcombinations,oneortwosimultaneousmovements
Hoistingagroundedload
LoadcombinationsA1,B1,C1

Hoistingasuspendedload
LoadcombinationsA2A4,B2B4,C3

NOTELoadcombinationsA,B,CareaccordingtoTable3ofISO86861:1989.
59

Inspecialcasestheeffectsofthreeormoresimultaneousmovementscanbeconsidered,tobedecidedbythedesigner(seeTableD.2).
TableD2Loadcombinations,morethantwosimultaneousmovements
Hoistingasuspendedload

60

Movingasuspendedload

AnnexE
(normative)
Craneoperator'sseatdimensions

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E.1General
Thisannexspecifiesdimensionsandadjustmentsrangeforuprightcranedriverseatsforuseonmobilecranes.

E.2Dimensionsofcranedriversseat
forthecranedriversseatandrelatedadjustmentsshallbeinaccordancewithFigureE.1andTableE.1.Allseatdimensionsandadjustments(if
provided)arereferencedtotheS.I.PasdefinedinEN25353.

E.3Otherdimensionsoradjustments
Nominalvaluesofdimensionsregardingseatelements,theirmutuallocationsandadjustmentsshallbeestablishedonthebasisofergonomic
requirementstakingintoconsiderationcranedriversizes(accordingtoEN23411:1988)from5thpercentilefemalethrough95thpercentilemale.
DimensionsandadjustmentsotherthanthoseinthisannexEmaybeusedonlyiftheyprovidebetteraccommodationofthecranedriver.

FigureE.1Seatdimensions(seeTableE.1)
61

TableE.1Seatdimensionsandadjustments
Dimension

Description

Key

Minimum

Nominal

Maximum

Z1

Seatcushionlength

215mm

265mm

315mm

Z2

Seatcushionangle

1,2

10

15

Adjustment

1,3

+/3

+/5

Z3

Seatcushionwidth

430mm

500mm

Z4

Forward/backwardadjustment

1,4

100mm

150mm

Z5

Verticaladjustment

1,4

60mm

Z6

Backcushionheight

1,5

150mm

400mm

Z7

Backcushionwidth

1,6

300mm

500mm

Z8

Backcushionangle

1,7

10

15

(ifapplicable)

1,3

+/3

+/5

Z9

Lateralgapbetweenarmrests

1,8

450mm

500mm

550mm

Z10

Armrestwidth

1,8

50mm

75mm

Key
1. Themax.andmin.valueslistedmaybechangedbasedonergonomicjustificationorbetteraccommodationfortheoperator.
2. AngleofthetopoftheseatbaseoftheSIPdeviceafterbeingpositionedandweightedusingtheseatindexpointmeasuringdeviceandproceduresasgivenin
ENISO5353.

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ENISO5353.
3. Angleadjustment,ifprovided,isbasedfromthemidposition.
4. Adjustmentvaluesaretotaladjustments.
5. Wherefreeswingofshouldersandarmsoverthetopofthebackisnecessarilyorappropriateforvisibilitywhentravellinginreverseorwhencontrollingrear
mountedimplements,themaximumbackheightshouldbe300mm.
6. Wherefreebackwardswingoftheelbowsisdesired,themaximumwidthshouldbe330mm.
7. Measuretheangleofthecentrelineofthebackcushion.Ifalumbarsupportisprovided,itshouldbesetatthemidrangeposition,andthebackangle
measuredoncentrelineofthebackcushionabovethelumbarsupport.Forbackcushionswithalumbarsupport,theallowableanglesofTableE.1maybe
increasedby5degreesormore.
8. Wherefitted.

62

AnnexF
(normative)
Rigidbodystability:Loadeffectsduetoacceleration
Insteadofanexactcalculationoftheloadeffectduetoacceleration(see4.1.2.6.4)thefollowingsimplifiedcalculationprocedurecanbeused.For
thepurposeofthesimplifiedcalculationprocedureitcanbeassumedthatthecraneisoperatingonalevelsurfaceifthecapacitychartspermitupto1%
gradientonly.
Thecalculationshallshowthatthetippingangleforallratedcapacitiesinallconfigurationsslewedintheleaststabledirectionisgreaterthanor
equaltothegivenminimumtippingangle(seeTableF.1).
ThetippingangleisindicatedinFigureF.1.
Tofixtheheightofthecentreofgravityoftheloadedcranetheloadshallbeconsideredtobeconcentratedattheaxleofthetopsheavesofthe
jib.
TableF.1Minimumvaluesoftippingangle
craneconfiguration/condition

min.tippingangle

onoutriggers/crawlersinstationarycondition

4,0

onwheels(tyres)instationarycondition

4,5

oncrawlers/wheels(tyres)whentravelspeedupto0,4m/sispermissible

4,5

oncrawlers/wheels(tyres)whentravelspeedgreaterthan0,4m/sispermissible

5,0

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FigureF.1Cranejibintravellingandinlateraldirection
64

AnnexG.1
(normative)
Noisetestcodeformobilecranes
G.1.1Introduction
Thisnoisetestcodespecifiesalltheinformationnecessarytocarryoutefficientlyandunderstandardizedconditionsthedetermination,
declarationandverificationofthenoiseemissioncharacteristicsofmobilecranes.Itspecifiesthenoiseemissionmeasurementmethodsthatare
availableandtheconfigurationandconditionsthatshallbeusedforthetest.
Noiseemissioncharacteristicsincludeemissionsoundpressurelevelsatworkstationsandthesoundpowerlevel.Thedeterminationofthese
quantitiesisnecessaryfor:
manufacturerstodeclarethenoiseemitted
comparingthenoiseemittedbymobilecranesonthemarket
purposesofnoisecontrolatsourceatthedesignstage.
Theuseofthisnoisetestcodeensuresthereproducibilityofthedeterminationofthenoiseemissioncharacteristicswithinspecifiedlimits
determinedbythegradeofaccuracyofthebasicnoisemeasurementmethodused.Noisemeasurementmethodsofgrade2areallowedbythisstandard.

G.1.2Normativereferences
Thisannexincorporatesbydatedorundatedreferenceprovisionsfromotherpublications.Thesenormativereferencesarecitedatthe
appropriateplacesintheannex,andthepublicationsarelistedhereafter.Fordatedreferences,subsequentamendmentstoorrevisionsofanyofthese
publicationsapplytothisannexonlywhenincorporatedinitbyamendmentorrevision.Forundatedreferencesthelatesteditionofthepublication
referredtoapplies(includingamendments).
ENISO4871,AcousticsDeclarationandverificationofnoiseemissionvaluesofmachineryandequipment(ISO4871:1996).

G.1.3Termsanddefinitions
Definitionsofacousticaltermsaregiveninthebasicstandards(seeG.1.2).

G.1.4Descriptionofmachineryfamily
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Thisnoisetestcodeappliestoallmobilecranescoveredbythisstandard.Thedeterminationofsoundpowerlevel(LWA)andemissionsound
pressurelevel(LpA)shallbecarriedoutwiththesametestconditions.
Anymodificationtonoisegeneratingcomponentsshallresultinanewseriesofmeasurements.

65

G.1.5Soundpowerleveldetermination
G.1.5.1Basicstandardtobeused
TheAweightedsoundpowerlevelofthemobilecraneshallbedeterminedusingthebasicstandardENISO3744,exceptwithregardtothe
numberandlocationofmicrophones(seeG.1.5.3).
Themeasurementsurfaceshallbeahemisphere,theradiusofwhichshallbepreferably16m.OtherradiiaccordingtoENISO3744shallbeused
ifthecranedoesnotfitintothe16mhemisphere.
G.1.5.2Positioningofthecrane
Themobilecraneisinstalledsothatgeometriccentreoftheenginethatdrivesthecranemotionscoincideswiththeradialcentreofthe
hemisphere.Thedrivingdirectionoftheundercarriageisinthedirection+andthejiboftheupperstructureisindirection.Ifthedriving
directionoftheundercarriageisthesameastheworkingdirectionofthejib(nonslewingcrane),thewholecraneisalignedtodirection(seeFigure
G.1).
Ifthemobilecraneisequippedwithonlyoneengineforbothdrivingandcraneoperation,themobilecraneisinstalledsuchthatthemiddle
pointofthehemisphereisinthemiddlebetweentheengineandthehoist(s)ofthecrane.
NOTESoundpowerlevelsinfrequencybandsmayalsobedeterminedusingENISO3744.
G.1.5.3Microphonepositions
MicrophonepositionsonthehemisphereshallbethoseindicatedinFigureG.1.
NOTEThemicrophonepositionsgiveninFigureG.1differinnumberandlocationfromthosespecifiedinENISO3744.Experiencewiththe
determinationofnoiseemissionfrommobilecranesshowsthatresultsobtainedwiththearrayofmicrophonesofFigureG.1donotdiffersignificantly
fromthoseobtainedwiththemicrophonearrayspecifiedinENISO3744.
G.1.5.4Measurementandcalculationprocedure
ThemeasurementandcalculationprocedureinENISO3744shallbefollowed.
TheAweightedsoundpowerlevelshallbedeterminedforeachpartoftheworkcyclefollowingtheprocedureofENISO3744.
TheAweightedsoundpowerlevelLWAcyclecombinedoverthecycleshallbedeterminedusingthefollowingequation:

LWAiistheAweightedsoundpowerlevelforpartioftheworkcycle.
aiisapercentageforeachpartioftheworkcycle.
Iftelescopingisapplicable,i=1to4,seeG.1.8.2
a1=0,40fora)
a2=0,25forb)
a3=0,25forc)
66

a4=0,10ford)
Iftelescopingisnotapplicable,i=1to3,seeG.1.8.2
a1=0,40fora)
a2=0,30forb)
a3=0,30forc)

G.1.6Emissionsoundpressureleveldetermination
G.1.6.1Basicstandardtobeused
TheAweightedemissionsoundpressurelevelattheoperatorpositionofamobilecraneshallbemeasuredusingENISO11201.
NOTEEmissionsoundpressurelevelsattheoperatorpositioninfrequencybandsmayalsobemeasuredusingENISO11201.
G.1.6.2Craneoperatorposition

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Theoperatorpositionisthatofapersonseatedatthecraneoperatingcontrolsinthecraneoperatingcabin.Thispersonshallwearstandard
workingclothes.
Whereaseparatecranetravellingcabinisprovidedthisshallnotbeconsideredastheoperatorposition.
Themicrophonesshallbeplacedat200mm20mmoneachsideofthemidplaneoftheheadinthealignmentoftheeyes.Theyshallbeplaced
perpendicularlytothemidplaneoftheheadanddirectedtowardsthefront.
NOTETofacilitatethepositioningofthemicrophones,itmaybeconvenienttoplacethemonaframe,tofixthemtothesafetyhelmetortofit
themontoaharnessplacedontheshouldersoftheoperator.
G.1.6.3Specificationsconcerningthecraneoperatingcabin
Ifthecabinisfittedwithanairconditioningand/orventilationsystem,thenthereadingsshallbetakenwithalldoorsandwindowsclosedand
withtheairconditioningand/orventilationsysteminoperationat100%oftheirnominalworkingspeed.Ifahighspeedforrapidcoolingisprovided
(notintendedfornormaloperation)itshallbenotinoperation.
Ifitisanticipatedthatonecanworkinthecabinwithdoorsandwindowsopen,andthereisnoairconditioningand/orventilationsystemfitted,
thenthereadingsshallbetakenbothwithdoorsandwindowsclosedandthenwithdoorsandwindowsopen.
G.1.6.4Specificationrelatingtowindspeed
Themaximumadmissiblewindspeedis8m/s,measuredat1,5mabovegroundlevel.
Ifthemaximumallowablewindspeedspecifiedbythemanufacturerofthemicrophoneisexceeded,awindshieldshallbefittedtothe
microphone.
G.1.6.5Measurementandcalculationprocedure
ThemeasurementandcalculationproceduresinENISO11201shallbefollowed.
ThemaximumofthetwomeasuredAweightedsoundpressurelevelvalues(rightearorleftear)shallberetained.

67

TheAweightedemissionpressurelevelattheoperatorposition,LpAtobedeterminedshallbecalculatedfromthevaluesoftheAweighted
emissionsoundpressurelevels,LpAimeasuredforeachpartioftheworkcycleusingthefollowingequation:

LpAiistheAweightedsoundpressurelevelforpartioftheworkcycle,
thevaluesofaitobetakenhasgiveninG.1.5.4.

G.1.7Configuration
Ifthecraneisequippedwithoutriggers,theyshallbefullyextendedandthecraneshallbelevelledonitsoutriggerplatesinmidpositionof
possiblesupportheight.

G.1.8Operatingconditions
G.1.8.1General
Themobilecranetobetestedshallbepresentedinitsstandardversionasdescribedbythemanufacturer.Theenginepowerconsideredfor
determiningnoiseemissionshallbethenominalpoweroftheenginewhenusedforcranemotions.Thecraneshallbeequippedwithitsmaximum
permittedcounterweightmountedontheslewingstructure.
Beforecarryingoutanymeasurement,theengineandthehydraulicsystemofthemobilecraneshallbebroughttotheirnormalworking
temperaturefollowingtheinstructionsofthemanufacturerandallrelevantsafetyrelatedproceduresgivenintheinstructionmanualshallbecarried
out.
Ifthemobilecraneisequippedwithseveralengines,theengineforthecranefunctionsshallbeused.Thecarrierengineshallbeturnedoff.
Iftheengineofthemobilecraneisfittedwithaventilator,itshallrunduringthetest.Iftheventilatorcanbeoperatedatseveralspeeds,thetest
shallbecarriedoutwiththeventilatorrunningatthehighestspeed.
G.1.8.2Testprocedure
Themobilecraneshallbemeasuredunderthefollowing3or4operatingconditions(ac)or(ad).Constantconditionsfor(ad)are:
enginespeedat3/4ofmaximumspeedspecifiedforcraneoperationmodewithatoleranceof2%.
accelerationanddecelerationatthemaximumvaluewithoutdangerousmovementsoftheloadorthehookblock.
motionsatmaximumpossiblespeedasgivenintheinstructionmanualundertheconditionsgivenbelow.
NOTEIfduringthetestssignificantnoisepeaksoccur,thisshouldbereported.
a)Hoisting
Themobilecraneshallbeloadedwithaloadwhichcreates50%ofthemaximumropeforce.Thetestconsistsofthehoistingofthe

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loadandtheimmediatelyfollowingloweringtothestartingposition.Thelengthoftheboomshallbechosensothatthefulltestlasts15s
to20s.

68

b)Slewing
Withtheboomadjustedtoanangleof40to50tothehorizontalandwithoutloadtheuppercarriageshallbeslewed90totheleft
immediatelyfollowedbyslewingbacktothestartingposition.Thejibshallbeatitsminimumlength.Theobservationperiodshallbethe
timeneededtocarryouttheworkingcycle.
c)Derricking
Thetestshallstartwithraisingtheshortestjibfromthelowestworkingpositionimmediatelyfollowedbytheloweringofthejibto
thisoriginalposition.Thismovementshallbeexecutedwithoutload.Thedurationofthetestshallbeatleast20s.
d)Telescoping(ifapplicable)
Withthejibadjustedtoanangleof40to50tothehorizontal,withoutloadandthejibfullyretracted,thetelescopingcylinderfor
thefirstsectiononlyshallbeextendedtogetherwiththefirstsectiontoitsfulllengthandimmediatelyretractedtogetherwiththefirst
section.
NOTEThiscanresultinsynchronousmotion(s)ofothersections.
Theobservationperiodshallbethetimeneededtocarryouttheworkingcycle.

G.1.9Informationonmeasurementuncertainties
Themeasurementuncertaintyofthenoiseemissiondataprovidedbythisnoisetestcodeisspecifictothebasicstandardused.Itisexpressedin
termsofthestandarddeviationofreproducibility.Thegradeofaccuracyobtainedisgrade2(engineering)whichisthepreferredgradefornoise
declarationpurposes.
ThestandarddeviationofreproducibilityofAweightedsoundpowerlevelsobtainedusingENISO3744isequalto1,5dB.
ThestandarddeviationofreproducibilityofAweightedemissionsoundpressurelevelsattheoperatorpositionobtainedusingENISO11201is
equalto2,5dB.

G.1.10Informationtoberecorded
Theinformationtoberecordedisasrequiredbythebasicstandardsused,seeG.1.2.

G.1.11Informationtobereported
Theinformationtobereportedisasrequiredbythebasicstandardsused,seeG.1.2.Thecontentsofthetestreportshallbeasshowninannex
G.2.

G.1.12Declarationandverificationofnoiseemissionvalues
Thedeclarationofthenoiseemissionvaluesofamobilecraneistheresponsibilityofthemanufacturerofthecrane.Itshallbedone:
a. accordingto1.7.4finannexAofENISO121002:2003andtoENISO4871
b. insuchawaythatthevaluescanbeverifiedaccordingtoENISO4871
c. asadualnumberdeclarationasdefinedinENISO4871.
69

Thenoisedeclarationshallmentionthefactthatthenoiseemissionvalueshavebeenobtainedaccordingtothisnoisetestcode.Inothercases,
thenoisedeclarationshallindicateclearlythedeviationsfromthisnoisetestcodeand/orfromthebasicstandardsused.
ThenoisedeclarationshallgivetheAweightedsoundpowerlevelforeachpartoftheworkcycle.
Ifundertaken,averificationshallbecarriedoutbyusingthesameconfigurationandoperatingconditionsasusedforthedeterminationofthe
noiseemissionvalues.
NOTEAdditionalnoiseemissionquantitiessuchassoundpowerlevelsinfrequencybandsmayalsobegiven.Inthiscase,careshouldbetakento
avoidconfusionbetweenthisadditionalinformationandthedeclareddualnumbernoiseemissionvalues.

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FigureG.1TestconditionsexactpositionofthecraneinrelationtotheradialcentreofthehemisphereseeG.1.5.1andG.1.5.2
70

AnnexG.2
(normative)
Noisemeasurement,testreport
Thefollowingminimumdatashallbegivenineachreport,theformatofthereportisaproposalonly:

G.2.1Generaldata
a)

Manufacturerreference

Name:

Address:

b)

Mobilecranereference

Manufacturer:

Type:

Version:

Dimensions:L=

[m]

B=

[m]

H=

[m]

c)

Enginereference

Manufacturer:

Type:

Revs:

[1/min](nominalvalueasdeclared)

Power:

[kW](correspondingtospeed80/1269/EEC)

Exhaustsystem

Airfilter

d)

Testconditions

IndicatemeasurementpointsaccordingtocraneifotherthaninFigureG.1

Groundtypeoftestarea:

Meteorologicalconditions

Weathergeneral:

Temperature:

Manufacturer:

Manufacturer:

Type:

Type:

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Barometricpressure:

Windspeed:

Relativehumidity:

e)

Measuringinstrumentsused

Manufacturer:

Type:

f)

Measurementresults(seeG.2.2)

Date:

Location:

G.2.2Measurementspermotion
Hoisting
(upand
down)

Soundpressure
intheoperating
cabinLpA

Soundpressurelevelatthemeasurement
points

Test
2

10

12

LpAm

1*

2*

3*

Load

No.1

Radius

No.2

No.3

R=16m

LWA=LpAm+10log(S/S0)=dB(A)

Derricking
(upand
down)

Soundpressurein
theoperatingcabin
LpA

Soundpressurelevelatthemeasurement
points

Test
2

10

12

LpAm

1*

2*

3*

No.1

No.2

No.3

R=16m

LWA=LpAm+10log(S/S0)=dB(A)

>
Slewing
(leftand
right)

Soundpressurein
theoperatingcabin
LpA

Soundpressurelevelatthemeasurement
points

Test
2

10

12

LpAm

1*

2*

3*

Radius

No.1

No.2

No.3

R=16m

LWA=LpAm+10log(S/S0)=dB(A)

>

Telescoping
(inandout)

Soundpressurein
theoperatingcabin
LpA

Soundpressurelevelatthemeasurement
points

Test
2

10

12

LpAm

1*

2*

3*

No.1

No.2

No.3

R=16m

LWA=LpAm+10log(S/S0)=dB(A)

1*:Doorsandwindowsopen
2*:Doorsandwindowsclosedwithoutairconditioningandfan
3*:Doorsandwindowsclosedwithairconditioningandfan
72

Calculation:

Iftelescopingisapplicable,i=1to4,seeG.1.8.2
a1=0,40fora)

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a2=0,25forb)
a3=0,25forc)
a4=0,10ford)
Iftelescopingisnotapplicable,i=1to3,seeG.1.8.2
a1=0,40fora)
a2=0,30forb)
a3=0,30forc)
Result:
LWAcycle=LpAi=

>
Signature

73

Testedby(name):

DateandPlace:

Organisation(name):

Signature:

AnnexH
(normative)
Limitvaluesforstructuralandfinegrainsteeltypes
TableH.1Limitvaluesforstructuralandfinegrainsteeltypes
GradeofSteel

StructuralSteel

Type

S235/(Fe360)

Yield
Pointa
[N/mm2 ]

Tensile
Strengthb
[N/mm2 ]

Shear
Modulus
[N/mm]2 ]

Youngs
Modulusof
Elasticity
[N/mm2 ]

235

360

81000

210000

355

510

460

570

690

790

890

940

960

980

EN10025
StructuralSteel

S355/(Fe510)
EN10025

FineGrainedSteel

S460/(FeE460)
EN101132

FineGrainedSteel

S690/(FeE690)
EN101372

FineGrainedSteel

S890/(FeE885)
EN101372

FineGrainedSteel

S960
EN101372

aStandardvalueforthicknessupto50mm
bMinimum

74

AnnexJ.1
(normative)
Minimumrequirementsforspecificationofhoist/derrickgears
Theinformationgivenismandatory,theformatofpresentationisaproposalonly.
TechnicalSpecificationofHoistgears/Derrickgears

Generalinformation
manufacturer

type(orderingcode)

intendedpurpose

model

withbrake/withoutbrake

typeofbrake

useofbrake

holdingbrake/dynamicbrake
Generaldata(dimensions,transmissionratio,drive)

dimensionsseedrawingno.

transmissionratio

iG

drivemotor(manufacturer,type)

motormodel

Informationaboutdurationofuseandgroupclassification

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totaldurationofuse

THmax

[h]

(seeannexAofFEM1.001:1998,part2)
groupclassificationaccordingtoFEM1.001:1998

classofutilisation

spectrumclass

mechanismgroup

Loadeffects
max.outputtorque(ormax.drumtorque)*1)

maxTL

[kNm]

averageoutputtorque*1)

TL,m

[kNm]

outputtorqueduetospecialloadingcondition:test/load*2)

TFg

max.outputrevolutions(orrevolutionsofdrum)*3)

maxn

[1/min]

averageoutputrevolutions*3)

nm

[1/min]

statictorqueofthebrake*4)

TBR

[kNm]

dynamictorqueofthebrake*5)

[kN]

[kNm]

seeenclosure

Informationaboutassemblyandmaintenance
admissibleambienttemperatures

tmin

[C]

tmax

[C]

typeofgearoil

intervalofoilchange(operatinghours)

[h]

Miscellaneous
mass(weight)(withoil/withoutoil)

[kg]

*1),*2),*3),*4),*5)Definitions/explanationsseeasfollows.
75

76

AnnexJ.2
(normative)
Minimumrequirementsforspecificationofslewinggears
Theinformationgivenismandatory,theformatofpresentationisaproposalonly.
TechnicalSpecificationofslewinggears

Generalinformation
manufacturer

type(orderingcode)
intendedpurpose

model

withbrake/without
brake
typeofbrake

useofbrake

holdingbrake/dynamicbrake
Generaldata(dimensions,transmissionratio,drive)

dimensionsseedrawingno.
transmissionratio

iG

drivemotor

(manufacturer,type)
motormodel

Informationaboutdurationofuseandgroupclassification

totaldurationofuse TH

[h]

(seeannexAofFEM max
1.001:1998,part2)
groupclassification

classof

accordingtoFEM

utilisation

1.001:1998

spectrum

class
mechanism

group
Loadeffects
max.output

max

torque*1)

TS

averageoutput

[kNm]

[kNm]

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torque*1)

TS,m

max.output

maxn [1/min]

revolutions*2)
averageoutput

nm

[1/min]

TBr

[kNm]

revolutions*2)
statictorqueofthe
brake*3)
dynamictorqueof

[kNm] seeenclosure

thebrake*4)
Informationaboutassemblyandmaintenance
admissibleambient
temperatures
typeofgearoil

tmin

[C]

tmax

[C]

intervalofoilchange

[h]

(operatinghours)
Miscellaneous
mass

[kg]

(weight)(with
oil/withoutoil)
*1),*2),*3),*4)Definitions/explanationsseeasfollows.
77

*1)

max

TS

Maximumoutputtorquee.g.theoutputtorquedeterminedfromslewingofthecranewithloadagainstinservicewindand
againstthemaximuminservicepermissibleinclinationandforthiscaseintendedslewingacceleration(see2.5and2.6ofFEM
1.001:1998,Part2).Occurringfrictionlossesshallbetakeninconsideration.

TS,m

*2)

maxn

nm

AverageoutputrevolutionsoccurringatthesametimetoTS,m

*3)

TBr

Requiredstaticholdingtorqueofthebrakee.g.theholdingtorqueduetoinservicewindpressureonthecraneandtheload

AverageoutputtorquecalculatedunderconsiderationofthespectrumclassaccordingtoT.2.1.3.3ofFEM1.001:1998,Part2.

Maximumoutputrevolutions

andduetotheadmissibleinserviceinclination.
Specialcases(e.g.theholdingtorqueduetooutofservicewindandadmissibleoutofserviceinclination)shallbeconsidered
additionally.
*4)

Thedynamicbrakingtorqueresultsfromboththemaximumoutputtorque(maxTS)andthedynamictorqueresultingfromthe
requiredbrakedeceleration.
Normallyadditionaldataisrequiredtocalculateandtoproduceadynamicbrake.Thereforethisdatashallbespecifiedinan
enclosuretothetechnicalspecification.Theenclosureshallincludetheadequateexplanationsandcomments.

78

AnnexJ.3
(normative)
Minimumrequirementsforspecificationoftravelgears
Theinformationgivenismandatory,theformatofpresentationisaproposalonly.
TechnicalSpecificationofTravelgears

Generalinformation
manufacturer

type(orderingcode)

intendedpurpose*1)
model

withbrake/without

brake
typeofbrake

useofbrake

holdingbrake/dynamicbrake
Generaldata(dimensions,transmissionratio,drive)

dimensionsseedrawingno.
transmissionratio

iG

drivemotor

(manufacturer,type)

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motormodel

Informationaboutdurationofuseandgroupclassification

totaldurationofuse TH

[h]

(seeannexAofFEM max
1.001:1998,part2)
groupclassification

classof

accordingtoFEM

utilisation

1.001:1998

spectrum

class
mechanism

group
Loadeffects
maxoutputtorque

max

[kNm]

*2)

TTr

averageoutput

TTr,m

[kNm]

max.output

max

[1/min]

revolutions*2)

averageoutput

nm

torque*2)

[1/min]

revolutions*3)
additionalloads*4)
statictorqueofthe

TBr

seeenclosure
[kNm]

brake*5)
dynamictorqueof

[kNm] seeenclosure

thebrake*6)
Informationaboutassemblyandmaintenance
admissibleambient
temperatures
typeofgearoil

tmin

[C]

tmax

[C]

intervalofoilchange

[h]

(operatinghours)
Miscellaneous
mass

[kg]

(weight)(with
oil/withoutoil)
*1),*2),*3),*4),*5),*6)Definitions/explanationsseeasfollows.
79

*1)

Thetechnicalspecificationdoesnotapplytotravelgears(e.g.gearboxesoraxlegears)ofonroadmobilecranes.

NOTECommerciallypurchasedgearboxesforonroadusecanbeconsideredasacceptableforonsitetravel(withorwithoutload).
*2)

max

Maximumoutputtorqueaccordingto2.5and2.6ofFEM1.001:1998,part2,2.6.4.2caseIIIappliesnormally.

TTr

TTr,m

*3)

max

AverageoutputtorquecalculatedunderconsiderationofthespectrumclassaccordingtoT.2.1.3.3ofFEM1.001:1998,part2.

Maximumoutputrevolutions

nm

AverageoutputrevolutionsoccurringatthesametimetoTTr,m

*4)

Loadswhicharenotcausedthroughdrivetorquebutthroughexteriorloadeffects(e.g.verticalsupportingforces,wheelloads,
horizontaltransversereactionsduetotravellingaction)andactingonthegearoronpartsofthegearshallbespecifiedinan
enclosuretothespecification.Theenclosureshallincludeadequateexplanationsandcomments.

*5)

TBr

Requiredstaticholdingtorqueofthebrakee.g.therequiredholdingtorqueduetoinservicewindpressureonthecraneand
theloadandduetothepassableinclinationwithload.
Specialcases(theholdingtorqueduetooutofservicewindandthepassableinclinationwithoutload)shallbeconsidered
additionally.

*6)

Thedynamicbrakingtorqueresultsfromtherequiredbrakedeceleration.
Normallyadditionaldataisrequiredtocalculateandtoproduceadynamicbrake.Thereforethisdatashallbespecifiedinan
enclosuretothespecification.Theenclosureshallincludeadequateexplanationsandcomments.

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AnnexJ.4
(normative)
Minimumrequirementsforspecificationofdrums
Theinformationgivenismandatory,theformatofpresentationisaproposalonly.
TechnicalSpecificationofHoistdrums/Derrickdrums

Generalinformation
manufacturer

typeofmechanism

hoistmechanism/derrickmechanism

deliverycondition

finishedproduct/mouldedblank

drawingno.

typeofdrum

singledrum/dualdrum

maxnumberofropelayers

typeofgroovethread

normalthread/parallelthread(Lebussystem)

grooveprofile(standardused)*1)

Maindimensions

dimensionsseedrawingno.

ropediameter

dR

[mm]

ropelength(max,windinglength)

IR

nominaldiameterofdrum

dDr

[mm]

dDr(n)

[mm]

drumwidth(betweentheflanges)

bDr

[mm]

outerdiameterofflanges

dF1

[mm]

pitchofgroovethread

[mm]

groupclassificationaccordingtoFEM

classofutilisation

1.001:1998*2)

spectrumclass

mechanismgroup

[m]

(pitchdia,relatedtomiddleoffirst
layer)
diameteroflastropelayer(relatedto
middleofrope)

Groupclassificationofmechanism

Loadeffects
nominalropeforce*3)

FR

averageropeforce

FR,m

averagerevolutions

nDr,m

[kN]
Datafordeterminationoffatiguelife*4)
[kN]
[1/min]
Dataforcheckingforultimatestrength*5)

max.ropeforceduetospecialloadcase

maxFR

[kN]
Informationaboutmaterialandmanufacturingprocess

manufacturingprocess

welding/casting

Material

Miscellaneous

mass(weight)(indeliverycondition)

[kg]

*1),*2),*3),*4),*5)Definitions/explanationsseeasfollows.
81

*1)

e.g.ISO43081,DIN150612:1977.

*2)

Accordingtothegroupclassificationofthemechanismbelongingtothedrum(seeannexJ.1).

*3)

SeeTable1ofFEM5.004:1994,case1.Thefrictionlossesshallbeconsidered.

*4)

AveragedataFR,m,nDr,mcalculatedconsideringthespectrumclassaccordingFEM1.001:1998part2.

nDr,mAverageoutputrevolutionsoccuringatthesametimetoFR,m
*5)

MaximumvaluemaxFRduetothespecialloadingcondition(duringcraneerectionordismantling,testload)thatgivesrise
tothemaximumstressinthedrum.

82

AnnexK.1

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(normative)
Minimumrequirementsforthespecificationofliftinghooks
Theinformationgivenismandatory,theformatofpresentationisaproposalonly.
TechnicalSpecificationofLiftingHooks

GeneralInformation
manufacturer

orderingcode*1)

formofhook

singlehook/ramshornhook

bossforsafetycatch

withboss/withoutboss
Liftingcapacity,Classification

nominalliftingload

LH

liftingloadinaccordanceto(standardused)*2)

strengthclass/grade*2)

mechanismgroup(ISO43011)

[t]

Dimensions

standardofhookdimensions

typeandstandardofshankthread*3)

Informationaboutmanufacturingprocessandmaterial

manufacturingprocess*4)

material

Miscellaneous

marking(standardused)

certificate(standardused)

mass(weight)

[kg]

*1),*2),*3),*4)Definitions/explanationsseeasfollows
*1)e.g.:singlehookDIN15401,Part1:1982andPart2:1983GSNM
*2)e.g.:DIN15400:1990
*3)e.g.:metricthreadISO261,knucklethreadDIN15403:1969.
*4)e.g.:dropforged,hammerforged.
83

AnnexK.2
(normative)
Minimumrequirementsforspecificationofsheaves
Theinformationgivenismandatory,theformatofpresentationisaproposalonly.
TechnicalSpecificationofSheaves

Generalinformation
manufacturer

drawingno.

grooveprofile(standardused)*1)

bearingapplication

plainbearing/rollerbearing(bearingsarenotincludedinthescopeofsupply)

no.andtypeofbearings

Maindimensions

dimensionsseedrawingno.

ropediameter(nominal)

dR

[mm]

loopangle

[]

nominaldiameter(relatedtocenterrope)

dSh,1

[mm]

diameterofhubbore

dSh,2

[mm]

hubwidth

lSh,2

[mm]

axlediameter

dSh,3

[mm]

Informationaboutdurationofuseandgroupclassification
max.numberofstresscycles

nC

groupclassificationaccordingtoFEM1.001:1998*2)

classofutilisation

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spectrumclass

mechanismgroup

Loadeffects
nominalropeforce*3)

FR

[kN]

Datafordeterminationofstrength*4)
averageropeforce

FR,m

[kN]

averagediagonalpullangle

R,m

[]

averagerevolutions

nSh,m

[1/min]

Dataforcheckingthesafetymarginagainstultimatestrength*5)
max.ropeforceduetospecialloadcase

maxFR

[kN]

max.diagonalpullangle

maxR

[]

Materialspecification
kindofmaterial*6)

steel/plastic/lightmetal
Miscellaneous

mass(weight)

[kg]

*1),*2),*3),*4),*5),*6)Definitions/explanationsseeasfollows.
84

*1)e.g.ISO43081,DIN150611
*2)see2.1.4ofFEM1.001:1998,part2
*3)seeTable1ofFEM5.004:1994,case1.Frictionlosseshavetobeconsidered.
*4)AveragedataFR,m,R,m,calculatedunderconsiderationofthespectrumclassaccordingtoFEM1.001:1998,part2.with:

*5)MaximumvaluesofmaxFR,maxRfromspecialloadcase(duringerection,dismantlingortestload),thatgivesrisetothemaximumstressinthesheave.
*6)Specialrequirementsforplasticsheaves(e.g.interferencefitofhubbore,minimaldiameterofhubbore,minimalhubwidth)shallbespecifiedinanenclosureto
thespecificationorinangeneralagreement.
85

AnnexK.3
(normative)
Minimumrequirementsforspecificationofhookblocks
Theinformationgivenismandatory,theformatofpresentationisaproposalonly.
TechnicalSpecificationofHookBlocks

GeneralInformation
manufacturer

dimensionsseedrawingno.

model*1)

single/double/multiplehookblock
Liftingcapacity,Classification

nominalliftingload

LH

mechanismgroup(ISO43011)

[t]

Informationaboutropesandno.offalls*1)

ropediameter

dR

[mm]

max.numberofropes

max.numberoffalls

Liftinghook
technicalspecificationofliftinghook*2)

Sheaves

numberofsheaves*1)

technicalspecificationofsheaves*3)

Miscellaneous

marking(agreement)*4)

certificate(agreement)*4)

mass(weight)

[kg]

*1),*2),*3),*4)Definitions/explanationsseeasfollows
*1)seeFigureK.3.1
*2)MinimumrequirementsfortechnicalspecificationofliftinghooksseeannexK.1
*3)MinimumrequirementsfortechnicalspecificationofsheavesseeannexK.2

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*4)Agreementbetweenthedesignerofthecraneandthemanufacturerofthehookblock

86

FigureK.3.1Modelofhookblocks(examples):
87

AnnexK.4
(normative)
Minimumrequirementsforthespecificationofhydrauliccylinders
Theinformationgivenismandatory,theformatofpresentationisaproposalonly.
TechnicalSpecificationofHydraulicCylinders

Generalinformation
manufacturer

type(orderingcode)

dimensionsseedrawingno.

intendedpurpose*1)

model*2)

Maindimensions(seedrawing)

pistondiameter

d1

[mm]

pistonroddiameter

d2

[mm]

outerdiameter

d3

[mm]

strokelength

[mm]

overalllength(retracted)

l0

[mm]

Informationaboutdurationofuseandgroupclassification
max.numberofstresscycles

nC

groupclassificationaccordingtoFEM1.001:1998

classofutilisation

spectrumclass

mechanismgroup

Loadeffects(permissibleloads,pressures,pistonspeed)
maximumoperatingpressure,pressure,pistonside

Pc,1

[bar]

maximumoperatingpressure,pistonrodside

Pc,3

[bar]

testpressure,pistonside

PT,1

[bar]

testpressure,pistonrodside

PT,3

[bar]

max.pushingforce(retracted)

Fc,1

[N]

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max.pushingforce(extended)

Fc,2

[N]

max.pullingforce

Fc,3

[N]

max.pistonspeed

vc

[m/s]

Informationaboutassemblyandmaintenance
admissibleambienttemperatures

medium(typeofhydraulicfluid)

tmin

[C]

tmax

[C]

Miscellaneous

typeofcorrosionprevention(e.g.pistonrode)

layerthickness

[m]

mass(weight)(with/withoutfluid)

[kg]

*1),*2)Definitions/explanationsseeasfollows
88

*1)e.g.outriggercylinder(vertical,horizontal),luffingcylinder,telescopingcylinder,jibrestrainingcylinder,suspensioncylinder,axleblockingcylinder,hydro
accumulatorcylinder,workingcylinder(general).
*2)e.g.pullingcylinder,pushingcylinder,differentialcylinder.

89

AnnexK.5
(normative)
Minimumrequirementsforthespecificationofslewrings
Theinformationgivenismandatory,theformatofpresentationisaproposalonly.
TechnicalSpecificationofSlewRings

Generalinformation
manufacturer

drawingno.(manufacturer)

loadlimitingdiagramno.*1)

type/model*2)

Generaldimensions

outerdiameter

innerdiameter

height(betweentheconnectingsurfaces)

Geartoothgeometry
typeofgearing

internalgear/externalgear

no.ofteeth

diametricalpitch

toothwidth

profilecorrection(x.m)

Fixingbolts/screwsforsuperstructure

no.ofbolts/screws

typeofbolts/screws(standardused)*3)

bolt/screwthreadsize

strengthclass

assemblymethod

torquecontrolled/hydraulictensionmethod

mountingtorque

MA

[Nm]

tensionforce

FA

[kN]

Fixingbolts/screwsforcarrier
no.ofbolts/screws

typeofbolts/screws(standardused)*3)

boltthreadsize

strengthclass

assemblymethod

torquecontrolled/hydraulictensionmethod

mountingtorque

MA

[Nm]

tensionforce

FA

[kN]

90

Admissibleloads(additionalinformationforloadlimitingdiagram)
permissibletangentialforceofgearing

maxFU

[kN]

Permissibleradialforce

maxFR

[kN]

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Miscellaneous
typeofgrease(standardused)

mass(weight)

[kg]

*1),*2),*3)Definitions/explanationsseeasfollows.
1*Theloadlimitingdiagram(loadmomentasafunctionofaxialload)shallincludecurvesshowingatleastthepermissiblestaticanddynamicloadsforslewring
androllers/ballsandpermissiblestaticanddynamicloadsforbolt/screwconnections,testloadcurve.
2*e.g.:Balltypeslewring,rollertypeslewring(singlerowbearing,triplerowbearingetc.)
3*e.g.:ShankboltsISO4014:1999
91

AnnexL
(normative)
Proofofcompetence
L.1General
Theobjectiveofthisannexistoprovetheoreticallyand/orbyexperimentthatamobilecrane,takingintoaccounttheexpectedserviceconditions
agreedbetweentheuser,designerand/ormanufacturer,aswellasthestatesduringerection,dismantlingandtransport,hasbeendesignedtobein
conformitywiththesafetyrequirementstopreventmechanicalhazards.
Thetheoreticalproofofcompetenceisbasedonthecomparisonofthelimitstateswithcalculatednominalloadeffects.Thecalculationsforthe
proofofcompetenceof(steel)structuresshallalloweitherthemethodofpermissiblestresses(seeL.2.2)orthemethodofpartialsafetycoefficientsand
limitingstresses(seeL.2.3)whereappropriate.
Theexperimentalproofofcompetenceshallprovideasystematic,nondestructiveprocedurefordeterminingthestressesinstructuresunder
equivalentstaticloadsandloadcombinations.
Theproofofcompetenceforrigidbodystabilityshallpreventanylackofstabilityofthecraneinandoutofservice,duringitsintendeduse,
erectionanddismantling.
Byevaluationoftheloadeffectsandthedefinitionofthelimitstatesofthecranestructureanditscomponentstheproofofcompetenceshallbe
carriedouttoshowadequatesafetyforanyhazardduetolossofmechanicalstrengthand/orlossofstability.
Thedeterminationofstresses,whichdependontheloadingconditionandthetypeofanalysis,shallnotexceedthepermissiblestressesorthe
limitingstresses.Inadditiontherequiredsafetymarginsshallbefulfilled.
Theserequiredminimumsafetymarginsincomparisonbetweenthemaximumvaluesofloadeffectsestablishedbycalculationorexperimentand
thelimitstatesaregiveninthefollowingsubclauses.

L.2Proofofcompetenceforsteelstructures
L.2.1General
ThetheoreticalproofofcompetenceshallbemadeinaccordancewithFEM5.004:1994.TheexperimentalproofofcompetenceiscoveredbyL.6.
Thecalculationandanalysisfortheproofofcompetenceshallbemadeaccordingtoeitherthemethodofpermissiblestressesorthemethodof
partialsafetycoefficientsandlimitingstresses.Theselectionofthemethodtobeappliedshallbemadeinaccordancewithclause6ofFEM5.004:1994.
L.2.2Methodofpermissiblestresses
TheminimumrequiredsafetyfactorsforstructuralcomponentsandforweldsshallbetakenfromTables3and4ofFEM5.004:1994.
L.2.3Methodofpartialsafetycoefficientsandlimitingstresses
ThepartialsafetycoefficientsshallbetakenfromTable5ofFEM5.004:1994.
TheminimumrequiredsafetyfactorsforstructuralcomponentsandforweldsshallbetakenfromTables6and7ofFEM5.004:1994.
92

L.3Proofofcompetencefornonsteelstructures
Thetheoreticalproofofcompetenceshallbemadewiththesameminimumrequiredsafetyfactorsasforsteelstructures.Additionaleffectsof
nonmetallicmaterials,e.g.longtimebehaviour,environmentalinfluences(e.g.temperature,humidity)andageingofplasticmaterials,shallbe
consideredaccordingtothestateofart.
TheexperimentalproofofcompetenceiscoveredbyL.6.

L.4Proofofcompetenceforloadbearingcomponents
L.4.1General
Thetheoreticalproofofcompetenceshallbemadeinaccordancewiththefollowingsubclauses.Theexperimentalproofofcompetenceis
coveredbyL.6.
Awrittenagreementbetweenthemanufacturerofthecraneandthemanufacturerofthecomponentshallstateclearlythattheloading,
environmentalandserviceconditions(classification)arepermissibleduringthetotalintendedlifetimeofthecomponent.

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L.4.2Proofofcompetenceformechanisms
ThegeneraldesignprinciplesandsafetymarginsshallbeinaccordancewithFEM1.001:1998Part4.
TheminimumrequirementsforthewrittenagreementsarelaiddownintherelevantpartsofannexJ.
L.4.3Proofofcompetenceforropes
Theproofofcompetenceforropesshallbemadeasacomparisonoftheactualsafetyfactorcalculatedbytheload(increasedbyadequate
factorsduetofriction)andthelimitstatefortherope(minimumbreakingload)withtheminimumvaluesforZpgivenbyISO43082.
Fortestloadcasesofspecialconfigurations(e.g.cranewithadditionalcounterweightseeFigureA.7)theminimumZpvaluefor
luffing/derrickingropesshallnotbelessthan3.35.
Theproofofcompetencefortheendterminationofaropesystemshallbeasfollows:
a)Theendterminationofrunningropesshallpermitaminimumbreakingloadnotlessthan80%oftheminimumbreakingloadoftherope
itself
b)Theendterminationofstationaryropesshallpermitaminimumbreakingloadnotlessthan90%oftheminimumbreakingloadoftherope
itself
c)Inanycasewheretheminimumbreakingloadofaropesystemisreducedbytheendtermination,thesafetyfactorsfortheropesystemsshall
notbelessthanthevaluesforerectiongiveninTable1ofISO43082:1988
d)Theattachmentoftheropetothehoistdrumshallbeinawaythat2.5timestheropeforcecanbetakenuptakingintoaccountthefrictionof
theroperemainingonthehoistdrum.Thefrictionfactorbetweentheropeandthehoistdrumshallbetakenas=0,1.
L.4.4Proofofcompetenceforchains
Theproofofcompetenceforchainsshallbedoneeitherbythemanufacturerofthechainsorbyasimplifiedcalculationbythemanufacturerof
thecrane.
Inthecaseofthesimplifiedcalculation,theminimumbreakingloadofachainshallnotbelessthan4timesthenominalloadinthechain
withoutconsiderationoffrictionlosses,undertheloadingconditionsaccordingtogroupclassificationA1ofISO43011.

93

Theendterminationshallbeinaccordancewith4.1.1ofFEM1.001:1998part4.
L.4.5Proofofcompetenceforothercomponents
Theproofofcompetenceforothercomponentsshallbemadeinaccordancewithgeneraldesignprinciples.Theminimumrequirementsforthe
writtenagreementsbetweenthemanufacturerofthecomponentsandthemanufacturerofthecranearelaiddowninannexK.

L.5Proofofcompetenceofrigidbodystabilityofthecrane
Theproofofcompetenceforrigidbodystabilityshallverifythatthestabilisingmomentofthecraneisgreaterorequalthantheoverturning
momentunderstaticand/ordynamicconditionsasspecifiedin4.1.2.6.
Thisproofshalleitherbedonebytheoreticalproofofcompetence(calculationaccordingtoISO4305verifiedbytestsaccordingtoISO4310)or
byanexperimentalproofofcompetence,seeL.6.

L.6Proofofcompetenceexperimental
L.6.1Structuraltests
Theexperimentalproofofcompetencetodeterminethestressesinducedinthecranestructure(s)andloadbearingcomponentsrequiresa
systematic,nondestructiveprocedureunderspecifiedconditions.TheprocedureshallbeinaccordancewithISO/CD116622.Therequiredminimum
safetymarginsfordifferentloadcombinationsshallbeinaccordancewithL.2.
L.6.2Rigidbodystabilitytests
TheexperimentalproofofcompetenceofrigidbodystabilityofthecraneasawholeaccordingtoISO116621shallbeverifiedby,asaminimum,
thestabilitytestsasspecifiedbyISO4310.Additionalexperimentsshallbemadeforbackwardstabilityandtippingduetoacceleration(seeannexF)
showingthatthesamelevelofsafetyasforcalculationisachieved.Whentestingthestabilityofthecrane,thelimitsofstructuralstrengthandother
limitsofcomponentsshallbeobserved.
94

AnnexM
(normative)
Testofsteeringsystemsforoffroadmobilecranes
M.1Testconditions
Thetestshallbeconductedonasurfaceofferinggoodadhesion(e.g.concrete,asphalt).
Thecraneshallbeunloadedandinnormaltravelorder.

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M.2Testprocedure
ThecraneshallbedrivenfromstraightaheadintoaspiralwithaturningradiusasgiveninTableM.1ataspeedof10km/h.Thesteeringeffort
shallbemeasuredatthenominalradiusofthesteeringcontrol.Atleastonemeasurementofeachsteeringmovementshallbemadetotherightandto
theleft.
Thetestshallbecarriedoutforboththeinfactsteeringandthesteeringwithasimulatedfailure(e.g.failureofpowerassistance).
NOTEIfthesteeringispurelymechanical,simulatedfailuretestdoesnotapply.IntheEUDirective70/311/EECmechanicalfailuresarenot
specified.

M.3Permittedsteeringcontroleffort
SteeringcontroleffortsshallnotexceedthevaluesgiveninTableM.1.
TableM.1Permittedsteeringcontroleffort
Steeringintact

Steeringwithasimulatedfailure

Maximumeffort
(daN)

Turningradius
(m)

Maximumeffort
(daN)

Turningradius
(m)

30

15a

60

30

a orfulllockif15misnotpossible

95

AnnexN.1
(informative)
Windspeedasafunctionofelevation
TableN.1.3SecondwindgustspeedasafunctionofmeanwindspeedasperBeaufortScaleandasperelevation
BeaufortGrade

[m/s]b

5a

7a

5,4

7,9

10,1

10,7

13,8

10

7,6

11,1

14,1

15,0

19,3

20

8,1

11,9

15,2

16,1

20,7

30

8,5

12,4

15,8

16,8

40

8,7

12,8

16,3

50

8,9

13,1

16,7

60

9,1

13,3

70

9,3

80
90

10

17,1

20,7

24,4

28,4

20,0

23,9

29,0

34,2

39,8

21,5

25,7

31,1

36,6

42,7

21,6

22,4

26,8

32,4

38,2

44,5

17,3

22,3

23,1

27,6

33,4

39,4

45,8

17,7

22,8

23,6

28,3

34,2

40,3

46,9

17,0

18,0

23,3

24,1

28,8

34,9

41,1

47,9

13,5

17,3

18,3

23,6

24,5

29,3

35,5

41,8

48,7

9,4

13,7

17,6

18,6

24,0

24,8

29,7

36,0

42,4

49,4

9,5

13,9

17,8

18,8

24,3

25,1

30,1

36,4

42,9

50,0

100

9,6

14,1

18,0

19,1

24,6

25,4

30,4

36,9

43,4

50,6

110

9,7

14,2

18,2

19,2

24,8

25,7

30,8

37,2

43,9

51,1

120

9,8

14,3

18,3

19,4

25,1

25,1

31,1

37,6

44,3

51,6

130

9,9

14,5

18,5

19,6

25,3

26,2

31,3

37,9

44,7

52,0

140

10,0

14,6

18,7

19,8

25,5

26,4

31,6

38,2

45,1

52,5

150

10,0

14,7

18,8

19,9

25,7

26,6

31,8

38,5

45,4

52,9

160

10,1

14,8

18,9

20,1

25,9

26,8

32,1

38,8

45,7

53,2

170

10,2

14,9

19,1

20,2

26,0

27,0

32,3

39,1

46,0

53,6

180

10,3

15,0

19,2

20,3

26,2

27,1

32,5

39,3

46,3

53,9

190

10,3

15,1

19,3

20,4

26,4

27,3

32,7

39,5

46,6

54,2

10,4

15,2

19,4

20,6

26,5

27,4

32,8

39,8

46,9

54,6

z[m]

200

14,3

(z)[m/s]

Inservicewind:

1light =10.1[m/s]forz=10[m]q(z)=125[N/m2]

2normal =14,3[m/s]forz=10[m]q(z)=250[N/m2]

UpperBeaufortLimit

>
[m/s]:

Meanwindspeedat10melevated(upperlimitofBeaufortgrade)overaperiodof10minutes

z[m]:

Elevationaboveevenground

(z)[m/s]:

3secondwindgustspeedactingatelevationzanddecisiveforcalculations

q(z)[N/m2]:

quasistaticimpactpressureactingatelevationzandcalculatedbasedon(z),seeannexN.2

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AnnexN.2
(informative)
Impactpressureasafunctionofelevation
TableN.2.1QuasistaticimpactpressureasafunctionofmeanwindspeedaspertheBeaufortScaleandasafunctionof
elevation
BeaufortGrade

[m/s]b

5a

5,4

7,9

10,1

7a

10,7

13,8

z[m]

14,3

17,1

20,7

10

24,4

28,4

q(z)[N/m2]

10

35,7

76,5

125,0

140,3

233,3

250,0

358,2

524,9

729,3

988,0

20

41,1

88,0

143,8

161,4

268,5

287,7

412,2

604,1

839,4

1137,1

30

44,7

95,7

156,4

175,5

292,0

312,9

448,3

657,0

912,8

1236,6

40

47,5

101,6

166,1

186,4

310,1

332,3

476,2

697,8

969,6

1313,5
1376,9

50

49,8

106,5

174,2

195,5

325,1

348,4

499,2

731,5

1016,4

60

51,8

110,8

181,0

203,2

338,0

362,2

519,0

760,5

1056,6

1431,4

70

53,5

114,5

187,1

210,0

349,3

374,3

536,4

786,0

1092,1

1479,5

80

55,0

117,8

192,6

216,1

359,5

385,2

552,0

808,9

1123,9

1522,6

90

56,5

120,8

197,5

221,7

368,8

395,1

566,2

829,7

1152,8

1561,8

100

57,8

123,6

202,1

226,8

377,3

404,3

579,3

848,9

1179,5

1597,9

110

59,0

126,2

206,3

231,6

385,2

412,7

591,4

866,7

1204,2

1631,3

120

60,1

128,6

210,3

236,0

392,6

420,6

602,8

883,3

1227,2

1662,6

130

61,2

130,9

214,0

240,2

399,5

428,1

613,4

898,8

1248,9

1691,9

140

62,2

133,1

217,5

244,1

406,0

435,1

623,4

913,6

1269,3

1719,6

150

63,1

135,1

220,8

247,8

412,2

441,7

632,9

927,5

1288,7

1745,9

160

64,0

137,0

224,0

251,4

418,1

448,0

642,0

940,8

1307,1

1770,8

170

64,9

138,9

227,0

254,8

423,7

454,1

650,6

953,4

1324,7

1794,7

180

65,7

140,6

229,9

258,0

429,1

459,8

658,9

965,5

1341,6

1817,5

190

66,5

142,3

232,6

261,1

434,3

465,4

666,8

977,2

1357,7

1839,3

67,3

144,0

235,3

264,1

439,3

470,7

674,5

988,3

1373,2

1860,4

200
a

Inservicewind

1light =10,1[m/s]forz=10[m]q(z)=125[N/m2]

2normal =14,3[m/s]forz=10[m]q(z)=250[N/m2]

UpperBeaufortLimit

>
[m/s]:

97

Meanwindspeedat10melevated(upperlimitofBeaufortgrade)overaperiodof10minutes.

z[m]:

Elevationaboveevenground

(z)[m/s]:

3secondwindgustspeedactingatelevationzanddecisiveforcalculations,seeannexN.1.

q(z)[N/m2]:

quasistaticimpactpressureactingatelevationzandcalculatedbasedon(z).

AnnexN.3
(informative)
StormwindmapofEurope
Thefollowingmapindicatesregionswheresamemeanstormwindvelocitiesareapplicable.WindspeedsfortheareasAtoD,see4.1.2.2.3.

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AnnexP
(normative)
Efficiencyofsheavesets
Theinfluenceoffrictionlossesofsheavesetsshallbecalculatedbytheefficiencyofthesheaveasdescribedbelow.
Theefficiencyofaropedrive,forcalculationoftheropepullingforceisdeterminedas:
S=(R)iF
with
Sefficiencyoftheropedrive,
Refficiencyofoneindividualsheave,
inumberoffixedsheavesbetweentheropedrumandthesheavesetorload,
nnumberofropepliesononesheaveblock.Onesheaveblockconsistsofthesumtotalofalltheropepliesandsheavesforoneropewinding
ontoaropedrum,
Fefficiencyofthesheaveblock.

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with
Refficiencyofonesheave.
Theefficiencyofaropepulleyisdependentontheratiooftheropepulleydiametertotheropediameter(D:d),ontheropedesignandonthe
ropelubrication,inadditiontobeingdependentonthetypeofbearingarrangementofthepulley(plainbearingsorantifrictionbearings).
Insofarasmoreaccuratevalueshavebeenprovenbymeansoftrials,thefollowingshallbeassumedforcalculations:
forplainbearingsR=0,96
forantifrictionbearingsR=0,980,99(dependingontypeofbearing,lubricationandsealfriction).
Ithastobeproventhattheunloadedhook/hookblockcanbeloweredunderthespecifiedworkingconditions.

99

AnnexQ
(informative)
Manufacturerssign
TheinformationgiveninFigure1ismandatory,theformatofpresentationisaproposalonly.

FigureQ.1ExampleofaManufacturerssign
NOTECEmarkshouldbeinaccordancewithEUDirective98/37/EC.
100

AnnexR
(normative)
Certificateforwirerope,requirements
TheinformationgiveninTableR.1ismandatory,theformatofpresentationisaproposalonly.
TableR.1Ropecertificate(Example)
WireRopeCertificatea
RopeManufacturer(NameofCompany)

GeneralInformation
typeofrope
dateofcertificate
signatureofmanufacturer
GeometricandMaterialInformation
nominalropediameter[mm]
ropelength[m]
constructionoftherope
constructionoftermination
kindoflay
numberofloadbearingwiresinouterstrands
surface
mass(weight)perunitlength[kg/100m]
InformationregardingLimitStates
tensilestrengthofwires[N/mm2]
calculatedaggregatebreakingload[N]

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minimumbreakingloadofrope[N]
Minimumbreakingloadofendtermination[N]
(ifprovidedbyropemanufacturer)
permissibleworkingconditions:
a)ClassificationofthecraneaccordingtoISO43011
b)Servicelifecyclesaccordingtomanufacturers'testb,testconditions:
Dld=20,steelsheave
Linepull=min.breakingload/4.5
GeometryaccordingtoISO43081
c)CodeofpracticeforexaminationanddiscardifnotcoveredbyISO4309
OtherComments

a exampleforcertificatefilledinandsignedbytheropemanufacturer
bvoluntaryinformationifavailable

101

AnnexS
(normative)
Certificateforchain,requirements
TheinformationgiveninTableS.1ismandatory,theformatofpresentationisaproposalonly.
TableS.1Certificateforchain(example)
ChainCertificatea
ChainManufacturer(Nameofcompany)

GeneralInformation
typeofchain
numberofcertificate
dateofcertificate
identificationofinspector(name,function)
signatureofmanufacturer
designofchainaccordingtostandard
threadofchain
combinationofchain
batchnumber
quantityofchainsshipped
quantitybyreferencemanufacturer
quantityoflinksbychain
InformationregardingLimitStates
priortestsample:
minimumbreakingloadofchainaccordingtostandard:
referenceWhlercurveforchain:
OtherInformation
specificationforassemblyreference:
specificationforcleaning/maintenancereference:
others:
a exampleforcertificatefilledinandsignedbythechainmanufacturer

102

AnnexT
(informative)
Testprocedures:Selectionofloadcases
FigureT.1givesguidelinefortheselectionoftestloads.Testloadsmaybeappliedbyincreasingloadsorbyincreasingradius/outreach.

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FigureT.1Selectionofloadcases
Statictestload(1,25P+0,1F)seeISO4305:1991Table1andISO4310:1981.
Dynamictestload(1,1P)seeISO4305:1991Table2andISO4310:1981.
103

AnnexU
(normative)
Testcertificate
TheinformationgivenisinTableU.1ismandatory,theformatofpresentationisaproposalonly.
TableU.1Textcertificate(Example)
Certificateofindividualverification

Cranetype:

SerialNo.:

Thevisualinspections,functionalchecksandloadteststovalidatetheconformityoftheabovementionedcranewiththeessentialhealthandsafetyrequirementsof
theMachineDirective,thecorrespondingdocumentationandthedutychartshavebeencarriedoutaccordingtoclause5ofEN13000:2004.
Allcapacitychartslistedinthedocumentationofthecranearevalid,theloadlimitingandindicatingdevicehasbeentestedandadjustedforcorrectoperation

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accordingtotheratedcapacitiesgiven.TheloadtestswerecarriedoutwithmaximumtestloadsaccordingtoISO4310.Incaseofincreasedtolerancesoftheload
limitingandindicatingdevicethetoleranceshallbegivenherebyandthetestloadoradditionalfactorstobeappliedtothetestloadshallbelistedhereby.
Theloadtestshavebeencarriedoutonsamplesofconfigurations.Theprocedureofthemanufacturerfortheselectionofthesesamplesensuresthatallrelevant
componentsofthecranehavebeensubjectedtomaximumloadsundertheconditionswhichmayoccurwhenthecraneisusedasintended.
TheTablebelowshowsthetestedconfigurationstoprovideinformationforperiodicinspection.Theloadcombinationsshallbeasfollowsifnospecificknowledge
allowsselectionofspecialloadcases.
testloadsatorneartotheminimum,mediumandmaximumradiuswherethestaticanddynamictestloadcanbeappliedbyincreasingradiusorload,
astatictestloadfortheminimumradius.
Aftertheteststhecranewasthoroughlyexamined.Thevisualinspection,thefunctionalchecksandtheloadtestsandtheexaminationitselfwassupervisedbyan
expertofthemanufacturer.
Therehavebeennofindingsrestrictingthesafeuseofthecrane.Otherfindingsarelistedinthiscertificate.
Dateoftest:

Date,place,signature:

Locationoftest:

Testedconfigurations
Configuration

104

Chartspecification

Remarks/Findings

AnnexV
(informative)
Selectionofasuitablesetofcranestandardsforagivenapplication
Isthereaproductstandardinthefollowinglistthatsuitstheapplication?
EN13000

CranesMobilecranes

prEN14439

CranesTowercranes

Wl00147031

CranesSlewingjibcranes

Wl00147032

CranesBridgeandgantrycranes

EN138521

CranesOffshorecranesPart1:Generalpurposeoffshorecranes

prEN138522

CranesOffshorecranesPart2:Floatingcranes

prEN144921:

CranesPowerdrivenwinchesandhoistsPart1:Powerdrivenwinches

prEN144922

CranesPowerdrivenwinchesandhoistsPart2:Powerdrivenhoists

EN12999

CranesLoadercranes

EN13157

CranesSafetyHandpoweredcranes

EN13155

CranesNonfixedloadliftingattachments

prEN14238

CranesManuallycontrolledloadmanipulatingdevices
YES

NO

Useitdirectly,plusthestandardsthatarereferredto

Usethefollowing:
Wl00147005

CranesTerminology

prEN130011

CranesGeneraldesignPart1:Generalprinciplesandrequirements

prEN130012

CranesGeneraldesignPart2:Loadactions

prCEN/TS1300131

CranesGeneraldesignPart31:Limitstatesandproofofcompetenceofsteelstructures

prCEN/TS1300132

CranesGeneraldesignPart32:Limitstatesandproofofcompetenceofwireropes

prCEN/TS1300133

CranesGeneraldesignPart33:Limitstatesandproofofcompetenceofwheel/railcontacts

prCEN/TS1300134

CranesGeneraldesignPart34:Limitstatesandproofofcompetenceofmachinery

EN131351:

CranesEquipmentPart1:Electrotechnicalequipment

prEN131352

CranesEquipmentPart2:Nonelectrotechnicalequipment

prEN13557

CranesControlsandcontrolstations

EN120772:

CranessafetyRequirementsforhealthandsafetyPart2:Limitingandindicatingdevices

Wl00147018

CranesGuarding

EN13586

CranesAccess

prEN145021

CranesEquipmentfortheliftingofpersonsPart1:Suspendedbaskets

prEN145022

CranesEquipmentfortheliftingofpersonsPart2:Elevatingcontrolstations

prEN145023

CranesEquipmentfortheliftingofpersonsPart3:Spreaderbeams

EN126441

CranesInformationforuseandtestingPart1:Instructions

EN126442

CranesInformationforuseandtestingPart2:Marking

prEN126443

CranesInformationforuseandtestingPart3:Fitnessforpurpose

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AnnexZA
(informative)
RelationshipbetweenthisEuropeanStandardandtheEssentialRequirementsofEUDirective98/37EC
ThisEuropeanStandardhasbeenpreparedunderamandategiventoCENbytheEuropeanCommissionandtheEuropeanFreeTrade
AssociationtoprovideonemeansofconformingtoEssentialRequirementsoftheNewApproachDirectiveMachinery98/37/ECamendedby
98/79/EC.
OncethisstandardiscitedintheOfficialJournaloftheEuropeanCommunitiesunderthatDirectiveandhasbeenimplementedasanational
standardinatleastoneMemberState,compliancewiththenormativeclausesofthisstandardexceptclause4.2.6.3.2confers,withinthelimitsofthe
scopeofthisstandard,apresumptionofconformitywiththerelevantEssentialRequirementsofthatDirectiveandassociatedEFTAregulations.
WARNING:OtherrequirementsandotherEUDirectivesmaybeapplicabletotheproduct(s)fallingwithinthescopeofthisstandard.

106

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1. 70/311/EEC,Steeringequipmentformotorvehiclesandtheirtrailersasamendedby92/62/EEC
2. 71/320/EEC,Brakingdevicesofcertaincategoriesofmotorvehiclesandtheirtrailers
3. 73/361/EEC,Certificationandmarkingofwireropes,chainsandhooksasamendedby76/434/EEC
4. 79/113/EEC,Determinationofthenoiseemissionofconstructionplantandequipmentasamendedby81/1051/EEC
5. 80/1269/EEC,Enginepowerofmotorvehicles
6. 83/477/EEC,Asbestosatwork
7. 86/188/EEC,Protectionofworkersfromtherisksrelatedtoexposuretonoiseatwork
8. 87/404/EEC,Singlepressurevessels
9. 89/392/EEC,MachineryDirective98:37:EC,amendedbyDirective98:79:EG.
10. 91/422/EEC,Brakingdevicesofcertaincategoriesofmotorvehiclesandtheirtrailers
11. 93/68/EEC,Conformitymarking
12. ISO116601:1999,CranesAccess,guardsandrestraintsPart1:General
13. ISO124821:1995,CranesConditionmonitoringPart1:General
14. EN418:1992,SafetyofmachineryEmergencystopequipment,functionalaspectsPrinciplesfordesign
15. EN5472:1996,SafetyofmachineryHumanbodymeasurementsPart2:Principlesfordeterminingthedimensionsrequiredforaccess
openings
16. EN6262:1996,SafetyofmachineryReductionofrisktohealthfromhazardoussubstancesemittedbymachineryPart2:Methodology
leadingtoverificationprocedures
17. ENISO116882:1998,AcousticsRecommendedpracticeforthedesignoflownoisemachineryandequipmentPart2:Introductiontothe
physicsoflownoisedesign(ISO/TR116882:1998)
18. EN130012:1997,CranesafetyGeneraldesignPart2:Loadactions
19. EN616721:2003,ElectroacousticsSoundlevelmetersPart1:Specifications(IEC616721:2002)/Note:Endorsementnotice
20. EN616722:2003,ElectroacousticsSoundlevelmetersPart2:Patternevaluationtests(IEC616722:2003)/Note:Endorsementnotice
21. DIN150612:1977,Cranesgrooveprofilesforwireropedrums
22. DIN15400:1990,Liftinghooksmaterials,mechanicalproperties,liftingcapacityandstresses
23. DIN154011:1982,LiftinghooksforliftingappliancesSinglehooksUnmachinedparts
24. DIN154012:1983,LiftinghooksforliftingappliancesSinglehooksFinishedpartswiththreadedshank
25. DIN15403:1969,LiftingHooksforHoistsKnuckleThreads

107
109
108

26. ISO86861:1989,CranesDesignprinciplesforloadsandloadcombinationsPart1:General
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