44 views

Uploaded by Ashish Raut

International Journal paper regarding retrofitting of capillary tube

- A Review on Design and Development of Spiral Coil Heat Exchangers
- DS s Syllabus of Fluid Mechanics2reg
- Jacketed Vessel Heat Transfer (Half Pipe Coil) – ChE Guide
- LECTURE 4.0.pdf
- Plate Type Heat Exchanger
- Pressure to Energy
- Modelling of Tube and Fins Coil Working as Evaporator or Condenser
- Expo. Refrigeración.pptx
- SPE 102479 Gas-Condensate Wellbore Modeling Using a Fundamental Approach
- IOCL BOKARO
- F1009
- Design of Heat Transfer Exchanger 2015
- Mercato
- FLOW-3D Water and Environmental Brochure in English
- thermo_king_md-100_[ET]
- Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Based Heat Pumps for Simultaneous Cooling and Heating Applications
- 07_chapter 2.pdf
- 2. Format.eng-unsteady Free Convection Transient Flow of an Incompressible Dissipative Viscous Fluid
- Tut 08 Supersonic Wing
- chen2017.pdf

You are on page 1of 7

Retrofitting in Refrigeration Appliances

A.S. Raut a,*, 1, U.S.Wankhede b

a

M.Tech. III Semester Heat Power Engineering-Student, Mechanical Engineering Department, G. H. Raisoni

College of Engineering, Digdoh hills, Nagpur-440016, Maharashtra State, India

b

hills,Nagpur-440016,Maharashtra State, India

Abstract:

Retrofitting the refrigeration appliances using the capillary tube is reviewed in this paper. If the

refrigerant is changed in the existing system, the COP of the system will be affected. It is necessary to do some

modifications in the existing system and retrofit it. Changes in compressor design are too complicated and

expensive. Hence modification in capillary tube dimensions is preferred so as to compensate for the

performance of the system.

Keywords: Retrofitting, capillary tube.

Introduction:

To overcome Ozone depletion and global warming problems, replacement of chlorofluorocarbon

refrigerant like R 12 is required. If the refrigerants are changed in the existing VCRS system, the COP of the

system will be affected thereby either reducing cooling effect or increasing the amount of compressor work. The

present work is divided in two parts. First one is selection of refrigerant and another one is select proper size of

capillary tube.

A) Selection of refrigerant:

There is no general rule governing the selection of refrigerants. It depends upon thermo physical

properties, technological and economic aspects, safety and environmental factor, the capacity required for

household refrigerators, which have refrigerating capacities of 400-500 W and electrical power input within

100-150 W range. The energy efficiency is far from that achieved using vapour-compression systems. The

hydroflurocarbon R134a is non-flammable, difficult to synthesize, has zero ozone depletion and high global

warming.

B. Tashtoush et al. (2002) carried out experimental study on the replacement of R12 in domestic

refrigerators by new hydrocarbon/ hydro fluorocarbon refrigerant mixtures. The results showed that

butane/propane/R134a mixtures provide excellent performance parameters, such as coefficient of performance

of refrigerator, compression power, volumetric efficiency, condenser duty, compressor discharge pressure and

temperature. In addition, the results support the possibility of using butane/propane/R134a mixtures as an

alternative to R12 in domestic refrigerators, without the necessity of changing the compressor lubricating oil

used with R12.

Zhijing Liu et al. (2003) found that naturally occurring substances such as water, carbon dioxide,

ammonia and hydrocarbons are believed to be environmentally safe refrigerants. With the CFC phase-out

underway, interest in these environmentally safe refrigerants is growing. The thermodynamic properties of

hydrocarbons, such as propane are similar to those of R12 and R22. Table 1 shows that hydrocarbons have

lower viscosity and higher thermal conductivity compared to that of CFCs and HFCs. These superior transport

properties are believed to contribute to the higher energy efficiency of hydrocarbons as compared to CFCs and

HCFs. Table 2 shows that the global warming potential (GWP) of hydrocarbons such as propane (R290), nbutane (R600), and n-pentane (n-c5) is much lower than that of synthetic refrigerants. It also shows that the

ozone depletion potential (ODP) of hydrocarbons is zero. Another advantage of hydrocarbons is their solubility

in mineral oil, which is traditionally used as a lubricant in the compressors. They also tested the mixture

R290/R600 as a drop-in substitute in a 20-cubic-feet, single-evaporator, and auto defrost, top mount,

conventional domestic refrigerator/freezer. All the hardware remained the same, only the capillary tube was

ISSN : 0975-5462

705

A.S. Raut et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

lengthened to achieve the optimum performance. The best result with an optimized R290/R600 blend was 6%

savings compared to the baseline test with R12. The optimum performance of the modified unit yielded 14.6%

and 16.7% energy savings with binary mixtures R290/nc5, and R290/R600, respectively. A ternary mixture

R290/R600/n-c5 with 17.3 % energy savings proved to be better than the binary mixtures. The superior

transport properties of the hydrocarbon mixtures

are believed to be responsible for their better test

performance.

Table 1. Transport properties of select refrigerants

Refrigerants

R12

R22

R123

R290

R600

n_c5

182.0

151.7

386.3

87.19

144.6

200.0

10.45

10.75

8.86

7.07

6.32

5.79

63.1

82.1

76.1

99.2

108.9

108.7

7.89

8.90

7.33

14.38

12.93

11.67

Viscosity

350C liquid (Pa/s)

0

Thermal Conductivity

350C liquid (mW/mK)

0

Refrigerants

R12

R134a

R22

R123

R290

R600

n_c5

ODP

0.05

0.02

*GWP

4500

420

1600

90

base:100 years

Douglas G. Westra (2003) found that one option to developing new alternative refrigerants is to

combine existing non-CFC refrigerant to form a non Azeotropic mixture, with the concentration optimized for

the given application so that system COP may be maintained or even improved. An Azeotrope is made up of

two or more refrigerants and occurs only at a particular composition. An azeotrope behaves as a pure refrigerant,

undergoing no temperature change during condensation and evaporation. The thermodynamic properties of an

azeotrope are different than those of its two constituent fluids. Common azeotrope refrigerants are R-500

(73.8% R-12 and 26.2% R-152a) and R-502 (48.8% R-22 and 51.2% R-115).

Barbara Minor et al. (2010) found that HFO-1234yf is a low global warming potential refrigerant that

has been selected as the preferred option to replace R-134a in automotive air conditioning system. M. Fatouh, et

al. (2006) test liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) of 60% propane and 40% commercial butane as a drop-in

substitute for R134a in a single evaporator domestic refrigerator with a total volume of 10 ft3 (0.283 m3).

Continuous running and cycling tests were performed on that refrigerator under tropical conditions using

different capillary tube lengths and various charges of R134a and LPG to satisfy the required freezer

temperature of -120C. The lowest electric energy consumption was achieved using LPG with combination of

capillary tube length of 5 m and charge of 60 grams. This combination achieved higher volumetric cooling

capacity and lower freezer temperature compared to R134a. Pull down time, pressure ratio and power

consumption of LPG refrigerator were lower than those of R134a refrigerator by about 7.6%, 5.5% and 4.3%,

respectively. Actual COP of LPG refrigerator was higher than that of R134a by about 7.6%. Lower on-time ratio

and energy consumption of LPG refrigerator by nearly 14.3% and 10.8%, respectively, were obtained as

compared to those of R134a.

Maclaine-cross et al. (1995) state that LPG refrigerant occur naturally, cause no ozone depletion and

negligible global warming. R290 can replace R22 and LPG mixtures replace R12 and R 134a. It leads to lower

vapour pressure and 10 to 20% energy savings. Mani K. et al. (2009) carried out an experimental study on the

performance of environmentally friendly refrigerants such as R134a, LPG and LPG/R134a mixture with and

without the effect of magnetic field as suitable replacements for the refrigerant R12 in a vapour compression

refrigeration system.

ISSN : 0975-5462

706

A.S. Raut et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

Lee et al. (2005) concluded that ternary mixtures composed of HFCs and HCs can be used to develop

the HCFC-22 alternative refrigerant mixtures. They selected HFC-32, HFC-125, HFC-134a, HFC-143a, HFC152a, HFC-227ea, and HFC-236ea as HFCs, and propane and isobutane as HCs. The simulator which could

predict theoretically the performance of given refrigerant mixtures was developed and tested for various

refrigerant systems. Nineteen different kinds of ternary mixtures were chosen for thermodynamic simulation.

Among nineteen mixtures, six ternary refrigerant mixtures were selected as candidates for HCFC-22

alternatives. They were R-32/143a/600, R-32/152a/227ea, R-32/134a/236ea, R-32/143a/236ea, R32/152a/236ea, and R-32/134a/600a. Performance of these mixtures was obtained experimentally by the

thermodynamic calorimeter and was compared with that of HCFC-22, R-407C and R-410A.

B) Selection of capillary tube:

Bansal et al. (1998) worked for homogeneous two-phase flow model, CAPIL, which was designed to

study the performance of adiabatic capillary tubes in small, vapour compression refrigeration systems, in

particular household refrigerators and freezers. The model was based on the fundamental equations of

conservation of mass, energy and momentum that are solved simultaneously through iterative procedure and

Simpson's rule. The model uses empirical correlations for single-phase and two-phase friction factors and also

accounts for the entrance effects. The model uses the REFPROP data base where the Carnahan-StarlingDeSantis equation of state is used to calculate the refrigerant properties. The model includes the effect of

various design parameters, namely the tube diameter, tube relative roughness, tube length, level of subcooling

and the refrigerant flow rate. The model is validated with earlier models over a range of operating conditions

and is found to agree reasonably well with the available experimental data for HFC-134a.

Jiraporn Sinpiboon et al. (2002) developed a mathematical model to study flow characteristics in nonadiabatic capillary tubes. The theoretical model is based on conservation of mass, energy and momentum of

fluids in the capillary tube and suction line. The mathematical model is categorized into three different cases,

depending on the position of the heat exchange process. The first case is considered when the heat exchange

process start in the single-phase flow region, the second case is determined when the heat exchange process start

at the end of the single-phase flow region, and the last case is considered when the heat exchange process takes

place in the two-phase flow region. A set of differential equations is solved by the explicit method of finitedifference scheme. The model is validated by comparison with the experimental data working with alternative

refrigerants for design and optimization.

Dongsoo Jung et al. (2006) modelled pressure drop through a capillary tube in an attempt to predict the

size of capillary tubes used in residential air conditioners. They provided simple correlating equations for

practicing engineers. Stoecker's basic model was studied with the consideration of various effects due to

subcooling, area contraction, and different equations for viscosity and friction factor, and finally mixture effect.

McAdams' equation for the two-phase viscosity and Stoecker's equation for the friction factor yielded the best

results among various equations. With these equations, the modified model yielded the performance data that

are comparable to those in the ASHRAE handbook. After the model was validated with experimental data for

CFC12, HFC134a, HCFC22, and R407C, performance data were generated for HCFC22 and its alternatives

such as HFC134a, R407C and R410A under operating conditions such as condensing temperature (40, 45, 50,

(550 g/s).

550C), subcooling (0, 2.5, 50C), capillary tube diameter (1.22.4 mm), and mass flow rate

These data showed that the capillary tube length varies uniformly with the changes in condensing temperature

and subcooling. Finally, a regression analysis was performed to determine the dependence of mass flow rate on

the length and diameter of a capillary tube, condensing temperature, and subcooling. Simple practical equations

yielded a mean deviation of 2.4% for 1488 data obtained for two pure and two mixed refrigerants.

Kim et al. (2000) experimentally investigated the capillary tube performance for

R-407. The

experimental setup is a real vapor compression refrigerating system. Mass flow rate is measured for various

diameters and lengths while inlet pressure and degree of sub cooling are changed. These data are compared with

the results of numerical model. The mass flow rate of the numerical model is about 14% less than the measured

mass flow rate. They found that mass flow rate and length for R-407C are less than those for R-22 under same

conditions. They used the numerical method for finding the diameter and length by using the continuity

equation, momentum equation and energy equation.

Mittal et al. (2009) investigated the effect of coiling on the flow characteristics of

R-407C in an

adiabatic spiral capillary tube. The characteristic coiling parameter for a spiral capillary tube is the coil pitch.

The effect of the coil pitch on the mass flow rate of R-407C was studied on several capillary tube test sections.

They observed that the coiling of the capillary tube significantly reduced the mass flow rate of R-407C in the

adiabatic spiral capillary tube. In order to quantify the effect of coiling, they conducted experiments for straight

capillary tube and observed that the coiling of the capillary tube reduced the mass flow rate in the spiral tube in

the range of 918% as compared with that in the straight capillary tube. A generalized non dimensional

ISSN : 0975-5462

707

A.S. Raut et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

correlation for the prediction of the mass flow rates of various refrigerants was developed for the straight

capillary tube on the basis of the experimental data of R-407C, R-134a, R-22, and R-410A measured by other

researchers. Additionally, a refrigerant-specific correlation for the spiral capillary was also proposed on the

basis of the experimental data of R-407C.

Akash Deep Singh (2009) developed a mathematical model of diabatic capillary tube. The

mathematical model has been developed by using equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy for

predicting the length of diabatic capillary tube. Moody (1944) correlation is used to calculate the friction factor.

McAdams et al. (1942) viscosity correlation has been used to evaluate the two phase viscosity of the refrigerant.

Input parameters have been taken from the data of Mendoca et al. (1998). Further, a geometric model is

developed in Pro-E and the mesh is created in Ansys ICEM CFD and analysis is carried out in Ansys CFX

which has three modules CFX-Pre, Solver and CFX-Post.

Akintunde (2007) concluded that some parameters such as friction factor, dryness fraction and

Reynolds number affect the required length and diameter of a capillary tube for a given refrigeration capacity.

The friction factors were based on the dryness fraction ranges between 0.05 - 0.85% and 0.5 - 1.9% above that

of ASHRAE under the same conditions. Furthermore, both McAdams and Ducklers equations for two-phase

viscosity were employed so that the deviation in the estimated lengths could be compared. The tube lengths

generated by combining various friction factor models with McAdams equation are much closer to that of

ASHRAE standard than those of Ducklers equation. The estimated lengths using McAdams and Ducklers

equations exceeded ASHRAE standard by 1.65% and 4.13% respectively. The required capillary tube length for

a specified condenser condition depends on both Reynolds number and dryness fraction and not on either alone

and these two factors should not be in exponential form. The generated lengths approach the ASHRAE

requirement as the degree of sub cooling is increased.

M.A. Akintunde (2008) investigated the effects of various geometries of capillary tubes based on the

coil diameters and lengths alone, with no particular attention placed on the effect of coil pitch. This paper

examined the effects of pitches of both helical and serpentine coiled capillary tubes on the performance of a

vapor compression refrigeration system. Several capillary tubes of equal lengths (2.03 m) and varying pitches,

coiled diameters and serpentine heights were used. Both inlet and outlet pressure and temperature of the test

section (capillary tube) were measured and used to estimate the COP of the system. In the case of helical coiled

geometries, the pitch has no significant effect on the system performance. In the case of serpentine geometries,

both pitch and height affects the system performance. Performance improves with both increase in the pitch and

the height. Correlations were proposed to describe relationships between straight and coiled capillary tube and

between helical coiled and serpentine coiled capillary tubes. The COP obtained was 0.9841 for mass flow rates

of helical and serpentine with straight tubes, 0.9864 and 0.9996 for mass flow rates of serpentine and helical

coiled tube respectively. This study investigated the performance of capillary tube geometries having R-134a as

the working fluid.

Corberan et al. (2008) found a numerical method used to calculate mass flow rate in a capillary tube.

The proposed method solves the conservation laws (continuity, momentum and energy) in 1D mesh. An

iterative process is performed for a guessed value of the mass flow rate and it is followed until critical flow

conditions are obtained. The resulting length is compared with the capillary tube length and a new guess of the

mass flow rate is imposed. The iteration is repeated until convergence. In two phase flow, a separated flow

model is assumed. Both, two-phase friction factor and viscosity models were determined by Lin correlation and

void fraction from Zivi correlation. This model is included in IMST-ART, software for simulation and design

of refrigeration equipment. The addition of capillary tube model allows calculating the superheat at the

evaporator giving the capillary tube geometry. A simulation with different operative conditions and capillary

tube geometry is presented and the results are compared with those given by ASHRAE correlation with the

integration of the conservation equations (mass, momentum and energy) over individual control volumes. The

model includes non critical and critical flow conditions. The model assumes thermodynamic equilibrium and

one-dimensional two-phase flow. The metastable condition is not taken into account.

Peixoto et al. (2007) concluded that the finite difference model shows reasonably good agreement

with published data for both adiabatic and diabatic capillary tubes. The agreement is better than obtainable with

the widely-used charts published in the ASHRAE handbook for CFC-12 and HCFC-22. This model can be used

to predict the performance of alternative refrigerants. To develop a test matrix for the required validation

experiments, the model was run in both design and simulation mode for a wide range of operating conditions.

The mass flow rate of HFC-134a is expected to be about 5% lower than CFC-12 in an adiabatic capillary tube.

Adding a capillary tube-suction line heat exchanger increases mass flow by about 20% for both refrigerants. For

a given mass flow rate, the calculations suggest that HFC-134a will require substantially a smaller suction line

diameter and heat exchange length. Finally the model illustrates how the effectiveness of a capillary tube-

ISSN : 0975-5462

708

A.S. Raut et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

suction line heat exchanger is higher for the case of lateral tubes than for concentric tubes, because of the larger

heat transfer area presented by isothermal capillary tube and suction line walls.

Greenfield et al. (2006) described the development of an experimental facility for testing capillarytube expansion devices and data for flow of R-134a in a non-adiabatic capillary tube. The replacement of CFC

refrigerants such as R-12 with alternatives such as HFC refrigerant R-134a is also examined in their work. An

experimental facility is developed which is designed to acquire data for conditions including those seen in

domestic refrigerators. The facility has capability for independent control of oil concentration, multiple testsection configurations and instrumentation for gathering mass-flow, pressure, and temperature data.

Melo et al. (1996) discussed the effect of capillary length, capillary diameter, refrigerant subcooling,

condensing pressure and type of refrigerant on the mass flow-rates through the capillaries. The experiments

were performed with three refrigerants such as CFC-12, HFC-134a and HC-600a, and at different condensing

pressures and levels of subcooling under choked flow conditions. Eight capillaries with different combinations

of lengths, diameters and tube roughnesss were used, and extensive data was collected. A conventional,

dimensional analysis was performed to derive correlations to predict the mass flow rates for different

refrigerants.

Chingulpitak, et al. (2006) presented a numerical study of the flow characteristics of refrigerants

flowing through adiabatic helically coiled capillary tubes. The theoretical model is based on conservation of

mass, energy and momentum of the fluids in the capillary tube. The two-phase flow model developed was based

on the homogeneous flow assumption. The viscosity model was also based on recommendations from the

literature. The developed model can be considered as an effective tool for designing and optimizing capillary

tubes working with newer alternative refrigerants. The model is validated by comparison with the experimental

data of Kim et al. (2002) for R-22, R-407C and R-410A, and Zhou and Zhang (2006) for R-22.

Chun-Lu Zhang et al. (2000) had done parameter analysis, an insight into the flow characteristics of

capillary tubes. Based on the approximate analytic solutions, influences of geometrical parameters (inner

diameter and length) and inlet operating parameters (pressure, subcooling or quality) on the mass flow rate

through an adiabatic capillary tube have been intensively studied in this work. Some simple theoretical relations

were developed. The relations show that the mass flow rate is the power function of the geometries.

Experimental data was supplemented by numerical data for R22, R410A and R407C.

Worachest et al. (2004) provided new selection charts for the sizing of adiabatic capillary tubes

operating with alternative refrigerants. The mathematical model is based on conservation of mass, energy, and

momentum of fluids in the capillary tube. After the developed model is validated by comparison with the

experimental data reported in literature, selection charts that contain the relevant parameters are proposed for

sizing adiabatic capillary tubes. The selection charts are presented for some alternative refrigerants and a wide

range of operations. These newly developed selection charts can be practically used to select capillary tube size

from the flow rate and flow condition or to determine mass flow rate directly from a given capillary tube size

and flow condition.

Christensen (1967) performed a series of tests with a capillary tube-suction line heat exchanger at

varying evaporator and condenser pressures and with the heat exchange region changeable from one end to

another of the capillary tube. The length of the heat exchange region was fixed at 1000 mm. Tests were

performed at evaporating temperatures in the range -5 to -25 C corresponding to condensing temperatures in

the range 30 to 500C. These tests were conducted for three positions of the heat exchanging section and for each

test the refrigerant (CFC-12) mass flow rate was measured. It was verified that the evaporating pressure has

little influence while the condensing pressure has a great effect on the refrigerant mass flow rate. Mass flow

rates increased as the free length of the capillary tube was moved from the condenser towards the evaporator for

fixed condenser and evaporator pressures.

Pate and Tree (1983, 1984 and 1987) publications were based in the Pate's Ph.D. research (1982) on the

flow of CFC-12 though capillary tube-suction line heat exchanger. These papers described the experimental

apparatus used, the results of the tests performed, a mathematical model for simulation and a study of the

choked flow conditions at the capillary tube outlet. Model results for length calculations showed fair agreement

with the experimental data. However to simplify the computational procedure, the authors assumed a linear

profile of the quality in the heat exchanger region. As pointed out by Yan and Wang (1991), this assumption

simplified the calculation but the actual refrigerant quality distribution in the capillary tube depends on the rate

of heat exchange with the suction line.

The interaction between the capillary tube-suction line heat exchanger and the whole system was

studied by Pereira et al. (1987). They analyzed experimentally the thermal performance of a domestic

refrigerator, using CFC-12 as working fluid, as the heat exchanging conditions at the capillary tube and the

ISSN : 0975-5462

709

A.S. Raut et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

suction line were modified. They documented the improvement in overall performance of the refrigerator and

verified that the effect of the heat exchange with the surrounding air was negligible. The ct-slhx simulation

presented by Q.Yan and X.L.Wang (1991) was based on the fundamental fluid dynamics and heat transfer

equations. The results for mass flow rate, quality profile for CFC-12 for a fixed geometry over a range of inlet

and outlet pressures and inlet subcooling were obtained. They showed that small changes in mass flow can

produce large changes in the quality along the slhx length.

Domanski et al. (1992) presented a theoretical evaluation of the performance effects resulting from the

addition of a liquid line-suction line heat exchanger to a standard vapor compression refrigeration cycle. It

demonstrated installation of a liquid line-suction line heat exchanger for improvement in COP and volumetric

capacity in case of fluids that perform poorly in the basic cycle. The benefits obtained depend on the

combination of the operating conditions and fluid properties with the liquid and vapor specific heats being the

most important. The improvement with HFC-134a is 2.5% higher than for CFC-12. The results presented are for

ideal cases and do not consider some factors which present in the real systems and affect their performance. For

household refrigerators, the heat exchange is not between the liquid line and the suction line but between the

capillary tube, where the refrigerant is flashing, and the suction line. The usual approach of idealizing the ct-slhx

as an isobaric non adiabatic section followed by an isenthalpic expansion is a simplification of the real process

(A. D. Little, 1982 and ASHRAE, 1988).

Conclusions

Earlier studies have shown that use of alternative refrigerants play an important role in forming problems

such as global warming and ozone depilation. The coefficient of performance of refrigeration appliances

improves in case of retrofitting the capillary tube. It is possible to obtain the effective size (diameter & length)

of capillary tube by using of mathematical techniques and by maintaining proper pressure equalization between

condenser and evaporator.

References

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

[14]

[15]

[16]

[17]

[18]

[19]

[20]

[21]

Dongsoo Jung, Chunkun Park, Byungjin Park, Capillary tube selection for HCFC22 alternatives, International Journal of Refrigeration

22, (2006) pp. 604-614.

P.K.Bansal, A.S.rupasinghe, An Homogeneous Model for Adiabatic Capillary Tubes, Applied Thermal Engineering Vol. 18 Nos 34(1998) pp. 207-219.

Jiraporn Sinpiboon, Somchai Wongwises, Numerical Investigation Of refriregent flow through non-adiabetic capillary tubes, Applied

Theramal Engineering 22(2002) pp. 2015-2032.

B. Tashtoush, M. Tahat, M.A. Shudeifat, Experimental Study of new refrigerant mixture to replace R12 in domestic refrigerant,

Applied Theramal Engineering 22 (2002) pp. 495-506.

Mohd.Kaleem Khan, Ravi Kumar, Pradeep K. Sahoo, An experimental study of the flow of R-134a inside an adiabatic spirally coiled

capillary tube, International Journal of Refrigeration 31(2008) pp.970-978.

M. Fatouh, M.El Kafafy, Experimental evaluation of domestic refrigerator working with LPG, Applied Thermal Engineering 26(2006)

pp. 1593-1603.

C. Melo, R.T.S. Fereira, C.B. Neto, J.M.Goncalves, M.M. Mezavila, An experimental analysis of adiabatic capillary tubes, Applied

Thermal Engineering 19 (1999) pp. 669-684.

J.L. Driessen, R.H. Pereira, C. Melo, R.T.S. Ferreira, Sizing capillary tubes for household refrigeration system, International

Appliance Manufacturing, Ashokan International Ltd., U.K. (1998), pp. 55-59

P. K. Bansal, A. S. Rupasinghe. An empirical model for sizing capillary tubes International Journal of Refrigeration, Volume 19, Issue

8, November (1996), pp. 497-505

Mohd. Kaleem Khan, Ravi Kumar, Pradeep K. Sahoo Flow characteristics of refrigerants flowing through capillary tubes A

review,Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 29, Issues 8-9, June (2009), pp. 1426-1439.

O. Garca-Valladares Numerical simulation and experimental validation of coiled adiabatic capillary tubes a review, Applied Thermal

Engineering, Volume 27, Issues 5-6, April (2007), pp. 1062-1071.

Boulevard Malesherbes, Selection of refrigerants on a per-application basis: trends, International institute of refrigeration. (2005), pp.

1-6

Zhijing Liu, Imam Haider, B.Y. Liu, Reinhard Radermacher Test Results of Hydrocarbon Mixtures in Domestic Refrigerator

/Freezers, Center for Environmental Energy Engineering (CEEE) University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA, (2003), pp.

1-10.

Douglas G. westra, COP improvement of Refrigerator/Freezer, Air conditioner, and Heat pumps using non Azeotropic refrigerant

mixtures. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, (2003), pp. 1-10.

Chang Nyeun Kim & Young Moo Park, Investigation on the Selection of Capillary Tube for the Alternative Refrigerant R-407C

International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Volume 8, May (2000), pp.40-49.

Barbara MINOR, Carlos MONTOYA, Francisco Sandoval KASA, HFO-1234yf Performance in a Beverage Cooler, International

Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference at Purdue, July 12-15 (2010), pp. 2422-2428.

M. K. Mittal, R. Kumar, A. Gupta, An Experimental Study of the Flow of R-407C in an Adiabatic Spiral Capillary Tube, Journal of

Thermal Science and Engineering Applications, Vol. 1, DECEMBER (2009), pp. 041003-041011.

Akash Deep Singh, flow characteristics of refrigerant inside diabatic capillary tube, Thapar University, Patiala, (2009), pp. 1-96.

M.A. Akintunde, The Effects of Friction Factors on Capillary Tube Length, The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, Volume

8. Number 2. November (2007), pp. 273-281.

M.A. Akintunde, Ph.D. Effect of Coiled Capillary Tube Pitch on Vapor Compression Refrigeration System Performance. The Pacific

Journal of Science and Technology Volume 9. Number 2. November (2008), pp. 284-294.

Jose Miguel CORBERN , David FUENTES , Jos GONZLVEZ, numerical calculations of mass flow rate in capillary tubes using

ART an advance simulation software. Universidad Politcnica de Valencia, ETSII, Valencia, Valencia, Spain (2008), pp. 1-10.

ISSN : 0975-5462

710

A.S. Raut et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

[22] R. A. Peixoto and C. W. Bullard, A Design Model for Capillary Tube-Suction Line Heat Exchangers, Air Conditioning and

Refrigeration Center University of Illinois,(2007), pp. 238-262.

[23] K. P. Greenfield and W. E. Dunn, Experimental Study of Non-Adiabatic Flow of Refrigerant R-134a in a Capillary Tube, , Air

Conditioning and Refrigeration Center University of Illinois,(2006), pp. 101-210.

[24] I.L.Maclaine-cross and E. Leonardi, Performance and Safety of LPG refrigerants, Conferenance of the Australian Liquefied Petroleum

Gas Association Ltd, ISBN Surfers Paradies Queensland, ,28th February to 2nd March (1995), pp. 149-168.

[25] B. G. Lee, J. Y. Park, J. D. Kim, and J. S. Lim, A study on the performance of alternative refrigerant mixtures for HCFC-22CFC

Alternatives research center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Cheongryang, Seoul, South Korea, (2005), pp. 130150.

ISSN : 0975-5462

711

- A Review on Design and Development of Spiral Coil Heat ExchangersUploaded byIRJET Journal
- DS s Syllabus of Fluid Mechanics2regUploaded byluthfi
- Jacketed Vessel Heat Transfer (Half Pipe Coil) – ChE GuideUploaded byahmed nawaz
- LECTURE 4.0.pdfUploaded byNur Salwani
- Plate Type Heat ExchangerUploaded byArun Kumar
- Pressure to EnergyUploaded byaliyahfit
- Modelling of Tube and Fins Coil Working as Evaporator or CondenserUploaded byAntarip Poddar
- Expo. Refrigeración.pptxUploaded byBruno Villaseñor
- SPE 102479 Gas-Condensate Wellbore Modeling Using a Fundamental ApproachUploaded byAlex
- IOCL BOKAROUploaded byashish08394
- F1009Uploaded byPenjerla Manikyam
- Design of Heat Transfer Exchanger 2015Uploaded byAkshitGupta
- MercatoUploaded bygigikoz
- FLOW-3D Water and Environmental Brochure in EnglishUploaded byhhad
- thermo_king_md-100_[ET]Uploaded byLeonardo Jakowatc
- Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Based Heat Pumps for Simultaneous Cooling and Heating ApplicationsUploaded bysyedsameermech
- 07_chapter 2.pdfUploaded byAnonymous ffje1rpa
- 2. Format.eng-unsteady Free Convection Transient Flow of an Incompressible Dissipative Viscous FluidUploaded byImpact Journals
- Tut 08 Supersonic WingUploaded byBegan Gurung
- chen2017.pdfUploaded bylrodriguez_892566
- Instruction Manual SAB 202Uploaded bymike_bdn
- Modified Solar Collector Annexed With Residential Solar CookerUploaded byIAEME Publication
- The Nanotechnological Innovation in Food IndustryUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Boiling Points of Some Common Fluids and GasesUploaded bycatia_v5r
- Fd60hz Secador Atlas Copco - ManualUploaded byEdvaldo França
- 3 chapter 3Uploaded byJohn Smith
- @@@@L- CD-Adapco, UK,Recent Progress in CFD Modelling of Multiphase Flow in Horizontal and Near-horizontal Pipes ''Uploaded byramihey
- mathematical modelling of chemical processesUploaded byTamoor Tariq
- IES 2013 Syllabus for Mechanical Engineering -ME ESE Exam SyllabusUploaded byjaved alam
- Fluid Mechanics GATE 1991-2013 Topic Wise SolutionUploaded byGanesh Vishwanadh

- Update 23 (2007).pdfUploaded byReni April Ana
- 16416_PHY108Uploaded byMubasshir23
- Decentralized Control of Linear Multivariable SystemUploaded byJITENDRA KUMAR GOYAL Research Scholar, Dept. of Electrical Engg., IIT (BHU)
- The Sly WayUploaded byDavid Arthur Walters
- Oracle 10g DBAUploaded byMichael Akintajuwa
- 62 194 F2011 Exam w SolutionsUploaded byPrashil Raj Mehta
- Sv CoverageUploaded bySpandu Spandy
- Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Use of Nutritive and Nonnutritive SweetenersUploaded byitomorales
- Power SupplyUploaded byRajib Nag
- Partners WorkshopV6Uploaded byAhmed Jabr
- Riesman - The Dream of Abundance Reconsidered.pdfUploaded byOrlando Lafuente Ramírez
- Bursitis.pdfUploaded bykapczuk
- finalseniorresearchpaperUploaded byapi-310622549
- yoga 10Uploaded byanant
- 1618817 Restore SybaseUploaded byJustin Adams
- Dan Warren- GSMA- Track C- VoLTEUploaded byzarobiza
- Basic Bible FactsUploaded byJohn Edison
- project report battery manufacturing plantUploaded byVasim Shaikh
- PMRS-1,2- IntroductionUploaded byJay Dangwal
- [Danziger] Problematic Encounter. Talks on Psychology & History (1)Uploaded byCristian Parellada
- 129 Marketing StudyUploaded byapi-3838281
- Is industry or business training best remedy for.docxUploaded byAbhiAbhinesh
- Alpha Adrenoceptor Antagonists (Alpha Blockers)Uploaded byYohanes Sutrisno
- Question Papers - Heat TreatmentUploaded bySrilakshmi Shunmugaraj
- Women RightsUploaded byEmily Scherbatsky
- Legrand Price ListUploaded bySampath Kumar
- Aerodynamic Performance of the Underbody and Wings of an Open-wheel Race CarUploaded byAndres Andrade
- Library Intro 2011Uploaded byomar8899
- tok regulationsUploaded byapi-254774586
- Course Outline International Human Resource Management,IHRMUploaded byimad