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f\ IV

PHAIDON

Boston,

MA

02116

THE ART BOOK

Phaidon Press Limited

Wharf

Regent's

All Saints Street

London ni 9PA
published 1994

First

Reprinted 1995, 1996


This edition 1996

1994 Phaidon Press

Limited

ISBN

o 7148 3625 7

OP

catalogue record for

book

this

is

available

from

the British Library.

Library of Congress

Cataloging

Data

Publication

in

available.

All rights reserved.

of

this

publication

reproduced, stored

No

part

may be
in a

retrieval system or transmitany form or by any


means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording
or otherwise, without the
prior permission of Phaidon

ted, in

Press Limited.

Printed

in

Singapore

abbreviations:

C=circa

b=born
h
I

ii<

d=died

...In

width

= length

diam diameter
The

publishers have
<>rt

made

to include

dimensions wherever
possible. As some frescos
illustrated are part

of large

cycles, covering entire

rooms, he correct measurements have been impossible


1

to acquire

omitted.

and

are therefore

THE ART BOOK


of looking
fun,

it's

an

at art.

to

presents a whole

Easy to

new way
and

use, informative

guide of 500 great painters

and sculptors from medieval to modern times.


It debunks art-historical classifications by
throwing together brilliant examples of all
periods, schools, visions and techniques. Only
here could Michelangelo be considered with
Millais, Picasso

with Piero della Francesca

and Rodchenko with Rodin. Each artist is


represented by a full-page colour plate of a
typical work, accompanied by explanatory and
illuminating information on each image and
its creator. The entries are comprehensively
cross-referenced and glossaries of artistic
movements and technical terms are included,
together with an international directory of
galleries and museums to visit. By breaking with
traditional classifications,

THE ART BOOK

presents a fresh and original approach to

art:

an

unparalleled visual sourcebook and a celebration

of our rich and multi-faceted culture.


The 500

artists page 4 Glossary of technical

terms

Glossary of artistic

movements

pagt

Directory of

museums and

galleries page

1 1

Agasse Jacques-Laurent
A
by

giraffe leans its long, slender


its

Arab keepers.

Two

The Nubian

neck to reach the bowl held

Egyptian cows can be seen in the

background. With the development of communication


links, traders

of the

travel farther

and farther

exotic

gifts.

early nineteenth century


afield

Giraffes, lions

were able to

and return with increasingly

and leopards were given to

wealthy landowners and Agasse, being renowned for his


acute attention to detail, was often

commissioned

them. King George IV paid Agasse 200 for

'a

Giraffe

the Gii.uTc ind Keepers'.

top hat

is

Edward

The gentleman

depicted wearing a

Cross, a well-known importer of foreign

birds and animals for the royal menagerie.

Born

Switzerland, Agasse lived in England from

He

also painted a

number of portraits of

noblemen on horseback.
- Audubon, Landseer,

Longhi, Stubbs

Jacques-Laurent Agasse. b Geneva, 1767. d London. 1848

The Nubian

Giraffe.

1827.

Oil

on canvas. hl27 x wl01.5 cm.

in

800 where he

achieved considerable success painting sporting scenes and


exotic animals.

to paint

picture of

h50kxw40i

The Royal Collection, Windsor Castle. Windsor

Alb ers

Homage

josct

Four squares of yellow nest together. Despite

to the Square

Post-Painterly Abstraction

a rigid

movement. Between 1920 and

format, thev float freely, creating an optical illusion of

1923 Albers studied at the famous Bauhaus school.

another dimension. Hach area has been painted in a single

joined the staff in 1923.

colour.

The

of which
colour.
is

this

The

is

series

of paintings,

optical illusion created in this picture

related to the

Op

means

it

Art movement. Yet the way the paint

Josef Albers. b Bottrup. 1888. d

New Haven.

CT.

it

to the

USA

in 1933,

book The

published in 1963. In

he explores the perception of

colour,

which was

w76.2 cm. h30

w30

in.

Tate Gallery. London

this

Interaction of Color

dominant theme throughout

Andre. Van Doesburg.

1976

to the Square. 1964. Oil on panel. h76.2 /

Mountain College and Yak

University. His influential

"

with the

He

by birth, Albers

where he taught many

established artists at the Black

one, shows squares created from pure

has been applied and the use of colour link

Homage

moved

paint has been applied with a knife, direcdy

from the tube. Albers' most famous

A Dutchman

Kelly. Klee.

Reinhardt, Vasarely

his

was

life.

\lessandro
AlgardiMess
The

tell

a distinguished individual.

of

and

cardinal's fine robes, lace cuffs

moustache and beard

life

that

shows

Bust of Cardinal Paolo Emilio Zacchia


distinctive

The marble

portrait has a spark

As was customary

at the time,

originally sculpted this bust in terracotta.

as a study before

making

a final version in the

Baroque period,

AJgardi's Style

is

artist

Bernini. This

approach of

his

of

more reserved than

contemporary Gianlorenzo

may be because he

trained in

Rome. One of the

century's foremost Italian sculptors, Algardi

commissioned

Rome,

to

including the

tomb of Leo XI

(- Bacon, Bernini, Carracci,

in.

Museo Nazionale

while in

in St Peter's

bronze statue of Innocent X.

h47%

was

make many important works

Houdon, Manzu

Alessandro Algardi. b Bologna, 1595. d Rome, 1654


Bust of Cardinal Paolo Emilio Zacchia. C1625/30. Marble. hl21 cm.

Bologna under

the painter Lodovico Carracci (the cousin of Annibale)

before embarking on a career in

Algardi

This would have

more expensive medium of marble. Although an


the

is

Algardi's close observation of the

cardinal's features.

been used

the tL'-r.'^ovant

the viewer immediately that this

del Bargello, Florence

and

AllStOn
A

Landscape with

Washington

much admired

path with a figure by a lake leads the viewer into a stark

landscape that has a haunting sense

of"

emptiness.

The

plants in the foreground, the trees and gnarled trunks are


carefully rendered in great detail. Allston

North America's Romantic


the natural

studied in

wonders of the

London

''where

Benjamin West) and Rome. His


were

directly inspired

all

painters. His landscapes glorify

New

World. As

young man he

his

Lake

England

at the time.

landscape

in

the

manner of

Allston's portraits

him

M W Turner and

and canvases on

scriptural

great acclaim, while the poetry he wrote

artist

Claude,

who was

on canvas. H96.5 x W130.2 cm. h38 x

less enthusiastically received.

Bierstadt. Claude. Cozens. Hodler. Martin. West. Turner

w51

/4

Museum

of Fine Arts. Boston.

MA

won

was somewhat

compatriot

Washington Allston. b Charleston. SC. 1779. d Cambridge. MA. 1843


Oil

|ohn Martin.

themes

early landscape paintings

by the French

Landscape with a Lake. 1804.

However, he soon

developed a more sublime, melodramatic conception of the

was the greatest of

he was a pupil of

in

Alma-Tadema
Three

Roman women watch

the return of galleys

corner, or 'coign'. This charming

work conveys

from a
both

a sense

of height and of warm sunlight. The fabric of the women's


clothes, the marble ledge

rendered

and the bronze beast are

in great detail. In the

the sea far below, the artist

complicated perspective.

England

in

870,

handling of the

shows

A Dutch

painter

Alma-Tadema had

with

Sir

Hi.-.

Neo-Classical portrayals of ancient

Greek and Egyptian


society.

They

also

to

a successful career

Henry

of Vantage.

1895.

Oil

on canvas. h64.2 x

w45

showed

in

the

artist's

On

knowledge of

several occasions

of Coriolanus

London.

<" Carpaccio. Leighton, Poussin,

cm. h25V4 x wl7 3/i

in.

Private collection

Alma-

for theatre designs, in particular

and

in his

Roman,

were highly popular with Victorian

Irving's 1901 production

Lyceum Theatre

Lawrence Alma-Tadema. b Drontyp, 1836. d Wiesbaden, 1912

A Coign

life

Tadema was commissioned


Sir

who moved

was lavished with personal and professional honours

lifetime.

Coign of Vantage

archaeology and social history.

all

women and

his great skill

Lawrence

Sir

Waterhouse

at the

Altdorfer
\

Mbrecht

sweeping Alpine landscape dominates

scene.

The

grand view emphasizes the importance of the battle that has


just

occurred, without focusing on

one of the
the

first artists

to focus

most important clement

on

it

directly. Altdorfer

the landscape,

in the picture.

dangles high above Alexander the Great

battle itself

is

shown

a victory

in vivid detail,

Oil

making

it

It tells

at

He was a prominent citizen and popular architect


home town of Regensburg. Altdorfer is known to

master.

in his

have taken

mm,

a tour

of the Danube and the Austrian Alps

produced

his inclination
a large

towards the landscape.

number of drawings and

of them depicting pure landscape, without

the

over Darius. The

of which Altdorfer was

Dossi. Durer. Leonardo. Patenier. Uccello

1538

on panel. hl32.7 x

wl20

cm. h52V4 x

in

and the scenery he encountered there no doubt

confirmed

horse-drawn

Albrecht Altdorfer. b Regensburg. cl480. d Regensburg.


Battle of Alexander at Issus. 1529.

was

large panel

in his

chariot to the centre-left of the composition.

viewer that Alexander has gained

Alexander

Battle of
a battle

w47&

in.

Alte Pinakothek.

Munich

He

engravings,
a story.

many

Amigonijacopo

Juno Receives the Head of Argus

Juno, the wife of Zeus, asked the hundred-eyed giant Argus


u)

watch over

lo,

whom

she righdy suspected of being her

husband's lover. Argus was murdered

at

Zeus'

Mercury, [uno set the giant's eyes into the

peacock

in his

memory. The

receiving the head of Argus.

picture here

The

tail

command

by

of her

shows Juno

soft, sensual style, light

colours and graceful lines of the painting are typically

Rococo. Amigoni was

of portraits and of

a fashionable

artists,
It

he worked

all

over Europe, particularly

was probably he who, upon returning

highly profitable trip to


travel to

England

many Rococo

Oil

to

England he painted

decorations for Covent Garden and

Moor

Park. Thereafter

he lived comfortablv bv painting elegant portraits of the


royal family

and of

nobility.

- Boucher. Fragonard.

Gentileschi. Luini. Tiepolo

Jacopo Amigoni b Venice. cl685. d Madrid. 1752


Juno Receives the Head of Argus. C1730.

England.

London, persuaded Canaletto

in 1746. In

and successful painter

historical scenes. Like

in

to Venice after a

on canvas. h396.2 x w304.8 cm. hl56 x

wl20

in.

Moor

Park.

Rickmansworth

Andre

Thirty-six industrially

magnesium and
floor.

Zinc Magnesium Plain

Carl
produced square

bound together

in

on the

any way; each can

Nor

be picked up and interchanged with another.

up

to create a vertical structure; they simply

ground. They do not stand upright

in

space

the floor to be trodden

Carl Andre, b Quincy.

Magnesium

on and walked

over.

are they
sit

on the

like traditional

sculpture; they are not crying out to be seen, but

Zinc

flat

Contrary to the traditional concept of sculpture, these

separate parts are not

built

influenced by the

of pure

plates

zinc have been alternately placed

merge with

)riginally

work of Frank

Stella

Brancusi, from i960 to 1964 Andre

and Constantin

worked on the

Pennsylvania Railway which involved using standardized,


interchangeable units.

From

the mid-1960s he assembled

groups of bricks, styrofoam planks and cement blocks,


extending them horizontally on the

floor.

The

configurations of these identical shapes are determined by

simple mathematical pnnciples.

Albers. Brancusi. Judd, LeWitt. Long. Serra. Stella

MA. 1935

Plain.

1969. Zinc and magnesium. H182.9 x W182.9 cm. h72 x

w72

in.

Baltimore

Museum

of Art. Baltimore.

MD

Andrea
I

U.i\

Mary ascends

the Virgin
angels.

peers into

no longer

donor and of

at

Assumption of the Virgin


Above,

group of

to check that her

body

for

which the

altarpiece

in its rigid

is

is

was

typical of

del Sarto b Florence. 1486. d Florence.


of the Virgin.

cl526.

Oil

To

create an altarpiece like this, he

in his

studies of each figure.

time as 'the perfect painter', Andrea del Sarto

studied under Piero di

Cosimo and produced many

He

has been described as a cold,

important frescos.

unimaginative painter, but few sixteenth-century

"

Fra

Bartolommeo.

Murillo. Perugino. Piero di

1530

on panel. h379 x

artists

achieved his harmonious use of colour or his technical

composition. Florentine

were generally superb draughtsmen, and Andrea del

on

Sarto was no exception.

would probably have made many

Known

the event, as St

of the scene. The painting

High Renaissance

artists

parts.

Nicholas and Margaret, patrons of

town

the

in front

two

into heaven, helped by a

Man's grave

there. Saints

made, kneel
the

this picture into

Below, the \postles marvel

Thomas
the

del Sarto

en and earth divide

w222 cm. hl49 x w87'/6

in.

Palazzo

Pitti,

Florence

Cosimo

skill.

Fra Angelico
The Archangel Gabriel
to give birth to the

tells

the Virgin

The Annunciation

Mary

that six

simplified forms

simplicity arc the outstanding features of this painting.

kneels and

hows her head

message. The fresco

is

as she

humbly accepts

painted on a

cell

Dominican monk

in 1407.)

On

the

Florentine

Gabriel's

the Martyr prays as he watches the scene; he

a friar.
left,
is

di Pietro).

b Vicchio

di

his sensitive treatment

(He

visionary,

St Peter

art.

light

and

in

celebrated religious painter in his lifetime,

harmonious paintings on many Christian themes.

He

died while painting a private chapel at the Vatican.

"

Martini. Piero della Francesca. Tintoretto

included in

Mugello. cl387. d

of

he earned the nickname Angelico ('Angelic') from his

the picture to encourage the viewer to contemplate the

Fra Angelico (Guido

doing. Fra Angelico's powerful and

is

and

colour arc indicative of the recent developments

Mary

wall in the

monasten of San Marco where Angelico was


became

Annunciation as he

is

Son of God. Calmness, order and

Rome. 1455

The Annunciation. C1441-3. Fresco. hl87 x v157 cm. h73'/ix w61'/6

in.

Museo

di

San Marco, Florence

Anguissokso
The

artist

woman:

Self-portrait

Que.n of Spain

has portrayed herself as an honest and devout

she looks

at us

with a frank gaze as she fingers the

cross around her neck. Anguissola


in

fonisba

Genoa and Palermo - an

in the sixteenth century.

three-year apprenticeship

Duke of Alba

in

)f

was

a leading portraitist

extraordinary feat for a

noble birth, Anguissola began

when

time'.

woman

she was quite young.

The

Spain drew her to the attention of the

said

of Anguissola

excellent painter of portraits,

that she
all

was

of her family. All of these have

tenderness, as well as
life

the

a direct

a special

approach. Towards the end of

young Anthony van Dyck became her

and painted her likeness

as

an old woman.

Spanish Court, and she went on to become Court painter

and lady-in-waiting

to the

Spanish Queen.

letter

from the

Van Dyck, Ramsay, Sittow. Verrocchio, Vigee-Lebrun

Sofonisba Anguissola. b Cremona, cl532. d Palermo, 1625


Self-portrait.

cl600.

Oil

on canvas. h22 x

wl7

cm.

h8% x w6%

'an

the painters of this

Anguissola painted numerous self-portraits and

portraits

her

above

Private collection

friend,

Antonello da Messina
Stealing a look through the

open window of St [erome's

study, the viewer sees the saint absorbed in his reading.


the lion

on

Only

the nght pauses in his tracks to acknowledge the

outside world.

It is

possible that Antonello was influenced by

aspects of Netherlandish painting; details such as the objects

on

the shelves, the tiled floor, the birds perched

on

the

windowsill and the qualm of the light arc reminiscent of the


intense realism of paintings by Robert
F.vck.

There

is

no proof

that

in his

Antonello ever

Study. C1475-6.

Oil

Jerome

in his

Study

have been familiar with the techniques of the

to

Netherlandish masters. Several authorities believe he was


taught

oil

himself,
likely,

painting techniques by the master

and then brought the

'secret'

Antonello was influenced by Flemish

In 1475-6 he

was

greatly influenced

in

Van

method

left Italy,

but he

Giovanni

Bellini,

h46xw36.5cm. hl8xwl4^

in.

More

Milan.

Venice, where his innovative technique

Giovanni

Bellini.

Campin. Van Eyck, Patenier. Reni

1479

on panel.

I'.vck

to Italy.

artists in

Campin and Jan van

Antonello da Messina. Active 1456. d Messina.


Saint Jerome

seems

Saint

National Gallery. London

Appel k

Phantom with Mask

Karel

The

central figure fixes his eyes

The

with a demonic expression.


characteristic force in thick,

harsh and brutal image


a childlike quality.
a liberating,

Appel

movement, which was formed

and teeth on the viewer


paint

is

the abstraction of post-war

sweeping strokes, creating a

but there

is

also

humour, and

finds the very act

almost sensual experience.

He

it

representative example of the

Karel Appel. b Amsterdam.

Phantom with Mask. 1952.

Oil

on canvas. hll6

lifeless

European

and too passive. Instead,

paintings and mythological tales for

now

The

painting

artists

is

lives in

New York, where

painting, considering

turned to children's

it

of applying paint

work of the Cobra

1921

1948 by a group of

delights in

combining raw energv, expressed through slashes of wild


colour, with savage, challenging subjects.

in

from Copenhagen, Brussels and Amsterdam. Cobra rejected

applied with

its

inspiration.

Appel

he continues to paint

exuberant, representative images in dazzlingly lurid colours.


a

Baselitz, Dubuffet,

De Kooning,

Pollock

Archipenko
At

first

closer,

Alexander

Walki rig

glance this sculpture seems to be abstract. Looking


it

is

possible to see a walking

made out of bronze with

woman, who

has been

green surface. Archipenko

created the figure by using gaps and by hollowing out


sections.

Her head,

for example,

created by the bronze around

work

in the history

it.

is

made from

This

is

of Western sculpture

concepts of construction, representing

from the

Classical tradition.

Alexander Archipenko. b

Kiev.

the space

possibly the

first

to introduce such

a radical

1887. d New
in.

York, NY.

movement, which challenged and redefined

traditional

approach to portraying the human form. His use

of holes and spaces to create a new way of looking

human

figure paralleled the Cubists'

the subject, portraying a

1964

Private collection

the

at the

method of fragmenting

number of views of the same

object simultaneously. Archipenko developed his sculptural

techniques further by mixing together different materials.

departure

Archipenko was associated with

Walking. 1912. Bronze. h67.3 cm. h26V;

the Cubist

* Braque.

Giacomettl. Lipchitz. Picasso

Arcimboldo Giuseppe
Up

close, this painting looks like a greengrocer's

Moving away from


It

has been

summer -

made

human head

the picture, a

entirely

of the

fruits

found. While he often used


his portraits,

fruits

Arcimboldo was

and vegetables of

and vegetables

also

known
his

most important works were painted

in Prague,

a series

all

be

to create

to use pots, pans

and even workmen's tools to create

was employed by

emerges.

and plums can

pears, peaches, cherries

Summer

dream.

weird images. His

where he

of Hapsburg emperors.

ArcimboJdQ had other courtly duties besides


as designing decorations for festivities,

Emperor's collection and, strangely enough,

art for the

designing and constructing waterworks. Arcimboldo's


paintings were looked

Oil

on canvas. h76 x w63.5 cm. h30 x

w25

recognized

Musee du

a fellow artist

as slighdy
It

who

became popular.
"Dali. De

upon

were imitated often enough.

Heem. Koons.

Giuseppe Arcimboldo. b Milan. 1527. d Milan. 1593

Summer. 1573.

painting, such

purchasing works of

Louvre, Paris

Magritte

was not

silly,

although thev

until the Surrealists

loved visual puns that he

Arp

Leaves and Navels,

Small circular forms punctuate the

shadows of

their

the white painted

shapes

in relief

stillness

wood background. They

harmonious pattern with no


fluttering

of leaves

drops of

rain falling

in

the

on

of

this

distinguishing

logical order,

work, the

them from

arc arranged in a

Arp's work

characterized bv

is

art

their riotous

forms, which arc highly poetic and suggestive in their

writing.

He was

intimately involved with several of the

first

half of the twentieth

and infamous 'happenings'

wrote poetry, created collages, made


the one

delicacy.

the

Dada movement. The Zurich

shown

here)

wood

Cornell, Hepworth, Mondrian. Schwitters

Kj

u
s-

w.

Arp. b Strasbourg, 1886. d Basle,

Navels,

I.

1966

1930. Painted wood. hlOl x

many

the Cabaret

w81 cm. h39& x w31%

in.

Museum

of

Modern

reliefs

(such as

and experimented with automatic

w.

at

Voltaire. In his quest for a spontaneous, elementary art he

ust of sensuous sculptural shapes recalling organic

its

movements of

Dadaists were formed in 1916 and Arp participated in

of

evoking the

wind or the natural randomness of

glass.

major

century, particularly the

Art,

New

York,

NY

Audubon
From

its

odd, spoon-shaped

feather, this bird has

Audubon's

John James

bill

Roseate Spoonbill

the splendidly illustrated

included 435 plates.

book

Audubon

Audubon had

care.

desire to classify the birds he observed in

America, coupled with careful

though the book on birds concentrated on North America,

to each fantastic pink

been depicted with immense

North

scientific research, resulted in

Birds of America

which

scientific

alongside the famous French Neo-Classicist Jacques-Louis

David.

He coupled

his skills as a painter

with a passion for

ornithology to create a practical use for his training.

John James Audubon, b Les Cayes.

Haiti.

1785. d New

Even

York, NY,

it

and remains both

which

Agasse.

He

in

America and

spent the

last

seven years of his

companion volume, The Qnadmpeds


illustrative skills

knowledge.

Catlin, J-L David,

Stubbs

1851

Roseate Spoonbill. 1835-8. Engraving on paper. h64.7 x w95.2 cm. h25Vi x

w37M

in.

Britain,

work of art and an important

combines exquisite

also

naturalistic

was published

a beautiful

document.

compiling

trained to be a painter

to travel to Britain to find funding for his

work. Ultimately

From The Birds of America. 1835-8,

Vol

life

of America,

with

Auerbach
The

Frank

surface of this picture, which

artist's

is

and

gullies.

Auerbach

is

of one of the

newspapers compressed

regular sitters, looks like wet

into ridges

a portrait

well

known

YM

Seated in the Studio VI

paint in a different

way

to the others in this loose grouping

of artists. He adds thick

layers

and then scrapes them back,

creating the subject through his manipulation of the paint

tor his

known

work with great

technique. Brushfuls of paint are dragged in violent swirls

and the surface. Auerbach

across the picture surface, creating arms and eyes, legs and

discipline, regularly

cheeks. These are not restful, comfortable works to look

studio has remained unchanged since 1954,

at;

instead they invite the viewer into a world of squashy

movement,
Auerbach

is

as thick
a

and sensuous

it

- Bacon,

Kitaj.

his friend

but uses

Oil

night, even- day. His

Leon KossorT.

De Kooning, Kossoff, Sutherland

1931

M Seated in the Studio VI

to

till

peanut butter.

member of the School of London,

Frank Auerbach. b Berlin,


J

as

from

inherited

is

from morning

on canvas. h55.9 x w50.8 cm. h22 x

w20

in.

Private collection

when he

Avercamp Hen<Mck
An

enure town

a frozen lake.

skies

of

of the
lower
(It is

The

of people seems to be enjoying

such as the

The

attention to detail in

woman

brings the scene to

said that

A
itself

on

picture wonderfully evokes the chilly

northern winter.

figures,
left,

full

Avercamp was

life,

giving

it

hence

Town

specializing in small-scale easel paintings for the

many

with her red sash at the

deaf,

Scene on the Ice Near

patronage because of Protestant reform. This led to painters

a joyful feeling.

his acute visual

new market

of private collectors. Avercamp was well known for

his

wintery scenes, which are similar in style to those of Jan


Bruegel, and his careful observation of lighting effects
his paintings highly prized.

He was

also

made

one of the

sense and the almost anecdotal quality of his minutely

originators of realist landscape painnng in seventeenth-

detailed paintings.) Seventeenth-century Holland witnessed

centurv Holland.

a rise in the

middle classes and a decline

in

"

church

Bruegel. Cuyp. Van Goyen. Lowry. Raeburn. Ruisdael

Hendrick Avercamp b Amsterdam. 1585. d Amsterdam. 1634

A Scene on the

Ice Near a Town.

cl615.

Oil

on panel. h58 x

w90

cm. H22 /- x w35i6

in.

National Gallery. London

Bacon

Study after Velazquez's Portrait of Pope Innocent X

Francis
i

This terrifying image, based on Diego Velazquez's famous


portrait, depicts the tortured expression

treatment of them

is

shockingly perverse. As

painting, he highlighted the distasteful, and

of a blood-

spattered Pope, imprisoned in a tubular construction

disgusting, depths of the

resembling an unpadded throne. The background, painted

intensity.

in

dramatic vertical strokes, cruelly blurs out the screaming

figure as he sits helplessly with

clenched

fists.

While Bacon's

sources and subject matter were often based on


traditional

real

those of the

develop

his

artist

own

human psyche

his early

Graham

with nightmarish

works have been likened

stills

or X-rays, for instance

Francis Bacon, b Dublin, 1909. d Madrid,

particular idiom, remaining best

his often horrific distortions

of the

human

Des Moines,

IA

Manzu. Soutine, Sutherland, Velazquez

1992

Study after Velazquez's Portrait of Pope Innocent X. 1953.


Art Center.

'* Bosch,

his

Oil

on canvas. hl53 x v118 cm. h60% x

to

Sutherland, Bacon progressed to

images - Old Master paintings, newspaper

phi itographs, film

Des Moines

or

Although

in this

sometimes the

w46H

in.

form.

known

for

BaldungHans
These four

Death

is

The Three Ages of Man and Death

figures are an allegory

of the three ages of man.

Around him

are a sleeping

maiden (youth) and


Baldung was

baby

(infancy), a youthful

haggard old

woman

their times

shows

that

he studied the nude

figure closely. Like his teacher Albrecht Durer,

both a painter and a printmaker.

He

created

Baldung was

many

through the use of fantasy.

most important commissions was

(old age).

productive draughtsman, and the realism of

the bodies in this picture

books. Like Hieronymus Bosch, Baldung was one of a

group of artists that expressed the terror and suffering of

portrayed as a skeleton holding an hourglass.

altar at

Freiburg Cathedral, which he

in Strasbourg, a

community.

engravings, and also designed stained glass and illustrated

"

Bosch, Cranach, Durer. Ribera

Hans Baldung. b Schwabisch-Gmund, cl484. d Strasbourg, 1545


The Three Ages

of

Man and

Death. 1539.

Oil

on panel. hl51 x

w61 cm.

h591* x w24

in.

Museo

del Prado. Madrid

of Baldung's

in
16. He
member of the

made

wealthy and influential

fanciful

One

for the panels over the


1 5

died

Balla Giacomo
A

flock of swallows swirl

window.
placing

Flight of the Swallows

and dive outside the

Balla has recreated their speed

them

in precise

and movement by

sequence, one after another.

appears to have included the

rigidity

symbol

artist's

He

for the

dynamism of the modern world.

publicly declared his affiliation to the Futurist

March

1910.

With Gino

Severini,

Balla

movement

Carlo Carra he developed the notion of depicting

of the shutters to

contrast their motionlessness with the birds' continuous

movement by

presenting the same form over and over

movement.

again, like the

stills

during a
is

Balla painted a series

visit to

of swallow paintings

Diisseldorf from 191

good example of the work of

2 to 191 3.

The

were primarily concerned with depicting morion

Giacomo

Balla. b Turin,

Flight of the Swallows.

picture

the Italian Futurists,


as a

in

Umberto Boccioni and

who

moved away from


more
"

from

a video tape.

this style

From

1931 Balla

of painting, and developed

figurative approach.

Boccioni. Braque. Carra, Catlin, Feininger. Gris. Severini

1871. d Rome, 1958


1913. Tempera on paper. h50.8 x w76.2 cm. h20 x

w30

in.

Museum

of

Modern

Art,

New

York,

NY

Balthus
A

simple scene presents

stark

and gloomv

Girl and Cat


itself:

interior, a

an adolescent

contented cat

at

directed at the

girl sits in a

her

feet.

Yet

somehow disturbing, perhaps because of its


we looking at an innocent girl, or a
sexually sophisticated young woman? In fact, what Balthus
has captured is the disturbing quality of adolescence, when
the image

is

erotic overtones: are

the innocence of childhood, portrayed by the cat,


aside by the

is

new, sexual feelings of adulthood. This

emphasized by the

and Cat. 1937.

Andre Derain. He

on panel. h88 x

w78 cm.

h34! x

is

known

charged paintings such as


sleeping,

artists as Pierre

Bonnard and

particularlv for eroticallv

this,

featuring

daydreaming or reading within

young
a

is
is

Bonnard, Derain.

w30%

in.

Private collection

Foujita.

girls

darkened

pushed

fact that the only light in the picture

Oil

Although Balthus received no

and was encouraged by such

Balthus (Balthazar Klossowski de Rola). b Paris. 1912


Girl

girl's thighs.

formal art training, he studied the Old Masters extensively

Rego. Schiele. Sherman

interior.

Fra Bartolommeo
I

Resurrected Christ with Saints

he billowing drapery, the raised arm of Christ, die pointing

anus and turned heads contribute


sense of movement

to the

in this painting.

overwhelming

The powerful

figure

of

contemplation
painting

in

in

Florence.

[ere

priest

and controversial

Savonarola - so

much

Dominican Order when Savonarola was burnt

Fra

Bartolommeo (Baccio

della Porta), b Florence.


Oil

della

this

he was

allegedly destroyed
figure,

all

saidied the works of Leonardo da Yinci and created

on

religious subjects.

"

Carracci. Leonardo. Michelangelo, Raphael

cl474. d Florence. C1517

on canvas. h284 x

w204

sinful.

and

of Michelangelo and Raphael, Fra Bartolommeo

brilliantly vivid paintings

at the

his paintings

considering them

so that he entered

the

Resurrected Christ with Saints. 1516.

Ira Baccio

Porta - and

friend

he was profoundly influenced by

the preaching of the charismatic

Dominican

Bartolommeo studied

the viewer. Fra

Fra

Bartolommeo - before
drawings of the nude

Christ dominates the composition, inspiring worship and

name
known as

stake in 1498. At tins point he took the

cm. H11134 x W80V4

in.

Palazzo

Pitti.

Florence

Baselitzceorg
1

[arsh finger

this

More Blondes

and brush strokes have been used to depict

upside-down female nude, imprisoned by

border.

The strong impact of the

achieved by the

artist actually

Baselitz has portrayed the

thick black paint

in colour,

and simple, with no distracdng

detail.

which

is

colourful and liberated brushwork.

was

by
a

crudely, without

compassion or subdety. Muted

figure

violent and distinctive images with topsy-turvy figures and

heavy black

walking on the canvas.

woman

likes to paint theatrical sets

her image

is

stark

This avant-garde

He

hacked

Baselitz's

that

artist

work

prosecutor

'"

paints

figure,

away

at a

Oil

on canvas. hl62 x

wl30 cm.

1163% x w5116

in.

also

makes sculpture

which he often daubs with red pigment.


is

aggressive and expressive to the extent

who

claimed that

certain kinds

Van Gogh.

it

might 'arouse sexual desire

of viewers'.

Fautrier, Kiefer,

De Kooning, Polke

Georg Baselitz b Sachsen. 1938

More Blondes. 1992.

He

massive chunk of wood leaving

one of his paintings was seized by the public

among

with a shouting or gesticulating

repeated from canvas to canvas.

fiercely cutting

Anthony d'Offay Gallery, London

BaSqiliat Jean-Michel

Untitled

Crudely drawn figures, handwritten phrases and

formulae arc jumbled together on

background, forming

a visual

scientific

multi-coloured

cacophony of colour and

shapes. The primitive and childlike images reflect Basquiat's


links with graffiti art.

The

painting seems to be a distillation

New York underworld of the

of"

the

its

multi-ethnic, hip-hop culture

moving, chaotic
series

reality

of the

and

artist's roots,

evoking

reflecting the fast-

city's street life

through

Untitled.

1984.

New York.

Acrylic, silkscreen

NY. 1960. d

and

oilstick

New

York. NY.

some of whom worked

subways, and indeed he started his

by daubing

graffiti

on public

walls.

in

own

New

York's

short-lived career

His international

reputation was rapidly established and rose with meteoric

speed - fuelled by the

art

boom

death from a drugs overdose

of the 1980s -

at the

age of 26.

of disconnected images and written fragments.

Jean-Michel Basquiat. b

Basquiat was part of a loosely associated group of so-called


graffiti artists,

Dubuffet. Gaudier-Brzeska, Rauschenberg,

Twombly

1986

on canvas. h223.5 x wl95.6 cm. h88 x

w77

in.

Estate of Jean-Michel Basquiat

until his

Bassano
Two
on

by two,

to the

Noah and

his family usher a

crowd of animals

Ark before the break of dawn. The boat

important part of the picture, as the


side

The Animals Entering

j acopo

artist

is

not an

shows only

and

alive

do they seem. To

Bassano must have studied

and even turkeys.

prolific

kinds of animals

real

dogs, cats

draughtsman, Bassano often

used bright chalks to help him

in

works appear somewhat

style

evolved into

designing his colourful

of central

Italian

masters such as Francesco

of Bassano's sons followed

Oil

on canvas. h207 x

w265

Salviati. All

four

in their father's footsteps,

although only one of them, Francesco, achieved distinction


as a painter.

Hicks, Salviati, Savery, Tintoretto, Veronese

Jacopo Bassano (Jacopo da Ponte). b Dal Ponte. cl510. d Bassano, 1592


The Animals Entering the Ark. cl590.

provincial, but

a sophisticated

Tintoretto and Veronese, coupled with the vibrant figures

create this wonderful menagerie,


all

over the years his

Ark

synthesis of the colouring of Venetian masters such as

its

and door. Instead, he has focused on the parade of

wonderful beasts. They almost spring off the canvas, so

paintings. His early

the

cm. H81i$ x

wl04M

in.

Museo

del Prado, Madrid

Batonipo,
A sumptuous
topped
the

silk suit,

In a fur cape,

man

Thomas

kpe<

trimmed with

makes up the

in this portrait.

The

statue

lace

and hows and

exquisite outfit

of Venus, the colonnade

and the broken pediment give the viewer clues


setting

is

Rome. Thomas Coke was

worn by

that the

who completed

his

education by going on the traditional Grand Tour of the

European continent. Batoni himself was one of

the

Batoni. b Lucca, 1708. d

William Coke. 1774.

Oil

smooth

portraits

classes.

The

many of his commissions


le was best known for his

of popes, monarchs and the

latter

centre of

" Dobson,

art,

and

his

artistic, intellectual

and

social debate.

Hilliard, Kneller,

Moroni

Rome. 1787

on canvas. H245.8 x W170.3 cm. h96 3/. x

w67

In.

upper

souvenir from the Grand Tour. Batoni was

as a

curator of the Pope's collection of

became

British

considered his portraits a 'must' to bring

most

wealthy and successful painters of the eighteenth-century

Pompeo

school of painting, and

were from eminent foreigners.

home

the quintessential

eighteenth-century wealthy gentleman,

Roman

William Coke

Holkham

Hall.

Norfolk

house

Baumeister
Large egg-shaped blots
this picture.

Mortaruru with Red Overhead

Willi

of colour appear on the surface of

Their relationship to each other

formalistically

and colourisrically

disjointed feeling of tension

is

been termed

both

forms could provide images

unclear, creating a

and uneasiness. The small

appendages are connected to the parent blocks with


delicate, fragile lines that

make them seem

'abstract Surrealism'.

He was much concerned

with the philosophy of an, believing that freely imagined


relating to the deeper, primitive

roots of humanity

Das Unbekanntt

derYjmst ('The

in

ideas

which he

representations of 'other'

realities.

works were influenced by Fernand Leger and others, but he

Willi

to

develop a personal form of expression that has

Baumeister b

Stuttgart.

Arp. Dali. Heron, Leger. Matisse. Miro

1889. d Stuttgart. 1955

Mortaruru with Red Overhead. 1953.

Oil

on board. hlOO x

out

in his

194-

in Art').

book

His

paintings are not entirely subjectless, but are intended as

like

mathematically induced organic growths. Baumeister's early

went on

set

Unknown

w81 cm.

h39VS x

w31 -4
7

in.

Private collection

Bazille

hisiik Ins studio, Bazille

fellow artists
hat).

To

die

The

Fred(
is

showing one of

his pictures to

Edouard Manet and Claude Monet


left is

Pierre

Vuguste Renoir seated

(with the
.

deep

conversation with the writer Emile /.ola (standing on


It

is a

in

stairs).

fascinating glimpse into the world of the artist at that

time, his friends


itself also

shows

and everyday surroundings. The picture


Ba/ille's

hold modelling of figures, and the

broad handling of colours that became

his hallmark.

Although he died four years before the

first

Frederic Bazille b Montpellier. 1841. d

The Artists Studio on the rue de

la

Impressionist

Artist's

Studio on the rue de

exhibition, Bazille

executed

is

a radically

closely linked with the

new

is

with Prussia

at

movement

life.

small as he

The number of paintings

was

killed in battle in the

academy, known

* Manet. Monet.

as

Oil

on canvas. h97 /

wll2

was rejected by the French

Le Salon.

Renoir. Sisley. Teniers

cm. h38^ x

w44

/t

as he

in.

Musee

d'Orsay.

Pans

that

war

the age of only 29. His death occurred

shortly after this painting

Beaune -la-Roland. 1870

Condamine. 1870.

Condamine

kind of painting that recorded his

observations of everyday

he produced

la

BeauneveuAndt
St Philip sits

on an

Saint Philip

elaborate Gothic throne.

The

artist

has

folds

of

his

The throne
at realistic

awkwardly

robe where
itself

it

has spread out on the ground.

Berry,

recedes into the background in an attempt

perspective, but the saint seems to be floating


in his seat,

not solidly fixed to anything or held

by gravity. The picture comes from a page in a psalter or

Book of Psalms

that

was made

duke was a great patron of the

Active

in

for Jean,
arts,

who

Due de

Berry.

of manuscripts. This included the


Tre's

Riches Heures

small so that they could be carried about easily.


that

Beauneveu was working on

illustration

this

Valenciennes, 1361. d Valenciennes,

Antonello, Van Eyck, Fouquet. Limbourg

cl402

xwlO cm. h5xw4

in.

Due

de

Bibliotheque Nationale. Paris

At the time

manuscript, the

of religious works was experiencing

Renaissance France.

ciii

by the Limbourg brothers. Psalters were made very

The

prided himself on

Saint Philip. C1380/5. Illumination on vellum. hl2.7

his large collection

wonderful book of hours, the

paid particular attention to his bearded face, and to the

a revival in

Beccafumi d<

Tanaquil, Wife of

The contemporary appearance of the


hairstyle belie the fact that she

pointing to

a tablet

which

persuaded her husband to


as

King Tarquinius

is

identifies her as

move

Priscius

gown and
Roman; she is
Tanaquil, who

sitter's

an Ancient

to

Rome where

from 616

to 578

BC

become hallmarks

of

Lucomo

Mannerism. An imaginative

and draughtsman, Beccafumi

is

famous

artist

for decorating the

churches of Siena with many paintings and frescos.

combine

work

[e

he reigned

able to

During the

here with the bright and decorative colours typical of

the ideas formalized in the

He

famous

Renaissance, Tanaquil was greatly admired for her fortitude

Sienese painting.

and perseverance and was thus seen

an elaborate marble pavement inside Siena Cathedral,

figure.
in

The

soft colours

and elongated forms show Tanaquil

an elegant and sensitive

Domenico Beccafumi. b
Tanaquil, Wife of

as a notable historical

stvle.

Valdibiena.

Lucomo. cl520.

These elements were

particularly

decorated with scenes from the

"

to

is

on panel. h92 x

w53 cm. h36 /4 x w21


l

)ld

and

for designing

New Testaments.

Cranach, Goya, Parmigianino, Rosso Fiorentino

cl486. d Siena, 1551

Oil

in.

National Gallery, London

was

illustrated

Beckmann Max
Horror and
serenity

Departure

brutality are juxtaposed in stark contrast with

and peace

in this triptych.

The

left

and

right panels

depict nightmare scenes of torture and degradation, in

which men and

women

are subjected to terrible pain, while

the centre panel portrays spiritual figures in the blue of an

apparently infinite sea.

most powerful

The work

in a series

is

considered to be the

of nine triptychs Beckmann

painted. It mirrors the political turbulence

during the early 1930s,

Max Beckmann.

when

the rise of

b Leipzig. 1884. d

Departure. 1932-5.

Oil

New

Nazism and

York. NY.

on canvas. h215.5 x

of Germany
the

consequent constricting atmosphere put the future of


into question.

force the artist's

own

feelings,

and could therefore be

considered as an example of Expressionism,


not

ally

Beckmann

did

himself to any particular movement. In 1938

political
last

art

Although the painting evokes with powerful

persecution drove him to Amsterdam.

three years of his

life

in the

spread the influence of contemporarv

" Bosch.

He

spent the

USA, where he helped

German

to

art.

Ensor, Heckel, Kokoschka. Orozco. Siqueiros

1950

w314

cm.

h84% x wl23%

in.

Museum

of

Modern

Art,

New

York,

NY

Bellini cc mile

The

Renaissance Venetians took great pride

was

common

for

works of art

special events.

The

excuse tor the

artist to

his skill as well.

"miracle'

The

show

shown here

which Gentile

off everyday

lived

life in

all

part

Venice, and

of the beautiful

chimneys are painted with equal

is

and the bricks

full

in

crowd and

illuminates the

came from an important dynasty of

Venetian painters, which included his father Jacopo and

his

younger brother Giovanni. In 1479 he travelled to

city

Constantinople where he worked

Mohammed

of

11

and painted

in the

durt ot

his portrait.

the

~ Giovanni

and concern. In

skill

picks out the figures in the


buildings. Gentile

used as an

and worked. The scene

delightful details: ladies' jewellery

is

addition, Gentile has infused the scene with a soft light that

il

to depict

gondoliers, monks, society ladies and

gentlemen, palaces and canal arc


in

and

in their citj

commissioned

to be

Miracle of the True Cross near the San Lorenzo Bridge

Bellini, Bellotto.

Canaletto, Guardi, Hiroshige

jBP^^^Kr'
TW\
liL IB

f"

Jr.
1

wMKLB

-.

Gentile Bellini, b Venice. C1429. d Venice.

1507

The Miracle of the True Cross near the San Lorenzo


Gallena dell'Accademia, Venice

1500.

Oil

on canvas. h323 x

w430 cm.

hl27'/j x wl69'/i

in.

':^^'.

Bellini Giovanni
With

its

idealized face

Youne Woman

and distant landscape,

recalls

some of Bellini's paindngs of the

aim of

this

this painting

Virgin Mary.

The

work, however, was certainly not to create an

object of religious devotion; this nude presents us with a


secular ideal of feminine beauty.

famous member of the


popularize the

much of the

new

Bellini

Young

oil

credit for transforming

Bellini,

Woman

dynasty and did

technique of

centre of the Renaissance.

Giovanni

Giovanni was the most

much

to

years

Bellini's pictures

was

common

workshop

at the

paintings

b Venice, cl434. d Venice,

his early

Bellini led

"

own. Today

be superior, but

h62

w79 cm. h24% x w31

his pupils.

would have been valued

Bellini's

at the time,

\s

own

as the master's

Kunsthistonsches Museum, Vienna

paintings

any workshop

Gentile Bellini, Giorgione. Ingres. Mantegna, Titian

1516

at her Toilet. 1515. Oil on panel.

an active

time the master would sign the

paintings as his

Venice into an important

on

Andrea Mantegna. However,

tend to be romantic and imaginative, where

Mantegna's are sharp and precise.

are considered to

influence

her Toilet

workshop, with Titian and Giorgione among

painting. In fact, he takes

The major

at

his brother-in-law

\\.i>

work.

Bellmer h
\

The Spinning Top

whirling skeletal female form spins on

top which she

in

woman

turning the hearts and heads of men, as she spins

defiance of gravity. Relating to


sculpture, conceived in

Bellmer's

9569,

it

is

buyer

in

Surrealist

certainly

in

one of

when Bellmer had found

[956. Polish-born, Bellmer

active

to Paris in 1958. This painting

Hans Bellmer. b Katowice. 1902. d


The Spinning Top. C1937-56.

became an

Oil

Paris.

many of

the

movement's preoccupations -

directly

from the

central

theme was

artist's

that

w65 cm.

subconscious

fantasies. Bellmer's

of the female body, often treated

He

is

known

his disturbingly fetishistic 'Dolls', a series

in

particularly for

of articulated

female mannequins, and for his drawings and lithographs,

executed with superb technical precision.

Brauner. Dali. Delvaux. Ernst. Matta. Tanguy

1975

on canvas. h65 x

its

phantasmagoric imager} appears to have emerged

an obsessivelv erotic manner.

most haunting images. The painting was reworked

when he moved

reflects

distorted,

unrealized project for a

.in

over several years, and only signed


a

is

her bony hand. This peculiar image symbolizes

holding

h25;t x w25i*

in.

Tate Gallery. London

Bellotto Bernardo
With splendid
crusty plaster

View of the Ponte


evoked the

visual accuracy the artist has

and brickwork of buildings, and the bright

play of sunlight

on

the city skyline. Bellotto

was the nephew

and pupil of Canaletto, and for a time worked with the


master as an assistant in Venice. Bellotto's

much

like his uncle's

in fact

Canaletto, which caused


Bellotto's

much

works are cooler and

interested in clouds,

style is

very

he sometimes signed himself


confusion. However,
crisper,

shadows and

paintirigs also include


as

can be seen

delle Navi,

more

figure

in this picture,

with

Verona

groups than Canaletto's its

strolling couples,

running children, and so on. In 1746 Bellotto

and

visited other Italian cities.

Dresden and,
capital

used in

finally,

Warsaw.

He

left

Bellotto's views

of the Polish

were considered of such accuracy that they were


its

reconstruction after the Second

World War.

and he was more

foliage. Bellotto's

**

Venice

then travelled to Munich,

Gentile Bellini, Bonmgton. Canaletto, Guardi, Pannini

BelloWS George
On

the right

dive.
at

The

of the

pier

;i

child

is

Forty-two Kids

frozen

children have been caughl

the split-second of action.

The

.is

artisi

brushstrokes to simplify the bodies

in

in a

if in a

half-completed

photograph,

has used rapid

order to give the

impression of a fleeting moment. Bellows turned his hack

on

the formality of the artists

their

posed portraits and

aimed

to capture real

and inspired by

lite

who came

idyllic

as he

group known

before him, with

landscapes. Instead,

saw
as

it.

The

He was
Eight,

he-

that art should reflect reality, particularly the gritty reality

the city. Bellows often painted subjects that


vitalit]
I

le

of city

life

such

as

crowded neighbourhood

different subjects

Bellows personified the American


eagerness both

in his

painting and

believed

'" Eakins, Hopper, Vuillard,

George Bellows, b Columbus. OH, 1882. d New York, NY, 1925


Forty-two Kids. 1907.

Oil

on canvas. hl07.6 x

wl53 cm.

M2% * w60M

in.

Corcoran Gallery of

Art.

of enthusiasm

in his lire.

Wyeth

Washington DC

life

and techniques.

spirit

influenced

who

Streets.

painted portraits as well as landscapes, and later in

experimented with

of

evoked the

:uil\

Bernini Gianlorenzo

The Ecstasy of Saint Theresa

In a vision, St Theresa of Avila sees an angel thrusting a

combines the

golden spear into her heart. Swooning

Annibale Carracci and Guido Reni.

spiritual

in physical

and

abandon - symbolic of her love of God - she

expresses the intensity of her mystical experience for


see.

This marble group

spirit

full

is

to

example of the Baroque

a perfect

artist

and delicacy of

finish

of the
of

Italian

Baroque. The virtuosity

his statues

is

his

contemporaries Caravaggio,

An

Gianlorenzo Bernini, b Naples, 1598. d Rome,

it

single artist has left

the

city.

The

Rome's

his grandest architectural

1680
i

monopolized

such an indelible imprint as he has on

layout of

St Peter's Square

achievements.

(* Caravaggio, Carracci, Michelangelo, Reni

also

1646-52. Marble. h350 cm. hl38

accomplished

papal commissions during Rome's 'golden age'; no other

reminiscent both of

Michelangelo and of Antique statuary, although

of Saint Theresa.

of

architect as well as a sculptor, Bernini virtually

of drama, emotion and movement. Bernini was

an outstanding

The Ecstasy

all

styles

Santa Maria della

Vittoria,

Rome

is

one of

Beuys Josef
Inis stitched

Warmth.

It

felt

suit

symbolizes and evokes

shelter

because

fabric.

Beuys was

felt is
.it

having

and

to organizing anarchistic events

for social

a spiritual

and

was copied from one he wore

political

change.

also

saw

it

1970. Stitched

felt.

hl70

'

wlOO

le

saw the

in

and animal

role

of the

in.

were among

artist as parallel to that

suit,

were produced

in large editions.

Broodthaers, Duchamp. Oldenburg.

w39^

fat

his

of the

new powers and new meaning. Beuys achieved cult status in


his native Germany, and many of his works, including this

1986
cm. h67 x

(felt

as

dimension, and believed that

Josef Beuys. b Krefeld. 1921. d Dusseldorf.


Felt Suit.

He

materials

shaman, channelling energy from objects and giving them

an anti-Vietnam event Beuys considered art as a

medium

commonplace

favourites) could be invested with an intense healing power.

sense of safety and

an insulating and life-protecting

"happenings', and this suit


at

one stage connected with Fluxus,

movement dedicated
19-1

Felt Suit

expresses the idea of human physical

Private collection

Schwitters

Bierstadt Albert
During the

early nineteenth century the passion

American nation was


wide open spaces of

stirred
its

showed nature

of the

her most remote and unassailable, from

of the Rocky Mountains

to the

the distant splendour

lands. This occurred at a time

magnificence of the Yosemite Valley. Bierstadt was born

own

The

rapidly industrialized.

of the railroad and of the Machine Age was

one, and in response, the nation desired to protect

of natural beauty. Bierstadt was

master

at

a real
its

places

canvases were usually huge and painted

Albert Bierstadt. b Solingen, 1830. d


Oil

in

New York,

great detail.

NY,

on canvas. hl80 x

Germany but moved

last

USA

New

World,

- Church.

as a child. His

The need

cm. h73'/4 x wl20 3/4

in.

not

in reality,

long time.

Cole, Cozens. Daubigny,

Metropolitan

to believe in the

at least in spirit if

Hobbema, T Rousseau

1902

w306

in

work

gasp of romanticism before the

railroad ate into the countryside.

remained strong for

They

to the

represented a nation's

existence of a

creating

romanticized visions of the American wilderness. His

The Rocky Mountains. 1863.

at

by the peaceful forests and

when America was becoming


threat

The Rocky Mountains

Museum

of Art,

New York,

Bingham George
In

when the camera was not widely used, was


to show the world what this new and strange

misty peacefulness, two trappers and their cat glide

.1

down
still

Fur Traders Descending the Missouri

Caleb

A warm

the Missouri.

river, creates a

figures will

pictures

light,

dreamy sense of timelessness.

soon be our of sight.

Bingham used

it

shimmering across the

In

many of his

"I

he two

Gradually,

into politics (he

early

carefully balanced horizontals

and

1848).

early

The

arrisr,

one of the most important of the

North American Frontier

was elected

However, he

is

best

of great

skill

to artists

land was

to the Missouri legislature in

remembered

as a

popular

way of life, and

a painter

and sophistication.

Painters, painted the

landscapes and settlers of the American

West At

George Caleb Bingham b Augusta County. VA. 1811. d Kansas


Fur Traders Descending the Missouri. 1845.

Oil

time

City.

on canvas. h74 x

Allston, Bierstadt. Cole. Friedrich

MS. 1879

w92 cm. H29 x w36!4

in.

Metropolitan

like.

off the river, onto the land, and

chronicler of a bygone American

diagonals, with figures placed at right-angles to create a


solid structure.

Bingham moved

[eft

Museum

of Art.

New

York.

NY

Blake Peter

On

The

cultu.v of the 1950s by confronting the viewer with an

figures sitting

on

park bench are surrounded by and

the Balcony

of popular imagery.

display tour paintings executed by Blake's fellow students,

unordered

together with various expendable commercial items

commercial memorabilia that helped pave the way for the

riot

Pop Art movement. During

including cigarette packs, magazines and food packaging.

British

The

towards a more naturalistic

arrangement pays

painting's simple

little

attention to

perspective, as the represented objects are the

most

important ingredients of the composition. At the time


considered Blake's most important work
impact, and

it

now

also

Peter Blake, b Dartford,

conveys

founder
it

was

in its direct visual

sense of the escalating

ideal

Oil

on canvas. hl21.3 x w90.8 cm. h47 3/4 x

to

work together

i*- Hamilton, Hockney, Jones,

w35 J/4

in.

the 1970s Blake

and

in 1975

moved

he became a

in the countryside, as artists

nineteenth century.

1932

On the Balcony. 1955-7.

depiction of

member of the Brotherhood of Ruralists, whose

was

in the

style

It is this

Tate Gallery, London

Rauschenberg, Schwitters

had

Blake William
An

apparently

two female
hair.

lifeless

woman

figures rush

One of the women

child.

The work

Pity
lies

looks down, and

illustrates a

like a

heaven's cherubin,

results

newborn babe,

hors'd...'.

is

lifting their

holding

a tiny

passage from Shakespeare

which Macbeth contemplates the

Duncan: 'Pin,

on the ground. Above her

by on horses, the wind

in

of the murder of

striding the blast

of

Blake's precisely delineated

reflects his uniquely personal, mystical vision, in

imagination and reality

become

engraver by trade, Blake's genius expressed


his

poem-

He
the

material world,

William Blake b London. 1757. d London.


Pity.

cl795. Watercolour heightened with

Etty,

is

and

that the true artist

given divine insight.

Martin, Moreau, Redon, Turner

1827

ink

on paper. h42 x w54 cm. hl6& x w21V4

through

more important than

forms, rejecting traditional composition and ideas of


perspective, evoke an enigmatic otherworldliness. His style

itself

as well as his striking symbolic paintings.

believed that the spiritual was

he or she

which

one. Originally a book

in.

Tate Gallery. London

is

prophet because

Boccioni u

Head + Light + Surroundings

iberto

forms sweep across the surface of

Swirling, fragmented
picture. In a pattern

of reds and blues,

world seen through

head appears;

moving kaleidoscope. As

the picture

movement through time

shows, Boccioni was intrigued with

he co-founded the

and space. In

fact,

movement

1910 and signed the Futurist Manifesto.

in

this

it is

Futurists
art,

felt

modern

life

World War
as a

Umberto Boccioni. b Reggio

Head

di

Calabria,

dme

all its

dynamism,

vitality

the

in

19M;

He

tragically,

falling

h60 x w60 cm. h23V

and

from

ironically,

w23^

in.

Paolo Baldacci Gallery.

New

he was

speeding horse.

." Balla, Carra, Feininger. Klee, Leger

this

whole complex
a

volunteered for the First

1882. d Sorte, 1916

+ Light + Surroundings. 1912. Oil on canvas.

hold of

and speed. In

to present simultaneously a

consequence of

on

to be a positive influence

his fellow painters to seize

sculptor as well as a painter.

Rejecting the past, the Futurists looked to science and

of the

Machine Age

of impressions and associated sensadons. Boccioni was

Italian Futurist

artists

with

work he wanted

technology for their inspiration, focusing on the idea of

motion through space. Unlike many

the

and B.,ecioni urged

York,

NY

killed

Bocklin
\

\n

suggestion of honor, rather than

portrayed

Centaurs' (Combat

>id

in this painting. Set in

its

explicit reality,

which he interpreted

is

an otherworldly landscape,

the animated, heroic figures of the centaurs

canvas with their dramatic choreography.

The

dominate the

Much of

tension of this painting derives from the contorted poses

rich tones,

which convey

emotion. Bocklin spent


inspired

him

to rake

up

a sense

Classical

Oil

in Italy.

This

and mythological themes

Arnold Bocklin b Basel, 1827. d Fiesole.

Centaurs" Combat. 1873.

career

artist's

in his day,

in

of heightened drama and

much of his

dream-like settings, menacing tones and

and

later inspired the

wl95 cm.

h41VS x

work of

the

German

Expressionists and the French Symbolists. His allegorical


paintings were particularly admired for their strong impact

and

their challenging

demands on

i*" Delacroix, Gericault, Giulio

1901

on canvas. hl05 x

Romantic manner,

haunting emotional undercurrents brought him popularity

the

and haunted expressions of the centaurs, loosely painted

in a poetically

influenced by Kugene Delacroix and Theodore Gericault.

w76 3/S

in.

Kunstmuseum, Basel

the emotions.

Romano. Schmidt-Rottluff

Boltanski Christian

Reserve of

This large-scale installation consists of two walls of metal

specific

biscuit

boxes and a

series

on

of black-and-white photographs

illuminated by clamp-on electric lamps. Powerful sensations


life

and death are evoked by

the dead, with


stillness

its

this shrine to the

memory of

almost religious atmosphere of perpetual

and peace. In previous works, Boltanski had used

photographs of Jewish children. Here, by using images of


the Swiss

a race associated with neutralitv rather than a

Christian Boltanski. b Paris.

Dead

Swiss

terrible fate

Boltanski lays greater emphasis

the universality of mortality. His unique style,

medium

and subject matter focusing on themes of death have made

taken from obituaries in a local newspaper, poorly

of

and

Boltanski one of the

most acclaimed

artists

of our time. His

other works include glass display cabinets containing

memories of childhood, 'Shadow' sculptures made of scrap


materials

which are illuminated by candles, and rooms

with clothes which he also

- Andre,

calls 'Reserves'.

Kiefer. Poussin. Teniers

1944

Reserve of Dead Swiss. 1990. Photographs, metal

tins

and

electric

lamps.

h203 cm. h80

in.

Marian

Goodman

Gallery,

New York, NY

filled

Bomberg
At

first,

In fact,

this
it

might seem to be

shows

exhibiting society formed in 191

completely abstract picture.

vapour bath, used by the Jewish

community of W'hitechapel
figures josde

The Mud Bath

David

in

London. Blue and white

and leap around the bath's red rectangle shape,

throwing themselves around the central dark

pillar.

The son

abstract forms to express the vitality and

which were

all

their theories. In the 1920s

style,

Vorticists,

some
moved away from
more representational

active at the time, he did identify with

he

geometric forms and turned to a

dynamism of the

Although Bomberg kept

from the Cubists, Futurists and

of

of a Polish immigrant, Bomberg used angular and semi-

3.

his distance

often using vibrant colours and expressive

brushstrokes.

twentieth century and the excitement of the Machine Age.

He was

founder

member of the London Group, an

David Bomberg. b Birmingham, 1890. d London.

The Mud Bath. 1914.

Oil

on canvas. hl52.5 x

Bellows. Boccioni, Braque, Lewis, Nash, Picasso

1957

w224 cm. h60 x w88VS

in.

Tate Gallery, London

Bonington
The steeple of the great

of the boats create strong


Watcrcolour
allowed the

is

a lively,

artist to

Rouen from

ri chard Parkes

Rouen Cathedral and

the

tall

masts

immediate medium, which has

style

is

works,

characterized by a small

the

cole des Beaux-Arts in Paris.

artist

He was

Baron Gros

at

close friends

with the Romantic painter Eugene Delacroix,

modem

school, perhaps

in a certain sense,

who wrote of

paper. h40.5 x

earlier artis

in addition to city views,

most of

is

his life in

he also painted

landscapes and historical scenes. Shortly before his death

Bonington began to paint


however, for

"

in oil;

he

is

best

remembered,

his skill as a watercolourist.

Gentile Bellini. Bellotto. Cozens. Delacroix, Gros

Richard Parkes Bonington. b Arnold. 1802. d London, 1828

Rouen from the Quais. 1821. Watercolour on

no

diamonds, by which the eye

enticed and charmed'. Bonington spent

France and,

range of colours applied to highly textured paper. This work

was painted while he studied under the

the Quais

in the

possessed the lightness of execution which makes his

verticals in this picture.

capture the activity of the busy quays.

Bonington's watercolour

him, 'no one

w27.5 cm. hl5 7^ x wlCBi

in.

British

Museum, London

Bonnard
The

interior

and open window, the sleeping

kitten are barely visible in a rich riot


is

The ( )pcn Window

Pierre
girl

of

and the

of colour. The viewer

encouraged to enter the room and join the scene, looking

out of the

window

at the trees

successfully conveys the

aimed

beyond. Bonnard

atmosphere of heat and

areas

Known

interiors,
l.es

particularly for his intimate

Bonnard was

Pierre Bonnard. b Fontenay-aux-Roses.


Oil

rejected the idea

As

colour.

well as a painter

He was one

of the few foreign

Academy

in

Bonnard was

artists to

be elected to

as

Caillebotte. Denis.

Hassam. Matisse.

H46'/, x

w37 /i
3

in.

Phillips Collection.

Washington DC

line to great

London.

1867. d Le Cannet. 1947

on canvas. hll8 x v96 cm.

of engaging

expressing feeling through form, often using broad


flat

the Royal

Nabis whose aim was to simplify the outline and colour

The Open Window cl921.

at

of

effect.

domestic

member of the group known

The Nabis

master of lithography, using shapes, colour and

tranejuillirv

of the South of France by using warm and bright tones of


colour.

their paintings.

the viewer purely through subject matter. Instead, they

Vallotton. Vuillard

Bordone
A fisherman who
saint's ring to the

Doge of Venice. The

the riures in
is

or"

said to

contemporary

dress,

St

Mark

artist

is

giving the

has depicted

even though the incident

have happened hundreds of

years earlier. Portraits

prominent Venetians, including the Doge of the time,

were used

as

models. Elaborate columns, arcades and apses

dominate the work, which


Venetian

art.

Bordone was

painter of landscapes

is

good example of Renaissance

scenes.

He

originally studied

rivalled his

much

master

in the style

by Francois
Renaissance

I,

under Titian, and

in popularity.

The

painting

in fact

shown

is

artists.

a great

While

in

admirer of

Italian

France, Bordone painted

of the prominent

political figures

of the

day.

a leading portraitist as well as a

and anecdotal and mythological

Paris Bordone. b Treviso, 1500. d Venice.

Gentile Bellini. Clouet. Guardi, Sassetta, Titian

1571

Presentation of the Ring to the Doge of Venice. 1534.

Oil

on canvas. h370 x

w300

very

of Titian. Bordone was invited to France

who was

several portraits

fV

theDc

Presentation of the Ri ng

Paris

had been rescued by

hl45% x wll8

in.

Gallena dell'Accademia, Venice

BoSCh
The

pic uis

The

Hie ronvmus

hermit St

Anthom

is

subjected to

the

all

all

temptations and tortures that Bosch's ghoulish imagination

can muster. Evil lurks around


temptress hides in a
huge, over-ripe

fruit,

even,-

cleft tree, a

background hints

succumb

The

at the fate that

to evil. Bosch's style

is

is rife

awaits

those

work

is

of the time, such

Most of

confronted bv

evil

folly

of

human

in

at

Oil

on panel. hl31.5 x

wl72

of Christ, or

Dali,

cm. h58 x

w67

in.

Museu Nacional de

Arte Antif

work

later, his

movement, and

Elsheimer, Van Eyck, Van der

allegories or

later in Surrealism.

W Beckmann,

van Eyck

beings. Bosch's

Hieronymus Bosch b s-Hertogenbosch, cl450. d s-Hertogenbosch, 1516


The Tribulations of St Anthony. C1505.

life

and temptation, or

influence emerged in the Expressionist

not

as [an

the subjects of Bosch's

seems strangely modern: four hundred years

who

and unparalleled

the Netherlandish tradition of painting. His

saint

proverbs about the

with menacing,

all

Anthony

paintings revolve around scenes from the


a

raging inferno in the

unicjue,

similar to other artists

or Rogier van del Weyden.

seductive

monster bursts forth from

and the scene

supernatural-looking creatures.

corner -

Tribulations of St

Weyden

still

Botero Fernanda
The

universal image

rotund figure

inflated,

created

Our Ladv of Cajica

of the Madonna
in

is

portrayed here as an

Botero's unique

sense of the Madonna's

style.

He

worshipped

has

monumental hugeness

Catholic Latin American countries the

b\

works

as the

most important

are characterized

bv

their simplicity

contrasting her with tiny figures that peep out of the clouds

exquisite application of paint.

behind -

since 1971,

device frequently employed by the

addition, the snake at the

made

In

unnaturally long, in order to emphasize her largeness.

Botero was born


this

artist.

bottom of the picture has been

painting

is

in

Colombia and

largely a

the religious sub|ect of

response to his upbringing. In most

recent

the female nude,

Oil

on canvas. H234 4

a series

le

"

wl81.8 cm. h95% x w71%

of form and

has been living in Pans

to paint

and

sculpt. His

which were displayed down the length of

Bouts. Fouquet. Lochner. Spencer

in.

is

of monumental sculptures of

the Champs-Elysees.

Fernando Botero b Medellin. 1932


Our Lady of Cajica. 1972.

where he continues

work includes

Madonna

religious figure. Botero'*

Private collection

Botticelli suuho
Tin- diaphanous

gowns of

the

Spring

combine

i"

make

this

one

the Italian Renaissance.

draughtsmanship
that time,

and

thai

<>t

'golden age'. Man) of his paintings involve philosophical and

rhrec Graces, the elegani

bands of Venus and the flowered dress worn

In

Flora

allegorical

the most beautiful paintings

debate

i<>

Florentine

meanings;
i<> its

spring in particular has

symbolic significance. Later

under the influence ofa charismatic

11k painting reflects the fine

was fundamental

.is

.in

priest called

Botticelli dw\\ in obscurity.

Botticelli's graceful line creates a sensitive,

He

w.i*-

rediscovered

nineteenth centur) In the Pre Raphaelites,

under Fra Filippo Lippi and went on to move

admired the Renaissance

in

the

"

during the Florentine

Filippo Lippi. Millais.

artist's delicate

Pontormo. Rubens

1445. d Florence. 1510

Sandro

Botticelli b Florence.

Spring.

C1470/80. Tempera on

panel.

hl75.5x w278.5 cm. h6"

much

he came

Savonarola,

and painted fewer paintings with mythological themes.

.1

almost feminine atmosphere. Botticelli began his training

intellectual circles that flourished

sparked
in life

Galleria degli Uffi/i. Florence

who

in

the

particularlj

linework.

Boucher Franks
A young

gkl

lies

naked on

Odalisque

bed with lavish draperies

her. Blatandy provocative, she flirts with the

around

as she looks out

from her boudoir. Boucher's paintings

epitomize the frivolous excesses of the mid-eighteenth


centurj

Rococo

making him one of the


style.

In his youth he

truest

was

connected to

Madame

Odalisque. cl745.

Oil

on canvas. h53

his

to Louis

nymphs and goddesses,

usually in mythological and

pandered to the

taste

of the Parisian

upper classes whose elegant houses he decorated.

of nature that

it

artifice

was

of the Rococo age, he allegedly said

'too green

and badly

Fragonard, Ingres. Moore, Watteau.

1770

w64

cm. H20V4 x

w25W

in.

rs

charmingly coquettish pictures of naked

lit'.

de Pompadour.

Through her influence he became chief painter

Francois Boucher b Paris, 1703. d Pans.

and

Epitomizing the

Antoine Watteau, whose pictures he engraved, and in the


i^40S obtained the patronage of

Boucher was one of the most sought-after decorar.

in Paris,

allegorical scenes,

exponents of the

closely

XV

all

viewer

Musee du

Louvre. Paris

Wesselmann

Boudin
A crowd of formally
sun

i:

dressed Parisians

at the fashionable seaside resort

Normandy

coast.

Boudin came

of beaches' and frequently


throughout

The Beach

ugene

his career.

An

is

seen basking in the

of Trouville on the

to be

known

role. It

beach

particularly

some

Honfleur.

Trouville.

Claude Monet,

Oil

on canvas. h26 x

who

w48 cm. hlO

/>

- Avercamp. Van Goyen.

wl8X

Boudin was

painted this very beach

years later.

1824. d Deauville. 1898

1864.

the tiny figures below.

the

surface of his paintings sparkle, evoking a glowing sky or a

Eugene Boudin. b

on

major source of inspiration for the Impressionists,

recorder of nature, he was able to capture the characteristic

The Beach at

seventeenth-century Dutch landscape

often takes up two-thirds of the picture, forcing the

gestures of people. I'sing a subtle and free brushwork,

make

in

viewer's eyes to focus

exceptionally gifted observer and

speckled with flecks of pure colour, he could

As

Trouville

painting, the sky in Boudin's paintings plays an important

as 'the painter

travelled to this particular

glittering sea.

at

in.

Musee

d'Orsay. Paris

Kroyer,

Monet

Bourdelle
Power, strength and

Herakles

Antoine

tightly coiled

energy seem about to

hurst forth from the impressive form of Herakles.

The

sculptor has used muscular shapes and bold, expressive


features to create a sense

shown

in

the bowstring,

of vitality. The tension

which

is

huge, powerful hand. Further tension


archer's leg which, with

its

is

clearly

being pulled back by a


is

created by the

bulging tendons, strains against a

studied Gothic and Ancient Greek sculpture. Inspired by


the ir&agejj

feeling

of Antiquity, Bourdelle aimed to create

the popular sculpture of the time, which

was

style,

however, Bourdelle

Antoine Bourdelle b Montauban. 1861. d Vesinet, 1929


Herakles 1908. Plaster. h248cm. h97%in. Musee Bourdelle,

Paris

usually

concerned with graceful forms. Taut and heroic,


sculpture epitomizes Bourdelle's quest for the
in his art.

boulder. Bourdelle was a pupil of Auguste Rodin. Rather

than following his master's loose

a similar

of density and volume. This was very different from

'" Bocklin, Giambologna, Rodin,

Rosso Fiorentino

this

monumental

Bourgeois
Encased within
feet are firmly

<>

Here

of truncated human
hewn block of marble.

a glass casket, a pair

placed on a roughly

Perhaps alluding to the triumphant order

man

has created

out of the disordered chaos of nature, the elemental


cjualities

of the material - marble,

timeless world articulated bv

glass,

human endeavour. Great

Louise Bourgeois b Paris.

Here

Am. Here

glass.

Bourgeois' work

freejuently suggestive

abstracted context.

Stay

of the human form, often

The dynamic

moved

to

New

York from

Paris in 1958

remote,

where she had

Surrealists. Initially a painter

she turned to sculpture in the late 1940s.

to the
is

Brancusi. Canova. Dali. Noguchi. Rodin

1911

Stay. 1990.

in a

tensions of opposing

materials and finishes raise provocative responses to the

worked with the

attention has been paid to the sensual surfaces, ranging

smoothness of the man-made

Am, Here

physical presence within the natural environment. Bourgeois

metal - evoke the

from the roughness of the stone hewn trom the earth

Mamie, glass and metal. h88.9 x W102.8 cm. h35

"

w40 /,
:

in.

Galerie Karsten Greve. Cologne

and engraver,

Bouts

Virgin and Child

Dieric

This image of the Virgin and Child

nor pomp. The Virgin

austerity

Christ Child as any


result

is

is

both

spiritual

half-length images of the Virgin


art.

is

painted with neither

seen tenderly cradling the

mother would her new-born baby. The

a picture that

Netherlandish

is

They were

and human. Small,

and Child were popular

in

treated as objects of private

cast to the eyes


characteristic

of the figures

in this picture

of Bouts' way of painting

made of two

angular, sharply defined

and sculptural approach to painting,

although some of his works hint

more

at

an understanding of a

sophisticated form of perspective.

panels, the second being a portrait of the


at the Virgin, as if in prayer.

Dieric Bouts. Active in Louvain,


Virgin

and

Child.

C1460-5.

Oil

The

sleepy

a quirky

Bouts was

undoubtedly influenced by Rogier van der Weyden's

devotion, and were kept at home. Such works were often

owner looking over

is

faces.

Campin. Fouquet, Schongauer, Van der Weyden

1457. d Louvain, 1475

and tempera on panel. h27.9 x w24.1 cm. hll x w9&

in.

Private collection

Boyd
The

The

\rthi

swirling, radiant colours

of the sky converge

visionary nature of this picture give

at the

bright sun. In the foreground, a scraggy black beast, a hint

of

from

a tear falling

upturned ray as

if

its

its

demise.

out his tongue

at the sun.

Arthur Boyd, b Murrumbeena,

in

Australia,

Boyd belongs

to a family

mother

artists

England

of the sky, clashing violentlv

an

artist

Burra, Heckel, Kitaj, Nolan, Schmidt-Rottluff

fiery,

like the goat,

a sculptor
in

and potter,

his

Oil

on canvas. h259

w442 cm. hl02 x wl74

in.

Born

in

his father

a painter.

both there and

in his native land.

sucks

passionate colours and

He moved

1959 and has since had a high reputation as

1920

The Australian Scapegoat. 1987.

of

to

man who,

The

an expressionistic

was

in

reflect the red

it

paintings are concerned with

which they

is

perhaps a fisherman. The shallows of the sea

appear to stand

many of his

a farmer,

an unnatural pose holds the goat; perhaps he

with the yellow coat of the

A man

quality. In fact,

the emotions of sexual passion, guilt and betrayal.

sad eye, looks longingly at a dead,

he were the cause of

Australian Scapegoat

Collection of the artist

Brancusi Cons

The Kiss

tan tin

Tightly entwined, two lovers embrace in a passionate kiss.

The elemental power of

this

work

is

expressed by the bulk

as if

roused from

(the country

of

his birth) to Paris, a feat

timeless slumber. Brancusi

fuelled

by the law case he brought against

US Customs,

reduced his sculptures to their most basic, most abstract,

who wanted

[ending them

sculpture which they considered as nothing

primordial

itality.

Eschewing

all

surface

decoration, nothing but pure form remains. Brancusi had an

immense

effect

art in general.

Constantin Brancusi. b Hobitza. 1876. d Paris. 1956

The

Kiss.

to charge duty

on an imported bronze

more than

material, thus liable for tax.

on twentieth-century sculpture and abstract

The simple grandeur of his works evokes

1907. Stone. h28 cm. hll

in.

Muzeul de Arta, Craiova

which

gained him widespread admiration. His celebrity was further

of the stone from which the forms are only sketchily


emerging,

sense ot freedom and strength. In 1904 he walked from

Romania

"

Bourgeois, Gaudier-Brzeska, Moore, Noguchi, Rodin

raw-

Braque George
Letters and lines, triangles

Clarinet

and rectangles, are scattered

across the canvas in apparently

random

order, in

seems to be an abstract composition. In


been very carefully thought out.
fireplace with a mantelpiece,
a bottle

of rum.

It is

a painting

on which

page of sheet music

Rather than recreating the illusion of


canvas with the use of perspective,

fact, the

all

is

light

Rum

of a

these

flat

once. Painted in muted tones of

shapes combine to create

invented by Braque and Pablo Picasso

and
wall.

flat

and shade, Braque

They were

this century.

the

first artists

in the first

to

Oil

change

Cubist

decade of
radically

the perception of art for five hundred years. With Cubism,


art

no longer needed

around

"

to be merely an imitation

us.

Archipenko, Gris. Morandi. Nicholson. Picasso

1963

Paris.

Mantelpiece

image. This revolutionary way of reproducing the world was

space on the

on a Mantelpiece 1911.

picture has

has suggested three-dimensionality and depth by displaying

Clarinet and Bottle of

at

on

brown and grey

pinned to the

Georges Braque b Argenteuil-sur-Seine. 1882. d

of the objects

Rum

what

are set a clarinet

real

sides

and Bottle of

on canvas. h81 x

w60 cm. h31 /* x w23%


7

in.

Tate Gallery. London

of the world

Brauner

Victor

Fascination

Muted browns and ochre tones decorate a spartan room


a table - part furniture, part wolf at which a

with

featureless
for a

with

naked lady

sits

meal to be served.
a

nonchalantly as
ler hair

if

calmly waiting

curves up and forms a bird

swan-like neck which viciously confronts the wolfs

head growing out of the

table.

His

tail

and genitals are

at the

other end. Brauner produced a series of paintings such as


this

inhabited by strange hybrids of

objects.

These absurd, hallucinatory

women,

fantasies spring

Victor Brauner b Piatra Neamtz, 1903. d Paris,

Fascination. 1939.

Oil

on canvas.

animals and

from

1966

h65xw54 cm. h25

w21V

the enigmatic world of Surrealist


inug.'V.'ion
logic.

The

is

freed

art, in

which the

visual

from the constraints of reason and

Surrealists' vision

aimed

to harness the

unconscious to produce revelatory, stimulating images.

Born

in

193

he painted

proved
brawl

in

Romania, Brauner worked mainly

to

in France.

his Self-portrait with Extracted Eye; the

be prophetic, as the

artist lost his left

1938.

(" Bellmer, Dali, Ernst, Magritte, Matta, Tanguy

In

work

eye in

.1

bar

Bronzino
Venus aims

to kiss

Cupid,

An

\gnolo

who

fondles her breast.

Bronzino's work

bearded Father Time pulls a curtain over the scene. Jealousy


clutches her head in her hands, and a

on the scene from above.


part reptile holds a

end of her
kind

or"

tail

A girl who

honeycomb

in the other.

allegory, but

what

The

is it

in

masked
is

figure looks

part turn beast and

one hand and the stinging

painting

about?

No

is

obviously

one

is

cool light that bathes this bizarre scene and the

handling

or"

Allegory of Venus and Cupid

some

certain.

way he

the

is

wonderful example of Mannerism,

and emphasizes movement.


his day,

Bronzino often placed

poses. His

sitters'

somewhat

compel the viewer

successful portrait painter in


his

to look closely for a

of

Venus and Cupid. cl550.

Oil

on panel. hl46 x

Michelangelo. Parmigianino. Pontormo. Vouet

wll6 cm. h57M

w45

in

oddly

rigid

glimmer of emotion.

The

Agnolo Bronzino b Florence. 1503. d Florence. 1572

An Allegory

models

cold, detached expressions

smooth

the paint are typical of the artist's style.

in

distorts natural poses, exaggerates expressions

National Gallery. London

Broodthaers Marcel

Casserole and Closed Mussels

ideas behind his

pile

tall

upwards

on

the

home

in

shells

sea.

is

The

an explosion of

words

mould').

dish;

of mussel

evoking the

resin,

la

monk

The work

is

held together with green-tinted

shells

seem

vitality.

('the mussel')

to

The image

uses a

and k moule

pun

('the

intended as a metaphor for the ardst's

country of Belgium, where mussels are a nadonal

it is

also a sadre

on

the Belgian bourgeoisie.

probably Broodthaer's most famous image.

The

works

are

more important than

the

works

themselvts. Broodthaers was also greatly influenced by his

be surging

compatriot, the Surrealist painter Rene Magritte. Like


Magritte he often delights in incongruous juxtaposidons and
the creadon of visual paradoxes through the combination of

words, everyday objects and printed material.

It is

ardst's

sculpture can be categorized as Conceptual Art, in that the

'

Beuys, Duchamp, Magritte, Oldenburg. Rauschenberg

Marcel Broodthaers. b Brussels. 1924. d Cologne, 1976


Casserole and Closed Mussels. 1964-5. Mussel shells, polyester resin and

Iron casserole.

h30.5 cm. hl2

in.

Tate Gallery, London

Brown fo
It is

rd

impossible not to get the

detail.

obvious

also

is

that the painting

between

in a style to

mimic the great

Renaissance.

became

Brown
Paris

Ford

The

is

What

meant

and work.

idea of

the central
settled in

art

message

artist's

packed picture crammed with

relationship

Work

Madox

It

is

in this action-

perhaps

combining

art

and work

later

theme of the Arts and Crafts movement.

England

in

Madox Brown,
Oil

Brown was more

social issues than in purely artistic matters.

interested in

In

844 and

1845 he entered a competition to paint frescos for the

Houses of Parliament, which he

lost.

commission

Manchester

to paint frescos for

won a
Town Hall.

Instead, he

845 after training at Antwerp,

- Burne-Jones,

and Rome. He became associated with the Pre-

Work. 1852-65.

early Renaissance painters,

to celebrate the

was therefore painted

masters of the early

Italian

Raphaelite Brotherhood, but never joined them. Although

he shared their desire to return to the simple vision of the

less

b Calais. 1821. d London,

on canvas. H134.6 x

Hunt. Leger, Filippo Lippi, Millais, Rossetti

1893

wl96 cm. h53 x w77^

Manchester

City Art Gallery,

Manchester

Bruegelja:

The Garden of Eden

Exotic and everyday animals mingle in this Garden of Eden,


richly

and meticulously endowed with

plants and flowers. Bruegel's

was the creation of


figures

of

Adam

modern

profusion of lush

main concern

a mystical,

of

flora

their setting.

landscapes and Garden of

nickname

The

imbued

this

The Garden

of

Eden. cl620.

Oil

Eden

'Velvet' Bruegel. (an

w84

h20%

came from

flowers,

him

the

the great Bruegel

the Elder.

- Bassano. P

Bruegel,

Hobbema.

Patenier. Ruisdael

1625

on panel. h53 x

subjects earned

sylvan

glade with a dream-like quality. His breadth of feeling and

Jan Bruegel. b Antwerp. 1568. d Antwerp,

Dutch landscape

manner of painting

dynasty of Flemish painters; his father was Pieter Bruegel

and fauna may seem comical to the

eye, but Bruegel has successfully

surroundings helped to develop the

painting. His highly finished

in this picture

imaginary landscape, and the

emphasize

sensitivity to natural

great tradition of seventeenth-century

and Eve have been reduced to

insignificance in order to
limited selection

w33

in.

Victoria

and Albert Museum, London

Bruegel *.
The viewer

is

invited into an

Peasant

animated

feast to celebrate the

wedding of twO peasants. The painting


figure filling the jug

of wine

brought to table on

peasants' earthiness.

Italian ideal

based on

show

the

the pies being

The drunken, bumbling

lively

characters

who

scenes are the very opposite of the

observation, that

is

Pieter Bruegel b Brogel. cl525. d Brussels.

Peasant Wedding Feast. C1566/7.

Oil

it is

the

Bruegel's work,

more

real

and

in

order to take part

this led to his

Bruegel's ability to capture the

of refined perfection. Yet

real-life

door, and the bagpipe player hungrily

staring at the food. All

animate Bruegel's

at the left,

rich in detail

is

Wedding Feast

human. Legend has

it

that Bruegel

would put on disguises

in the peasants' rollicking gatherings;

being given the nickname 'Peasant Bruegel'.

His technique, however, was

far

from crude;

richness and variety of colour. Pieter Bruegel headed


family of painters

which flourished

in the sixteenth

seventeenth centuries.

* Bosch,

Bruegel,

David, Ostade

1569

on panel. hll4.3

his carefully

applied thin layers of paint express a wonderful sense of the

W162.6 cm. h45 x w64

in.

Kunsthistorisches

Museum, Vienna

and

Buren
What

is

seen here

Two

Daniel

is

colossal sculptural installation


for the

column
and

is

Cour d'Honneur of
is

the Palais-Royal in Paris.

a rigid,

uniform sequence

The work's impact

is

entirely

surroundings, as Buren creates his

visible in the

background).

in the central

own

interpretation

columns

leading light in French

Daniel Buren. b Boulogne-Billancourt,


Levels.

Each

governed by the

existing architectural space (the traditional

Two

especially

constructed of black and white strips of marble

placed in

square.

which was created

Levels

Conceptual Art, Buren acknowledges that meaning

only a small part of a spectacular,

determined by context.

He

reproducing his trademark


settings.

Although neither

demonstrates

this

vertical stripes

his idea

nor

his

in a variety

apply his paint to different materials, including

of an

stone steps and walls.

i- Andre, Christo, Judd,

Long

1938

1985-6. Black and white marble, surface area 67 x 50 m. 220

164

ft.

Palais-Royal, Paris

of

form of

expression have changed over the years, he did

are

is

bv

at

one time

flags, sails,

Burne-Jones
\ lost

age nt chivalry and

elegant painting.

It tells

romance

the story

is

the picture,

and appears

to

is

Edward

rediscovered

of a king

and wide for the perfect woman, and


disguised as a simple beggar. She

Sir

who

finally

in this

searched far

found her

the brightest object in

glow with heavenliness. Burne-

Jones was deeply affected by

artists

of the early

Italian

King Cophetua and the Beggar Maid


original

work

members of

reflects

the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, his

many of the

ideas associated with those

painters. Burne-Jones' rich colours, poetic subject matter

and meticulous attention

to detail give his paintings a

mystical, spiritual quality.

At the time, William Morris' Arts

and Crafts movement had swept the country, and

its

Renaissance, such as Sandro Botticelli and Andrea

influence can be seen here in the leaves, fabrics and designs

Mantegna, and was also inspired by

on

the staircase.

Botticelli.

Dante Gabriel

Sir

Rossetti.

his association with

Although he was not one of the

Brown. Mantegna.

Millais, Rossetti

Edward Burne-Jones b Birmingham, 1833. d London, 1898

King Cophetua and the Beggar Maid. 1862.

Oil

on canvas. h76.2 x w63.5 cm. h.30 x

w25

in.

Tate Gallery, London

Burra
The

artist

depressed figures
its

Ldward

has captured the


in this

>h

spirit

of the formidable and

haunting Cornish landscape, with

ruined tin-mine workings in the background.

that the

man

in the striped coat

(who

is

It is

known

painted twice) was

seen by Burra in a pub, and the two tattooed figures are

book. The strange, ghostly head,

direct copies

from

visible in the

top left-hand corner,

interest in Surrealism.

just

may reflect Buna's


Although he knew a number of the

Surrealists while living in France,

he never

really allied

Lands cap( with Figures and Tin Mine

himself with

them or anv other movement.

during the F930S became

Grosz. Towards the end of his


his

own

peculiar style.

watercolours of

which changed
-

Most of

women,

These were done

Boyd. Dali. Grosz.

work developed

life

his

famous works

into

are

or of people enjoying themselves.

throughout

Kitaj.

work

of George

his

in Burra's sharp, slightly

little

Burra's

satirical, recalling that

his

exaggerated

life.

Tanguy

Edward Burra. b London, 1905. d Playden, 1976


Cornish Landscape with Figures and Tin Mine. 1975. Watercolour on paper. h78.1 x wl35.9 cm. h30 3/4 x w53Vt

Private collection

style,

Burri

Sacc(

\lbcrt(

Materials that have been ravaged b\ time and discarded as

school ot abstract

waste, lacerated and unravelled, have been stitched back

composition and turned to new materials tor inspiration.

together and painted. Burn's early experiences as

handling blood-stained bandages and sewing up

doctor,

wounds

this

work. The coarseness ot the material used, and the


it

has been torn, creates

tension between beauty and decay.

The

Sacco 1954.

di

Castello.

Burlap, linen,

oil

pictures using charred

conventional ideas ot

his fascination with surface

He

has

wood, iron

made

plates

sought after bv collectors.

"

post-war

Dubuffet. Fautrier. Riopelle.

1915. d Nice. 1995

and gold paint on board. h33 x

w38

a series

and

of

plastic sheets,

burnt into gaping holes with a blowtorch, which are highh

powerful

picture reflects the

philosophy ot the Art [nformel movement,

Alberto Burri. b Citta

Bum's works demonstrate

texture and different media.

during the Second World War, provided the inspiration for

violence with which

art that rejected

Private collection

Still,

Tapies

Caillebotte Gustave

Young Man

The

working-class

us,

rue
a

artist's

younger brother Rene stands with his back to

window of the family home at 77


de Miromesnil, Paris. The huge stone balustrade creates

looking out from the

strong division between the inside of the house and the

world beyond,

as

our eyes are drawn to the

streets

below

following Rene's gaze. This device of drawing the viewer


into the picture via the
Caillebotte's
in

window-frame view makes

most compelling images.

views of Paris and

its

his

Window. 1876.

Oil

Paris.

one of

Caillebotte specialized

surroundings, and images of

Gustave Caillebotte. b Pans. 1848. d

Young Man at

it

at his

life.

An

Window

intimate and supportive friend of

Claude Monet, Pierre Auguste Renoir and Alfred

Sislev,

Caillebotte not only organized exhibitions of the

Impressionists' works but also bought


paintings they found difficult to
left his collection,

the state.

The

sell.

many of the

In his will Caillebotte

including 65 Impressionist paintings, to

collection

was

refused, and only after three

years of negotiations were 38 pictures finally accepted.

" Bonnard. Matisse. Monet,

Renoir. Sisley. Vuillard

1894

on canvas. hll6.2 x w80.9 cm. h45 3/4 x

w31%

in.

Private collection

Calder

and twisting of the metal shapes

delicate balancing

an image of a lobster

Lobster Trap and Fish Tail

inder

ai.

jred fish and nine black elements suspended


e
J

below give

are looking at a fish skeleton.

The

elements gracefully swing independently of each other

nv

circles, set in

aines the
;auty
,

we

impression that

directions.

trap, while the stylized brightly

falls

motion by currents of air. Calder

humour of the marine images with

the sense

movement,
have ranged
over
at J

"

Alexander Calder b Philadelphia. PA. 1898. d


Lobster Trap and Fish

Tail

in different

New

York. NY.

in the

actual

work makes

it

movement, or an impression of

plays an integral part. Calder

of the mobile, and made

and turns

varying speeds and

which

art in

and grace of a construction which continually


at

The element of motion

prime example of Kinetic Art, a term applied to works of

in height

metres

(1

was the inventor

in 1932.

cm

(1

an example of the

New

in

one

from around 4

2 feet);

K Airport

his first

His mobiles

V2 inches)

latter

York.

Lissitzky, Miro, Tinguely, Vasarely

1975

1939. Steel wire and painted sheet aluminium. w289.5 cm.

wll4

Museum

of

Modern

Art.

New

to

can be seen

York.

NY

Campin
Despite her rich

shown
put

in a

down

details

homely

her

The

Robert

and elaborate fur-lined gown, the Virgin


setting.

book

She looks

as

though she has

to nurse her child. Minutely

is

as clear

and precise

just-

observed

appear throughout the work; the townscape

background

is

in the

as the figures in the

Virgin and Child before a Fire-screen

with his contemporary, Jan van Eyck. Robert Campin's


ideniin

he

is

is

the

shrouded

in mystery. It

same person

name given

is

generally thought that

as the so-called

to the painter

Master of Flemalle,

(wrongly) supposed to have

foreground, while the pages of the Virgin's book, the

thought that Rogier van der

decoration along the hemline of her dress and the rushwork

Campin's

come from Flemalle. It is


Weyden may have been one of

pupils.

of the fire-screen have been painstakingly rendered. The


artist's

technical

skill

Robert Campin. Active

and inventiveness

in

invite

Tournai. 1406. dTournai.

comparison

Bouts. Van Eyck. Fouquet, Schongauer, Van der

Weyden

1444

The Virgin and Child before a Fire-screen. C1425/30.

Oil

and tempera on panel. h63.5

>

w49.5 cm. h25

of a group of pictures that were

x w19'/j. National Gallery,

London

Canaletto

The Bucintoro Preparing

Seen from across the Basin of St Mark's, the Doge


to

embark on the magnificent

celebrate Venice's symbolic


great events

aboul

state barge, the Bucintoro, to

Wedding

of the Venetian calendar.

each year, the

is

Doge would throw

to the Sea,

On

one of the

/Ascension

Day

ring into the Adriatic

The event presented the artist with


show all the pomp and splendour of

grand opportunity

Sea.

to

his native city's

festivals.

As the leading Venetian landscape painter of

lay, Canaletto's

works were very popular,

to

Leave the Molo on Ascension Day

the English nobility.

analetto's acutely

their

wealth of detail, even today evoke

romantic view of

beautiful city. Canaletto visited

England

shimmering

in 1746,

Castle,

Eton College and Whitehall.

his

especially with

The Bucintoro Preparing to Leave the Molo on Ascension Day. C1740.

and

this

while-

there painted a group of landscapes, including views of

Warwick

Bellotto, Gentile Bellini, Bonington, Guardi, Pannini

Canaletto (Antonio Canale). b Venice. 1697. d Venice, 1768

National Gallery. London

observed paintings

of Venice's canals and palaces, with

Oil

on canvas. hl22 x

wl83

cm. h48 x

w72

Canova Antonio
With wings not

yet folded,

Cupid and Psyche

Cupid lands

lover Psyche with a tender embrace.


sculpture
love.

is

Their smooth bodies and delicate limbs create a sense

one of

fine

in all its

innocent purity; the enure scene

effortless, spiralling grace.

example of the Neo-Classical

form and

finish.

However, he

also

Canova's sculpture

ideal

was

Canova had

a distinguished career in his native Venice,

where he was commissioned

created by their interlocking arms and gaze of

of young passion
is

to revive his dying

The focus of the

is

tombs and
artists.

statues.

He

to create public

As an emissary of the Pope, he

travelled

Europe, demanding the return of works of

of perfection of

skin.

Bernini. J-L David. Etty. Powers. Prud'hon. Rodin

Antonio Canova. b Possagno. Treviso. 1757. d Venice, 1822

Cupid and Psyche. 1787/93. Marble. hl55 cm. h61

in.

Musee du

Louvre. Paris

young

throughout

art that

looted during the Napoleonic wars.

able to express the

ardour that pulsates beneath the lovers' thin marble

monuments,

also established a school for

were

Caravaggio
It

is

just after the

wounds

Doubting Thomas

Thomas is touching Christ's


The heads of Christ and the

Crucifixion. St

to sec if they arc real.

The
Thomas who,

idealization,

He

an approach that was revolutionary

three Apostles are the focus of the composition.

and Apostles, and

moment

Virgins from a

is

intense, as the Apostles look

on

St

with deeply furrowed brow, plunges his finger into Christ's


side.

The drama of this shockingly

heightened by the harsh lighting and dark shadows (known


as chiaroscuro); the

background

was renowned for

is

non-existent. Caravaggio

his vivid realism

even

said to

m~

have painted one of

his

prostitute fished out of the River

somewhat dubious personal reputation

in

revolution in

art.

Even today

have the power and immediacy to astonish

Bernini, Hals, Jordaens,

Rembrandt. Terbrugghen

Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio. b Caravaggio. 1571. d Porto Ercole, 1610

Doubting Thomas. 1599.

Oil

on canvas. hl07 x

wl46

cm.

h42'/4

w57H

in.

Stiftung Schlosser

(he

trouble with authority), Caravaggio almost

singlehandedly brought about


his paintings

and rejection of

is

drowned

Tiber. Despite a

was frequently

realistic detail is

at the time.

often used coarse peasant types for his models of saints

und Garten Potsdam-Sanssouci. Potsdam

us.

Caro

Sir

Vast and powerful,

this

breathes with a

of

the

life

ground, and making any supports part of the sculpture

conglomeration of metal forms

its

ground from which

into

Rape of the Sabines

Anthony

own. Part of-

it

grows,

its

yet distinct

from -

would

lav

mood

of

out industrial objects


their tide

He

or ambiguous. Caro

Sir

of the base or

pedestal.

Bv

laving his

Unlike Henry Moore, under

assistant,

Caro did not transform

their nuts

and

bolts.

The

sculpture

shown here now

Washington.
" Andre, Deacon. Moore.

works on the

Serra, Smith

Anthony Caro. b London. 1924

Rape

of the Sabines.

1985-6.

Steel, rusted

and varnished. h222 x

w603

cm.

h87^ x w2371S

in.

Metropolitan Life Building. Seattle,

his
all

stands

outside the Metropolitan Life Building in Seattle,

wished to bring the spectator into the sculpture by getting


rid

his sculpture.

he worked as an

materials into something else; his welded steelworks keep

in patterns that reflected the

- however remote

he allowed the spectator to come right up close to -

whom

one huge whole without form. Caro began making

metal sculpture using pre-fabricated objects in i960.

itself,

even onto -

dynamic planes fuse

WA

Carpaccio
typical
sit

on

of Venetian

these

ladies are

nobility in the fifteenth century.

neither a portrait nor a story.


a larger

panel,

It

which would have put

His paintings are not as

his Florentine counterparts,

Vittore Carpaccio. Active

in

not clear -

is

The two

it

it

in

context and

Balconv

gaining ground in that

city.

His bright colours have

is

made

painting.

He

those of

Venice. 1472. d Venice.

1495/1500.

historical or religious subjects as

opportunity to depict everyday Venetian

life.

some of
* Alma-Tadema.

Gentile Bellini. Canaletto. Giorgione

1526

Oil

all

probably trained with Gentile Bellini and

him often used

a straightforward

realistic as

over the balanced intellectualism that was


the

charm and vibrancy associated with Venetian Renaissance

however, favouring picturesque

Two Venetian Ladies on a Balcony

Venetian Ladies on

story-telling

has probably been cut from

more understandable. Carpaccio has

style.

two

a balcony, idly toying with the birds and animals

around them. The point of the picture

it

Two

Vittore

The pearl-covered gowns worn by

on panel. hl64;

w94 cm. h64^ x w37

in.

Museo

Correr. Venice

an

like

Carra Carlo
In a low-ceilinged

of

The Metaphysical Muse

room, the main character

is

a plaster-cast

female tennis player with a mannequin head. She stands

next to a

map of Greece, which

Odvsseus. In the background,

cone stands behind

coloured geometric

a canvas painted with factories.

atmosphere. Carra had met

adopted

symbolizes the voyage of

a brightly

and mysterious images to create

The

his

spaces. His

From 1924 he

manifesto.

disturbing,

and

painting towards a

in >rgi<

>

link this painting with the Pittura Metafisica

de Chirico, Pittura Metafisica used disconnected

Carlo Carra. b Quargnento, 1881. d Milan.

The Metaphysical Muse. 1917.

Oil

earlier

w65

cm. h35 x

set in claustrophobic

passed through a Futurist

Italian

in.

9 1 o Futurist

more heightened

realism, inspired

masters of the early Renaissance.

'* Balla. Boccioni, Brauner,

w25%

turned away from 'Metaphysical'

De

1966

on canvas. h89 x

and often weird

phase; Carra was one of the signatories to the

juxtaposed and dream-like images are curiously

Founded by Carra and

a magical

Chirico in 1917, and swiftly

imagery of mannequins

work had

irrationally

('metaphysical painting') school.

De

Pinacoteca

di

Brera. Milan

Chirico. Kahlo.

Wadsworth

by the

Carracci Aannibale
Christ

is

shown beating

to St Peter.

Upon

said to St Peter,

The

artist

shows

Christ Appearing to Saint Peter

the Cross as he appeared in a vision

being asked where he was going, Christ

am

going to

Rome

to

be crucified

again'.

particularly in the landscape.

and the beautiful figures

The harmonious composition

recall the

Michelangelo, and represent the

artist's

Bologna

desire to bring back

Rome. His

style

is

characterized bv a fusion of naturalism and Classicism. In a

Annibale Carracci. b Bologna. 1560. d Rome.


Christ Appearing to Saint Peter on the Appian

and

yet

and

is life-like

his brother

and

Appian Way

in

595.

this purity that

is

natural, not artificial or forced."

The academy

many of whom were

to

academy of
trained a

fine arts in

number of artists,

form the great school of

seventeenth-century Baroque Bolognese painting.

"

Correggio, Michelangelo. Raphael. Reni. Titian. Vouet

1609
Way. 1601-

2. Oil

on panel. h77.4 x w56.3 cm. h30H x

w22

'I

not

Agostino and cousin Lodovico, Annibale

Carracci founded an important

work of Raphael and

the Classical spirit to seventeenth-century

reality

With

the

he spoke of his admiration for Correggio and Titian:

letter

like this straight- forwardness

great sensitivity to detail in this painting,

on

in.

National Gallery. London

Cassatt Man-

Woman

The woman here has been caught


does her sewing.
interpla}

It is

not

of colour and

light in

would have been painted from

formed

a close

great influence

stvle.

Impressionists at their 1874

Mary Cassatt. b

Pittsburgh. PA,

Woman Sewing. C1880/2.

as she

life.

The

at the

not found

artist's realistic

Oil

who had

classified as part

is

of the French

Many of her

mothers with children, painted with


in

paintings show-

a feminine tenderness

other Impressionist work. Cassatt was very

influenced by Japanese woodcuts, and excelled in making

Pennsylvania

Edgar Degas,

American, she

Impressionist movement.

Eakins. Later, in Europe, Cassatt

association with

on her

moment

but a study in the

an outdoor scene, which

approach stems from her studies

Academy under Thomas

in a quiet

a portrait,

Sewing

woodcut

prints.

Impressionism

She

in

is

widely credited with popularizing

North America.

Cassatt exhibited with the

show and although an

" Chase. Degas.

Eakins. Hiroshige, Monet, Morisot

1844. d Mesnil-Beaufresne. 1926

on canvas. h92 x

w63

cm. h36V4 x w24 7^

in.

Musee

d'Orsay. Paris

Castagno Anth
Bold power and strength characterize

The Young David

dd
this

image of David

present day. Castagno

He

with the head of Goliath. These were qualities that were

figures.

highly valued by Florentines at the time; they identified with

reflect his sculptural

the young, spirited warrior

with a sling-shot.
to

who overcame

The image

is

the huge giant

painted on a leather shield,

he carried through the streets of Florence during festive

processions. Artists in fifteenth-century Italy

made such

painted

the

know

human

this story to

Botticelli,

He

in particular

did not pay

form. Castagno was

at

one time

be untrue, but

it

may

We now

reflect the artist's

Donatello. Ghiberti, Ghirlandaio. Signorelli

The Young David. cl450/57. Tempera on leather mounted on panel. hll5.6 x w76.9 cm.

DC

which

thought to have brutally murdered his teacher.

Andrea del Castagno. b Castagno. cl421. d Florence, 1457

National Gallery of Art. Washington

frescos,

approach to painting.

attention to either landscape or nature, choosing to

*~

to the

for his strong, powerful

on

violent nature.

most examples have not survived

known

focus

made

last,

is

number of

much

decorations regularly. However, because they were not


to

h45& x w30Va

Catena
The
a

artist

simple meal.

kept to a

The Supper

\ incenzo

has used a straightforward composition to highlight

The

table,

minimum.

glassware and setting have

All, that

is,

all

been

except the cloth that hangs

at

Emmaus

of the time, colour and


as

its

light are as

the right

elaborate cloth, drawing the viewer's attention to the Saviour.

appears to have entered into

The Cloth of Honour,

Giorgione

it is

known,

is

a feature

of other

Venetian Renaissance paintings and can be found, for


example, in

many works by Giovanni

his paintings

Bellini, particularly in

of the Virgin. As with many Venetian paintings

shows the

at

artist's

one stage

Oil

on canvas. hl30

man on

inventive colour sense. Catena

some kind of partnership with

in his career.

His works show the

influence not only of Giorgione but of other Venetian artists

such as Titian and Palma Vecchio.

- Giovanni

Bellini.

Champaigne. Giorgione.

Vincenzo Catena b Venice. C1480. d Venice, 1531

The Supper at Emmaus. 1520/30.

this picture

the servant's clothes and the vellow and purple of the

behind Christ. The simplicity of the picture contrasts with the

as

important to

composition: the play between the blue and yellow of

w241 cm. h51 x w94%

Galleria degli Uffizi. Florence

Titian

Catlin George

Ambush

Creating a pretty red-and-white pattern along a plain

a painting that

stretching out to the horizon, a flock of flamingoes attend

Catlin turned to portrait painting

to their nests.

Overhead

formation across the sky.

group of birds

is

meant

as a

reminder of

is

otherwise

among

studying and living

a looping

hunter and his servant lurk

behind a bush, waiting tor the perfect

The hunter

fly in

for Flamingoes

America.

moment to shoot.
how the beauty of

Indians,

painted

and was an

of Indian

nature can so swiftly be destroyed by man. Cadin has taken

He

tribes.

many

early

fairly rigid.

lawyer by training,

and spent many years

the Indians of
portraits

campaigner for the preservation

In 1841 he published Manners.. .of the North

American Indians, illustrated with some 300 of his engravings.

great care in presenting the flamingoes in different poses, so


as to express variety

George

and movement and

Catlin. b Wilkes-Barre. PA.

Ambush

for

Flamingoes. cl857.

to create

1796. d Jersey

Oil

City. NJ.

rhythm

in

North and South

of native American

m~

Allston,

Audubon. Bingham, Cole

1872

on canvas. h48.3* w67.3cm. hl9x w26'/,

in.

Carnegie

Museum

of Art. Pittsburgh,

PA

Cellini Benvenuto
This beautiful

and Ceres,
legs

salt cellar is

who

figures

- Neptune

represent Water and Earth. Their intertwined

symbolize the combination of these elements, which

together produce

salt.

sculptor and engraver.

and princes;
1

made of two

Salt Cellar

Cellini

was

a celebrated

He worked

this particular object

of France. The splendour and grace of

was

Benvenuto
Salt Cellar.

to appeal to the

Cellini,

work

popes

is

The aim of these

emotions through aesthetic

b Florence, 1500. d Florence,

is

known about

autobiography, which

King Francis

Cellini's

perfect example of the Mannerist school.


artists

for

can be seen in the work of late sixteenth-century


great deal

goldsmith,

for emperors, kings,

was made

This led to the use of elongated figures and sharp colours,

effect.

account of

his

Cellini's

is full

- were melted down. Many

however, have survived.

'* Clouet. Giambologna. Parmigianino.

Rosso Fiorentino

1571

1540/43. Gold, enamel and ebony. h26 x w34 cm. hlO^ x i13%

Kunsthistorisches

from

his

an

as

stealing the papal en

as

>wn

most of Cellini's smaller works

medals, cups and daggers


larger masterpieces,

life

of racy anecdotes such

imprisonment for

jewels. Unfortunately,

tempestuous

artists.

Museum, Vienna

if

his

Cezanne

Mont

Paul

Purples, blues, yellows and reels create this

mountain

Nature'.

in the

Sainte-Victoire

He

achieved

this b)

combining

direct studies of the

Mont Saintehome town of Aix-en-Provence,


subject. He returned to it again and

South of Fiance. Rather than altering the tones of the

landscape with a Classical sense of form.

colours as they changed with the light and shade, Cezanne

Victoire, near the artist's

changed the colours themselves. The mountain and

was Cezanne's favourite

surrounding landscape have been simplified into geometrical

again throughout his career, producing paintings that were

shapes and planes of colour.

may not

faithfully

The

result

is

increasingly radical in conception. His reduction of nature

a painting that

reproduce the scene, but which evokes

its

tones and volumes through the interplay of light and shade.

Cezanne

said that

he 'wanted to do Poussin again, from

into simple geometric shapes,

and

his use

of bold colours,

point to the later work of the Cubists and the Fauves.

" Braque.

Derain. Hodler. Picasso. Poussin. Vlaminck

~^ *&&mmji&
1

Cezanne, b Aix-en-Provence, 1839. d Aix-en-Provence, 1906


Sainte-Victoire. 1885/95. Oil on canvas. h72.8 x w91.7 cm.

it

h28% x w38! cm. Barnes

Foundation. Merion. PA

Chagall Marc
Above

town made up of simple wooden houses and

barns, two fantastical figures

fly

hand gently cups the woman's


lovers,

across the sky.

breast.

The man's

They seem

to

be

in

blocks of colour, with

its

pretty

tales

his

and

fantasy. Chagall

imagery

is

in

Russia and

reality

and dreams into colourful compositions.


to leave Russia because the state

and France.

and came to divide

He was

very productive

and designing mosaics, stage

fairy-

much of

can be found

in

Opera and the

manv

UN

his time

sets

and

is

both sophisticated and

artist,

Vitebsk. 1887. d Saint Paul-de-Vence.

Above the Town. 1915.

Oil

1985

on canvas. h48.5 x w70.5 cm. hl9'/i x

w27 34

in.

Private collection

painting

His works

public buildings, including the Paris

Headquarters

- Gontcharova, Hodgkin.

childlike,

He

demanded

between the

tapestries.

in

New York.

firmly rooted in the Jewish folklore of his

early years. His stvle

Marc Chagall, b

was born

blending

was compelled

US

wooden

fencing and warmish tones, shows Chagall's interest in

the

certain type of art,

perhaps eloping. The quaint and naively ordered

town, painted

Town

Above

Rodin. Soutine, Utamaro

Champaigne
soon betray him.
only light

mysterious

in the picture falls

ajr

The

Philippe d<

Christ announces to the Apostles that one of

them

The

pervades the scene.

from the window, barely

illuminating the back wall. This sets the figures in relief and

heightens

a feeling

of drama and tension. While Christ

The

rich colour

across the picture.

Champaigne did not

contemporary

are rich

and powerful.

became

a naturalized

his

of the draperies and the

rhythmic folds of the tablecloth help the viewer's eye

like his

artists

of the

Of

most well-known paintings

in.

Catena.

Musee du

is

a full-length, austere study

David. Domenichino. Guercino

Louvre.

Pans

as a portrait

King Louis XIII of France. One of

move

w91&

Baroque,

Flemish origin, Champaigne

Frenchman, working

of Cardinal Richelieu.

paint dramatic

Italian

but the dignified, restrained emotions expressed in his work

painter at the Court of

consecrates the bread, the Apostles express their feelings

without words.

Last Supper

scenes

will

Chardin
The

subject

is

simple: a

young

woman

teaching a child to

read. Painted with great honest}-, in a simple

the artist conveys a strong emotional link


figures.

There

is little

The Young Schoolmistress

iean-Baptiste-Sit

background

detail,

and direct

style,

between the two

and the thickly

layered but carefully planned brushstrokes create depth and


solidity. It is a silent painting, similar in its

the

timelessness to

century France. His simple, unsentimentalized compositions


are rich in feeling; with their calm, balanced tonal range they

embody an

acute analysis and understanding of form. In

this century,

because of

Chardin's

its

work has regained

almost abstract nature.

considered to be the greatest

still-life

He

work of Jan Vermeer. Only the key of the cabinet


of genre and

still-life

scenes in eighteenth-

Jean-Baptiste-Simeon Chardin. b Paris. 1699. d Paris.

The Young Schoolmistress. C1736/7.

Oil

- De Hooch.

Lancret, La Tour. Metsu. Vermeer

1779

on canvas. h62 x

w66 cm. h24%

v26%

in.

National Gallery. London

widely

painter of his day.

breaks the magical spell of serenity and repose. Chardin was


a leading painter

popularity
is

Chase
Two

elegant

Sunlight

tills

the

on

a sofia

of everyday

is

not

lite.

Friendlv Visit

America throughout

exchanging chit-chat.

room, lightening the tone of the

bright palette. This


typical

sit

am Mcrnrr

w-ii

women

artist's

formally posetl scene, hut one

Like the Impressionists, Chase used

artist's flat,

style.

He

London

Chase was

in

portraits, landscapes

with which he painted them

may be

an essentially Luropean

style.

Friendly Visit 1895.

North

here.

in

He was

88^

particularly

IN.

in

North

1849. d New

ON on canvas. h76.8

York. NY.

W122.5 cm.

also a highly influential teacher.

Cassatt. Manet, Sargent. Tissot. Whistler

in.

National Gallery of Art. Washington

1916

h30'/S x

w48&

admired for

his

and the type of everyday scene shown

have been injected into

Chase worked

William Merritt Chase, b Williamsburg.

particularly

decorative

even painted Whistler's portrait when he met him

or" his

characteristics, but thev

He was

Whistler, and tor a time adopted that

loose brushwork and pastel colours to portray the world

American

long and active career.

[ames McNeill

around him. The informality

subjects and the vigour

his

particularly influenced by the painter

DC

De
A

pile

Chirico Giorgio

of bananas and a Classical plaster-cast of a female

torso appear in front of an arcade.

by a
can

wall.
just

arbitrary

Behind

this, a train

The horizon

and nonsensical, but each has

human

may appear

symbolic meaning:

The

outlines

of all

drawn with vigour. However,

shadows, monumental and menacing

Giorgio de Chirico. b Volo, 1888. d Rome,

The Uncertainty

denned

presence; the bananas

represent exoticism; the train, a voyage.


this strange imager}- are

is

disappearing into the distance

be seen. Such a collection of objects

the plaster cast symbolizes a

the

The Uncertainty of the Poet

of the Poet.

1913.

Oil

as they

it is

sweep

across the picture, that add

Metafisica ('metaphysical painting') that was

De

imaginative and mysterious imagery.

known

for

its

Chirico's enigmatic,

dream-like paintings profoundly influenced the Surrealists

of

his day.

From

traditional style

1925, however, he adopted a

and

horses on the seashore and

still lifes.

'- Carra. Dali, Delvaux. Magritte, Tanguy.

w94 cm. h41K x w34

in.

more

his later paintings included portraits,

1978

on canvas. hl06 x

power and mystery. De Chirico

and CarlS Carra founded a movement called Pittura

Tate Gallery, London

Wadsworth

Christo Javacheff
The environmental
famous

tor

sculptor Christo has

The Pont Neuf,


become world-

wrapping things up. Shown here

is

the massive

work he created by wrapping one of the great


landmarks of Paris - the Pont Neuf- in thick canvas,
sculptural

secured by rope.
bridge into a
sculpture.

work of art was an

By covering

it

exciting

new way of creating

in fabric, the artist

drew people's

attention to the sculptural details of the bridge, while also

creating a majestic and mysterious object

Javacheff Christo. b Gabrovo.

The Pont Neuf,

Paris.

of beauty.

It

served to emphasize the importance of preserving such


historical

monuments.

at objects in a

also

in

Christo's

New York
1

in

in

1964 and

work encourages us

960.

later

976 he completed Running

is

typical

Born

of the

New

in Bulgaria,

he

became an American

Fence,

comprising 40

Realists, a

moved

canvas and rope. Now dismantled

Long

to

citizen. In

km

miles) of white fabric running over the Californian


(- Gentile Bellini, Buren. Hiroshige, Klein,

to look

of

different way. This notion

transforming familiar objects

1935

1985. The Pont Neuf wrapped

new and

movement founded

The temporary transformation of the

Paris

(2

hills.

Church
The sun

sets

over the distant horizon, leaving behind a

blood-red and orange sky reflected


tree

in a

wide nver. Gnarled

branches stand out against the background

skeletons. Fredrick
in

Twilight in the Wilderness

Frederick

all its

glory.

The only

chose to banish

pupil of

man from

concentrate on nature in
native

New

like

Church has revealed the power of nature

his

its

Thomas

purest

England, he went

Cole, Church

compositions and

in

state.

After exploring his

search of dramatic and

He

explored the length

Frederick Church, b Hartford, CT, 1826. d

New

York, NY.

Twilight in the Wilderness. 1860. Oil on canvas.

the snow-covered peaks of the

Andes and

the icebergs of

Labrador. Church recorded the uncharted marvels he saw

with amazing

skill,

changing the texture of

his paints, for

example, according to the different natural forms he

afield.

panoramic landscapes further

and breadth of the American continent: he painted the


volcanoes of Mexico, the tropical jungles of South Amenca,

described.

The

epic grandeur

and sublime drama evoked by


Romantic movement

his

work epitomize

Cole, Friedrich. Grimshaw, Martin, Turner

the ideals of the

1900

hl01.6 x wl26.6 cm. h40 x w49 7^

in.

Cleveland

Museum

of Art, Cleveland.

OH

Cimabue

The Santa

nginally gracing the high altar of the church


rinita in

of Santa

mtcmplation and devotion. The Virgin and Child


natc

artist's

Florence, this image was intended to inspire


sit

on an

mtemplate the divine image. The picture's simplicity and

sible in the
ibe are

would have helped

dark church.

The

The Santa

in

Trinita

make

it

more

fine gold lines in the Virgin's

reminiscent of the rigid Byzantine

Cimabue. Active

to

Florence. 1272. d Florence.

style, yet

attempt to put the figures

to flower during the Renaissance

Cimabue's origins are obscure.

arded prophets look out from an arcade as they, too,

leaf

Madonna
in

some kind of three-

dimensional space points towards developments that were

throne flanked by graceful angels. Below, four

mndance of gold

Trinita

the

magnificent figure of St John

over

He

is

in turn

painting the

' Campin,

developed Cimabue's

human

century

it

that

panel.

form.

Duccio, Giotto, Lochner

h385 x w223 cm. H151& x w87&.

for his

he taught Giotto,

naturalistic

1302

Madonna. cl260/80. Tempera on

later.

known

part of a large mosaic in the

apse of Pisa Cathedral. Legend has

who

also

Galleria degli Uffizi. Florence

approach to

Claesz
A human
in

warm

skull

A Vanitas

Pieter

dominates

this

odd

array of objects.

tones, with a ray of sunlight sweeping across them,

the objects are painted in shades of pale brown.

was renowned

in the

Netherlands for

These were often painted

in

lending a sense of mystical


depicted.
life:

Bathed

almost

is

The

such

monochrome

harmony

The theme of this work

still lifes

that time

is

Still

forever

Life
moving

on.

Dutch seventeenth-century

painters delighted in the depiction of everyday objects,

often treated with great illusionistic

artist

as this.

were not overtly moralizing

life

understood

to the objects he

the transience of earthly

flowing away; the watch reminds the viewer

Pieter Claesz. b Burgsteinfurt, 1590. d Haarlem,

A Vanitas

Still Life.

1645.

Oil

on panel. h39 x

at the time.

commonly admired
m-

Hals,

De Heem,

1661

w61

cm.

hl5H x w24

Such paintings

would often be

with symbolic meanings that would have been readily

tones,

Today, these paintings are more

for their sheer virtuosity.

the skull represents death; the overturned glass

symbolizes

skill.

in tone, but

in.

Private collection

Kalf,

Ruysch, Snyders

rich

Claude Lorraine
This magnificent, spacious scene
landscape painting

is

Landscape with

an example of Classical

at its best. It is carefully

using a balance of strong horizontals and verticals, while


areas of light and shade help to

move

atmosphere

is

Roman

countryside.

Classical

The

figures, representing a

in

finding a husband for

his

pastoral scenes

long creative

mythology where Psyche's father makes

Oil

on canvas. hl76 x

life

and the poetry of

shown

here,

in

Claude was

and around

his vision

Upon

were

seemed 'beyond the power of imitation'.


* Allston. Constable. Cozens. Poussin, Turner

w223 cm. h69 x w87 3

/a

in.

seeing the

JMW Turner remarked that

Claude Lorraine (Claude Gellee). b Nancy. 1600. d Rome. 1682

Landscape with a Sacrifice to Apollo. 1662.

setting.

source of great inspiration to English eighteenth- and

painting

scene

Apollo

almost incidental to the

nineteenth-century landscape painters.

delicate

developed from a careful colour-range of

greens, blues and browns.

from

The

invoke Apollo's help

Frenchman, but spent

Rome. His

the viewer's eye

across and into the scene. Claude has captured the solemn

grandeur of the

sacrifice to

his daughter, are

constructed,

a Sacrifice to

Anglesey Abbey. Lode

it

Clemente Francesco
The naked

who

feels

birds rest
series

of

artist fixes his

penetrating gaze

compelled to return

on

his look.

the artist's shoulders.

large, calligraphically

Self-portrait:
the viewer,

host of different

first in

Clemente's

rendered drawings of himself,

this picture illustrates the artist's

self exploration

The

on

almost erotic drive towards

and self-exposure. The

figure

is

treated in

as

The

First

Transavanguardia, which focuses on expressive figurative

work done on

a large scale.

Clemente and other


the

way

Italian

Towards

in reviving figure painting.

partly as a reaction to

the end of the 1970s

Neo-Expressionists largely led


This revival

may be

seen

non- figurative Abstract

Expressionism, which dominated the

art

scene for

many

an expressive manner, while the birds symbolize the

supremacy of

work

is

subjectivity

and imagination over reason. The

an example of the Neo-Expressionist trend

known

Baselitz. Durer. Kirchner. Pollock, Schlele.

Schnabel

Francesco Clemente. b Naples, 1952


Self-portrait:

The

First.

1979. Gouache, watercolour and

ink

on paper mounted on canvas. hll2 x

wl47

cm.

h44^ x w57/6 in.

Private collection

C^lOUCt Francois

Portrait
and dressed

Sitting astride an ornately decorated horse

equally splendid suit of armour, Francois

in

at

us with a slightly

bemused expression on

is

renowned

powers of observation and detailed

for his

an

of France looks
his face.

Clouet

technique. Here he has rendered the intricate patterns of the

King's
his

attire

with dazzling precision, especially the heads on

kneecap and elbow and the figures on

chest. Clouet has not only paid

depicting

him

in

all

his finer}-

homage

on

the top of a

to imply that his

kingdom. Clouet was

hill

with a landscape stretching behind

Henri

II

Francois
his

ruler

of an extensive

a prolific painter

to four

II,

on Horseback

King was

was Court painter

fame for

Oil

Van Dyck. Van Eyck. Gericault. Holbein, Lawrence

w22 cm. hl0.6 x w8.7

in.

He

I,

and Charles IX - and achieved great

by

on panel. h27 x

portraits.

ceremonial portraits and striking drawings.

1572

on Horseback. cl540.

of royal

Kings of France - Francois

arms and

to his master

but has placed the horse and

Francois Clouet. b Tours. cl522. d Paris.


Portrait of Francois

his

rider

him

of Francois

Gallena degli

Uffizi.

Florence

Cole Thomas
Massive outcrops
in this craggy,

or"

circle

mountaintop scene bathed

glow of warm colours. The

show every

Scene from Last of the Mohicans

rock overwhelm a

artist

in

of small figures

an autumnal

has taken great care to

natural detail, evoking the awe-inspiring vastness

of the American wilderness. The picture

illustrates a

scene

from James Fenimore Cooper's The hast of the Mohicans. Cole


is

considered the leading painter of the

School. This group of painters,

New

Hudson

who worked

River

mainly around

England, were fond of river and mountain scenes

Thomas

Cole, b Bolton-le-Moors. 1801. d Catskill. NY.

Scene from Last

of the

Mohicans. 1827.

Oil

untouched bv man
to bring religious

once wrote

ihat 'the wilderness

of God', and

became

bv Europeans. Cole aimed

is

his paintings.

after converting to Anglicanism, his painting

Italy,

He

visited

there. His paintings

had a strong Romantic

Allston. Bierstadt. Church.

Cozens,

Frieclrich

1848

on canvas. h64.5 x v89 cm. h25

w35M6

in.

England,

but was not gready influenced bv what he

of drama and grandeur.

"

He

yet a fitting place to speak

increasingly religious in feeling.

France and

saw

particularly

and moral meaning to

Wadsworth Atheneum.

Hartford.

CT

quality, full

Constable John
A man

struggles to

hold a barge

still

silvery highlights

open

a lock, as his

in a current

and

The Lock
companion

tries to

of surging water. With

rich colouring, this picture

is

lies

composed structure. Constable enrolled at


Academy in 1799 and for the first decade of his

a carefully

the Royal

its

painting career he failed to

sell

any work

in

England. This

celebration of the freshness and beauty of nature. Perhaps

was not

more than any other landscape

accepted with enthusiasm. Constable's landscapes had a

painter, Constable

express his love of the open countryside.

sought to

scene.

Behind these speckled, flecked

bits

where

gestures and use of light to create a particular

mood

of a

of paint, however,

inspiration to the Impressionists.

Corot. Daubigny. T Rousseau. Ruisdael. Turner

John Constable b East Bergholt. 1776. d London. 1837

The Lock. cl824.

Oil

on canvas. hl42 x

wl20

his paintings

cm. h56 x

w47^

were

strong influence on French landscape painting, and his swift

Through an

apparendy spontaneous use of colour and rapid


brushstrokes he was able to capture the fleeting

the case in Paris, however,

in.

Fundacion Coleccion Thyssen-Bornemisza. Madrid

mood were

an

Copley jo hn
his life slowly

back

held by his generals as

ebbs away. His furious black servant

French invasion on Jersey

dramatic scene,

it is

described in great

country whose
first

in 1781.

detail.

and

truly
lit

and

Copley colourfully chronicles the

officer killed in the service

flags are patriotically

becoming known

for his direct, precise style and ability to

capture the essence of his

fires

symmetrically composed, clearly

heroism of the young

Copley

is

enemy. The painting portrays the English

at the

repelling a

The Death of Major Pierson

Singleton

The limp body of Major Pierson

settled in

sitters.

painter.

Copley was among the

modern

history

such

of

Oil

of a

waving overhead.

on canvas. h252 x

w366

America

first

to treat subjects

grand manner usually reserved for Classical subjects.

established his reputation as a portrait painter,

Major Pierson. 1782-4.

left

as The Death of Major Pierson

David, Delacroix. Uccello,

West

John Singleton Copley, b Boston, MA, 1738. d London, 1815

The Death

In 1774 he

England, embarking upon a career as a history

cm. h99 x

wl44

in.

Tate Gallery, London

from
in the

Cornell
\

:ph

Untitled

assortment of stamps, newspaper cuttings and

frugal

other objects with no particular relevance to each other


placed

for the

whole world, inhabited by these strange

wooden

also a treasury

and evokes

box. This container acts as

of curiosities

mood

that

is

these 'assemblages', as they are


is

im taphot

items.

It

is

compelling to explore

of nostalgia. The fragments of once-

ornamental or beautiful objects come together

and dream-like way. This

is

in a

Cornell's genius, ami

has proved so popular over the years.

known,

reflects

Cornel] once said, 'Shadow boxes

poetic theatres or settings wherein are

elements of

magical

Blake, Brauner, Rauschenberg, Schwitters

'MR
-"*

IM
lr-l

'..si

mnfiiBg
'W^fiiirar

Joseph Cornell, b Nyack, NY. 1903. d Flushing. NY. 1972

C1950. Mixed media

in

a wooden box.

h38

w27 cm. hl5 x wlOi*

in.

Private collection

this.

become

metamorphosed

childhood pastime.'

HOTEL DL'lig|gJ55S!

Untitled.

Cornell's

sense of order and precision pervades pieces such as

Of his own work

why he

The randomness of

interest in the irrationality "t Surrealism. Nevertheless, a

the

V^

L Jean-Baptiste-Camille

Ville

spanned

In this landscape of great delicacy, soft pastel tones and


feather}- trees

atmosphere.

the sun shining

pale, silver}- sky

on

is

reflected in the lake,

and

this painting.

the houses to the left recalls Corot's oil

at Ville

Throughout

his

d'Avrav near

Paris, the site

was one of the

of

greatest

landscape painters of the nineteenth century. His work

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot. b Paris. 1796. d Paris,


Ville d'Avray.

cl867/70.

Oil

on canvas.

have led him to be called the


landscapists,

long career he continued to

paint the scenery in the area. Corot

and he was inspired


in

the academic tradition, together with hts clear, fresh vision,

sketches of Italian buildings. Corot's father bought a

country house in 1817

practically the entire century,

by and inspired generations of painters. His grounding

evoke a dreamy, dewy, early-morning

d'Avrav

and the

first

'last

aspects of his later paintings can be seen in the

Alfred Sisley and Claude Monet. Corot

is

work of

thought to have

painted around 3,000 canvases during his career.

Boudin. Claude. Daubigny, Monet, Pissarro, Sisley

1875

h49xw65cm. hl9&xw25!in.

of the Classical

of the Impressionists'. Indeed,

National Gallery of Art. Washington

DC

Correggio

The

Christ illuminates this painting with


bright that the
its

glare.

woman

at his feet

staff

in turn
is

point

typical

down towards

of Correggio's

it

up towards the

on the

angels,

the child. This vibrant

late style.

cupolas and the ceilings of churches, Correggio

inside

of the

Evangelist, Parma,
figures.

The movement

in

aimed to give the viewer the sensation of looking up into

One of his greatest works is a


dome of the church of St John

the glory of Heaven.

is full

of the shepherd leads the viewer's

eye into the composition, directing

picture

executed

divine light, a light so

has to shield her eyes from

The asymmetrical composition of the scene

of movement. The

who

Nativity

which

is

a dizzying

city's

style.

Best

known

'* Carracci, Caravaggio, Elsheimer, Parmigianino

for his paintings

Correggio (Antonio Allegri). b Correggio. cl489. d Correggio.

The

Nativity.

1530.

Oil

on panel. h256 x

wl88

cm. hlOOfc x

1534

w74

in.

Staatliche

Kunstsammlungen. Dresden

life in

Parma,

outstanding painters.

and drama of the work look forward to the seventeenthcentury Baroque

the

mass of swirling

Correggio worked for most of his

where he was one of the

fresco

Del CO SSa
It is

May. Apollo the sun god

May

Francesco

sits

atop a chariot, presiding

typical

of Cossa and his fellow

artists

of that

area.

The

over courtiers, cherubs and gentlemen. The nudes below

principles of perspective, important to Florentine art of that

represent the astrological sign of Gemini. This pageant

time,

one
dei

in a series

of

Mesi ('room of the months')

Borso d'Este
other

in Ferrara.

artists to

is

frescos that cover the walls of the Sala


in the palace

of the

Duke

cycle,

Cossa was commissioned with

The

fresco

is

painted in bright colours, in a slightly unrealistic style that

is

Francesco del Cossa. b

Ferrara,

May. 1470s. Fresco. h319 x

lodged a

subsequently

depict the activities of the Court throughout

the year by using astrological signs and deities.

do not seem

cm. hl25'^ x

wl26

in.

have been used.

We know

letter

left

that Cossa,

of complaint with the Duke. He

Ferrara and spent the rest of his days in

Bologna.

Limbourg, Mantegna, Piero della Francesca

C1435. d Bologna. cl478

w320

to

upset that he had been underpaid for his work on the fresco

Palazzo Schifanoia, Ferrara

Courbet
In

May

1854 Courbet

Bonjour, Monsieur Courbct

c,

aimed

Montpellier as the guest of

at

Alfred Bruyas, an important patron and collector of the

Courbet has shown himself with


knapsack

at

the

host, his sen-ant

moment

the painting

champion of

influence

his

and dog. Comber's choice of subject,

was exhibited

Exhibition of 1855.

new,

at the Paris

anti-intellectual type

of

away from

stir

around him, Courbet was an important

on Kdouard Manet and

have replied,

to

and

religious

literary subjects to the

the Impressionists.

asked to include angels in a painting for

World

Soon Courbet was heralded

from the shackles of academic history and


painting. In turning

natural world

and

a walking-suck

he was met on the road by

painted with stark realism and honesty, caused a great

when

arts.

'I

have never seen angels.

church, he

Show me

When
is

said

an angel

will paint one.'

as the

art that

was

free

Daubigny. Manet. Millet, T Rousseau

fjl

m
Sim

'

frfr-

1/
1

>

Ami

W.^^j

~\

uflH Wt

BI

^flPSfl fo'- v**?^H


:

'^HSfihMW

pr
^m

*~*^9fc'

'

mm

..

*^r^m

s^K^^

-
i

jP

Hi
Gustave Courbet. b Omans. 1819. d Tour de

Peitz.

Bonjour. Monsieur Courbet. 1854. Oil on canvas.

1877

hl29 x wl49 cm. h503i

w58&

in.

Musee

Fabre, Montpellier

Cozens
A

traveller

above the

Between Chamonix and Martigny

John Robert

on horseback and
tree-line in the

his

companion

cross a pass

French Alps. Their diminutive

unassailability
size

most

of nature. Cozens

He had

and inconsequence are stressed by the overhanging rock

century.

above them and the monumentality of the spiked, snowy

John Constable;

summit of the
travelled

Aiguille Yerte.

From 1776

through Switzerland to

to 1779

Italy via the

Cozens

Alps and was

marked influence on

M W Turner and
was the

landscapes in watercolour almost exclusively; he

lost.

two works

~ Church, Constable. Fnednch.

in oil,

paper. h43.5 x

1
w61.6 cm. hl7i* x W24 /*

in.

is

known

one of which

Martin. Turner

John Robert Cozens, b London, 1752. d London, 1797

Between Chamonix and Martigny. cl776/79. Watercolour on

'greatest

genius that ever touched landscape'. Cozens painted

to have executed only

of subdued colours evokes the magnitude of space and the

considered one of the

the latter claimed that he

overawed by the all-powerful presence of these mountains.


melancholy and poetic painter, Cozens' restricted palette

is

talented English landscape painters of the eighteenth

Private collection

is

now

Cra
The

artist

Tony

Eroded Landscape

has concocted an urban landscape out of

collection of containers of frosted glass.

so stabilizing

The group of

objects has been arranged to evoke feelings of both


familiarity

in

something

It

large vases at the

owner, but not to the viewer.

bottom

right

and

left

consumer waste,

takes

on

the feel of a

stability.

Greek temple,

Bourgeois. Caro, Deacon, Morandi, Smith

Tony Cragg. b Liverpool. 1949


Eroded Landscape. 1992. Glass. h43 x v132 cm. hl6/B x w51/a

in

the

yet they are often arranged with a delicate

sense of poem-, and a sensitivity to the beauty of

support the structure

and give the composition amazing symmetry and

The enure composition

Cragg has specialized

imagination. His compositions frequendy evoke the idea of

mean
The two

too might be displaying objects that

to their

their influence.

exploration of the space between reality and the

and strangeness. The glass shelf could be found

any home.

is

arrangement of industrial objects. His works are an

in.

Lisson Gallery, London

still life.

Cranach Lucas
Venus wears only an
necklaces. She

out seductively

because

is

and

coyly holding a diaphanous veil and looks

at the viewer.

artists at this

Her body

time rarely used

Nude women were not


a narrative

the Elder

elaborately jewelled hairnet

often

shown

is

live

idealized,

perhaps

female models.

unless they appeared in

scene or as mythical goddesses. Cranach seems

to have ignored the Classical spirit

of the day, and for

reason his nudes sometimes seem almost primitive.

this

The

choice of a mythological rather than a religious subject for

Lucas Cranach the


Venus. 1532.

Oil

Elder, b Kronach.

this picture

may have been because

Protestant.

We know little

his influence in Protestant

seemed

w9%

in.

was

Germany was widespread. He

to appear suddenly,

and produced

his best

early in his long career, thereafter leading the easy

Court

painter.

the

first in

and

style.

He

is

a dynasty

called

Stadelsches Kunstmstitut. Frankfurt

work
life

of

Lucas the Elder because he was

of artists

who

Baldung. Durer. Grunewald. Leighton

1472. d Weimar, 1553

on panel. h37 x v25 cm. hl4V$ x

the patron

about Cranach other than that

carried

on

his traditions

Cuyp
evening.

The warm

light

composition and creates

is

bathed

the golden

in

permeates every
a

Horseman and Peasants

Cattle with

\elbert

This peaceful country scene

luminous

detail

effect,

glow

ot*

century Dutch landscape painters and was influenced by

Jacob van Ruisdael and Jan van Goyen

of the

scrutiny of nature.

very different

He

is

particularly

in their

from the cool blues and greens of Cuyp's contemporaries

and town views, which he painted mainly

such as Meindert Hobbema. The apparently random

native Dordrecht. Cuyp's landscapes were

placement of the animals was

and bought by

artist in

order to

show

in fact closely

the play of light

cows, which almost appear to radiate the

Cuyp

light

As

century.

of the sun.

effect

considered one of the most important seventeenth-

is

studied by the

and shade on the

"

on

Horseman and Peasants cl650.

Oil

on panel. h38.1

w20

his river

and around

first

Hobbema. Ruisdael

in.

National Gallery. London

his

appreciated

he has since then had an incalculable

British art.

Bierstadt. Claude. Van Goyen.

w50.8 cm. H15

in

British collectors in the late eighteenth

a result

Cuyp. b Dordrecht. 1620. d Dordrecht. 1691

Cattle with

close

admired for

Dali Salvadc

Sleep

In this fantastic interpretation of sleep, only the head of the

dreamer

The

is

seen, against a

delicate balancing

single crutch

fail,

the

background of dream-like images.

of the figure indicates

dreamer

will

awake;

that,

this

should

demonstrates

the fragility of the state of sleep. Dali's meticulous attention


to detail creates

As

an atmosphere of enhanced hyper-reality.

member of the

Surrealist

idea of absurdity and the role

movement, he promoted the


of the unconscious

in his art.

Dali also collaborated with the film-maker Luis Buhuel

on

films such as
still

Oil

on canvas. h50.8 x w78.2 cm. h20 x

w30%

in.

Cbien Andaloii and L'Age d'Or, which are

Although he frequently provoked public outrage,

Dali's

reputation and contribution to art are undeniable. Having

worked

in Paris

and

New

York, Dali returned to his native

Spain in 1955, settling there with his long-time companion,


Gala, of

whom

he painted many weird and wonderful

pictures.

Bosch. Brauner. Delvaux, Kahlo. Magritte. Tanguy

Salvador Dali. b Figueras. 1904. d Barcelona. 1989

Sleep 1937.

Un

isgarded as landmarks in the history of the cinema.

Private collection

blgnV Charles-Francois

JLJ 3,11

The Lock

In this quiet contemplation of nature, a shepherdess with

her dog

is

attending to a herd of cows by a lock.

painted with

tones. This

on

method

that the Impressionists


its

Oil

on canvas. h92 x

of the Barbizon

who

w^as a great friend. It

vision that later helped to pass

cm. h36VS x

scene into

was Daubigny's

Impressionists.

Bingham.

Constable. Corot. Pissarro. T Rousseau

1878

wl62

this

on Corot's genius

later to

furthest extreme. Daubigny's

Charles-Francois Daubigny b Paris. 1817. d Paris.

The Lock at Optevoz. 1855.

were

of Camille Corot,

site.

In this way, he was one of the earliest to paint outdoors


air),

that

favoured simple, rusdc scenes, painted with

one of atmospheric nostalgia Daubigny shows the influence

retains

freshness by Daubigny's close observation of nature;

{enplein

who

vigour and immediacy. However, in changing

dreamy landscape

indeed, he executed a full-sized sketch of the scene

adopt and to develop to

Optev.

and manner of paindng were

School,

smooth, creamy technique and

predominandy cool
its

ideals

It is

at

w63&

in.

Musee des

Beaux-Arts.

Rouen

to the

Daumier
Two

elderly

The

Hoi

gentlemen are looking through a folder of


clear they are only

prints in an art dealer's gallery. It

is

pretending to be knowledgeable.

The

the artist's

works

own

bitter

comment on

picture

his inability to sell his

to the newly rich middle classes.

supreme

saurist, able to

single stroke

of

his pen.

Daumier was

capture a person's character with a

He was

his biting, sarcastic portrayals

as well as for his

may have been

well

known and

Print Collectors

the rare gift of being able to express in pictures


take hundreds of words.

He was

sculptor. His cartoon lithographs,

around 4,000, were collected by

artists

such as Edgar Degas

and may be compared with the work of Japanese


calligraphers in their marvellously free handling.

feared for

of leading figures of the day,

comments on

political issues.

Daumier had

Print Collectors.

cl878.

Ink

and wash on paper. h35 x

w32 cm. hl3% x wl2V$

Hogarth, Hokusai, Toulouse-Lautrec, Utamaro

in.

Victoria

and

of which he produced

Honore Daumier. b Marseille. 1808. d Valmondois. 1879

The

what would

also a fine painter

and Albert Museum. London

David Gerard

The Marriage Feast

This picture depicts an episode from the Bible, but


characters wear contemporary dress.
their

The

its

detail are typical

intricate details

of

early sixteenth centuries.

garments have been executed with minute precision.

The donors who commissioned


included as guests
either side

at the feast,

of the composition.

Netherlands

at this

It

was usual

altarpiece.

at

rime to include the patrons in the

The Marriage Feast at Cana. cl511.

Oil

Cana

He was one of the

and he excelled

life

of Christ were very popular,

in painting landscapes.

in decline,

Although the

successful, supplying paintings to other countries.

wl28 cm.

Bouts. Bruegel. Van Eyck. Van der Goes. Memling

h39?4 x w50V,

in.

Musee du

of

city

David's workshop continued to be

1523

on panel. hlOO x

masters of the

compositions were copied repeatedly. His

of the

David's rich colours and meticulous attention to

Gerard David, b Ouwater. C1450/60. d Bruges.

his

Bruges was

in the

painting, usually positioned as if kneeling in front

and

domestic scenes from the

the painting have been

and can be seen kneeling

rime,

at

of northern painting of the fifteenth and

of

all

Louvre.

Pans

X_y RVICI Jacques-Louis


Jean-Paul Marat, one of the

The Death of Marat

most passionate

leaders of the

French revolution, was a personal friend of David.


stabbed to death in his bath, and

commemorates

his

wound,

to

tell

the story: the limp body,

murder weapon and the

the

letter

the murderer used to gain admission to the house.

Rococo

style

of the previous generation and led

Classical 'deals.

These were expressed with

a return to

realism, a strong

sense of composition and crisp handling of paint. David

powerful image

murder. David has included only the

most important elements


the bloody

this

He was

which

was

also an active political revolutionary.

execution of Louis

Napoleon,

whom

XVI and was

he painted

He

voted for the

an ardent supporter of

number of times.

The

bright lighting and contrasting plain, dark background


highlight these details.

David denounced the Howerv

Canova. Delacroix. Gericault. Ingres. Powers. Prud'hon

Jacques-Louis David, b Pans. 1748. d Brussels. 1825

The Death

of

Marat 1793.

Oil

on canvas. hl65 x wl28.3 cm. h65 x w50!<>

in.

Musees Royaux des Beaux-Arts de

Belgique. Brussels

Davis

Egg Beater No. 4

Stuart

Ambiguous colours and shapes stand together


delightful interplay

of form,

line

about. Painted in 1927 and 1928, the 'F.gg beater Series' was

in this

based on the shapes of an egg beater, a fan and

and depth. Individual

rubber gloves and demonstrated the

elements have been crystallized into an abstract whole


created from blocks of
invite the eye to zip

angular

flat

colour and precise shapes. These

around the canvas, following the

movements of the egg

work shows

beater.

Much of the

artist's

Davis used contemporary American

matter, painting everything

from petrol

landscapes.

although Davis has developed these through the humour,


zest

and zany sounds of jazz, which he was passionate

Stuart Davis, b Philadelphia. PA. 1894. d

Egg Beater No.

4.

1928.

Oil

New

on canvas. h68 x

York. NY.

'" Braque, Feininger. Nicholson, Picasso

1964

w97 cm. h27

w38VS

in. Phillips

Collection.

Washington DC

a pair

of

abstract

compositions to be created by an American


years.

the influence of Cubist fragmented shapes,

first

artist in

life

ten

as his subject

stations to

Deacon
Although

this

Richard

sculpture wears

- glue seeps out between


hundreds of

rivets

sculptors

blown dry by

them an

makes

a desert

who emerged

shares with

construction on

its

it

form cur/ilinear skins that enclose volumes, evoking pots


its

One of a

in Britain in the 1980s,

interest in the objects

and

vessels.

The body

also a constant motif.

is

Often room-

sized in scale, these sculptures suggest a repertory of

distincdy organic, like a

wind.

Out of Water

expose frameworks, echoing engineering structures, and

sleeve

of bent hardboard, and

layers

keep the whole from springing apart -

bulging, rib-like structure

skeleton

its

Fish

- from

parts

Deacon

anything specific, Deacon's forms suggest images, emotions

of everyday

ribcages to genitalia. Rather than represendng

and memories which

life.

His works use the construction techniques of boat-building

viewer.

or aviation. Like drawings in space, they trace outlines that

m~

are,

of course, different for each

Bourgeois. Calder, Cragg. Serra, Smith

Richard Deacon, b Bangor, 1949


Fish Out of Water.

1986/7. Laminated hardboard.

body

generation of

w350 cm. wl37%

in.

Hirshhorn

Museum and

Sculpture Garden. Washington

DC

Degas
We

hide with him, in the shadows,

movement of the

:hing the fluid

slim, supple limbs

and

is

appear

totally

random: the

figure

on the

cut off by the edge of the canvas, and truncated


at the

top of the

seconds more,

Edgar Degas, b

Paris.

it

stairs

- had he waited only

Paris.

Galleries,

The

ballets themselves;

Glasgow

cool tones and lack of formalin,- are

was not

in the ballerinas

of abstract forms and shapes and the colours' graceful


harmonies.

Hiroshige, Laurencin, Toulouse-Lautrec, Whistler

The

or

what fascinated him was the movement

1917

The Rehearsal. 1873-4. Pastel on canvas. h59 x w83.8 cm. h23V5 x w33

Glasgow Museums and Art

in.

executed with

seems, another dancer would have

1834. d

been sketched

is

of pastel and some areas have merely

refreshing. Degas' real interest

dancers from unusual angles and viewpoints,

composition appears
ight

vibrant, rapid strokes

bodies of the young ballet dancers. Degas has

icted the

Rehearsal

walked into the picture. The painting

giving the viewer a secret glimpse into a

artist is

arsal studio.

etui

The

Kck

Burrell Collection,

Delacroix Eugene
So

real

Henry

is

III

this

scene of the historic victory of Louis

of England that the

heard. Despite

composed.

its

battlecries

vast size, the painting

IX over

dominated by Louis on

white horse. Executed with great gusto and passion in


tones,

it

shows the Romantic

managed

to free himself

dominated French

spirit

from the

of Delacroix,

stiff

early nineteenth-century art.

of Taillebourg.

1835/7.

Oil

inspired by Peter Paul Rubens' colour and loose


1

his

warm

who

Exhibition of 185

Delacroix showed 36 canvases in one

room. His journals provide


social, intellectual

and

a vivid

artistic

commentary on

world of Paris

the

in the first

half of the nineteenth century.

Classicism that

Eugene Delacroix, b Charenton-St-Maurice, 1798. d


The Battle

much

and Richard Parkes Bonington. At the Paris World

compactly

whirling mass of figures brings our attention

to the focal point at the centre,

Battle of Taillebourc

brustiwor .-, as well as by the landscapes of John Constable

can almost be

is

The

He was

Paris,

on canvas. h485 x

Bonington, Constable. Copley, Gencault, Rubens

1863

w555

cm. hl91 x

w218&

in.

Musee

National

Domaine de

Versailles, Versailles

Delaunay Robert

Homage

In this apparently abstract composition, swirling spirals and

large collage

rotating discs of colour

form

surface of a sheet of paper.


the Hiffel

Tower on

an aeroplane on the

forms

a lyrical

On

we can

These combine with the

Artists often used

paper to

jot

down

compositions. This watercolour

is

ideas

tide that

hangs

in the

Delaunay developed

forms originated from

his

his use

closely related to music,

was

of painting, which was

called

Orphism,

invented by the poet Guillaume Apollinaire.

909.

and work out

a preliminary

sketch for a

<" Klee, Kupka, Marc, Nash, Seurat, Signac

Robert Delaunay b Pans. 1885. d Montpellier. 1941

Homage

to Bleriot. 1914. Watercolour on paper.

h78

w67 cm. h30%

of

imagination and bore no relation

to the tangible world. This style

floating

in the sky to celebrate the first flight across the

English Channel, undertaken by Louis Bleriot in

in Basel.

colour to create purely abstract paintings whose shapes and

see

the right and the wings and propeller of


left.

of the same

Kunstmuseum

pattern across the

closer inspection

to Bleriot

w26H

in.

Musee

d'Art

Moderne de

la Ville

de

Paris. Paris

term

Delvaux
In a moonlit

town Venus

Asl eep

Paul
lies

skeleton and a dressmaker's

asleep,

watched over bv

dummy. She

lies

then Expressionism.

with her legs

open, dreaming of the seduction of Death. Perhaps

it is

circles

the

combination of youthful female beauty and death, of desire

and horror,

that

makes

this

painting so disturbing.

the hallmark of Surrealists like

It

strange, often beautiful, images that

popular

in fashionable art

impressed by

Roman

architecture.

He

is

known

were inspired by

it*"

L.

jV.

*\

wit

buildings.

~ De

Chirico. Cranach, Dali. Kahlo. Magritte,

^ '^?=_
^_ \
k

'

women,

late to

Tanguy

//

'

11s L

for his

usually positioned in front of meticulously rendered

Surrealism, after experimenting with Impressionism and

in

heyday. Delvaux visited Italy in 1939 and was deeply

dream-like images of beautiful, often naked, young

was

Delvaux to depict such

dreams and the subconscious. Delvaux came

its

He was

atVr the Second World War, when Surrealism was

ii*

V f

\v

111

If

1u
7
%
2ft

Paul Delvaux. b Antheit. 1897. d Knokke.

Venus Asleep. 1944.

Oil

-v

\
_

it

1994

on canvas. hl73 x

wl99

cm. h68 x

w78%

in.

Tate Gallery. London

9.

Denis u,

Portrait

Three images of the same slender


painting.

The

folds

figure

of her dress, and

dominate

tree trunks,

with the straight walkways, emphasize the vertical


the composition. Denis

group of painters

who

was

member of the

or

this

combined
lines

of

Nabis, a

associated themselves with Paul

of Yvonne Lerollc

some anecdote -

colours assembled

is

essentially a flat surface

art eventually led to abstraction.

confirms the

The

its

later

of 20 Denis made the following statement, which

dependent on subject matter - and

often

considered the key to contemporary painting: 'Remember


that a picture

Maurice Denis, b
Portrait of

before being a war horse or a nude

Granville,

Yvonne

Lerolle.

Musee Departemental du

1870. d
1897.

Paris,

Oil

woman

history of religious

art.

Maillol,

1943

on canvas. hl66 x

w78 cm. h65% x w30&

Prieure. Saint-Germain-en-Laye

subject matter

attempted to revive religious painting

Bonnard. Gauguin,

in.

shown here
is

composition. Paradoxically, Denis

Gauguin's expressive use of colour and rhythm. At the age


is

painting

artist's belief that a picture's

not as important as

covered with

This way of looking

in a certain order.'

Mucha,

in

which

is

very

1939 he published a

Vallotton, Vuillard

at

D erain

Bright colours dance and

shimmer on

Thames. The unmistakable


the distance.

The

The Pool of London

And,

artist

silhouette of

dock on the River

Tower Bridge

is

irrelevant.

in

in

style,

The

spontaneous brushwork shows Derain's understanding of


the techniques of Impressionism. Derain has
the picture's subject; the setting has

become

as

of London.

1906.

Oil

on canvas.

the

a desire to

when

they

first

'wild'

W Van Dongen, Van Gogh. Matisse.

in.

Tate Gallery. London

beasts,

use of colour and unusual

subject matter.

nearly

artists'

exhibited.

made colour

h66xw99 cm. h26xw39

artists,

work only with

nickname 'Fauves', or wild

an expression of their

Andre Derain. b Chaton. 1880. d Garches. 1954

The Pool

group of like-minded

caused a public outcry

They were given

bold blocks. His use of colour distorts the perspective and


gives the painting's surface a pulsating, vibrating unity.

came from

strong colours. This, plus the primitive power of the

has transformed the scene into a

rainbow of primary colours, which have been applied

Along with

Der?in's inspiration

Signac. Vlaminck

Diebenkorn
Geometric

Ocean Park No. 67

Richard

lines define different sections

of colour, evoking

the local tones and light of the sea, sky and tawny

Ocean

Park, California.

The

to

of

ardst has created an illusion of

space by making his canvas appear

which

hills

like a

window through

view the space contained within

it.

The

painting

hovers between a purely abstract composition of lines and


colour, and a representation of sea and sky. This

because up
subject,

until this

and

similar paintings

may be

of the same

Diebenkorn's work was largely representational.

Richard Diebenkorn. b Portland, OR, 1922. d

Ocean Park No. 67. 1973.

Oil

New

York, NY.

The

painting

is

Expressionists,

close in feeling to the

who were

use of expression, paint and colour would have had a great


influence

on Diebenkorn. There

quality to the picture,

Expressionist

whom

which

is

aJso a tranquil, mystical

often found in Abstract

is

work - notably

Diebenkorn taught

that

of Mark Rothko, with

at the California

Arts in San Francisco from 1947 to 1950.


(- Albers, Louis, Marin, Noland, Pollock, Rothko

1994

on canvas. h254 x w205.5 cm. hlOO x

work of the Abstract

popular in the 1950s and whose

w81

in.

Private collection

School of Fine

Dine
A

My Name

deep red heart pulsates on

patchwork colours. This

glitzy

like a lurid

has experimented with a host of different styles and media,

lie

used

real objects

He

Jim Dine, b Cincinnati. OH,

My Name

is

Jim Dine

2.

to

its

known as a prominent figure of American Pop


movement characterized by its irreverent use of

best

familiar

attach to

name of the

is

to

and banal images. His 'Heart'

Oil

object

and enamel on canvas. h91.4

of paintings,

artist's

personal expression and his belief in the

paint to convey feeling.

Hamilton. Klee. Oldenburg. Rauschenberg. Warhol

1935

1992.

series

executed from the early 1980s, are said to represent the

often emphasized these objects with

painted shadows, or would write the

but

it

Art, a

in

such as

lawnmowers and toothbrushes, which he would


painted canvases.

everyday existence. Dine

beside

birthday card. Dine's roots

He sometimes

draw attention

background of iridescent

Abstract Expressionism, evident in his loose, free

brushwork.

Jim Dine

image glows with a strange

appeal. It brightly captures the viewer's attendon, despite

looking

is

wl27 cm. h36 x w50

in.

Pace

Gallery,

New

York,

NY

ability

of

Dix Otto
The
is

Portrait

eccentric, severe-looking journalist Sylvia

von Harden

woman -

a gilt chair, a

marble-topped cafe

table,

elegant Russian cigarettes and a glass of Spritzer, the

fashionable drink in Berlin at the rime.

and suspense
a sexual

is

feeling

most

of tension

created by the use of vibrant colours, while

element

is

hinted at by the stocking slipping

the journalist's leg. Considered to be


this portrait

one of Dix's

down

finest,

encapsulates the decadent glamour of

Otto Dix. b Untermhausen. 1891. d Singen,


Portrait of the Journalist Sylvia von Harden.

Germany's Weimar Republic.


portrayal of

portrayed with the essential accoutrements of a cafe

society

of the Journalist Sylvia von Hardc

example of

its

subject

New

Its

harsh, almost grotesque

makes the painting an

excellent

Objectivism (Neue Sachlichkeit). Dix's

other renowned paintings form a protest against the horrors

of war, and they often depict working people, cripples and


whores. Because of his penetrating social criticism, Dix was
suppressed by the Nazis.

He began

to paint again after the

Second World War.


* Beckmann.

Ensor. Freud. Grosz, Schad

1969
1926.

Oil

on panel.

hl20xw88cm. h47^xw34%

in.

Musee

National d'Art Moderne. Pans

Dobson w
It is

through the

intricate lace collar

and gold embroidery,

all

Endymion

illiam

and

importance and flamboyance of

this

show

that this

is

a cultured

Endymion

to Charles

his prime,

rifle

man, known

Porter was

in the years

Dobson was

and dead hare

for his gentlemanly

Groom of the Bedchamber

and can be seen to represent

of the English Court

buttons

person are conveyed.

In addition, the bust of Apollo and the

pursuits.

cuffs, pearl

topped by a proud gaze, that the

all

of the elegance

before the Civil War. At

considered to be the most

William Dobson. b London, 1610. d London,

Endymion Porter. C1640/43.

Oil

1646

on canvas. hl50

Porter

accomplished portrait painter

in

Aubrey described him

most

England hath

as 'the

yet bred'. His style

England. His contemporary

strong English character. Dobson's

sumptuous
to have

of

fabrics in paint

is

ability to

a hallmark

been 'somewhat loose and

living',

excellent painter

was vigorous, with

of

his style. Said

irregular in his

way

he was imprisoned for debt and died soon after

his release.

evoke

Batoni, Van Dyck, Hilliard, Kneller, Lely, Moroni

Van
A

sense of

DoesburgTheo

movement and

perspective

is

created in this

interest in architecture.

The

artist Piet

picture by the sequence of black squares starkly painted

influenced his work. In 19 17 the two

against a white background. In fact, the artist has used a

Stijl,

simple mathematical calculation

the sides of each square,

and the distance between them, are half the


preceding square. Through the use of

this

size

of the

simple square

motif Van Doesburg was able to create a three-dimensional


effect

on

two-dimensional surface. The use of

mathematical formula perhaps reveals

Theo van Doesburg. b


!

Arithmetic Composition

Utrecht,

Oil

same group.

De

Stijl artists

tended to use

flat,

colours which were arranged geometrically.

devoted much of

his life to

promoting

through his writing, lecturing,

art

De

m-

wlOl

cm. h40 x

w40

Stijl's

Private collection

ideas

and architecture.

Albers, Lissitzky, Malevich, Moholy-Nagy, Mondrian

in.

primary

Van Doesburg

Van Doesburg's

on canvas. hlOl x

founded De

magazine representing the work and ideas of that

1883. d Davos. 1931

Arithmetic Composition. 1930.

Mondrian strongly

artists

Domenichino
Abraham

has been instructed by

Isaac as a test of his faith.

God

The naked youth

his fate as his father wields his

sword

An

angel intervenes, indicating that

the

ram

in the

The

to sacrifice his

son

bravely accepts

instead of Isaac. This dramatic scene

is

dominates

in his rich blue

trained at the Carracci

of Isaac

who was

palaces, villas

characteristic swirls

offer

often commissioned to decorate the

and chapels

hostility in

in

Bologna.

Carracci, Poussin. Reni, Vouet

Domenichino (Domenico Zampieri). b Bologna. 1581. d Naples, 1641


The Sacrifice

of Isaac.

C1620/21.

Oil

on canvas. hl47 x v140 cm.

h57% x w55

in.

effects,

in his style.

unfinished.

figure,

He became

surrounded Rome.

For

Naples and had to leave the

and red robes. Domenichino

Academy

that

and painterly

remained firmly Classical

played out

foreground of the picture so as to enhance the sense

of immediacy. Abraham, the most important

many

artist

Although he worked within the Baroque period, with

in blind obedience.

Abraham should

Sacrifice

popular

Museo

del Prado, Madrid

its

Domenichino
this

he met with

city, his

many works

Donatello

David

This statue of David shows the young hero


contemplative
at his

feet

mood

after slaying Goliath,

in a

dreamy,

whose head

The flowing naturalism of David's

lies

pose, his shy

style.

Donatello was a favourite

Cosimo

il

Vecchio de' Medici.

most innovative and

combine

His Dar/dwas the

human emotion
gift.

As one of

and painters
I

lorence, he

This

in Classical statues

ability to instil

was Donatello's greatest

group of remarkable sculptors,

who
i>-

life.

brought about an

artistic

cast since

hl59 cm. h62^

in.

far the leading

influential

of

first full-sized

all

Renaissance

Ancient times.

Canova, Castagno. Ghlberti, Michelangelo. Powers

1466
Museo Nazionale

del Bargello. Florence

artists.

bronze nude to have been

revolution in

fe^
David. cl433. Bronze.

by

architects

considered a founder of the Renaissance

Donatello b Florence. cl386. d Florence.

of the famous patron

Florentine sculptor before Michelangelo, and possibly the

demeanour, and the sensual surface texture of the bronze


to bring the statue to

artist

He was

V3,n UOngCIlKees
The

artist's

daughter

intense colour.
exotic style.

is

painted in

The beauty of the

Her

sensuality

is

fiery red lips,

ribbon under her

hat.

used to construct Dolly's

was

is

conveyed

in

an

face.

He was born

member of various movements,

extravagant

Some

green tones
in

and took up French nationality

lifestyle

C1911.

Oil

w46 cm.

was abused when he began

of fashionable women, which soon

became somewhat

superficial.

He

including the Fauves

on canvas, h.55 x

Van Dongen enjoyed an

supported by the success he achieved.

feel his great artistic talent

" Gontcharova, Jawlensky, Matisse, Rouault, Vlaminck

Kees van Dongen. b Delfshaven, 1877. d Monaco. 1968


Portrait of Dolly.

use of pure colour. Young, talented and

to paint portraits

Holland but
in 1929.

and the Expressionists. The influence of both can be seen


in his vibrant

master colourist,

in the delicate

of Dolly

precocious, from his early thirties

echoed by the colour of the

Van Dongen was

demonstrated for instance

settled in Paris

decorative sections of

child

evoked by her blackened,

almond eyes and

as

flat,

Portrait

h.21% x wl8i

in.

Private collection

Dossi Dosso

Alfonso

Gleaming armour and

principal

battalions of troops reinforce this

image of a great military

Alfonso led

leader.

his troops in

many

As Duke of Ferrara,

with his brother Battista provided mainly mythologies,


portraits

Alfonso was also an enlightened patron of the


rival

from the greatest

the

Pope

artists

d'Este

batdes against Papal and

in his

arts

who

portrait

all

frescos.

The

art;

in fact a derivation

it is

style

of

this portrait

later

chose to paint mysterious

exotic landscapes suffused with an unearthly, glowing light.

his efforts,

however, Alfonso was never able to secure Raphael or


Michelangelo to

fulfil

Dosso Dossi (Giovanni


Alfonso

any of

his requests.)

Luterl). b Ferrara.

d'Este Ater 1528.

Oil

Dosso Dossi was

C1490. d

Ferrara.

Altdorfer,

Correggio. Michelangelo. Raphael, Titian

1542

on canvas. hl47 x wll3.5 cm. h58

is

of a

of Alfonso by Titian. Influenced by the Venetians

and by Correggio, Dossi

ambitious commissions

of the time. (Despite

and decorative

reminiscent of Venetian

Venetian aggressors. In addition to controlling his army,

attempted to

Court painter for the Este family and together

w44

in.

Gallena e

Museo Estense. Modena

Dou

Maidservant

Gerrard

Elaborately composed, this small, intimate scene

young

woman
The

servant pouring water from a brass jug over a

balustrade which also serves as a


picture.

shows

artist

window framing

the

such as the fraving cloth, the terracotta pot and the birdcage,

Rembrandt, and

some of Dou's

it is

Dou was

a pupil

of

possible to see the master's influence in

earlier pictures.

He

delighted in depicting

everyday or 'genre' scenes, which he

Gerrard Dou. b Leyden. 1613. d Leyden,

Maidservant at a Window. cl640.

Oil

filled

with

wealth of

Window
- he would sometimes even

magnifying glass to work. This


setting, recalls a type

has paid meticulous attention to details

giving the painting a gem-like quality.

at a

closely observed detail

used

interior,

in the

with

use a

theatrical

Netherlands in the fifteenth

century by Jan van Eyck, and was to be a starting point for

Jan Vermeer and Pieter de Hooch.

and respected
filled

with students,

style until well into the

" Van

Eyck.

Dou was

w28 cm. hl4^ x wll

in.

a prosperous

much of his life. His workshop was


who continued producing works in his

artist for

eighteenth century.

De Hooch. Metsu. Rembrandt. Vermeer

1675

on panel. h37 x

its

Museum Boymans-van

Beuningen, Rotterdam

Dove
A

Me

\rthi

bright circle of colour, representing the

this

composition.

the rings around the

series

of

moon, or

moon, dominates

and tones surround

lines

it

should

air

of the

soul.

like to take the

sound.'

The

Born

return to the

Dove's work often suggests nature

paintings in

literal

in a metaphysical, rather

sense; the forms of natural objects are

transformed into abstract representations.

He

wrote:

Arthur Dove, b Canadaigua. NY. 1880. d Centreport. NY.

Me and the Moon.

it

in

New

York

to the

'I

USA

state

art,

certain aspects

w66 cm. hl8 w26


1

in.

work of Wassily Kandinsky.

Phillips Collection.

Washington DC

in

On
first

his

abstract

of which are similar

Heckel. Heron. Kandinsky. O'Keeffe. Vlaminck

1946

1937. Wax emulsion on canvas. h46 x

motif

done with

he visited Europe

he was to paint some of the

modern

as a

has to be simplified in most

19079 where he saw the work of the Fauvists.

canvas richly evokes feelings for the beautv of nature.

than a

wind and water and sand

cases to color and force lines just as music has

of melancholy

nostalgia blowing across this landscape

Moon

and work with them, but

like

the layers of the imagination.

Dark, brooding colours create an

and the

Dubuffet
The members of a
static frieze.

in

jazz

band

line

up across the picture

in a

Apparently random colours have been applied

an unusual manner with a brush, and the surface of the

painting has then been smeared, rubbed and incised to


create the outlines of the players.

The

graffiti-like effect is

amusing and enchanting, giving the picture


simplicity.

Loosely

allied to the

a naive, childlike

Jazz

Band (Dim-

artist.

Indeed he coined the term Art Brut ('raw

describe the kind of

Style Blues)

an

untrained people. Dubuffet's pieces were often

both the public and

art critics,

Jean Dubuffet. b Le Havre. 1901. d


Jazz

Band

(Dirty Style Blues).

Paris.

1944.

Oil

adverse reaction, he has

become

Appel. Basquiat. Fautrier. Tapies.

1985

on canvas. h97

mocked by

attacked in an exhibition in Paris in 1946. Despite this


a

widely respected

Art Informel movement,

of the insane and amateur than the professional

to

and were even physically

Dubuffet believed there was more truth in the unspoiled,


creative art

art"),

created by psychotics, children and

xwl30 cm. h38y4xw51!

in.

Private collection

Twombly

artist.

Duccio
The

The

traditional subject for altarpieces

was an image of the

Rucellai

colour.

Madonna

Duccio was the leading painter of Siena during the


and fourteenth centuries. He was unequalled

Virgin and Child enthroned, surrounded by angels looking

thirteenth

upon them with devotion. Duccio has used

the art of panel painting, in which he excelled as a narrator.

but has included a degree of tenderness that

this
is

same image,

unusual

The

in

paintings of the thirteenth century. Sienese paintings of this

time were characterized by their attention to line and


colour. Here, the line

is

fact that this painting

Florentine confraternity
traditional

expressed by the elongated forms

enemies

was commissioned by

when

attests to

Duccio's high reputation

outside his native town.

and the gold edge of the Virgin's drapery. The angels'

gowns,

Duccio

in particular, exhibit the artist's skilled application

di

of

** Campin, Cimabue,

Giotto, Lorenzetti, Martini

Buoninsegna. b Siena. 1255. d Siena. C1319

The Rucellai Madonna. 1285. Tempera on panel. h450 x

w290 cm. hl77& x wll4fc

in.

Florence and Siena were

Galleria degli Uffizi. Florence

in

Duchamp
This work
originally

is

a replica

art exhibition.

this

work

it

that

which was

1917 from

plumbing

simply signed the

pseudonym R Mutt, then entered

The
in a

it

for an

bizarre item exemplifies the notion of

commonplace

and placing

artist in

New York. Duchamp

object with the

Fountain

a porcelain urinal

purchased by the

supply firm in

taking a

of

Marcel

object out of

new and

Duchamp

its

customary setting

unfamiliar one.

first

It

was through

Blainville,

sculpture in 1917

Duchamp

preconceptions of what

art

challenged traditional
is.

He

stated that

1887. d

Neuilly,

Fountain. 1917/64. Porcelain. h33.5 cm.

hl4

Indiana University Art

was not

his

own

hands; what mattered was that he had chosen

it.

Therefore the creation was not important but the idea and
selection was.

'* Beuys, Broodthaers, Johns. Koons, Oldenburg

1968
in.

it

important whether or not 'Mr Mutt' had made the work with

defined the concept of the

'ready-made' or 'found object' - an idea which has

Marcel Duchamp. b

influenced countless artists since. In defending the original

Museum. Bloomington,

IN

DufyRaou
The

The Paddock

colourful atmosphere of the racecourse has been

captured

in this

ladies with parasols,

horseback and

gendemen

a sailor

in

propping

the background, a deep blue sea

and yachts. This

is

regularly with the

who

Dufy

Although he had

top hats, jockeys on

is

littered

with cruise-liners

From

Poiret. It

was

Raoul Dufy. b Le Havre. 1877. d Forcalquier,


Oil

on canvas. h81 x

recalls the

cm. h31 7/6 x w49y4

in.

in the light

French Riviera and Mediterranean. Duty- also

textiles

and painted one of the

largest

tor the 1938 Paris Exhibition.


Derain. Van Dongen, Laurencin, Matisse. Vlaminck

1953

wl25

mode of expression

strokes of outline and vibrant colours. His palette often

urged Duty to study the smart clothes of the

The Paddock. cl926.

to the racecourses to be seen.

been influenced by the

Dufy's personal

illustrates

designed

visited racecourses

famous dress designer Paul

who came
earlier

Impressionists, the Fauvists and the Cubists, this painting

his bicycle against a tree. In

the world of riches and relaxadon.

the beginning of the 1920s

Poiret

fashionable ladies

paddock scene. Duty has painted elegant

Private collection

murals ever,

DiirerAibrecht
The technique of placing, the

Self-portrait with

sitter's

well-known method of creating the

between the viewer and the

artist's

arm on
illusion

sill

was

of proximity

model. Diirer may have

Gloves

through the open window

(as

on

and Robert Campin.

An

Diirer revolutionized northern

Mono

Lisa,

different aspects

Italy.

Diirer painted

not

common

at the

promotion of the
reproduced

many

travelling in

self-portraits, a subject that

time and which can be seen as

artist's status in society. If a

in paint,

why not an

artist?

1498.

Oil

on panel. h52 x

well-known for
his

fame

far

European

of Netherlandish and
his

art

and wide

1528

w41

cm. h20VS

" Campin, Van

van Eyck
artist,

by combining

Italian art.

He

is

also

woodcuts and engravings which spread


in sixteenth-century

patron can be

The landscape seen

Albrecht Diirer. b Nuremberg, 1471. d Nuremberg,


Self-portrait with Gloves.

was

was

extraordinary and prolific

learned this visual trick from works such as Leonardo's

which he would have seen while

the right here)

feature often used by northern artists such as Jan

Eyck, Grunewald, Leonardo,

Rosa

Europe.

Van

DycksirAn thonv

Spotless armour, a steady gaze and a regal

apparent that
to Charles

1,

this

is

the artist

King's majesty to

all

man

demeanour -

Charles
it is

of great importance. As painter

was commissioned

who saw

it.

to

convey the

After studying with Peter

Van Dyck went to London and


Here he adopted a more elegant manner of

on Horseback

noblemen with proud postures and


often accused of flattering his
pleased.

The Countess of Sussex

saying she

felt

'very ill-favorede',

Paul Rubens in Antwerp,

myself, the face

then on to

at

painting,

Italy.

which he kept

Van Dyck

all

his

life. It

was

in Italy, too, that

It

lokes lyke

all

on Horseback. cl636.

Oil

on canvas. h367 x

'quite

out of love with

it

on

- but

the windes puffinge

pleases

tis

lyke the originale.'

Clouet. Dobson. Gainsborough. Lely, Rubens, Titian

w292 cm. hl44& x wll5

in.

National Gallery. London

Me was
were

reacted to her portrait by

and

so bige and so fate that

Anthony van Dyck. b Antwerp. 1599. d London. 1641

Charles

but not

created a style that began the great tradition of

English portrait painting. These works were usually of

Sir

all.

is

slim figures.

sitters,

me

truly

not
think

Eakins Thomas
It is

Between Rounds

almost impossible not to witness the cheers of the

crowd, the smell of cigar smoke and the sweat of the boxer

coming from

this painting.

moments between rounds,

The
is

fighter,

caught

few

in the

the focus of the work. Eakins

was fascinated with the human form. He often used

in

motion. As a teacher he caused an uproar by

insisting that his art students

He had

Thomas

travelled in

should draw from the nude.

Europe, and was influenced by the

Eakins. b Philadelphia, PA, 1844. d Philadelphia. PA.

Between Rounds. 1899.

Oil

It

was

thro-igh these artists in particular that he learned to paint

with such vibrant realism.


effects

much

sporting events such as boxing and rowing to capture the

nude

Spanish Realists Diego Velazquez and Jusepe Ribera.

of
as

light

He

also often exploited the

and dark to produce

Rembrandt had. Eakins'

a feeling

of drama,

paintings were largely

unappreciated during his lifetime, but he received


recognition for his realist approach from the generation that
followed.

Bellows, Rembrandt, Ribera. Velazquez

1916

on canvas. hl27 x wl01.5 cm. h50!4 x vt39%

in.

Philadelphia

Museum

of Art. Philadelphia, PA

Elsheimer
St

The Stoning of

\d

Stephen died without resistance

to

demonstrate that

devotion to Christ was more important than


Martyrs can be killed

was stoned

down on

in

many

His

own

his

life.

different ways; this martyr

to death. Here, a ray or" heavenly light shines

him, encouraging him

in his plight.

Elsheimer has

paid great attention to detail, particularly to the musculature

human body. The flying figure on the left and the


standing man on the right gave the artist an opportunity to
paint figures in action. A German painter and printmaker,
or"

Saint Stephen

Elsheimer travelled to

Italy in

influenced by Venetian

colour with his

own

artists.

598 where he was strongly

He combined

understanding of

realism to create such

works

as this.

light

their use

Many of

were copied by other printmakers and

his paintings

his influence-

stretched well into the seventeenth century.

the

Adam

Bosch. Caravaggio. Durer, Michelangelo

Altdorfer,

Elsheimer b Frankfurt. 1578. d Rome. 1610

The Stoning

of Saint

Stephen. C1602/5.

Oil

on copper. h34.7xw28.6 cm. hl3 a

wl

of

and emphasis on

National Gallery of Scotland. Edinburgh

Ensor James
Two

skeletons fight in

futile

Skeletons Fighting for the


combat

for the

body of

hanged man suspended above them. Masked


the wretched and pitiful scene.

astonishment

We

are invited to gaze with

extraordinary and dismal spectacle.

at this

grotesque nature of this paindng reflects the


vision: a

world ruled by absurdity,

thoughts and

futile

movement. He exerted

figures stare at

in

artist's

The

own

which disconnected

actions play too large a part.

With

its

Emile \<>lde,

who

Body of a Hanged Man

a particularly

visited

him

in 191

powerful influence on
1.

His works often

included masks, skeletons, and gruesome and grotesque


figures.

His paintings and graphic works were very

with a biting, sometimes


parents,

Ensor

bitter,

lived in isolation in Ostend,

becoming

Belgian national in 1929.

strong emotional impact and dramatic imagery, Ensor's art

was much admired bv

James

artists

of the German Expressionist

Ensor. b Ostend, 1860. d Ostend,

Skeletons Fighting
Koninklijk

Museum

for

~ Beckmann, Bosch, Kokoschka,

1949

the Body of a Hanged Man. 1891.

voor Schone Kunsten. Antwerp

Oil

on canvas. h59 x

w74 cm.

t\23Y

x w29^

in.

satirical,

humour. Born of English

Nolde, Pechstein

Epstein

Sir

Elemental

Jacob

The pent-up energy of primitive man


tense,

way

compact form of

the head

is

this

is

conveyed by the

hunched-up body and by

the

positioned as though in surrender to the

unknown powers

above.

The

sculpture embodies a poignant

juxtaposidon: of terror or death, suggested by the frozen


grip of the hands, and
foetal posidon.

The

unborn

life,

suggested by the figure's

strength of the sculpture

deliberately unfinished state, with the chisel


sdll visible

Sir

on

lies in its

and

file

Jacob Epstein, b New York. NY. 1880. d London. 1959


7

/6 in.

inspiration

his

own

unique

he would have seen during


Paris.

style,

which

Private collection

illustrates direct

from the Ancient and primitive sculpture which

Throughout

visits to

his life Epstein

the Louvre

worked

in

museum

descriptive nature. His


Sir

Winston

most renowned bronze

Churchill.

<m* Brancusi. Gaudier-Brzeska, Moore, Rodin

in

two ways,

carving in stone and executing portraits in bronze of a

marks

the unveined alabaster surface. Epstein

Elemental. 1932. Alabaster. h81 cm. h31

developed

is

more

a bust

of

Ernst Max
The

The Forest

all-enveloping and stifling nature of this forest, in

which the only

sign of

life is

cage, evokes a feeling of simultaneous


fear.

The

tangled trees

bird in wild
his time,

and

petrified

in

many

collection of collages

artisr

enchantment and

was

and loom over the

irrepressible growth. Like

Ernst worked

enormous

seem

so as to reveal the relief of the object beneath. Because the

a solitary bird trapped in a

media.

many

and introduced

subconscious.

ardsts of

He produced

had no control over the picture he was

also seen as a

The

method of gaining

'chance' element of this technique,

together with the hallucinatory quality of the image

an

created,

a technique

make

Max

on

Ernst, b Bruhl,

The Forest. 1927.

rough surface and drawing on the paper

preoccupations.

1891. d

Oil

Paris.

"

Dali. Gorky,

1976

on canvas. hlOO x w81.5 cm. h39'^ x

w32

in.

Tate Gallery, London

it

the picture a fine example of Surrealist

called frottage. Similar to brass-rubbing, this involved laying a

sheet of paper

creating, frottage

access to the

Lam, Miro, H Rousseau, Tanguy

has

Estes Richard
Is

it

real

- or

is it art"-

Gordon's Gin

This street scene, complete with

advertising billboards,

is

a celebration

culture. Its startling realism

is

a surprise

did not invent the subject matter

photographed
appeared

it,

in the

many ways

movement

that

the ic^os.

and

it

cxactlv as

photograph. Estes' hvper-real

art

the point

it,

Americans. In

in

reaction to Abstract Expressionism, a

had dominated the American

art

Richard Estes. b Evanston.


Oil

IL.

something very

reality

this

way

and

in

artists

illusion

came

different.
reality.

perfected their

the everyday

was transformed

Hamilton. Lichtenstein. Richter, Sherman. Warhol

1936

on board. h62.2 x w81.3 cm. h24'/tx

w32

in.

Private collection

work

world familiar to millions of

scene since

"

Gone

Bv using
to

became one. What Estes

fine art.

The New Realism and Photorealism movements.

Gordon's Gin. 1968.

where

chose to portray was

it

was

in the late 1960s, said

was emotion, colour, poetry - and


photographs, Estes and other

delight. Hstcs

- he simplv chose

and then reproduced

born

of American popular

into

Etty William

Hero and Leander

Each night Leander would swim across


meet

his lover

guide him by holding up a lighted torch.


a storm,

herself

a stretch

of sea to

Hero, a priestess of Aphrodite. She would

One

night, during

Leander drowned. The grief-stricken Hero threw

from

a tower. Here, the

in their tragic, final

embrace,

two dead lovers

are

shown

as their lives drift away.

The

tones of their glowing, sensual skin are set off against a

sombre

sea

Hero seem

imagination was fired by an obsession with the nude, which

he sT.died and painted throughout his career. His paintings


often evoke the sensuous poses and rich colouring of Titian

and Peter Paul Rubens. Etty frequently used Classical

mythology and allegory


were

particularly

Romantic

as a

means of expression. His works

admired by Eugene Delacroix and other

painters.

and storm clouds. The black hair and drapery of


to

merge into the dark shadows. Em's

William Etty. b York, 1787. d York,

Hero and Leander. 1828-9.

Oil

W Blake.

Delacroix. Gericault, Rubens, Titian

1849

on canvas. h77 x

w95 cm.

h30V6 x w37V4

in.

Private collection

Van Eyck
An

Italian

merchant

The

fan

living in Bruges,

Giovanni Arnolfini,

holds the hand of Jeanne de Chenany, his young bride.


small dog, the slippers
sill,

on

the single candle, the rosary hanging

boards and carpet have


precision.

tO

the floor, the fruit

all

this

on the window
a nail, the floor

been painted with jewel-like

Van Eyck was probably asked

commemorate

on

happy union and,

to paint this picture


like a

witness in a

wedding ceremony, he has written the words Johannes


fuit hie ('Jan

van Eyck was present") on the

Jan van Eyck. Active

The

in

Arnolfini Marriage.

The

de eyck

far wall. In the

Arnolfini

Mar

mirror beneath, the backs of the betrothed couple arc visible

and

a third figure,

event.

The

who

painting's

is

possibly the painter, witnesses the

smooth, enamel-like surface was

achieved by applying numerous glazes of pigment mixed


with linseed

oil. It

technique, Jan van

was then coated with

Eyck and

traditionally credited with

Van Eycks'
" Campin,

style

Oil

on panel. h81.8 x w59.7 cm. h32V4 x w23'/6

in.

varnish.

Using

Hubert

are

having 'invented'

was often

oil painting.

this

The

imitated, but never surpassed.

Limbourg, Memling, Van der Weyden.

The Hague. 1422. d Bruges, 1441

1434.

his brother

National Gallery, London

Wood

Fabritius Card
Set against a creamy background, a

green perch.

The

it.

The

was the most

However, he reversed

light

brilliant

skill

goldfinch rests on a

real,

simplicity

small painting almost cloud the

light against dark,

little

goldfinch seems so

reach out and touch

Fabritius

The Goldfinch

it is

tempting to

and intimacy of

with which

it is

this

painted.

]an Vermeer,

also give a foretaste

who was

work and

its

of Vermeer's work.

died during the explosion of a

of a small number of

technique of painting

and instead painted dark objects on

artist

while working on a portrait.

of Rembrandt's pupils.

his master's

influenced the

careful composition of this

his

works

painting

that

store in Delft

shown here

have survived.

background. Fabritius paid special attention to visual

accuracy. This particular feature of his

work may have

Carel Fabritius. b Amsterdam. 1622. d Delft.

1654

The Goldfinch. 1654.

Oil

on panel. h34 x

w23 cm.

hl3*/4 x

w9!*

in.

Audubon, Claesz, De Heem,

Mauritshuis, The

Hague

Kalf,

The

Tragically, Fabritius

gunpowder

The

his student.

startling simplicity

Rembrandt. Vermeer

is

one

Fantin-LatourH enn
m

this picture

seem

to

glow against the dark

background. These are cut flowers that because of

their

short lues are often seen as symbols of mortality. F.ach


petal has

been formed by

a thick stroke

of

paint.

The

White and Pink Roses


approach. By 1863 he was exhibiting along with his
Impressionist friends, including Fdouard Manet. Besides his
still lifes,

Fantin-Latour

figures.

)ne such picture

is

well

known

for his groups of

shows Manet and

grouped around

pink and white colours to the brush without blending.

Latour also did

Fantin-Latour began his career as a traditional painter,

of Wagner and other Romantic composers.

a portrait

a series

his artist friends

of Eugene Delacroix. Fantin-

variation of colour has been created by the artist applying

of lithographs

illustrating the

accepted by the Parisian Salon. His romantic vision,

however, caused him to move away trom the academic

Henri Fantin-Latour. b Grenoble. 1836. d Bure.

White and Pink Roses. 1890.

Oil

Bazille. Courbet, Delacroix,

1904

on canvas. h37 x

w32

cm. hl4V

fl2V*

in.

Private collection

Manet, Ruysch, Whistler

music

Fautrier Jean
The

Sarah

irregular-shaped, thickly textured central section of this

picture

shows

a distorted female form.

made from paper glued

to the canvas, over

applied a thick paste with a spatula.


areas with coloured

most

largely

powder bonded

He

more

The

forcefully his feelings about the state of the

world.

which the

illustrate the artist's

artist

then coated these

to the surface with

in this

unique way during

creative period, during

which

his

images were

of the horrors of w ar. Perhaps he developed


T

time-consuming and problematic technique

express

painting was

began to work

varnish. Fautrier
his

The

in

this

order to

free

brushwork and the heavily textured surface

childhood in London and enrolled

School

at the

age of

career and his varied

Oil

on paper mounted on canvas. hll6 x

14.

He was

work

at the

Royal

w89 cm. h45% x w35

includes drawings, etchings and

Burri, Dubuffet, Ingres, Modigliani, Poliakoff,

in.

Private collection

Academy

very active throughout his

sculptures.

Jean Fautrier. b Paris. 1898. d Chatenay, 1964


Sarah. 1943.

connection with the Art Informel

school of painting. Born in France, Fautrier spent his

Tapies

Feininger Lvonel
Overlapping

triangles

Sailing Boats

of colour echo the

sails

of the boats

exhibited with the Blaue Reiter group, which included

Wassily Kandinsky

creating a rhythmic pattern and sense of speed and space.

Although born
artist

in

New

took place mainly

York, Feininger's development as an


in

Europe. While

He met

the artist Robert Delaunay,

influence

on

his

he

in Paris

in 1935.

became aware of Cubism.

exhibited several paintings and

work. The two

who became

artists

was

major

among

others.

joined the Bauhaus school, which

At

this

few years

many

aspects of

and marine views for

modern

life,

the emotional effects of colour, as well as in urban

Lyonel Feininger b

New

York. NY,

1871. d New

Sailing Boats. 1929. Oil on canvas.

Feininger

York. NY.

h43 x w72 cm. hl7

Delaunay, Gris, Hodler, Kandinsky, Picasso

1956
x

w28&

in.

Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit. Ml

he

USA. He
but favoured

their geometrical quality.

shared an interest in

architecture as a subject for painting. In 191

later

point Feininger returned to the

interested in

architectural

was closed by the Nazis

Flavin Dan

Untitled (To the Citizens of the Republic of France...)

Red, white and blue: the colours of the French Republic


glare at us

from

industrially

manufactured fluorescent tubes

which have been assembled into


like construction.

a three-dimensional, pillar-

The work was executed

bicentenary of the French revolution.

to celebrate the

Its full

name

is

Untitled (To the Citizens of the Republic of France on the 200th

Anniversary of their Revolution),

same shape,

3.

the sculpture takes

By using

objects with the

on the appearance of a

fragment of a monument, or a 'pseudo-monument', as

Dan

Flavin, b

New

York, NY.

Flavin calls his works.

any hard edges to mark

New

use of coloured light instead of

its

limits.

the work, redefining the space in

does

it

end? This use of

light,

objects, connects Flavin's

is

The

neither a frame nor

light radiates

which

posing the question, where does the

art

it is

begin and where

space and identical, geometric

work with

the Minimalist

'* Buren, Judd, Kelly. LeWitt. Merz,

Nauman,

Viola

1933

York,

NY

light.

beyond

shown and

movement.

Untitled (To the Citizens of the Republic of France...). 1989. Blue, red and white fluorescent

Leo Castelli Gallery,

The

paint adds another dimension. There

Height dependent on location.

Fontana Lucio
After painting the canvas
slashed

it

vertically

dramatic image

in

Spatial

monochrome

seven times with

- but what does

it

blue the

sharp knife.

it

of

its

tautness,

viewer to see the space behind.


significance

lies in

The

By slashing

and allowed the

painting's primary

the fact that the artist has rejected the

traditional picture format. It represents a symbolic

physical escape

has

mean"- Fontana was

primarily concerned with the concept of space.

the canvas he relieved

artist

from the usual

flat

surface stretched tightly

Lucio Fontana b Santa Fe. 1899. d Varese.


Spatial Concept. 1962.

and

over

Concept

wooden

canvas the
sense of

frame. In allowing us to look through the

artist

creates another dimension

infinity.

movement which
were

as

Fontana was
stressed that

w52

cm. h20v6 /

w20H

where Fontana

life.

Kelly. Klein, LeWitt, Lissitzky.

1968

Waterpamt on canvas. h52 x

in

Italian parents, his family returned to their

native country in 1905

important as colour, perspective and form. Born

Argentina of

his

and conveys

member of the Spatialism


space, movement and time

Private collection

Malevich

lived for the rest

of

JT

OU-11 Lei Tsugouharu

Young

This nostalgic and enchanting scene of a young


a cat

was created when the

outline

is

artist

was

The image was then

only a small

amount of colour. This

is

especially noticeable

was a master of

drawing, and this painting demonstrates

convey

The Japanese

a sense

tradition

Tsugouharu (Leonard)
in

how

he used simple

of childlike innocence and

of

art is

Oil

purity.

mainly graphic, and Foujita

Foujita. b Tokyo,

the Park. 1957.

continued

this tradition

absorbing Western

delicately filled in using

in the girl's pale flesh tones. Foujita

Young Girl

holding

The

painted with a fine Japanese brush dripped in

black paint.

lines to

girl

years old.

Girl in the Park

artist settled in Paris in 191 3,


artists

including

Marc

Born

in

where he joined

Chagall,

Tokyo, the
a circle

of

Chaim Soutine and Amedeo

Modigliani. His

work includes landscapes, nudes and book

illustrations. In

1959 he converted to Catholicism and

changed

his

name

to

Leonard

in

homage

to

Leonardo da

Vinci.

"

Chagall, Freud, Hokusai, Laurencin, Modigliani, Soutine

1886. d Zurich, 1968

on canvas. h50.8x w65.4 cm.

by exploiting the use of line, while

artistic influences.

h20xw25&

in.

Private collection

Fouquetjca
Apparently

a religious

Heaven and her


represent a
Virgin

is

Virgin and Child

image of the enthroned Queen of

Child, this painting also appears to

more

earthly subject. It

actually a portrait

is

rumoured

Fouquet, one of the leading French painters of the fifteenth


century, travelled to Italy

that the

of Agnes Sorel, the mistress of

woman was also adored by a


who was Fouquet's first patron. As

by Piero

della

where he would have seen works

Francesca and other Renaissance

acute attention to detail

artists.

as seen in the jewelled

His

crown and

Charles VII of France. This

the different textures of the cloth, fur and transparent veil

man named

demonstrate

Chevalier

this

painting was executed the year

that

it

as a

draughtsman and for

was commissioned

as a

Agnes died

memorial to

his illuminated

her.

it is

possible

Well

his

debt to northern

artists

such as Jan van

Eyck.

known

manuscripts,

I*- Botero, Bouts. Campin, Van Eyck, Piero della Francesca

Jean Fouquet. b Tours, 1425. d Tours, before 1481


Virgin

and Child. 1450. Tempera on panel, h95.3xw86.4cm. h37'/6xw34

in.

Koninklijk

Museum

voor Schone Kunsten, Antwerp

Fragonard jean-Hew
With an

air

of

flirtatious

The Swim

abandon, a beautiful young

characterizes the

girl

kicks off her dainty shoe as she swings- in a luxuriant garden.


Vt'e

can almost hear the provocative

rustle

of petticoats as

her lover gazes at her from his vantage-point in the

undergrowth. Bathed
is

in a shaft

the focus of the composition.

viewer's eyes
painting, with

- and her
its

lover's

frivolity

Her porcelain

movement

Oil

- Fragonard's own

is

known

master, Francois

artifice,

with a highly polished

>" Amigoni, Boucher, Greuze, Lancret, Tiepolo,

1806

7
on canvas. h81 x w64.5 cm. h31 /s x

w25 3/s

in.

for

There were other

finish.

of

and lightness of touch,

Paris,

time

period. Fragonard

greatest heights.

who were equally important painters. But it was Fragonard


who so perfectly embodied the Rococo spirit - all powder,
perfume and

bring the

to her. This type

Jean-Honore Fragonard. b Grasse, 1732. d

The Swing. cl768.

girl

perfection,

all

artists at that

its

Boucher, and the Venetian, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo

of glorious sunlight, the

pink dress and sweeping upward

Rococo

taking this style to

Wallace Collection, London

Watteau

Francis Sam

Around

Blue splotches of paint have been dripped, flicked and

emotion. This was the aim of the Abstract Expressionists:

splattered onto the canvas with controlled abandon. Large

to allow

areas

if

bare white canvas have been

Originally painted in 1957, the canvas


artist in 1962.

The

painting

is

left

untouched.

was reworked by the

an important and monumental

example of Abstract Expressionism. While no reference to


the real world can be seen,

it

movement and atmosphere.

Francis, b

in this

his

movement without
emotion without

group.

He was

also a

most famous works

he created

in the

restraint,

reality.

are

master of watercolour.

from the 'Blue

1950s and 1960s.

vibrates with an intensity of

- De Kooning.

Pollock, Rothko.

Still.

Tobey

San Mateo. CA. 1923. d Santa Monica. CA. 1994

Around the Blues. 1957/62.

Oil

and magna on canvas. h274 x w487.5 cm. hl08 x wl92

colour without

Francis was a major figure

captures a particular feeling,


It

colour in which the edges of shapes are blurred with

Sam

outline,

the Blue<

Tate Gallery. London

Some of

Ball' series

which

Frankenthaler Helen
Large splotches of blue, green and red decorate
impressive yet delicate and

lyrical

Mountains and Sea


background into the canvas had

this

composition. The

has used an unprimed canvas so that the colours seep into


like

it

ink into blotting paper as soon as they are applied to

the surface. Although Frankenthaler has decided

place the colours, the staining

where

beyond her control

is

as

to

it

depends on the absorbency of the canvas. Mountains and Sea


is

her

first

forms and

major stained painting.


ability physically to

Its rich

Oil

colours, fluid

merge the foreground and

on canvas.

on

adopted

random
to

innovative technique.

The

abstracted quality of

quality

of her staining are

all

elements that amount

an Abstract Expressionist painting. Her pictures are

invariably large

and evoke

unique sense of openness and

delicacy.
i- Gorky, Hodler, Louis, Noland, Pollock, Rothko

h220xw297.8 cm. h86%xwll7y4

Collection of the artist: on loan to the National Gallery of Art, Washington

this

her landscape, the spontaneity of her colours and the

Helen Frankenthaler. b New York, NY, 1928

Mountains and Sea. 1952.

a substantial influence

Kenneth Noland and Morris Louis, who subsequendy

artist

DC

in.

Freud
The

artist's first

recline

on

the scene

Lucian

wife Kathleen and an English bull terrier

simple and somewhat bleak. There

sense of complicity between the

woman and

is

almost a

the dog, as

thev stare at us with a calm but intense gaze. Freud

renowned

human

for his masterly

flesh,

painting

is

with

all its

and near obsessive portrayal of

flaws boldly displayed. This

no exception,

as seen in the

Girl

Dog

into a scene
a

harsh electric lightbulb. Although his brushwork has

become

looser and

more expressive

preoccupation with the

Grandson of

moved

woman's

to

human

Oil

on canvas. h76.2 x wl01.6 cm. h30 x

London

" Auerbach, Bacon,

w40

in.

in recent years, his

figure

still

continues.

the pioneering Austrian psychoanalyst, Freud


in the

1930s and took British citizenship.

Dix, Kossoff,

1922

with a White Dog. 1951/2.

drawing him

of physical intimacy displayed as though under

subde paint tones he

has used to create the detailed, ivory quality of the

Lucian Freud, b Berlin,

is

White

skin. Freud's paintings captivate the viewer,

Painted in pale and muted tones,

a striped sofa.
is

Girl with a

Tate Gallery. London

Schad

r riCdriCil Caspar David


The

The Wreck of the Hope

hard, jagged edges of a ruptured ice floe dominate this

composition. They have been painted so precisely and


crisply that they
light

appear cold to the touch. The luminous

which bathes the scene causes the painting

glow.

The wrecked

ship, part

of William Parry's expedition

to the Arctic in 1819-20, seen

comparison to the

ice

itself to

on

the right,

is

tiny in

thus demonstrating the dominance

of nature over man. Friedrich was a major figure

in the

Romantic movement, which sought to depict emotions

Caspar David

The Wreck

Friedrich. b Greifswald,

such as loneliness and desolation. His paintings always drew


out the spiritual nature of landscape, and often depicted
nature

its

most melancholy: lonely

mountains, or snowscapes bathed


luminosity.
effects

of

He was

light

landscapes

the

Romantic

realistic yet

spirit,

unique.
'" Bierstadt. Church, Cozens, Nash. Turner

1774. d Dresden. 1840

of the Hope. 1824. Oil on canvas.

h96.7 x wl26.9 cm. h38! x

w50^ cm.

Kunsthalle,

and

and

eerie

particularly interested in painting the

and the seasons. His

embody

stretches of sea

in strange

Hamburg

yet

symbolic

remain

totally

Frink Dame
1

Goggle Head

Elisabeth

ascinating and frightening, this

menacing head,

its

own

identity

hidden bj shin] goggles, suggests deliberate violence.

evokes images of sophisticated modern-day criminals,


dictators'
riders.

henchmen, or even

Smooth

in outline,

it

Classical bust vet possesses


quality.

cover

Random

its

to create

Dame

surface.

works

is

lell's

in the

sensitivity

rink

was one of the

first

Neo-Expressionisl

in.

vulnerabilities.

She

is

of horses and dogs, which

of her response to nature.

ler last

Risen (Jim/, a

high that

is

bronze sculpture almost

now

fixed to the facade

portraying her

m~

1993

Beaux Arts

Gallery.

London

Algardi. Baselitz, Epstein, Giacometti,

lis

known

equally well

illusttat(

the

major
figure

metres

of The
feet)

of Liverpool Cathedral.

British sculptors

style,

Elisabeth Frink. b Thurlow. 1930. d Woolland,

Goggle Head. 1969. Bronze. h62.2 cm. h24!

its

commission was an impressive and dramatic

shape of a

fearsome and disturbing

scratches, like those inflicted by an animal,

in a

about the complex nature of humankind,

for her sculptures

Angels motorbike

executed

feelings

Strengths and

Ir

Houdon

Froment
While tending

Virgin and Child

Nicolas

his father-in-law's sheep,

Moses

is

astounded

by the vision of a burning bush. As a token of respect to


this

heavenly apparition, he removes his shoes.

On

him

telling

God

that

spoke to Moses through

he was to deliver the

the left

burning bush,

Israelites

from

to include the image

Child because a burning but

Nicolas Froment. Active


Virgin

and Child. 1476.

in

Oil

Uzes,

central section

bore a child but remained a

known about

as

this

French

artist

subde

effects

of

hl61& x wll9%

in.

virgin.

panel forms the

it still

stands today. Litde

who worked

light

in

detail

Saint Sauveur, Aix-en-Provence

is

and around
and great

and colour are elements

which he possibly learned from Jan van Eyck.


" Van Eyck. Lochner, Schongauer, Van der Weyden, Witz

1450-90

on panel. h410 x w304.2 cm.

this

of a triptych of the Burning Bush, which was

painted for the church in which

sensitivity to

of the Virgin and

unconsumed bush was seen

who

Aix-en-Provence. His acute atttention to

their

oppressors and lead them to the land of milk and honey.

Froment has chosen

symbol of Mary

Commissioned by King Rene of Anjou,

an angel appears to witness the event with him. According


to the Bible,

Gabo n
A

nylon string

is

Linear Construct

wound around two

curved perspex to create

intersecting sheets of

complex three-dimensional

pattern of concave and convex folds.

pan of an

unrealized

Esso building

in

New

-metre

York

(1

in

949.

extraordinarily ethereal sculpture

It

-foot)

was conceived

Gabo

it

conveys

Space No.

sense of

Constructivist and this


as

commission for the

With

or end,

movement

in the

way

expansion of space.

infinity.

work

that

Gabo

is

Gabo was

captures the indefinite

it

left his

native Russia in 1922, and

spent time in Berlin and Paris before becoming an

this

American

has achieved an

citizen. In 1952,

he combined

his artistic talents

example of delicacy, transparency and weightlessness that

with architecture, constructing an enormous

was unprecedented. The sculpture seems

suspended from an

Naum

invisible

to float as if

cord and, having no beginning

department store

" Hepworth.

in

Rotterdam.

Lissitzky, Malevich.

Rodchenko, Tobey

Gabo. b Bryanks. 1890. d Waterbury, CT. 1977

Linear Construction

in

Space No.

2.

1957-8. Perspex and nylon

an example of the

string

on a wooden base. h38 cm. hl5

in.

Private collection

monument

for

Ct2,QQ1 Taddeo
In the Middle

workshop
the street

would

Ages

artisans'

in this painting.

Saint Eligius in the Goldsmith's

shops often looked

The

large

like the

window opening onto

would have allowed contact with customers.

also have provided space to display wares.

chosen among the best

living painters

It

Gaddi was

of his time to

formed part of the

'predella', a series

under the main scene of an

would have

a priest, so

the patron saint of goldsmiths.

painter Giotto, and

was

to

tell

is

shows

The

saint

was

a story.

Monaco. Orcagna

Taddeo Gaddi. b Florence. cl300. d Florence, 1366


Saint Eligius

in

the Goldsmith's Shop. cl365. Tempera on panel. h35 x

w39 cm. hl3% x wl5%

in.

Museo

The use of

as a narrative painter.

especially for his attention to detail

'- Giotto. Lorenzetti, Lorenzo

as

his master's

of panels appearing

altarpiece.

shown here

his disciple for 24 years.

Gaddi was best known

was popular

he

Gaddi was the godson of the

vibrant colours and massive figures


influence.

produce a new high altarpiece for Pistoia Cathedral. This


small scene, telling the story of St Eligius,

goldsmith before becoming

Shop

del Prado. Madrid

and

He

abilitv

Gainsborough Thomas
Mr and Mrs Andrews arc resting after an afternoon of
To the right, their estate extends tar into the

shooting.
distance.

The sheaves of corn

tell

Andrews' dog and shotgun imply

Gainsborough possibly

us

it is

autumn, and

that he has

Mr
(

and Mrs Andrews

'.arter

were married

that this portrait

Mr

been hunting.

also intended to include a pheasant

Unlike

many of

in

November

was painted
his

--4s

and

it

as a celebration

is

of

thought
this event.

contemporaries, Gainsborough was not

an academic painter. His intuitive sense of Style and colour,

and superb handling of

paint,

make him one of

the artistic

shot by this elegant English gentleman in the composition,

geniuses of eighteenth-century Europe. Although he was a

but never completed the painting. His wife's beautifully

portrait painter by trade his true passion lay in painting the

executed blue satin dress


bird

is

visible

on her

lap.

is

unfinished

the outline

of a

Robert Andrews and Frances

Thomas Gainsborough, b Sudbury. 1727.


Mr and Mrs Andrews. C1750.

Oil

d London.

British countryside.

m-

Constable, Van Dyck. Van Eyck. Ramsay. Reynolds

1788

on canvas. h69.8 x wll9.4 cm. h27vi x

w47

in.

National Gallery, London

Gaudier-Brzeska Henri
Pulsating with

all

the

power and

vitality

of an African

warrior, this statue ostensibly portrays a dancer.

geometrical rhythms of
distorted to reflect

artist's

its

vigour, the

piece was sculpted at a point

when

human

the artist

91 4 he enlisted in the French army, and during this time he

carvings and continued to exhibit in London.

Influenced by the work of Auguste Rodin and Constantin


Brancusi

and the softness of its caning

appreciation of the

made wood

surfaces are fragmented and

movement. Despite

sculpture's gentle coils

evokes the

its

tribal

The

Red Stone Dancer

who

reduced figures to their most simplified form,

Gaudier-Brzeska worked

form. This

was

was concerned

as a

draughtsman and sculptor and

also closely linked to the Vorticist group. Potentially a

great

artist,

he was

killed in action in 191

at the

with primitive forms and with abstraction. Born in France,


he studied

in

England and

settled in

London

in 191

1.

In

Henri Gaudier-Brzeska. b Saint Jean-de-Bray. 1891. d Neuville-Saint-Vaast,

Red Stone Dancer. 1914. Red Mansfield stone. h85 cm. h33&

in.

Archipenko, Brancusi. Epstein. Lipchitz. Moore, Rodin

1915

Tate Gallery, London

age of 23.

Gauguin
Melancholic and sensual,

Woman

Paul

this beautiful

Polynesian

woman

with a Flower

have escaped everything that

is artificial

and conventional.

become one with

reaches out to the viewer through the vibrancy of her bright

Here

colours and heavy outlines. Although a traditional pose has

he strove to capture the impulsive, instinctive immediacy of

been used, the


an.

The forms

artist

has avoided the usual rules of Western

are simple, the colours clash,

and there

is

no

enter into Truth,

primitive

art.

Gauguin was among the

first

nature.' In Tahiti

to use colour for

purely decorative or emotional purposes. This, together

depth or perspective. Gauguin personified the turn-of-the-

with his simplified, non-naturalistic style of painting, has

century desire to return to a romantic idea of primitive

made him one of the most important


modern art.

Leaving

his family

Tahiti. In his

and successful career, he went to

book Noa Xoa about

Paul Gauguin, b Paris. 1848. d

Woman

with a Rower. 1891.

Tahiti.

Oil

his life there

life.

live in

he wrote,

'I

Cassatt. Van Dongen, Van Gogh. Jawlensky. Matisse

1903

on canvas. h70 x

w46 cm. h27& wl8

in.

contributors to

Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek. Copenhagen

Gentile da Fabriano
The
born

three

Magi

Christ.

are seen paying their respects to the newly

Each of the kings and the members of

group are elegantly dressed


pervades

this altarpiece,

gold

which was commissioned by the

Only the wealthiest merchant family

could choose such

a subject,

expensive blue pigment


practice

was frequently employed

to

and gold

show

Gentile da Fabriano. b Fabriano. cl370. d Rome,

The Adoration

of the Magi.

in Florence

and encourage the

(lapis lazuli)

free use

leaf.

many

came from

the north of Italy but he

different places. His

work

is

typical

Fabriano reveals
birds

and plants

this in his realistic depiction


in

many of his

of animals,

paintings.

of

This

off the patron's

Gozzoli, Lorenzo

Monaco, Mantegna, Overbeck, Pisanello

1427

1423. Tempera on panel. hl73 x

of the

International Gothic style, characterized by elegant

refinement and an interest in secular and natural themes.

Strozzi family to adorn their chapel in the church of Santa


Trinita.

social position. Gentile

painted in

their

in gilded brocades. In fact,

The Adoration of the Magi

w220

cm.

h68% x w86%

Galleria

degh

Uffizi,

Florence

Gentileschi a
Judith

is

shown

at

the

rtcmisia

gruesome moment when she

separates Holofernes' head from his body.

goriness;

Her determined

look guides her steady hand, even though blood gushes out

towards her and

from the

left

all

over the bed.

strong light shining

illuminates the otherwise dark space,

The drama,

heightening the tension of the moment.

and colouring of

The

this

work

are typical

of

Baroque

and Holofernes

Judith

by

is

difficult to

living in the

imagine

this painting

seventeenth century.

respected painter.

important and a

fine artist in

her

own

saturated colours of the red velvet bedcover and the

Artemisia Gentileschi. b Rome. 1593. d Naples.


Judith and Holofernes. cl620.

Oil

Caravaggio, Guercino, La Tour. Luini,

1652

on canvas. hl99 x wl62.5 cm. h78^

It

w64

in.

made

was

in fact

a well-

Once unrecognized because she followed


is now noted as an

footsteps of her father, Artemisia

painting.

contrasting white sheets increase the picture's brutal

being

created by the high-spirited daughter of Orazio,

in the

lighting

it

woman

Gallena degh

Uffizi.

Florence

Rem

right.

Gericault Theodore
A

decorated officer of the Hussars on

Officer of the Hussars

a rearing

charges into battle wielding his curved sword.

dynamism and expressiveness of this


the dramatic diagonal line flowing
left

hindquarters, and the flowing

The drama

is

composition

his
tail

from top
its

right to

flying

arm across the

lit

by

the animal, and the rider with his curving sword,

create a large circle

was

bottom

which

interested in horses

developed a

stabilizes the picture. Gericault

and racing, and because of this

brilliantly rapid

movement. Painted with gusto

horse's

characterizes Gericault's style,

fires.

as cleverly balanced as the horse: the

which was

h349 x w266 cm. hl37^

>

Bocklin, Delacroix. Van Dyck, Etty.

rl04%

in.

Musee du

Louvre. Paris

of

to be such a great

Eugene Delacroix.

The

main

a sense

in rich colours, this picture

inspiration to later painters such as

Theodore Gericault. b Rouen. 1791. d Rouen. 1824


Officer of the Hussars. 1812. Oil on canvas.

method of capturing

mane, the

and hind leg of the horse.

heightened by a turbulent sky


is

body of

picture are created by

incorporating the horse's head with

dashing soldier as he stretches

mount

The

Stubbs

Gertler Mark
The open-mouthed

figures

hardened into what look


toys.

The Merrv-Go-Round

on the roundabout become

like brightly

Whirling around, they have

quality.

As

viewed as a

that the atrocities

beginning to

known

on

the horror of war

of the

dawn on

paintings,

it

exhibits at the 1917

First

it

was

World War were

the public.

at this

now

time

just

One of Gertler's

his

still lifes

speaking community.

of

parties,

Oil

style.

Gertler was born of

Renowned

for being the

striking

Exhibition. Gertler

was

on canvas. hl89.2 x wl42.2 cm. h74H x

He committed

suicide in his

Bomberg. Van

Dyck, Gericault, Lewis,

w56

life

and soul

he nevertheless suffered from serious depression.

Mark Gertler b London. 1891. d London. 1939


The Merry-Go-Round. 1916.

and nudes, which he

London

studio at the age of 48.

best-

was considered one of the most

London Group

is

well-known for

depicted in a quiet yet individual

Polish-Jewish parentage and brought up in a close Yiddish-

a simplistic yet sinister

several are wearing uniforms, the painting


satire

also

coloured mechanical

Gallery.

London

Nash

Ghiberti Lorenzo

David and Goliath

The

height of Florentine

artist

shallow

has created a sense of remarkable depth in this

relief.

Ghiberti achieved this effect by using the

art, particularly in their

mastery of

composition and perspective. The doors were a great

Many

formal principles of perspective. For example, the three-

inspiration to other Florentine Renaissance artists.

dimensional figures of the foreground are set against a

years later Michelangelo praised Ghiberti's work, calling the

The scene

landscape that recedes into the distance.

is

one of

ten of the second set of large bronze doors to the Baptistry


in

Florence sculpted by Ghiberti.

ten large panels in


are

The doors

are

made up of

which episodes from the Old Testament

shown. They are considered by many

to express the

doors the Gates of Paradise. In the

artist to

have survived.

Castagno, Donatello, Pisano, Delia Querela

Lorenzo Ghiberti. b Florence, 1378. d Florence. 1455


David and Goliath. cl435.

Gilt

bronze. h79.5 x

w79.5 cm. h31!4 x w31V4

last years

Ghiberti wrote his autobiography, which

in.

Battistero di

San Giovanni, Florence

is

of

his life

the earliest by an

Ghirlandaio d
'Would

oi

that art could portray her character

painting in the work) would be

comment on

more

the wall behind the

and

beautiful.'

sitter,

virtue.

No

Despite

marriage. In addition to producing portraits such as

this

the artist has

is

sitter's

seated against a plain background, enabling

the viewer to focus


that

was

portraiture.
sitter

on her

profile.

This was

convention

The

portrait

died the year

it

is all

the

more poignant

was painted, only two years

likeness also appears in a family chapel in Florence,


artist's largest

his use

of naturalistic

style

of

detail

and

Botticelli, Filippino Lippi

Michelangelo, Pisanello

r
\ AV l v

I
1
fcAKUA KJRFT

HP
1 ^B

W^^fctei
Portrait of

Florence. 1449. d Florence,

1494

Giovanna Tornabuoni. 1488. Tempera on panel. h77 x

Fundacion Coleccion Thyssen-Bornemisza. Madrid

his ability to capture the

as the
after her

w49 cm.

h30!4 x wl9VS

in.

at

especially popular tor

his times.

HKL

Domenico Ghirlandaio. b

undertaking. Ghirlandaio,

one point Michelangelo's teacher, was

and

regularly used in Florentine Renaissance

this,

Ghirlandaio was an experienced fresco painter; indeed, the

which was the

successfully captured Giovanna's serenity, beauty and

elegance. She

Giovanna Tornabuoni

Portrait of

life

Giacometti Alberto
This emaciated, monumental figure with

and textured surface

is

signify solitude

roughly pitted

Through

hauntingly powerful.

unnatural, elongated shape, the sculpture

is

its

intended to

and the absolute separation between ourself

and our fellow man.

It

ephemeral nature of

human

Man

skeleton and add clay to

it,

which he would then

Giacometti's singular style of expression kept

from the post-Second World War


sculpture.

Born

in Switzerland,

styles

cast.

him

apart

of painting and

Giacometti settled in Paris

and the

in 1922.

His paintings and drawings reflect the same

existence. In contrast to other

restless,

nervous quality as his sculptures.

also underlines our fragility

sculptors, Giacometti did not start with a large

material

Walking

which he chipped and

mass of

chiselled to find a

hidden within. His technique was to

start

Alberto Giacometti. b Stampa. 1877. d Chur.

Walking Man. 1960. Bronze. hl83 cm. h72

form

with a metal

1966

in.

Private collection

Made up of sharp,

energetic strokes of paint they have a stark and haunting

beautv.

Archipenko. Auerbach. Dubuffet. Frink, Rodin. Smith

Giambologna
Swirling with

immense energy and

furious

compacted composition, with

tightly

feeling

its

The Rape of a Sabine


movement,

this

twisting oudines,

of drama suitable for the subject. The

creates

illusion

of writhing motion

is

initiated

by the Sabine's

outstretched arms, continued through the muscular, heroic


figure

of the

Roman

clasping the hips of his prey and

resolved in the dominated

man

straddled below.

smoothly polished, sinuous form


the statue and to view

it

equally

invites us to

from

all

The

from

a single viewpoint.

convey
style.

a fervid

powerful forms to create a


in sculpture.

new

His numerous works include

Bourdelle. Cellini, Michelangelo,

=3S==

1581/3. Marble. h410 cm. hl61V$

in.

Loggia dei Lanzi, Florence

his

kind of fluidity and elegance


a

number of

walk around

angles, rather than

sense

Giambologna

was strongly influenced by Michelangelo, and adapted

Giambologna (Jean de Boulogne), b Douai. 1529. d Florence. 1608


of a Sabine.

ability to

of energy characterize the Mannerist

fountains for the gardens of the Medici family.

^ags
The Rape

Giambologna's use of the

exaggerated gesture unci his

Rosso

Fiorentino

Gilbert and
Two

figures in alternating blue, red

appear

in

what seems

to be a

George
and white clothing

window.

tall

seem

to

be posing

lived

art.

Gilbert and

and worked together since 1967. As

taste.

With

it is

usually with

themselves into objects of

George have

scale,

and

values,

it

ridicule.

in the

way

it

its

debunks

has affinities with the

Their work almost defies

Gilbert and

George

(Gilbert

Proesch and George Pasmore).

Thumbing. 1991. Photo-piece. hl69 x

wl42

cm. h66! x

(Gilbert)

w56

in.

" Koons,

Lichtenstein,

Pop Art movement.

Sherman, Warhol

b Dolomites, 1943; (George) b Devon. 1942

Anthony d'Offay Gallery. London

large

traditional art-historical

self-styled 'living

of ways and media. Whatever thev do or however

deliberate

make

gaudy colours and

sculptures', thev portray themselves to the public in a


variety

humour and

their narcissistic pretensions they

categorization, although with

in a deliberately

prankish manner. Perhaps they are "thumbing' their noses at


the conventions of traditional

ing

they use themselves,

bad

building in the

distance dominates the background. With mock-serious

expressions, the figures

(jilmann:arold

An

This portrayal of working-class people

in a

humble

has been painted with sensitivity and intensity.


has created

shallow space

in

planes of vermilion and emerald greens.

painting was

a grid

still

The sup

which hears the same

title.

Harold Gilman. b Rode. 1878. d London.

An Eating House 1913/14.

Oil

With

its

a tine

example of work

Group. Sometimes

lis

b) an artist

intensity of colour,

of the

because of their use of colour,

often met

in

this

group of

Walter Sickert's studio

an area of north London, hence

its

in

artists

Camden Town,

name.

smaller

clear, accurate

Modersohn-Becker, Orpen.

Sickert. Vuillard

1919

on canvas. h57.2 / w74.9 cm. h22V, / w29'/,

in.

II

Camden Town

called the 'English Post Impressionists

advocated the honest study of everyday life.The group


the

Gilman prohahh used some kind of

device to transfer the design from this painting to


version,

is

mark which was imposed when

wet.

louse

artist

decorative colour

flat

portrayal of an ordinary scene and

which the hare walls and

range of benches and tables appear as

painting hears

The

Bating

interior

Sheffield City Art Galleries. Sheffield

Giordano Luca
Sleeping

wisdom,

him
the

his luxurious bed, the

sits

with

of

for

which Solomon

is

to

are

building behind

is

Baroque period. One of the most

seventeenth century, Giordano was nicknamed 'Luca Fa

and

Temple of

The scene

late

Presto' because he

symbols of learning and patience.


a reference to the

decorative colour, characterizes Giordano's style

important decorative painters of the second half of the

become famous. Above

Jerusalem, built during Solomon's reign.

its

and that of the

Minerva, the goddess of knowledge. The books and

lamb she holds

The

young king Solomon has

God appearing amid a swirl of clouds and


God invests him with the heavenly light of Divine

a vision

angels.

on

The Dream of Solomon

worked so

quickly. His airy compositions

delicate colours look forward to such great eighteenth-

century painters as Giovanni Battista Tiepolo.

is

painted with great vigour and expression. This, together

<- Bernini. Delacroix, Domenichino, Reni, Tiepolo

Luca Giordano, b Naples. 1632. d Naples. 1705

The Dream of Solomon. C1693.

Oil

on canvas. h245

)Vi

wl42

in.

Museo

del Prado.

Madrid

Giorgione
\\ In

is

.1

naked

woman

thunderstorm looms

an excuse to depict

feeding her child out in the open as

in

No

one has

in fact

the subject of this picture, although

been put forward. Indeed,


artist.

There

are

pupils, including Titian.

much

it

been able

many

have

loose, light brushstrokes

to identify

theories have

controversy surrounds

Of all

the Venetian painters

Giorgione embodies the best of

the distance? Is this painting just

poetic landscape, or docs

greater significance?

The Tempest

are

all

their painterly style.

no signed and dated works by him and

many of Giorgione's

Nicolas Poussin.

pictures were completed by his

Allston, Giovanni Bellini, Poussin, Titian

b Castelfranco. cl477. d Venice. 1510

The Tempest. C1508.

Oil

on canvas. h79.5 x

w73 cm.

\\31'A x

vt28%

in.

still

much

admired, and influenced great landscape painters such as

matters are further confused by the fact that after his early
death,

lis

hallmarks of Venetian painting. Centuries after his

death, Giorgione's pastoral landscapes were


this

and handling ot colour and tone

Gallena dell'Accademia. Venice

Giotto
A

group of

The Lamentation

men and women mourn

the death of their

the

Emotional gestures, pained expressions and bright colours


heighten the intensity of
Christ's

real life, in

di

bends over

terms of emotion and space, on

is

many

of

life

static,

modern

is

painting, as he

stereotyped conventions of his

Cathedral and architect to the

considered one of the most important works of

Bondone. b Vespignano, 1267. d Florence. 1337


in.

With Cimabue Giotto

city.

This was a tribute to

great fame as a painter rather than a consequence of any

of the

7
3
The Lamentation. C1305. Fresco. h200 x wl85 cm. h78 /4 x w72 ^

art.

554 he was appointed surveyor to Florence

architectural knowledge.

a flat surface.

scenes depicting the

broke awav from the


day. In

in painting.

earliest artists to depict the illusions

This work, one of the

Giotto

grief as she

dead body. Giotto caused a revolution

He was one of the

Virgin,

Man's

development of Western

often regarded as the founder of

Saviour as angels await his arrival in the heavenly realm.

Cappella dei Scrovegni. Padua

his

Romano

Giulio
The

artist

to ceiling.

has painted

Standing

entire

ail

in the

room

in fresco

Room

from floor

their bulging muscles, the Titans

toss massive boulders as

if

of Mount

)l\mpus

they were as light as feathers,

while the gods contemplate the chaos on Earth below. With


its

illusionistic perspectives

and melodramatic emotion the

fresco epitomizes the Mannerist style. Giulio

both an architect and a painter.

Giulio

Romano

Room

of the Giants.

(Giulio Pippi).

He began

Romano was

his career as

b Rome. 1492. d Mantua. 1546

cl527. Fresco. Palazzo

del Te.

his assistant. After his

master's death he completed a

middle, the viewer feels

surrounded by tumbling rocks and raging thunderbolts.

With

of the Giants

of Raphael's chief pupils, and

Mantua

one

unfinished frescos

in the

number of Raphael's

Vatican. Later Giulio

moved

to

Mantua, where he became Court painter to the Duke, a


position once held by Andrea Mantegna. Here he excelled
as

an architect.

He

often designed buildings in order to

shock and surprise the spectator, the most important of


these being his

W Mantegna.

own house

in

Mantua.

Michelangelo, Raphael, Rosso Fiorentlno

Van

Part lizard, part


fall

Goes Hugo

der

human, the serpent

of Adam and Eve

is

in this depiction

The
of the

typical

stretches her

arm

to reach for a

bite

of the

care with

which each

individually painted
plaits

iris,

on top of

leaf,

is

blade of grass and lock of hair

Hugo van der Goes,


Fall of

The

clear,

luminous colours and

is

artist's

Netherlands

fame spread

shown here

as far as Italy,

where one

He

his altarpieces

to

have been seized by madness while on a journey to


in

caused a sensation in Florence.

481; he died,

still

b Ghent. 1440. d Brussels.

Man. cl470.

made of two

on panel. h35.5 x w23.2 cm. hl3 <* x y/9%

in.

Kunsthistorisches

is

said

insane, the following year.

David. Van Eyck. Memling, Van Scorel

1482
7

Oil

Bouts. Campin.

are

in the fifteenth

of

Cologne

astounding. (Notice the extraordinarv

The

in the

the serpent's head.) This scene forms the

left-hand panel of a diptych (an altarpiece

The

of painting

century.

The

first.

Man

straightforward description of the figures

second apple, having already taken a

strategically placed

of

panels hinged together).

quite disturbing. Standing by the

Tree of Knowledge, Eve, modesdy covered by

Fall

Museum. Vienna

Van Gogh
Brilliant

and

startling, this

Vincent

Sunflowers

simple vase of sunflowers

the

explodes with razor-sharp vibrancy. The brushstrokes have

been laden with thick

paint,

sculptor slapping clay

on

yellow and

brown - and

which Van Gogh applied

to a relief.

the technique express a beautiful

world of hope and of sunlight. At the time


painted, however, such a world
relentlessly

from the

this

agitated,

Oil

w73 cm.

who

trees seen

A Dutchman

emotionally fraught

by

life

Van Gogh stated


a window than

from

birth,

Van Gogh ended

on 29 July 1890

in the

of Auvers-sur-Oise.

reflects

" Auerbach.

h36i4 x w28V$

in.

Derain, Gauguin, Matisse. Pechstein

National Gallery. London

his

loved nature and could

Perhaps the

almost manic -

on canvas. h92 x

painter

see pure beauty in simple things,

Vincent van Gogh, b Groot Zundert. 1853. d Auvers-sur-Oise. 1890


Sunflowers. 1888.

life.

would rather paint


visions.

work was

was slipping slowly but

painter's desperate grasp.

surface of the painting

like a

The colours - shades of

of mind as he neared the end of

artist's state

tragically short

that he

imaginary-

his

French town

Gontcharova
In a tranquil street, a

woman

coachman calmly

is

movement in this scene, which is a crystallization of a


moment in time. All the forms have been reduced to
simple, flat shapes - the squares and rectangles of the
and buildings, the

woman's

circles

in

muted

in

Moscow. 1909.

no

art

Oil

air

of forlorn hope blows through the painting.

of Russia, and her

primitive quality that


settled in Paris
street

own work
came from

popular folk

exuded a

this interest.

where she designed

for Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets

in the

for a time

In 191

<W

on canvas. h65 x

Rjtsses.

Appel. Chagall. Jawlensky, Modersohn-Becker, Wallis

1962

w79 cm.

h25K> x

w31

in.

Private collection

number of stage

The forms have

tones, adding to the atmosphere of

Natalia Gontcharova. b Russia. 1881. d Paris.

Street

An

Gontcharova was profoundly interested

of the wheels, and the shape of the

hat reflected in that of the cart.

been painted

sadness.

waits in

Apart from the woman's sad steps, there

Moscow

Street in

dressed in elegant black walks

out of the picture. Behind her


his carriage.

Natalia

she
sets

Gorky

The

\rshile

This apparently abstract painting


waterfall in a

wood.

trees

based on

small

at

strong impression of a

Born

One

of the work
spiritual

lies in

sound of

falling water.

in

The beauty

Armenia, Gorky emigrated

critic

whom

and greenery. Vibrant colours evoke the serenity of

bright sunlight and the

Waterfall

the time, and the spontaneity of Abstract Expressionism.

rock, surrounded by overhanging

evokes

It

stream pouring through

is

art

to the

USA

has referred to him as an artist-in

became

images from

homeland. Gorky would often use

his native land in his paintings. After years

peace through the images of forest and water. The

movement, towards which Gorkv was mo\

Gorky, b Khorkom

The Waterfall. 1943.

Oil

Vari.

after suffering severe psychological trauma.

ing

Dali. Ernst. Frankenthaler.

1904. d Sherman. CT. 1948

on canvas. hl54 x

of

poverty, he achieved brief recognition but hanged himself

the artist's ability to express an almost

painting shows the magical, dream-like elements typical of


the Surrealist

in 1920.

exile, for

wll3 cm. h60H x w44V,

in.

Tate Gallery. London

De Kooning, Lam. Rothko

Goya
Dressed

Francisco

Portrait

in the fashionable black

costume of the elegant

majas of Madrid, a veil cascading in folds around her head,


the

Duchess of Alba exudes an

air

of

aristocratic beaut)-.

Her monochrome but opulent clothing


marvellous energy. Set against

is

described with

a cloudless sky,

she seems

about to step into the viewer's presence. The Duchess was a

prominent

figure in

Madrid

romantically involved with

society. It

Goya

is

likely that

at the time,

she was

suggested here

by the words 'Solo Goya' to which she points, and the

fact

of the Duchess of Alba

that "Goya'

and 'Alba' are inscribed on the rings of her

hand. As he grew older

Goya

spent

more time

creating

scenes of fantasy and terror. Although he remained a Court


painter,

many of his

paintings were politically inspired by

the French occupation of his country at that time.

time of his death,


oil

Goya had completed some

five

paintings and nearly three hundred etchings and

lithographs.

"

Gainsborough. Manet, Ramsay. Reynolds. Velazquez

1828
h210x wl48 cm. h82&xw58^

Francisco Goya y Lucientes. b Fuentendos. 1746. d Bordeaux,


Portrait of the

Duchess

of Alba.

1797.

Oil

on canvas.

At the

hundred

in.

Hispanic Society of America,

New

York,

NY

Van Goyen
The warm, brown tones

give a wonderful rustic

building on the right with

Looking along the


gradually loses
plains of the
vast,

its

A Castle

Jan

its

turrets

air to

the

The low horizon evokes

Dutch landscape. This

is

Dutch

flat

which takes up

almost three-quarters of the painting.

Van Goyen was

of the

and atmospheric

first

to capture a sense of light

Jan van Goyen. b Leyden, 1596. d The Hague,

A Castle by a River with Shipping

scene appears

many

emphasized by the

painters and

his paintings

Shipping

at a

Quay

were based on drawings

that
it

appears that he used these again and again, as the same


the

dominating, grey sky, a feature that was so important

to seventeenth-century

Most of

a River with

he made while travelling around the countryside, and

and bay windows.

river into the distance, the colour

strength.

effects.

by

in a

number of his

pupils and imitators.

and was

paintings.

He produced

certainly a great influence

Van Goyen had

countless works,

on landscape painting of

the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

nil'

<* Avercamp. Bonington, Boudin,

Hobbema, Ruisdael

1656

at a Quay. 1642. Oil on canvas.

hl03 > wl40 cm.

h40'/> x

w55^

in.

Private collection

Gozzoli Benozzo
Fur-trimmed capes, gold
horses

this

is

truly a

bridles, velvet

The Journey of the Magi


robes and splendid

magnificent procession.

The

subject

included portraits of the family in the fresco, and the


elegant

young Magus

of the Magi was often a favourite of affluent patrons

de' Medici.

The

because the use of opulent colours and gold leaf would

decoration.

highlight their
as a fresco

Cosimo

on

own

wealth and status. This example appears

the walls of a chapel inside the palace of

de' Medici in Florence. It

was unusual

to

have a

in the

fresco

is

gold robe

pupil of Fra Angelico

the very different

is

said to

and contemporary of

Andrea Mantegna, Gozzoli's

rich sense

decorative pageantry provides a fine example of the


International Gothic style.

chapel inside a private house, but Cosimo's magnificent


palace broke with

many

traditions

of the day. Gozzoli has

Benozzo Gozzoli. b Florence. 1420/22. d

Pistoia,

1497

The Journey of the Magi. 1459. Fresco. Palazzo Medici-Riccardi. Florence

be Lorenzo

only a part of the chapel's

Fra Angelico. Gentile

da Fabnano. Mantegna. Uccello

of

El Greco

The

Swirling forms and colours have been used here to create a

manner of Michelangelo, Raphael and

dynamic, visionary image of Heaven. The subject of the


painting,

Count Orgaz, was

Toledan

dignitary

who was

miraculously

at his funeral to

his soul

his

body

and clergy look on. Born

of the

local nobility

Greco

trained in Venice

Toledo. The fashionable

El

lower

so

into the tomb.

ascends to the heavenly realm as

and

Rome

Count Orga

members

distinctive, intensely spiritual style with

of

colours. In this way, FJ Greco's

epitomize the Mannerist

Oil

work can be seen

movement

at its height.

in Crete, El

time was the Classical

Greco

own

elongated forms,

before moving to

stvle at that

Count Orgaz. 1586.

its

his

sweeping movement and bright, sometimes unearthly,

Andrea

del Sarto, Michelangelo. Raphael. Titian

Greco (Domenikos Theotocopoulos). b Crete. 1541. d Toledo. 1614

The Burial

Titian. El

transformed these powerful influences into

pious that the saints Augustine and Stephen appeared

Above,

Burial of

on canvas. h487.7 x w360.7 cm. H192 x

wl42

in.

San Tome. Toledo

to

Greuze
Dressed

young man

he carefully tunes his

guitar.

bedraggled look hint

at the struggles

life.

This

details

is

The

Jean-Baptiste

in theatrical clothes, a

His

tired,

a richly painted scene,

listens intently as

wide-open eves and

of

his

outwardly

complete with

all

of the seventeenth-century Flemish genre painters,

whose manner Greuze has


of everyday

became

life

tried to emulate.

often had a moral

Greuze's scenes

tale to tell.

These pictures

When

classical artists

the style of the day shifted towards

Jean-Baptiste Greuze b Tournus. 1725. d Paris,


Guitarist.

cl760.

Oil

on canvas.

as

Greuze went out of

fashion. Unfortunately, his desire to

remain popular led him to use painting

in

sentimentalized manner. For this reason

an insincere and

many of his

paintings have been overlooked for their important

contribution to art until recently.

"

J-L David,

Hogarth, Honthorst. Steen, Terbrugghen

1805

h71xw57cm. h28x w22^in. Musee des

Neo-

such as Jacques-Louis David, however,

increasingly popular in eighteenth-century France

and were widely praised by moral philosophers such

The

jovial

the

Guitarist

Diderot.

Beaux-Arts, Nantes

Grimshaw/

\tkinson

full

moon

dominates

over the River

this rivcrscape, casting a

Thames and

reflection of light

dome of St

Nightfall

the ships floating

on the water

on

it.

light

The

leads the viewer's eye to the

landmark looks strangely different to the way

The composition of the

and smooth.

It is

vertical pattern

painting

it

is

Grimshaw

is

best

which was often

the

known

lit

Thames
for this kind

London

contemporary James McNeill Whistler, whose nocturnal

thought

who

supposedly commented,

had invented the Nocturne

would look

moonlights',

symmetrical

Thames.

Grimshaw had

skyline.

'* Friedrich. Spilhaert. Turner, Whistler

Atkinson Grimshaw. b Leeds. 1836. d Leeds. 1893


Nightfall

down the Thames 1880.

Oil

on board. h40.2 x w63.1 cm.

hl5% x w24%

Leeds

until

City Art Gallery,

Leeds

'I

saw Grimmy's

a great love for the

unbroken by any movement except the

of the skeleton-like masts across the

of night townscape,

by bright moonlight. Like his

scenes are well known, and

Paul's Cathedral in the distance. In such

mysterious moonlight, however, the well-known

in daylight.

green

down

River

Gris

Glasses,

The

artist

portraying different sections of an object simultaneouslv,

this

unusual interpretation of a

glasses,

has used sliced sections of newspaper to create


still life.

The

objects

newspaper and botde of wine - have been taken

Newspaper and

while rejecting the conventions of light and shade.


artist

has thus created a

new

whole and then fragmented, painted and glued back

was never

together again within the confines of parallel vertical planes

example of the movement's

in the Cubist technique. Gris has created a sense

of

perspective and different levels of space by positioning


these planes in front of or behind each other.

importance of

this

Gris. b Madrid.

work

lies in its

innovative

1887. d Pans. 1927

in.

Private collection

lived

Cubist by intention,

most of

remained

kind of

his

working

this

style.

life

essentially Cubist in

reality.

work

"

The

Although Gris

is

seen as an

Spanish by birth, Gris

in Paris

form

and

his

work

until his death.

The
method of

Glasses, Newspaper and a Bottle of Wine. 1913. Collage, gouache

h45 x w29.5 cm. hl7% x wll%

of Wine

a Bottle

Archipenko. Braque. Kupka, Leger, Picasso. Schwitters

Gros
A

victorious

Arcole

\ ntoine-

Napoleon defeats

in 1796.

The strong

was obviously studied from


realistic feeling.

This

is

not

the Italians at the battle of

character of Bonaparte's face


life

and gives the painting

Although trained by

Gros became

compositions were

a rc.u

strong colours and theatrical set-pieces of the

GtOS was made

In the

820s, however,

Neo-Classical
a leader

Antoine-Jean, Baron Gros b Paris. 1771. d Bas-Meudon.

1835

Oil

&

Neo

style,

and

official

war painter by Napoleon,

Gros attempted

to return to a

his popularity diminished.

slipped into obscurity, and

committed suicide

<* J-L David, Delacroix. Gericault,

on canvas. hl34 x

wl04 cm. h52 % x w41

in.

He

in 1835.

French

in

Afcole

don

and successfully captured the atmosphere of the moment.

sombre

Petersburg

naturalistic

Classicists.

painting at the end of the eighteenth century. His

Napoleon Bonaparte on the Bridge at Arcole. 1796/7.

and

at

very

Neo-

move towards Realism and Romanticism

palette

the Bridge

of

contemporary

his close friend the

classical painter Jacques-Louis David,


in the

a generalized representation

victory but rather a depiction of a specific,


event.

Napoleon Bonaparte on

ean Baron

Lawrence

Hermitage Museum. St

more

Grosz George
An

Berlin Streetscene

elegant lady in heels and a fur collar haughtily curls her

nose

at a

dapper gendeman

fashionable street.

Only

who winks

interested in their

exchanges, they do not notice the old


suit

own

man

in a threadbare

satire

on

began

of many which the

George Grosz. b

artist

Berlin,

Berlin Streetscene.

produced

1893. d

Berlin,

1930. Watercolour,

that

at a

decaying society of distorted

it is

satire

USA. His work


of old with

his career as a caricaturist

( Daumier, Dix,

and

oil

on paper. h60 x

w46 cm. h23^ x wl8

came

Private collection

to

romanticism.

and became

Hausmann, Schwitters

in.

gradually

new

to vent his

and eventually

He

a leading

in Berlin after 1918.

1959
ink

one

have a nightmarish

him

satirical caricatures,

member of the Dada group

the affected patriotism,

greed and depraved sensuality of the period,

to emigrate to the

combine the

caricatures the appalling social conditions of post-First

selfish

Grosz's disgust

anger through his biting

flirtatious

begging for money. This watercolour scathingly

World War Germany.

quality.

morals, propaganda and self-indulgence led

her in a

at

Griinewald Matthias

The

A book

aim was that the viewer should be moved with the same

in

one hand, John the Baptist points towards the

dying figure of the crucified Christ. The Latin inscription

behind

must

his

arm

reads, Ilium opoiiet

increase, but

must

festering

in his side,

me autem

miniii

and

of the

nails,

his flesh

is

blood

covered

wounds. Mary Magdalene kneels

trickles

at the foot

intensity

of emotion as the figures

of the

Ironically,

on panel. h269 x

name was

in fact

seventeenth-century biographer.

"

Durer,

E!

Greco. Masaccio, Orozco. Rouault

Matthias Grunewald (Mathis Gothardt Neithardt) b Wurzburg, 1470/75. d Halle, 1528


Oil

He was

7
w307 cm. hl06 x wl20 <*

in.

Musee

as popular.

however, he was known by the wrong name for

three hundred years; his real

Man-

hands of John the Evangelist. Griinewald's

The Crucifixion. cl515.

in the painting.

contemporary of Albrecht Diirer and considered

Mathis

Gothardt Neithardt and he was misnamed Griinewald by

in

cross with her perfume pot beside her, and the Virgin
faints into the

('He

decrease'). Christ's elongated

fingers are splayed by the force

from the gash

crescere,

Crucifixion

d'Unterlinden. Colmar

Guardi Francesco
Through an arcade
leads

up

to a

a piazza

monumental

with incidental

detail,

An

opens out, and a wide

building.

The scene

staircase

peppered

is

such as the sheets draped over the

balcony and the elegantly dressed nobles giving coins to the


beggar-boy. All of

Although
of

it is

this

animates and enlivens the picture.

an invented cityscape, Guardi used elements

his native city to create a plausible

owes much

whom

to the

Venetian view. Guardi

example of Canaletto, an

artist

he has always been closely associated and

Architectural Caprice

perhaps his master. Unlike Canaletto's precise technique,

however, Guardi's

style

is

characterized by the freedom and

spontaneity of his brushwork, adding a great sense of gusto


to the scene. Full

of romantic, half-invented elements,

Guardi interprets rather than reproduces Venice, capturing


a sparkle

of

light

and movement which

Canaletto's interpretations of the

Oil

on canvas.

is

absent from

city.

with

who was

"

Bellotto.

Bordone. Canaletto, Pannini, Siberechts

Francesco Guardi. b Venice, 1712. d Venice, 1780

An Architectural Caprice. C1770/80.

same

h54xw36cm. h21^xwl4!<i

in.

National Gallery, London

Guercino
The

elderly Jacob

is

seen

at the

Jacob Receiving Joseph's Coat


moment of being

cloak of his favourite son Joseph,

brothers have sold into slavery.

whom

The

given the

canvas with

cloak

is

robust monumcntality.

its

of the Baroque

stained with

spirit.

the blood of a goat in order to fool Jacob into thinking

Academy, but was

Joseph has been

intensity

right

hand and

killed

rolls his

God. The cloak

rests

on the appearance of
against a

by

sombre

wild animal. Jacob raises his

eyes heavenward, as

on
a

if

mortuary

slab.

Guercino was

been softened

to

art.

"

Oil

on canvas. hll5.5 x

w94 cm.

been used,

in this painting

Caravaggio, Carracci, Jordaens. Reni, Ribera

h45V6 x

w37

in.

and

enhance the richness of the colours.

Guercino (Francesco Barbieri). b Cento. 1591. d Bologna. 1666

Jacob Receiving Joseph's Coat. cl625.

masterpiece

Although dramatic lighting

Dramatically set

of Jacob dominates the

this a

pupil at the Carracci

also influenced by the realism

of Caravaggio's

similar to Caravaggio's has

pleading with

marble balustrade, which takes

sky, the figure

The condensed,

heightened emotion of the picture makes

his jealous

Burghley House. Stamford

it

has

Guston
A

Sleeping

Philip

tramp-like figure, possibly the artist himself,

and gloomy

place.

The cartoon

dark

lies in a

character has been

figuration with the explanation,


purity,

wanted

to

'I

got sick and tired of that

Using-a comic-strip technique

tell stories.'

portrayed with deliberate clumsiness, the paint applied in

and harsh discordant colours,

bold, forceful strokes with a limited palette of reds, pinks,

such social topics as the homeless and the

black and white. Painted in the

Guston taught painting

career, this
society.

work

is

last

phase of the

artist's

an ironic comment on low-life urban

Although Guston was closely associated with the

Abstract Expressionists in his earlier period, in 1970 he


publicly

abandoned

this style for a rather

awarded

Oil

on canvas. h213.3 x wl75.2 cm. h84 x

w69

1950s

Ford Foundation grant and

Guggenheim Museum

i* Baselitz, Kline,

Guston. b Montreal, 1913. d Woodstock, NY, 1980

1977.

until the late

comment on

Ku

Klux Klan.

when he was

his international

reputation was swiftly established with a major retrospective


at the

raucous form of

his paintings

Private collection

De Kooning,

in 1962.

Pollock,

Rothko

Hals Frans

Portrait of a

The young man

the

spontaneity.

has been painted with dazzling vigour and

The

artist's

furious brushstrokes give the

youth,

whose

real

presence

is

movement

in the boisterous

suggested by his hand

is

probably not

a true portrait

as a 'vanitas' scene, dwelling

and the shortness of

life.

on the

The
but what was known

The

Young Man with

a Skull.

early seventeeth century.


style,

using rapid brushwork to capture fleeting gestures and


is

quite different

contemporary Rembrandt's more introverted


the personality of the

sitter.

Claesz. Honthorst, Rembrandt. Rubens. Terbrugghen

1666

C1626/8.

Oil

on canvas.

h92xw81cm. h36xw32

in.

National Gallery. London

from

insight into

of death

skull represents death, while

Frans Hals b Antwerp. 1581. d Haarlem,


Portrait of a

inevitability

who worked in Holland in the


He is well known for his vivid

expressions. However, this quality

thrusting out of the canvas and into the viewer's space.

painting

with a Skull

successful portrait painter

painting an almost impressionistic quality. This creates a

strong sense of character and

Young Man

young man symbolizes youth and vigour. Hals was

his

Hamilton

Richard

This collage of a stylized 1950s interior


post-war

art.

The

artist

albeit a wittily sardonic one.

lollipop

to the

is

crucial as

it is

landmark

in

consumer paradise

The 'POP' on

probably the

word which heralded

The imagery Hamilton

has combined'cut-up photographs

and cuttings from magazines to create

Just

is

first

the oversized

visual reference

major new movement

has used embodies the

in art.

Pop Art

What

is it...?

seminal role in the development of the British strain of


Art.

This collage was

Tomorrow',
Hamilton

in

made

in the 1950s, the

indispensable categories for

'Woman Food

History Newspapers

Cinema Domestic appliances Cars Space Comics


Telephone Information'. He

is

now

technology to create innovative works.

media, popular culture and advertising. Hamilton played a

- P

Hausmann, Jones, Schwitters

Richard Hamilton b London, 1922

What

is

it

That

Makes Todays Homes So

Kunsthalle, Tubingen

Different,

TV

using computer

movement which used symbols from contemporary mass

Just

is

London's Whitechapel Art Gallery. For

tomorrow's world were:

Blake.

Pop

for an exhibition called 'This

So Appealing? 1956. Collage on paper. h26 x w25 cm. hlOVi x w9%

in.

Hammershoi

Wilhelm

Interior with a Girl at the Clavier

Cool, delicate pastel tones suggest a scene of peaceful


serenity, with a girl seated at a clavier

viewer.

grey,

with her back to the

white tablecloth with crisp folds leads the eye into

the shallow depth of the room,

coloured wall.

The

spare, austere style

which

is

enclosed by a pale-

uncluttered composition recalls the

of Japanese

prints, yet the

painting breathes a freshness and

vitality,

with the clear, sharp Scandinavian

light.

Danish painter of quiet

interiors in

and

it

Although he had to wait

work, he was

much

1901.

Oil

on canvas. h56 x

long time for recognitii

Bonnard, De Hooch, Metsu, Sickert, Vermeer

w44 cm. h22 x wl7

in.

has a

respected by his contemporaries.

flooded

colours, chiefly

art

it,

artists

also offers a nostalgic escape into the

Wilhelm Hammershoi. b Copenhagen. 1864. d Copenhagen, 1916


Interior with a Girl at the Clavier.

something mystical about

work of seventeenth-century Dutch

timeless quality, but

his

Hammershoi was

muted

his refined style has

such as Jan Vermeer and Pieter de Hooch. His

past.

whole
is

and

suggesting the

Private collection

Hartung H;
Harsh, dramatic

lines

background. There

is

of black paint dominate

a pale,

French

bland

strength and energy in the heavy

is

as

Art Informel.

when he

The essence of Hartung's image

started with his brush

is

Chinese

known

that

and blank canvas he had no

He became one

painters.

of the most famous

His elegant and distinctive work

usually incorporates calligraphy, not unlike that used in

and expressive image

an example of the intuitive and spontaneous work

citizenship.

French abstract

calligraphy of the bundled sheaves of lines, assembled in a


criss-cross pattern. Hartung's forceful

1956/7

art,

and the paintings are generally untided and can

only be distinguished by numbers.

Foreign Legion

and

lost a leg in

at the
1

He

joined the French

outbreak of the Second World War,

944.

preconceptions of the finished object. Born in Germany,

Hartung setded

Hans Hartung. b

in Paris in 1955

Leipzig.

T 1956/7. 1956/7.

Oil

1904. d

and subsequendy assumed

Paris.

"

Dubuffet. Fautrier. Riopelle, Soulages. Tapies

1992

on canvas. hl61 x

wl22 cm. h63% x w48

Private collection

Hassam
A woman

in a

The Room of Flowers

Childe

pink dress lounges on

a divan, lazily

training hindered

reading

chairs,

room crowded with books, paintings, tables,


ornaments and Mowers. The house is on the Maine-

New

lampshire coast and belonged to Celia Thaxter

used

it

principles.

in a light-filled

to entertain poets

Hassam worked

as a

and

wood

artists

was converted

to

Childe

Hassam

The Room

b Boston, MA, 1859. d

of Flowers.

1894.

Oil

fleeting impressions

(Hassam among them).

his initial

New

also favoured studies


his

own

lifetime,

w34

in.

on wet pavements, and he

of women. Hassam was popular

and often won medals and awards.

Cassatt, Chase, Hammershoi, Monet, Sargent. Whistler

1935

on canvas. h86.4 x w86.4 cm. h34 x

twilight, stress

day or weather conditions which presented technical

He

academic

York, NY,

snow or

its

atmospheric

of movement. He chose times of

challenges, such as reflections


art.

French Impressionism on seeing the

work of Claude Monet, although

his early paintings,

scenes of city streets in rain,

who

engraver and illustrator

before going to Boston and then to Paris to study

him from completely adopting

Many of

Private collection

in

Hausmann
Holding

Venus

glued to his brain, his eyes and

superimposed features and with

a sharp

this art critic is

both

critical

Through whose eyes does he


he

really

speak?

And whose

their art, often

is

In 1923,

VChose words does

he on?

One

is

Critic.

world of cynical

objects into

employing an absurd sense of humour.

Hausmann abandoned

painting and four years later

kaleidoscopic forms into music.

P Blake. Ensor. Grosz. Hamilton. Schwitters

Raoul Hausmann. b Vienna, 1886. d Limoges. 1971

The Art

his

an example of the Dada movement,

invented the optophone, an apparatus which turned

of the

many self-proclaimed inventors of photomontage,


Hausmann used cut-up photographs and pages from

work

whose members would incorporate ordinary

a 50

Hausmann's

and controversial.

really see?

payroll

imagery. This

segment of

in his neck,

Critic

newspapers and magazines to construct

mouth hidden by

deutschmark bank note embedded


view of

The Art

Raoul

pencil in his right hand, a heeled shoe

1919/20. Photomontage. h31.7 x v25.4 cm. hl2^x wlO

in.

Tate Gallery. London

Hayter

Claducgne

Stanley William

members of

Continuous wave-like patterns created by curving ribbon


forms charge

hypnotic print with

almost of

a feeling

pattern,

this

electricity.

a swirling

rhythm and

mark

give this

Most of

The sharp colours

which has neither beginning nor end, an

acidity that

as a

the Surrealist

his life

was spent

workshop where

of

Picasso,

long

line

of

industry before
artists

of

artists,

Hayter began his career

in

new

War,

experimenting with textures

techniques.

He was one of the

Stanley William Hayter. b London, 1901. d Paris,

Claduegne 1972. Etching on paper. h49 x

earliest

Marc

where,

artists

of

all

17,

in 1926,

he

an experimental

nationalities,

such as Pablo

Chagall, Alberto Giacometti and

it

moved

in.

to

New

Yves

York, but returned to Paris

Chagall, Giacometti, Hartung, Picasso, Riley, Tanguy

1988

w60 cm. hl9& x w23VS

his greatest

Tanguy, could work together. During the Second World

becoming one of the foremost graphic

his time, ceaselessly

and colours

in the oil

in Paris

founded the famous studio, Atelier

paradoxically also has the qualities of velvet. Although born


a

movement, but made

master innovator of printmaking and engraving.

Private collection

in 1950.

Heckel
Waves of bright,

Windmill, Daneast

Erich
sweep up the

loosely applied colours

canvas in rhythms and encircle the windmill on the


a hill, the focal

brow of

point of the painting. Red, yellow, blue,

museums by

the Nazis. His

Vincent van

Gogh and

artists

who*c

work was much influenced bv


- a name given to several

the Fauves

paintings were

full

of distortions,

flat

patterns

green and black clash vigorously with each other, creating a

and vivid colours. He eventually formed part of a small

vibrating tension, yet this simple composition has a strange,

group

lyrical quality.

Heckel studied architecture before turning to

painting and was a superb lithographer.


native

Germany

to Switzerland in

He

fled

from

artistic

Erich Heckel. b Dobeln. 1883. d


Oil

wished to

free

connection of their

themselves from established

doctrines, developing an intensely Expressionistic

style called 'Die Briicke',

his

944, after over seven

hundred of his paintings were removed from German

Windmill, Dangast. 1909.

who

or the bridge, which suggests a

art to that

of the

Hemmenhofen, 1944

on canvas. h69 x

w80 cm. h27

w31i*

in.

future.

Derain, Van Gogh, Kirchner. Matisse, Vlaminck

Wilhelm-Lehmbruck-Museum. Duisburg

De Heem
A profusion of
laid table.

Still

and exotic foods mingle with an array

fruits

of ornate goblets,

Jan Davids/

jars

and wine bottles on

sumptuously

Life

considered by
painter,

This rich visual feast glows with lavish, sensual

of Dessert

that he

many

whose deep,

may have

most

to

be the greatest Dutch

brilliant

still-life

colours and sure touch suggest

studied the works of Jan Vermeer.

and inspired

He was

colour and, although appearing haphazard, was in fact

the

composed with

painters of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, as well

artists

great care. In the Netherlands at the time,

would display

their skill

by painting

objects, often with rich allusions

Christian, philosophical

however,

is

and metaphysical

ideas.

purely a celebration of the senses.

Dessert. 1640.

Oil

on canvas. hl49 x

of a family of

as Henri Matisse,

and hidden symbolism of

Jan Davidsz de Heem. b Utrecht. 1606. d Antwerp.


Still Life of

wide range of

gifted

that he

made two

who admired
copies of

this particular

is

- Arcimbcldo,

Claesz, Kalf, Ruysch. Snyders. Vermeer

1683/4
cm. h58Vt x

w80 in. Musee du

Louvre, Paris

still-life

work so much

it.

This work,

De Heem

w203

artists,

HepWOrth
Holes

in the

Made from

wood

invite the

viewer to peer through them.

the scented African

has been polished smooth,

Hollow Form with

Barbara

its

hardwood

guarea, the piece

gleaming surface contrasting

reflect the artist's early

natural world.

Hepworth began,

piercing holes in her

sense of

like

Interior.

1963.

harmony with

Ives,

often using

Henry Moor^ was an

Although

influence, she developed her

married the painter Ben Nicholson and settled


the

to carve out the

Partially

sea,

own

without allying herself to any particular movement. She

Henry Moore, by

works and went on

Barbara Hepworth. b Wakefield. 1903. d St


Hollow Form with White

which may

memories of the undulating

Yorkshire countryside, conveys

hollowed out by the

string or wire to suggest a musical instrument.

spare and economic style largely of abstract sculpture,

sharply with the chiselled and painted hollows. Although


abstract in style, the sculpture, the curves of

insides, as in caves

WTiite Interior

Cornwall, where she drew inspiration from


coastline

and landscape.

>* Archipenko, Arp, Gabo, Moore, Nicholson

1975
painted guarea wood.

h99 cm. h39

in.

Gimpel

Fils.

London

its

in St Ives,

dramatic

Hilliard Nicholas
The motto 'My
in Latin at the

praised faith causes

top of

this portrait,

Young Man Leaning


mv

suffering', inscribed

echoes the themes of

love found in contemporary sonnets by Shakespeare. This


miniature, idealized portrait of a lovesick

have been
his love

a gift to a

was

woman

sincere. Hilliard,

young dandy may

with the intention of showing

probably the most famous

with him.

for the

Queen

money. He
achieved

painted without shadows so as to

jewellery.

according to his

own

account,

Queen

Elizabeth

Nicholas Hilliard b Exeter. cl547. d London,

Young Man Leaning Against a Tree


Victoria

sitter,

agreed

age of

3.

He

>*

set a

new

in his larger

his miniatures,

Dobson, Holbein.

worked

sums of

tradition in portrait painting, but never

works

in oils the quality

many of which were


Kneller.

C1590. Watercolour on vellum. hl3.4 x

shop and

later

goldsmith and portrait painter, selling

Moroni

1619

(portrait miniature).

and Albert Museum, London

and

as a

at the

miniatures of her to toadying courtiers for huge

of

the

trained as a goldsmith in his father's

began painting miniatures

English painter of his time, believed that portraits should be


flatter

He

Against a Tree

w7 cm.

h5y*

>

and delicacy

actually

worn

as

Hiroshige Ando
Trudging wearily across

wooden

Moonlight, Nagakubo

bridge over a river are

three figures and a donkey, silhouetted against the


contrast, a comical

shown

group of

figures in the

moon.

foreground

shapes, which are


artist

filled in

with solid blocks of colour.

The

more

realistic in

Hiroshige. b Edo, 1797. d Edo,

day

as

merely popular

on European

effect

when

West. The Impressionists

Monet
:*

collected a large

print

on paper.

h22xw34cm. h8^xwl3&

Seen

landscapes had

artists at the

end of the

they began to be imported to the


in particular

were profoundly

number of his

prints.

Degas. Hokusai, Monet, Utamaro, Whistler

1858

Moonlight, Nagakubo. 1840. Polychrome woodblock

art, his

influenced by Hiroshige's fresh approach, and Claude

much impressed by the older master's


own works are freer and
colour. His prints have come to epitomize

Hokusai, and was

austere style, although his

art in their unsophisticated, poetic simplicity.

own

nineteenth century,

Hiroshige was a younger contemporary of

more

in their

an electrifying

is

as if in daylight. Firm, rigid outlines define the

Japanese

Ando

Japanese
In

Hobbema
\\

arm brown tones dominate

Winding paths which


illusion

of depth.

Road on

Meindert

this peaceful,

autumnal scene.

lead the eye into the picture create an

Hobbema was

accurately the play of light

meticulous

on every

leaf

in

reproducing

and blade of grass,

and the ripples made by the ducks on the pond. Animals

the

Dvke

same views, but Ruisdael tended

drama, while

Hobbema

to give the scene

preferred to give the impression of

a particular place. In the 1670s, at the height

of his powers,

he became, by marriage, collector of Amsterdam's wine

and from that

moment

his painting

dwindled almost to

and humans are secondary here to the beauty of the

nothing. For the

last

landscape

itself;

only a close look reveals the houses, half-

energy not to

but to inspecting casks of wine.

hidden by

trees.

Hobbema was
men

van Ruisdael, and the two

a friend

art

Oil

life,

he devoted

and pupil of Jacob

even occasionally painted

Bierstadt, Constable. Corot. Van Goyen, Ruisdael

Meindert Hobbema. b Amsterdam. 1638. d Amsterdam. 1706

Road on a Dyke 1663.

40 years of his

on canvas. hl08 x W128.3 cm. h42H x

w50&

in.

Private collection

his

tax,

Hockney David
Under

A Bigger Splash

the intense, Californian sun, an unseen figure creates

a splash in a pool.

Hockney applied

small brushes for the splash to suggest


in the stillness. In

its

skilled

technique that captured

it.

Kitaj,

moment with

A conscientious

and from

his earliest

art

Pop Art movement.

this

expensive, leisured world.

very

the

much

a painter

of a

city

Splash. 1967. Acrylic on canvas. h243.

varied

* P

associated with

W243.8 cm. h96

and

work

brilliant

(where he

swimming

draughtsman, and

point in time, he

includes scenery for opera.

by fellow-student

work was

to California

sometimes works from photographs, even

objector

Blake. Hamilton. Hopper, Kitaj

David Hockney b Bradford. 1937

A Bigger

A visit

pool and lawn and sprinkler paintings, which coolly observe

as hospital orderly during his National Service,

he was persuaded away from abstract

RB

sound exploding

one of his most consciously planned and

evocative images, he contrasts the fleeting

who worked

the

eventually settled) inspired the famous series of

paint with rollers, using

w96

in.

Tate Gallery. London

for portraits. His

Hodgkin Howard
Al

first

sight this painting

represents a
lovers

is

colour.

memory of a

seems
real

abstract, but in fact

encounter.

conveyed through the dramatic

As

is

his habit,

Lovi

The
swirls

Hodgkin uses wood

must

it

into the picture.

relate to relationships,

captured

at a precise

He

in his use

of

scale works.

of intense

as a base for the

painting and carries the paint over onto the frame

incorporating

attracted by traditional Indian

it

ecstasy of the

personal.

An

developed

itself,

art. Its

influence can be seen

colour and his preference for small-

style,

however,

is

entirely individual

moment,

reflecting

some

strong reputation in this


the

UK Turner Prize

field.

for

In 1985,

contemporary

intense,

on panel. hl71.5 x wl85.4 cm. h67?i x w73

Chagall. Heron, Kossoff, Matisse, Rodin, Rothko

Private collection

and

inventive and prolific printmaker, he has also

and he usually shows people

Howard Hodgkin b London, 1932


Oil

His

Hodgkin won

has said that painting

personal memory. During time spent in India, Hodgkin was

Lovers. 1984-9.

brilliant

art.

H OdlCr

Lake Thun

Ferdinand

Highly ordered and symmetrical, the formal elements of

this

calm. In the cool


reflecting the

air

of early morning the lake

glow of the

restricted, flattened

rising sun.

and simplified

composed

in a

his paintings

pink,

Our view of it

has been

all

forms and colour. Hodler evolved a highly decorative

its

showed

hidden meanings

He was
the

Oil

on canvas. h80.2 x

wlOO

cm. h31!^ x

of

his career

artist's interest in

in objects,

and

in

w39H

later

Art Nouveau, with

The

linear, flat style

as

style

parallel

but

Symbolism, with

an

important element, heralds the Expressionist movement.

>- Bocklin, Corot, Courbet, Denis, Frankenthaler, Witz

Ferdinand Hodler. b Bern, 1853. d Geneva, 1918

Lake Thun. 1905.

influenced by Camille Corot

in the early part

which he eventually developed, using colour

unnecessary detail

rhythmic pattern of layers of

of landscape with strong colours and outlines, using

effects.

curling tendrils and stylized leaves.

as if to present us with

only the essence of the scene, with


eliminated, and

is

motifs for his

and Gustave Courbet

painting have been carefully balanced to create a sense of

Musee

d'Art et d'Histoire,

Geneva

its

Hofmann

Hans

Fairy Tale

Swirling brushstrokes, applied with verve and panache,

mingle together

sought

He

in a

multitude of vibrant colours.

in this formless abstract to express the spirit or soul.

deliberately avoided

wanted the painting

would

how

he

to look, as if his artist's hand, left to

in his

mind's eye,

Hofmann even

Fairy Tale.

1944.

Oil

on wood. hl52 x

York. NY,

mood

teacher,

work

in.

artistic

conventions, was

was one of its most important advocates and

lived in

Jackson Pollock. Born

his

in Bavaria,

both Munich and Paris for several years

'- Frankenthaler, Gorky,

Private collection

all

Expressionism. Hofmann, as painter and

greatly influenced

1966

w92 cm. h59H x w36

or emotion, free from


as Abstract

before emigrating to the

eliminated the brush, pioneering the technique of pouring or

Hans Hofmann. b Weissenberg, 1880. d New

Hofmann

create the image he wanted. In his drive to

reproduce the visions

explosive patterns. This search for the ultimate expression of

known

both applying the paint with

conscious care, and having a preconceived idea of

itself,

dribbling the paint direcdy onto the canvas to create strong

Hofmann

USA

in 1932.

De Kooning,

Pollock

Hogarth w
It is after

noon, a chair

lies

Breakfast Scene, from Marriage a

illiam

overturned, cards are strewn on

la

Mode

engraver, he learned the trade and eloped with the

the carpet and the debt collector rolls his eyes in

engraver's daughter. Tiring of conventional art forms, he

exasperation. Late nights of drinking and gambling,

specialized in scathing, even savage, visual commentaries

overspending on an opulent house and the whims of an

made up of a series of pictures which told


a story. Engravings were made from the original oils and
their immense popularity made him famous. Although his
works parallel those of the Rococo painters in France, his

indolent wife are satirized in this portrait. For Hogarth,


criticism

mocks

of

taste

florid, fantastical

more

was

also criticism

the grotesque objets d'art

like a

of manners and he

on

the mantelpiece, the

clock and the marble bust which looks

pig than a

Roman

noble. Apprenticed to an

William Hogarth, b London. 1697. d London,

Breakfast Scene, from Marriage a

la

social conditions,

comic wit and


" Boucher.

style are utterly English.

Chardin, Fragonard. Steen. Watteau

1764

Mode cl745.

Oil

on canvas. h71 x w91.5 cm. h28 x

w36

in.

National Gallery, London

on

Hokusai
Majestically simple

much
many,

venerated
this

is

and unsophisticated,

Mount

Mount

Katsushika

Fuji

is

direct

this

woodcut designs of

view of the

the Ukiyo-e (or 'floating

which concentrated on ordinary things

and immediate. For

the ultimate representation of Japan's

Fuji in (Hear \\ eather

most

delighted in feats of artistic

skill,

in

worW)

everyday

dashing off

in a

school,

life.

He

few strokes

famous landmark. Rather than following the conventions of

of the brush the momentary landing of a sparrow on an ear

perspective, the Japanese artist Hokusai produced an image

of corn, for example. The bold simplicity of

straight

from

appeared
engraver

his imagination, a

in his

who

illustration,

mind's eye.

view

He was

as fresh

and pure

apprenticed to a

as

it

wood

use of colour greatly influenced European


particularly

Edouard Manet and

his designs

artists,

his circle.

taught him conventional painting and book

but he

later

abandoned

this for the

coloured

Hiroshige. Hodler. Manet. Utamaro. Whistler

Katsushika Hokusai. b Asakusa. 1760. d Honjo. 1849

Mount

Fuji in

Clear Weather. C1823-9. Polychrome woodblock pni

on paper. h27 x

w38 cm. hlO^

wl5

in.

British

Museum. London

and

Holbein Hans
The two

sitters,

The Ambassadors

so confident of their importance, are Jean

de Dinteville, the French Ambassador to England, and


friend,

George de

Selve,

Bishop of Lavaur.

collection of musical, astronomical

and

An

elaborate

Holbein shows that

must end

all

in the grave,

this

am on

on

the lute, and the distorted skull yawning before

which can be seen only


picture.

if

official painter to the

The

portraits

April.

Holbein's masterful technique and

magnificence and arrogance

of Henry VIII,

character.

He

his

"

queens and ministers

Oil

and tempera on panel. h207 x

w209

Claesz, Durer, Van Eyck, Hals, Massys. Sittow

cm. h81'/$ x w82'/$

in.

National Gallery, London

time

illustrate

gift for revealing

died in London, a victim of plague.

Hans Holbein, b Augsburg, 1497/8. d London, 1543


The Ambassadors. 1533.

his

English Court. His

however, by contrasting their

splendid richness with symbols of death: the broken string

them

standing to one side of the

Holbein was the greatest portrait painter of

and was appointed

scientific

instruments symbolizes their learning and power.


sundial sets the scene precisely at 10.30

his

Homer
Three young boys and
side

of a sailboat

same year

Up evokes

as

it

W'inslow
a

outside that

is

century. His

work

typical
is

small boat

small

town on

is

air

of Homer's work of the mid-nineteenth

life

in the

86os and 70s.

registered in Gloucester, Massachusetts, a

the

New

England coast

that

amongst

artists

during the

and

his

and where

870s.

Oil

on canvas. H61.5 x

w97

:
cm. h24 ^ x

w38 /6 in.

manv summers

honest representation of the world around him


to the

is

work of the contemporary

Homer

them. With

Thomas

the leading

American representative of naturalism, the

realistic

Eaktns, W'inslow

depiction of the contemporary world.

Bellows. Bingham. Eaklns, Pissarro

Winslow Homer, b Boston. MA. 1836. d Prouts Neck. ME. 1910


Breezing Up. 1876.

spent

French Impressionists, he was never direcdy influenced by

was popular

Homer

Although Homer's choice of subject matter

sometimes compared

and summers

indeed considered the most authennc

expression of American country

The

the starboard

Huckleberry Finn, Breeding

of childhood, fresh

a sense

down

fisherman weigh

tacks against the breeze. Painted in the

Mark Twain wrote

that

Up

Breezing

National Gallery of Art. Washington

DC

is

considered

Honthorst
Musical

frolics

and fun

spill

The Concert

Gerrit

out of

this lyrical painting

of

merry-making. Seen from below, a group of women sing in a

window, accompanying themselves on


curtains

and bright

When

in

and colourful draperies and feathers of

Rome

in the early part

Honthorst was influenced by Caravaggio,


chiaroscuro in his

works, with one intense

deep shadows. Subjects

like 'The Concert'

Gerrit van Honthorst. b Utrecht,

The Concert. 1624.

red

lighting suggest a theatrical setting,

reflected in the rich

the figures.

The

lutes.

Oil

of

the Night'.
a tradition

On

he was nicknamed 'Gerard of

his return to Utrecht,

of painting

in this style

painted portraits of Charles

changed

and

he helped to establish

and, on

visits to

manner of Anthony van Dyck.

source and

were popular with

ttt Caravaggio. Dou,

hl68xwl78cm. h66xw70in. Musee

du Louvre,

Pari;

England,

his wife, Henrietta Maria.

again, so that he followed the

Later, his style

used strong

1590. d Utrecht, 1656

on canvas.

and Honthorst's night scenes

his followers,

liked in Italy that

his career,

who

light

Caravaggio and

were so well

Van Dyck, Greuze, Terbrugghen

De Hooch

Woman

Picr

This peaceful picture of a domestic event

up of

tiny,

meticulously observed details.

gives the scene a sharp reality, in

would seem almost locked


were

it

onto a

is

The

The doorway was

enclosed world

open door leading

to a brightly

favourite device of

a
a

with

inner room. There

atmosphere of calm, of ordinary, everyday

Pieter de Hooch, b Rotterdam, 1629. d

and a Maid with a

De

dark foreground, with an

lit

life,

is

Maid with

its

a Pail in a

light.

De Hooch's
His

simple

homes

people

in

later

Courtyard

quiet and simplicity are in themselves


early paintings usuallv

showed two or

three people engaged in household tasks, in a

figures

not for the open door of the courtyard looking out


street.

also a sense that


beautiful.

clear light

which the two

in a timeless,

Hooch's: he would often paint

Woman

carefully built

and

room flooded

works abandoned these wonderfully

for rather forced scenes of high

them became

life.

The

richer, while the paintings

themselves were poorer, and lost the quality of

light.

an

but there

is

Dou, Metsu,

Steen, Ter Borch, Vermeer

Amsterdam. 1684

Pail in a Courtyard.

1660-65.

Oil

on canvas. h53 x w42 cm. h20 3/4 x

wl6

Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg

lit,

HOpper Edward
Fully clothed, silent

People in the Sun

and motionless, sun-worshippers

precisely staggered chairs, each person isolated


next.
light

The

stillness

and shadow,

of the scene, with


is

was

in

all

is

the major

strongly contrasting

his later paintings,

theme

and he uses

in this
it

unaffected by contemporary

European

Edward Hopper, b Nyack, NY. 1882. d New


People

In

the Sun 1960.

Oil

art

to create

style

anonymous and

to stress their separateness

One of North

America's most popular

banality

and

also the

was
* Boudin, Hockney,

Segal. Wyeth

1967

on canvas. hl02.5 x wl53.3 cm.

h40%

artists,

unexpected beauty of the everyday

world.

movements or by

York. NY.

Hopper wanted

Hopper's work reveals the loneliness, the ugliness, the

as

jagged outlines and an oppressive atmosphere. Always

pursuing the oddness of the mundane, Hopper's

if

from each other, rather than what has brought them


together.

work,

abstraction. His figures are

withdrawn, as

cold and uninviting. Hopper's

obsession with sunlight


it

its

American

sit in

from the

w60%

in.

Smithsonian

Institution,

Washington DC

Houdon

Bust of Denis Diderot

ean-Antoine

This life-sized terracotta bust of the French philosopher

still

bears the marks of the sculptor's hands as he modelled the

wet

clay.

Diderot's eyes look away from the viewer,

separating his world from ours. Following the

the
is

Roman

a study

is

model gives
developed

same

include
style

of

busts of Antiquity, the sculpture for which this

smooth and Hawless, but


insight into the

this

mind of the

his ideas into three

rougher working

artist as

greatest

men

Denis Diderot. cl771. Terracotta. h41 cm.

in.

Musee du

which

of his time. His fame was

such that the Americans commissioned from him

in the

American War of Independence;

Algardi,

1828

hl6^

are portraits,

of their general, George Washington, to honour

dimensions. Houdon, the

Jean-Antoine Houdon. b Versailles. 1741. d Pans.


of

some of the

Capitol at Richmond, Virginia.

he

most celebrated French sculptor of the eighteenth century,

Bust

narrowly escaped imprisonment during the Revolution. His

most numerous works, however,

Louvre.

Pans

Canova.

Frink. Roubiliac

it

a statue

his victory

stands in the

Hunt
Looking into

woman

start

William

this typical

up

guiltily

Holman

The Awakening Conscience

Victorian drawing room,

from her

suddenly aware that what she

is

lover's knee, in

doing

is

moral commentary. The patterned

see a

mid-song,

principles.

its

Of all

who

remained

the Pre-Raphaelite painters

Madox Brown were most

he and Ford

representing moral and social values in contemporary

fabrics, grainy

meticulous, almost obsessive, attention to

Dante Gabriel Rossetti and John Everett

to be

woods,

detail.

Millais

William Holman Hunt, b London, 1827. d London,

Victorian

life.

Hunt

tried to paint 'in direct application to

With

He completed few

lacked the motivation to finish

pictures, spinning each


it

one out

h29^xw21%

in.

Tate Gallery, London

as if

and begin another.

Fra Angelico, Botticelli, Brown. Millais, Rossetti

1910

on canvas, h76.2xw55.9cm.

interested in

Nature', using friends rather than professionals as models.

he founded

the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, dedicated to observing

Oil

faithful to

was intended

busy wallpaper and garish colours are typical of Hunt's

The Awakening Conscience. 1853.

nature accurately, but was the only one

wrong. Victorian

values are reflected here, and the picture


a

we

he

Ingres Jean Auguste Dominique


Named

after the collector

Ingres' Bather of

who

/,

alpin$on

Classical beauty in the

is

first

bought the

a calm representation

human

The Bather of Valpincon


showed

picture,

The

of

nude. Softened by the delicate

little

interest in the expression

polished perfection of his

Renaissance

Raphael.

idol,

of the human

work was

face.

inspired bv his

leading figure in the Classical

reflected light, the bather suggests a cold, languid eroticism,

tradition

of nineteenth-century France, Ingres painted many

made ambiguous by her refusal to meet the viewer's gaze.


The only sound or movement is that of a small spout of

idealized

and exotic

although

all

water, and the spartan interior seems to freeze the scene in

oriental scenes with

the detail

travelled outside

voluptuous nudes,

was second-hand, since he never

Europe.

time and space. Ingres was a superb draughtsman, but

remained emotionally detached from

his subjects

and

Boucher, Canova.

J-L David. Leighton, Maillol.

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres b Montauban. 1790. d Paris. 1867

The Bather

of Valpincon

1808.

Oil

on canvas. hl46x w97.5 cm.

h57^xw38Min. Musee du

Louvre. Pans

Prud'hon

Ivanov Alexander
St

John the

Baptist, wearing a cloak over his tunic

skins, raises his reed cross to the

him, and preaches the word of


illustrates the

two things

visionary: his foretelling

bapusms he

The Appearance of Christ


of animal

the

to his followers.

that mattered

most

to this

Ivanov

in

On

the

Biblical

was spent

the influence of the

paindngs never got beyond the drawing

combined

left,

some of the newly baptized can be seen clambering up

Rome, where he came under

as the great painters

his adult life

Nazarenes, a religious ardstic group. Although many of his

rough

of the coming of Christ and the

carried out in the river Jordan.

same noble grandeur and harmony

Raphael and Michelangelo. Most of

crowd, that presses around

God

to the People

a sense

of mysticism with

stage, they

historical accuracy

original visual imagery.

the

bank. Ivanov used Classical postures and dress, and adopted


the restrained style of the Renaissance,

hoping to achieve

<* Canova. J-L David, Ingres. Overbeck. Poussin, Prud'hon

Alexander Ivanov. b St Petersburg. 1806. d St Petersburg, 1858

The Appearance of Christ to the People. 1837-57.

Oil

on canvas. h540 x

w750 cm. h212! x w295H

in.

Tretyakov Gallery,

Moscow

and

Jawlensky
This strong, reflective portrait

been painted

in

bold outlines.

Alexei

of a fashionable

The

Schokko

von
woman

country.

seen
mysticism of Russian religious icons. This can be

one of his best-known works, the abstract

on colour to
painting lies in Jawlcnsky's complete reliance
power. The
construct the image and to give it its emotional
title

for a

cup of hot chocolate

{schokko)

where features

and thus adopted the

paintings, 'Meditations',

life in

Wiesbaden. 1941
Alexei von Jawlensky. b Kuslovo. 1864. d
h75 x w65 cm.
1910. 0,1 on board mounted on canvas.

face

W Van Dongen.

h29* x w24V*

in.

The

a favourite theme: in his last series

human

it

became

of

symbol of tragedy.

Gontcharova. Kandinsky, Marc

Pnvate collects

in

series 'Heads',

are reduced to straight, thick lines.

was

young model: she asked

nickname. Russian-born, Jawlensky spent most of his

Schokko.

It

or the
outlines and strong colour, with those of peasant art

evoke powerful emotions of sensuality, yet her mask-like


importance of this
face suggests a sexual remoteness. The

of the painting originates in the

his style was rooted in the art of his native


combined Fauvist elements, such as hard

Germany but

has

intense dashing colours

John Gwen
Cool tones dominate
reading.

simple portrait of a young

The white handkerchief in which she

book, her absorption


that the

The Precious Book

this

book

is

in

special

Wales,

Gwen John

School

in

it,

and the

picture's

girl

cradles the

title itself

and deserves reverence. Born

in Paris

at

once

(usually

Gwen

delicate

and neurotic. Her

Oil

abandon her own

work. During her lifetime, most of it spent

She modelled

in obscurity

w21 cm. hlO& x w8'/4

and

self-neglect, she

was overshadowed by her younger brother,

Augustus, but

now

is

recognized as the greater

artist.

died unrecognized, a semi-religious recluse.

Cassatt. Hammershoi. Morisot, Rodin. Sickert. Whistler

1939

on canvas. h26.4 x

and

one-sided and

portraits in particular

quality.

John, b Haverfordwest. 1876. d Dieppe,

The Precious Book. cl920.

his mistress

this

disastrous liaison almost caused her to

under James McNeill

of women) had an obsessive

Auguste Rodin, became

France to be near him, but

imply

WTiisder and developed an idiosyncratic personal style that

was

to

in

learned draughtsmanship at the Slade

London, studied

for the sculptor

moved

Private collection

She

Johns

Three Flags

Jasper

Johns chose to represent the American

was

paint the
rind.

flag

flag

particularly nationalistic but because

most

What

not because he

he was looking to

better than the Star-Spangled Banner? Johns'

does not

fly

from

were pinned on

a wall.

presented us with a
believing that

it is

mast

in glory,

It is flat, like

would be

Johns has not represented

flag.

real,

not carried by

it is

a real flag

He

is

Johns has superimposed three

flashing light

fellow

differently sized flags

and creating a strange

optical effect.

American Robert Rauschenberg, Johns

but

not trying to fool us into

however. Encaustic, a medium used

Duchamp, Oldenburg. Rauschenberg, Thiebaud

*****,
,
*^ *
+
? v ++ *
**
* *r 22
* * **

-kit

***** *

Jasper Johns, b Augusta. GA.

1930

Three Rags. 1958. Encaustic on canvas. h76.5 x

is

like a

With

regarded as

one of the most important influences on American Pop

if it

a flag

surface.

on top of one another, reinforcing the image, almost

banal, easily recognizable subject he could

victorious soldier.

primarily by the Greeks, gives the painting a thick, relief-like

wll6 cm. h30/

:w45'<4

in.

Whitney

Museum

of

American

Art.

New

York.

NY

Art.

OneS

One of a

series

Man Woman

Allen

of paintings with the collective

into
is

one another. The male

in fact a self-portrait

figure in the brighdy striped

of the

artist.

Man Woman,

the male and female elements of their natures.

title

'Hermaphrodite', the headless male and female bodies melt

an early example by Jones of

Pop Art work,

is

a visual

representation of this theory. His paintings often

tie

In the late 1960s and 1970s he

In his preoccupation

was

tell

work and consequently many of his

with sexuality, Jones wanted to show here the unity with

erotic ideas in his

human being that can only be achieved by the


sexual act. He was deeply influenced by Jungian psychology,
and by the philosophy of Nietzsche who believed that the

images of women are seen as sexually provocative.

another

creation of art depends

upon

Allen Jones, b Southampton.

Man Woman. 1963.

Oil

artists

being able to integrate

Hamilton.

De Kooning,

1937

on canvas. h213

W188.5 cm. h84V5 x v74^

in.

Tate Gallery. London

a story.

to explore further the

Polke. Warhol.

Wesselmann

Jordaens Jacob
The tour Evangelists contemplate
turn inspire their

own

writings.

The Four

the Scriptures

which

in

Jordaens gives us an insight

into their personalities as they are absorbed in the study of

the sacred text which rests


figures

on

a table.

The

a glint

of

sky.

far

more

style

to the influence

of Caravaggio, however,

Jordaens would have seen reflected

developed

was

later

natural flesh tones.

The vigorous

skill in

as

an

artist, his style

became more sombre and he

portraying

realism of the composition

Guercino. Honthorst, Rubens. Terbrugghen

Jacob Jordaens. b Antwerp, 1593. d Antwerp. 1678

The Four Evangelists. cl625.

Oil

on canvas. hl34 x

works by

patronized by the kings of Spain and Sweden.

pupil of Peter Paul Rubens, Jordaens has captured his

master's vivid colouring, brushwork and

in

the Italian painter's followers in Utrecht Although his early

paintings were technically weak, but robust, |ordaens

half-length

dominate the space, almost obliterating the

background of red velvety draper)- and

owes

whose

Evangelists

wll8 cm. h53 x w46^

in.

Musee du

Louvre.

Pans

Judd Donald

Untitled

This sculpture, from the series 'Stacks', consists of a vertical

or plexiglass boxes he used were put together in a factory,

arrangement of identical rectangular boxes, attached to a

spray-painted and placed in position by other people. All his

wall at right-angles in a mathematical sequence.

pieces were called 'Untitled' and were as plain as possible

It

demonstrates J udd's simplification of shape, volume, colour

because he believed that a work of

and

cube.

as a whole,

is

sculpture,

surface,

and reduces

Minimalist in

art to its basic essential: the

style, like all his

other pieces, the

work

and

deliberately intended not to represent, imitate or express

anything, nor

is it

'composed'

in

any traditional sense.

1993. Brass and green plexiglass. h457.2 cm. hl80

his

Andre. Flavin. Johns. LeWitt,

Donald Judd. b Excelsior Springs, MO. 1928. d New York. NY, 1994
Untitled.

Judd designed

own

built several houses.

To

achieve minimal personal contact with his work, the metal

in.

Private collection

art

should be looked

at

not as a collection of parts. In addition to

Ryman

furniture

and designed

Kahlo
The

artist's

painting.

It

What

Frida

hallucinations and imaginings run riot in this

most complex

shows

and

bathtime reverie,

death, pain and sexuality rloat

many of
Kahlo's

her pictures,

own

it

is

legs painted

on

injuries, as the result


5,

of

in

which images

oi

As

the water's surface.

in

a serious

its

cracked big toe.

road accident

at the

irrationally

Trotsky, she

ot

all

her works, with

arranged

later

Me

detail.

cult figure partly

multitude of minute
a lover

most

Surrealist,

is

from

often in terrible pain, until her death.

Carra.

w76.2 cm. h38 x w30

in.

De

eon

become something of a

ler

also the

I.

because from the mid- 1940s she suffered

problems and, bedridden, continued

destroyed her hopes of becoming a doctor. This

painting, considered to be her

of

married the painter Diego Rivera; their

age of

spinal

its

At one time

marriage was turbulent. Kahlo has

kind of self-portrait, with

from the bather's viewpoint,

showing her deformed foot with

Water Gave

the

Chirico. Dali, Delvaux, O'Keeffe. Rivera

Private collection

to paint,

Kalf
A

collection of exotic

table

Still

and opulent objects

laid

out on the

here painted with great brilliance and depth of

is

colour.

of

W'ilh

lobster, a drinking

silver filigree

work,

horn with

crystal goblets, a

its

glittering

lemon and

mount

Turkish

carpet are painted with such fine attention to detail that

Kalf creates the

illusion that they are real

and could be

touched. Each object has been carefully placed so that the

group forms

warm

Willem

light

Kalf.

Still Life

harmonv of colour, shape and

enveloping the objects gives them

b Rotterdam. 1622. d Amsterdam,

texture.

Life with Lobster, Drinking


jewel-like quality

and

their rarity,

Horn and

Glasses

sumptuousness and

extravagance reflect the refined tastes of Dutch


seventeenth-century collectors, in a period

Amsterdam. The deep,


still-life

his

painter

when

still lifes

lived

and worked mainly

in

rich colours

of the paintings of

this

were immensely popular. Kalf

may have been

influenced by the

work of

contemporary, Jan Vermeer.

The

a luxurious,

Claesz.

De Heem, Sanchez-Cotan, Vermeer

1693

with Lobster, Drinking Horn and Glasses. cl653.

Oil

on canvas. h86.4 x wl02.2 cm. h34 x w40V4

in.

National Gallery. London

Kandinsky
Colours, lines and shapes,

blend together
painting.

There

hills

Cossacks

\\Zassilv

and Cossacks with lances

in this strangely captivating semi-abstract


is

great beauty in

its

simple composition and

a sense or" delight in the tree brushstrokes.

believed that the true


essential feelings.

artist

Having

Kandinsky

Munich

the

for a

career in law, Kandinsky soon recognized that his true gifts

were

in the

world of

art

and he became one of the

greatest pioneers of 'pure' abstract painting.

He

his references to icons

first

and

returned to

Oil

on canvas. h95 x

wl30 cm.

h37*,

in his

art.

work can be seen

For

in

a time, he taught at

the

power of abstract

art after

he saw

'extraordinary beauty, glowing with an inner radiance' in an


abstract painting, before realizing that

it

was one of

own, seen upside-down.


-

Delaunay. Gontcharova. Kirchner. Klee. Kupka. Miro

Wassily Kandinsky. b Moscow. 1866. d Paris. 1944

Cossacks. 1910/11.

and folk

famous Bauhaus school of modern design. Kandinskv

became aware of

seeks to express only inner,

originally trained in

Russia to teach from 1914 to 1922, founding the Russian

Academy. The Russian influence

Tate Gallery. London

his

Kapoor

Anish

Like a standing stone from

beacon

(// is

Installation: It

a prehistoric site,

Man) seems wrapped

in a

the sandstone

mysterious aura. In

librcglass,

involve

They show

have been transformed by the application of more than a

ideas

dozen coats of blue pigment, lending them an

on

weightless quality,

kapoor has

with the forces of nature

new dimension all

that

tried to

in these

combine

the spiritual

works, and to show

of sculpture

that there

natural things. His sculptures, often

is

in a

poetry

in

made from stone or

Man, Untitled

more than one of

the foreground, randomly placed slabs (Untitled It Parti)

ethereal,

is

II

Parts

coated with layers of powdered pigment, often


the senses, particularly touch.

the traditions of both East and West, and reflect

from philosophy, mythology and everyday

tsits

life

expresses philosophical or spiritual theories


sensual images,

some of his

pieces take

in

terms of

on the character of a

totem, with extravagant forms and loud colour.


'* Friedrich,

Gabo,

Klein, Long,

Moore, Noguchi

Anish Kapoor. b Bombay, 1954


It is

Man. 1989. Sandstone and pigment. Untitled

Grenoble.

Now

at

Lisson Gallery, London

II

gathered

to his native India. In keeping with a culture that

Parts. 1990. Slate and pigment. Installed at Centre National d'Art Contemporain,

Kauffmann a

David Garrick

Angelica
Kauffmann has

In an unusual and disarming approach,

and mythological pictures, and

captured the private, sensitive side of the great actor David


Garrick's personality.

The way

in

around

look out

at the

in his chair to

intimate; he

pose, as

if

was more often shown

go

to

viewer

1,

is

in a highly

he were standing on stage. Born

Kauffmann began painting


the age of

which Garrick rums

portraits

and was persuaded by

of

in

by the designer Robert

on canvas. h84 x

and

his brother,

whose

soft

dramatic

Many

engravings were

idyllic

scenes which were used in the manufacture of objets

Switzerland,

Joshua Reynolds
Classical

d'art; their

popularity

w69 cm. h33

made of

made

her

these Classically inspired,

name famous.

to

" Gainsborough. Poussin, Rosa. Vigee-Lebrun

Angelica Kauffmann. b Chur. 1741. d Rome. 1807


Oil

Adam

colours and Antique sale were well suited to her work.

London. She soon became famous for her

David Garrick. 1764.

for her portraits. In the

she was commissioned to do murals for houses built

touching and

Italian notables at

Sir

mos

3urghley House. Stamford

Kelly Ellsworth

Red Blue Green Yellow

Paint has been applied, without any evidence of the

hand, in

flat

areas of defined pure colour.

has been placed on the floor

A yellow

at right-angles to the

painting, as if to sever any connection

it

artist's

panel

main

Beaux-Arts in

emphasis on pure colour, use of space and incorporation

of two

flat

surfaces, this

work

Post-Painterly Abstractionist

one of a group known

Margo Leavin

movement of the

as 'Specific Objects',

Ellsworth Kelly, b Newburgh, NY.

Red Blue Green

reflects the theories

1960s. It

and sculpture, and attacks

Paris.

Boston and

His work

is

at the

Academie des

extremely varied: he has

introduced broadly curving edges to his paintings and


sculptures,
in

and sometimes has eliminated colour altogether

favour of black, white and grey.

is

Albers, Louis,

Newman, Ryman,

Stella

1923

Yellow. 1965. Oil on canvas (bottom panel

Gallery,

of the

hovering

relief

preconceived ideas of the differences between sculpture and


painting. Kelly studied in

might have with

the ground, and suggesting a three-dimensional quality. In


its

between painting,

Los Angeles. CA

mounted on masonite). h222.2 x wl37.1 x <J222.2 cm. h87Vi x w56 x d87

Kiefer

Song of the Wayland

Vnsclm

This monumental and awe-inspiring image of burned and

ploughed

fields

under

a raised

wide range of materials. The


\\

horizon invoked the use of a

tide refers to the

myth of

ayland, the master blacksmith. Crippled by his king to

prevent him leaving, Wayland raped the king's daughter and


killed his

two sons, then forged himself wings

for his

The theme of German

Holocaust.

the Third Reich by Nazi doctrine,

of a

(the revival

style that

emphasized the

an experience, rather than the


Kiefer's varied

work

photographs or woodcuts.

landscape conjures up haunting memories, including the

"

Kiefer. b

of the

Baselitz,

of the experience

Beckmann, Boltanski, Hofmann,

Kitaj

Donaueschingen, 1945

Wayland. 1982.

Oil.

emulsion, straw, photograph and lead wing on canvas.

in

h280 x w380 cm. hllOV^ x wl49ft

in.

context

reaction to

bold outlines, and 'books' made from

woodcuts

in

facts

artist's

includes large black-and-white

destruction so powerfully portrayed in the scorched

Private collection

central to his work.

This painting could be seen as Neo-Kxprcssionist

escape. Kiefer's association of this evil parable with the

Song

culture, distorted during


is

itself).

iOf CiinCr Ernst Ludwig


Rough brushstrokes and

vitriolic

Self-portrait with

colours which clash

violently contribute to a feeling of desperate energy.

The

that of the future.

There was some

would sometimes date

suggesting a sense of expansion as

that

straining at the edges. This painting

the colours were

is

characteristic

sensual, vibrant colour, dramatic intensity

outlines of Expressionism. Kirchner

Expressionists

who

of the

and angular

was part of

group of

called themselves 'Die Briicke', or the

bridge, implying that thev connected the art of the past with

Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. b Aschaffenburg. 1880. d Davos.


Self-portrait with Model.

cl910.

Oil

rivalry

between himself

and Erich Heckel, another member of the group: Kirchner

painting appears almost too small to contain the scene,


if

Model

his

works too

early, trying to

he was more innovative than the others.

Kirchner lived
suffering

in

Switzerland

on

prove
1917

health grounds as he

was

from tuberculosis. In 1937, many of his works

were confiscated bv the Nazis

as 'degenerate';

suicide a year later.

r Van Gogh,

Heckel. Kandinsky. Munch. Velazquez

1938

on canvas. hl49.9 x wl00.3 cm. h59 x w39i

From

in.

Kunsthalle.

Hamburg

he committed

KitaJRB
The Gatehouse

at

If

Auschwitz dominates the scarred

landscape, scattered with figures and fragments.


is

clearly the

interpreting the British

The theme

genocide of the European Jews. Figures

sharp intellect and

panoramas of

in the

hearing-aid. This

S Eliot's

poem

If

Not. Not. 1975-6.

Kitaj.
Oil

is

cruel, in

movement. A

suffering people, in landscapes that arc harsh


heartfelt paintings,

in

England.

The Waste Land. In these strong

b Cleveland. OH,

"

is

Boyd, Burra, Hamilton, Kiefer, Lewis, Nash, Nolan

1932

on canvas. hl52.4 / wl52.4 cm. h60 /

painter of

he often portrays

which he

which only Nature herself is spared. He

works mosdy

artistic references,

references to visual culture and literature, Kitaj

R B (Ronald Brooks)

Art

often feels are never finished, create a vision of a world that

with the

complex and seductive painting draws

together a wide range of literary and


including

man

Pop

literary allusion,

and uncompromising. These

foreground contrast with the dream-like scenery, and


include Kitaj's self-portrait as the grey

Not, Not

w60

in.

Scottish National Gallery of

Modern

Art,

Edinburgh

lives

and

Klee

Paul

Senecio

This adaptation of the

human

face

is

divided by colour into

rectangles. Flat geometric squares are held within a circle

representing a masked face and displaying the multi-

coloured costume of a harlequin.

performer Senecio,
relationship

it

between

portrait

of the

and the world of drama.

This painting demonstrates Klee's principles of

art, in

line for a walk'.

From

own words,

writings
exiled

on

his theory

of

art.

Two

motion by an energy from the

artist's

mind. In

Paul Klee. b Munchenbuchsee. 1879. d Muralto-Locarno,

Senecio. 1922.

Oil

on canvas mounted on panel.

his

him from Germany, when over one hundred of

works were removed from German

Albers. Braque. Delaunay. Dine. Feininger. Picasso

1940
in.

Kunstmuseum. Basel

his

galleries as 'degenerate'.

which

h40.5xw38cm. hl5 7^xwl5

many

years later, the Nazis

the graphic elements of line, colour planes and space are set
in

to 'take a

1921 to 1931 he was a brilliant

teacher at the Bauhaus school of design, publishing

artist-

can be seen as a symbol of the shifting


art, illusion

imaginative doodlings, he liked, in his

Klein Yve

1KB

1KB

international artists and

stands for Internaoonal Klein Blue, a paint which

Klein mixed personally and then patented.

colour

is

Most of

spirituality

and freedom which

power of the painting


sensibility

to him, conveying a sensation

and exert

is

peculiar to his work.

lies in its ability

The

to invade the viewer's

considered to be one of the most important post-war

Klein, b Nice.

of

strong meditative influence. Klein

1928. d

Paris.

work

a style

was

a leader

of the European Nco-

intended to shock and outrage. His

includes paintings that were deliberately burned, and

the extraordinary 'Anthropometries' series, for

Klein's paintings are blue, as blue

was an important colour

Yves

Dada movement,

Its brilliant

maintained by the addition of synthetic resin to the

blue pigment.

79

is

which female

models were smeared with the famous blue paint and


dragged across the canvas under Klein's direction, to the

accompaniment of
of a heart attack

his

at the

own symphony.
age of only

Christo, Fontana, Heron, Rothko

1962

1KB 79. C1959. Pigment and synthetic resin on canvas. hl39.7 x wll9.7 cm. h55 x w47V6

in.

Tate Gallery. London

34.

Tragically, he died

Klimt Gustav

The Kiss

In a mass of patterns and shapes, the form of a kissing

couple emerges from a

field

conservative and moralizing works of the previous

of flowers: Gold predominates

the colour scheme, punctuated by the bright colours of the

flowers and the rich decorative designs


eroticism of the image

is

on the

The

clothing.

conveyed through sensuous

line,

bold pattern and luscious colours which create a dream

world that

is

also luxurious

and decadent. Essentially

generation. Their

produced

some

new

style

is

often called Art Nouveau.

large allegorical

was most successful


as mosaic), his

and mythical

who

- Burne-Jones, Moreau, Mucha,

revolted against the

Gustav Klimt. b Vienna, 1862. d Vienna, 1918

The

Kiss.

1907/8.

Oil

on canvas. hl80 x

wl80

cm. h70% x

w70 4
7

in.

Kunsthistorisches

Although he

murals for Vienna University were

decorator, Klimt was a leader of the Vienna Secession, a

group of artists and craftsmen

paintings.

as a designer for the applied arts (such

unpopular and considered pornographic.

He

number of portraits, mainly of women, and

Museum. Vienna

Schiele

Kline Franz
A

total

of

five black,

Untitled

wide brushtrokes

float

on

American Abstract Expressionist movement (of which

a thickly

painted and richly textured white background, evoking

Kline was a leading representative)

sensations of vast spaces. Kline

spontaneous gestures of the energetic yet simple

was inspired by

the

was influenced by

techniques of graphic illustration, and by the massive

brushstrokes. Kline

sections of partly constructed or demolished girders,

and normally limited

railways, scaffolding

of the painting

between

open

and bridges of New York. The power

lies in this

expression of the violent tension

solid space represented

by the dark paint, and

Untitled.

1951.

Oil

New

York. NY,

w78

oriental calligraphy

schemes

to black, white

in.

and

grey but by 1959 he began incorporating vivid colour into


his paintings.

"

Hartung, De Kooning, O'Keeffe. Pollock,

1962

on canvas. hl82.9 x wl98.2 cm. h72 x

his colour

demonstrated bv the

vast,

space, represented by the white. Its connection to the

Franz Kline, b Wilkes-Barre. PA. 1910. d

is

Private collection

Still.

Tobey

Kjieller^r Godfrey
Everything about
white

wig

silk,

all

plush blue velvet,

fluffy

as a

gold braid,

white feathers and curly

contribute to the magnificence of the

be identified

sitter.

He may

holder of the Order of the Garter by his

his robe. Kneller's portraits

nobility often repeated the pose

of British

and garments seen

here.

His practice was to paint the figure and the background


first,

Sir

then

fill

in the face

when he was

able to studv the

Godfrey Kneller. b Lubeck. cl646. d London, 1723

John, First

Duke

of Marlborough.

cl705.

Oil

on canvas. h218

On

sitter in

the flesh.

became

a leading portrait painter.

workshop with

a large

his arrival in

London, Kneller quickly

He

established a

team of specialized

which

assistants,

enabled the mass-production of portraits such as

He

gold chain, the blue band around his calf and the

embroidery on

Duke of Marlborough

John, First

this portrait is luxurious: the

this

one.

painted ten reigning monarchs including even,- English

sovereign from Charles

II to

George

conceited, believing that the world


place had

God

* Dobson. Van

consulted him

Dyck. Hilliard,

Lely,

II,

and was massively

would have been

at the

Creation.

Moroni

a better

Kokoschka Oskar
All the contours

and

peculiarities

of the

artist's

Portrait

self-proclaimed 'degenerate

artist'

which he was deeply committed. He taught

shows Kokoschka

whose innovative

Artist'

painting a prime example of Expressionism, a

face are

outlined in a multitude of colour tones to suggest his


anxiety and anger. This self-portrait

of a 'Degenerate

art

as a

Academy of Art, and

was

of

his

also

movement

at the

wrote Expressionist drama. Many

works, with their vivid colour and restless energy,

were

brushwork appears both spontaneous and untidy, but

forced him to leave Austria in 1934 for London, where he

behind

lived until finally settling in Switzerland in 1953.

it

there

is

control, bringing together the jarring

The

Germany

suppressed by the Nazis during the war. The violent

politically symbolic.

tense situation in

colours into a structured whole. Kokoschka's exaggeration

and distortion of colour

to

convey deep emotions make

this

* Beckmann,

Oskar Kokoschka. b Pochlarn. 1886. d Montreux, 1980


Portrait of a 'Degenerate Artist'.

Scottish National Gallery of

1937.

Modern

Art.

Oil

on canvas. hllO x

Edinburgh

w85 cm.

h43V4

Durer, Ensor,

to

Dresden

Munch. Nolde. Soutine

iJC iVOOningwillem

Marilyn

The

involved with the

exhibitionist

beautiful

and

Hollywood

slightly dizzy quality

star

is

layer.

This painting, from

belongs to one of
phases.

He

Monroe

is

De

a series

up the image

often viewed

like all

more

as

layer

entided 'Women',

Kooning's non-abstract, or

recognizes that,

who

captured here. Paint has been

applied in swift forceful gestures to build

by

of the stunningly

figurative,

painting where colour

an object than as a whole

Kooning

Oil

figure.

splashed or dribbled onto the

His

artistic

career

human

(particularly female)

encompassed many phases and

the 1970s he turned to figurative sculpture.

De Kooning was

on canvas. hl27 x w76.2 cm. h50 x

is

did not restrict himself to pure abstraction: his

Appel, Baselitz, Frankenthaler, Guston, Warhol

Willem de Kooning, b Rotterdam, 1904


Marilyn Monroe. 1954.

Abstract Expressionists,

many members of this group, however, De

overriding subject has been the

female sex-symbols,

with no trace of eroticism.

New York-based

stressed the importance of spontaneity and of 'gestural'

canvas. Unlike

person, and he portrays her almost as a shop-window

dummy,

Monroe

w30

In.

Private collection

in

Koons.ieff

Puppy

Evocative of the softness and cuddliness of

huge sculpture stands

like a

war memorial

of an eighteenth-century building.
living plants,

is

Koons' works
in

which

metaphor

are

will lead to the

for the

puppy,

Kiiom was

monuments of glitzy

kitsch, or

life.

bad

trader,

and he

:.

likes to

vacuum

entombed

more

effect

he wants, he may even have

new

made

for a piece,

they appeal to his magpie eye. At one time

Koons. b York. PA. 1955


Puppy. 1992. Flowering plants, steel, wood and earth, hll.5 m. h38

material specially

sometimes

Dine.

Duchamp.

Lichtenstein.

Sherman

Jeff

ft.

When

he cannot achieve the

our age of throwaway culture, and the more shiny they

appear, the

in a slab

cleaner or a basketball.

enormous expense.

taste,

include

sort or another in his sculptures.

Floating in the centre of an aquarium or

self-

impermanence of

commodities

of plexiglass may be

colour, while

work's

consumer goods of one

forecourt

consists entirely of

whose exuberant riowers provide

their withering awav,

destrucdon,

It

a small

in the

Originally at

Schloss Arolsen. Germany.

Now dismantled

at

Kossoff Leon
This imposing church
the scene in

muted

in

Christchurch N<

London's

Spitalfields

dominates

colours, thickly applied. Large brushfuls

of paint, dragged or dripped onto the board, form

a sort

of

churned-up, mud-like morass. The image of ordinary people


in

even-day

life is

unpretentious and deliberately avoids the

picturesque. Although Kossoff was born and brought


the East

End of London,

work. In

fact

he

is

there

more often

is

up

in

usually portraits of family or friends

memory of

the painting such vitality and power.

Working from charcoal

subjects, while never

becoming sentimental or overdramatic.

Neo-

on board. hl46.7 x wl00.4 cm. h57 3/4 x

the

drawings, Kossoff seeks out the universal quality in his

nothing English about his

associated with the

it is

of London which gives

Auerbach, Bomberg, Freud. Van Gogh. Lowry, Rembrandt

Leon Kossoff. b London. 1926


Oil

local scenes

this area

vividness of his

Expressionists working in continental Europe. His pictures

Christchurch No. 1. 1991.

and

always have great personal significance for him, and

w39^

in.

Anthony d'Of fay Gallery. London

Kroyer
Immersed

women

in their

walk on

own

private world,

deserted beach.

the sea and sky, merging together

two elegantly dressed

The cool
on

Scandinavian painters put

blue tones of

the horizon, and the

almost grey sand, create an atmosphere


tranquillity.

Summer

Peter Severin

or" clarity

and

a great deal

of effort

H\ ening on the Southern Beach

interested in the effects of light at different times of day,

how

lamplight

is

the Spanish painter

Diego Velazquez, he painted

for their

moving pathos. He

later

became the

seaside colony of artists at Skagen in

choosing simple subjects which took on fresh, pastel tones

works became more cheerful. His

under the Arctic sun, and avoiding strong colours and deep

dogged by mental

shadows. Born

"

Norway, Kroyer was

particularly

Peter Severin Kroyer. b Stavanger. 1851. d Skagen.

1900

Summer Evening on

on canvas. hlOO

the Southern Beach 1893.

Oil

realistic

scenes of Spanish and Italian workmen, which were noted

into capturing the effects of the clear northern light, often

in

and

affected by daylight. Initially influenced by

last years,

illness.

Boudin. Hammershoi. Spilliaert, Velazquez. Zorn

'wl50cm.

h39v$ x

w55

in.

leader of a

Denmark, and

Skagens Museum. Skagen

his

however, were

Kupka
Composed of a

Frantisek

Cathedral

geometrical series of pure and dappled

in Paris

colours, arranged vertically and diagonally, this painting has

an almost mesmeric

quality.

The

rather dark tones

seem

to

where he pursued

his interest in

of religion or philosophy based on an

and practised

as a spiritualist

medium. He and

shimmer, and the broken colours appear constantly to merge

Kandinsky became pioneers of a new

and divide from each other. Kupka went beyond simply

abstraction, derived

painting what the cathedral looked

they called Orphism. Behind

convey the

light,

Born

in Czechoslovakia,

and Vienna before working

Frantisek Kupka b Opoczno. 1871. d Puteaux.


Cathedral. 1913.

tried instead to

sounds and impressions of the cathedral as

they affected his imagination.


trained in Prague

and

like,

Oil

on canvas. hl80 x

wl50

as

an

would paint new


had created from

he

illustrator

h70^ x w59

in.

style

structures

it

Private collection

(a

was the

W'assily

'pure',

which

idea that artists

made of elements which

their imaginations,

study

of God)

of pure

from Cubism but more

and made

Delaunay. Gris, Kandinsky. Mondrian, Pollock

1957

cm.

theosophy

intuitive idea

real.

they

Lam
Gathered

The Jungle

Vttlfredo

at the

edge of

a jungle, into

slender limbs seem to merge,


straight out
is

is

which

group

or"

European Modern Movement He often made use of

their long,

voodoo,

strange creatures

of Lam's imagination. The mystery of the jungle

reflected in these extraordinary beasts

which inhabit

and

tribal

brings together

artists to

heads, conjured up from

many elements Latin-American,

Of Cuban origin, at one


Surrealists, who encouraged

fruits.

follow the irrational promptings of their

unconscious minds, producing dream-like and disturbing

Lam

hallucinatory dreams. In this, his best-known work.

and jungle scenes - providing

time he was involved with the

its

unfathomable depths; greenish animals with vague, unanimal-like shapes

folklore, totems,

brooding sense of forbidden

images. Both

Lam

and

his friend

Pablo Picasso were

influenced by African and Oceanic sculpture.

African

and Oceanic - fusing them with the conventions of the

Bellmer. Brauner. Ernst. Giacometti. Matta. Picasso

siTIBpML'/ r^kMM^c Hi ji
i^IBEO mlf ^->S.R
if. ^*Ey|Bi7E t^Mb f>
]

(1 i

If

Imm t

W ffill
kk\

Wm

Wf

Humph

w/Bl

.^H3

Wll^

1
kj
\h

1L

m A I'fflJiir
LI
i

1J

ill ii

:4 v

rv
Wilfredo

Um.

b Sauga

la

felt

A/f

if 11
iff

^Tr.

111
iiP Em

i^
11

11

tim$i
1^1

^IUf^ *^\
Wkl^- X

fl

lfc-r'

?Mjj}

^ BHB*

<a

Vim 1%

MP""^^

iLl

Ll

OT^ji
^i

7
*:
*

NJ1

t\

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B-I

(1

lag

> .^jj

Grande. 1902. d Paris. 1982

The Jungle. 1943. Gouache on paper mounted on canvas. h239 x

w230 cm.

H94t4 x

w90^

in.

Museum

of

Modern

Art.

New

York.

NY

Lancret Nicolas

Lady and

Elegantly dressed figures sipping chocolate from porcelain

cups

landscaped garden suggest a typically French

in a

setting.

Although

this is a refined,

formal scene,

it

abandoned her
is

doll in favour

of

a taste

of the hot chocolate

all

with an affectionate eye.

Two

at these pastoral

before the Revolution swept

galantes, pictures

Girls in a

of figures

famous for

his portrayal

in the style

of

his

away
his

forever. Failing as

days painting

in pastoral settings.

of

Garden

evocations of aristocratic
it

he spent the rest of

a history painter,

also

tenderly offered by her mother, while the father

watches over them

Gentleman with

Lancret excelled
life,

shows an intimate family group. The youngest daughter has

which

fairs, balls

and

village

weddings

popular contemporary, Antoine Watteau.

The

composition has been made more interesting by placing the


figures to

one

side

of the canvas, rather than

Nicolas Lancret. b Paris, 1690. d Paris,

A Lady and

Gentleman with Two

in the centre.

Boucher. Fragonard, Liotard, Prud'hon, Watteau

1743

Girls in a

Garden. cl742.

Oil

fetes

He was

on canvas. h88.9 x w97.8 cm. h35 x w38!

in.

National Gallery, London

Landseer
As
the

if

showing

their

cows dominate

Sir

Edi

proud defiance
this

Wild

in the face

of adversity,

composition. In tact they have been

disturbed by the presence of a troy. Destined tor the Karl

of Tankcrville
fine painting

at

Chillingham Castle, Northumberland,

this

demonstrates the qualities which made

Landseer so popular: he appealed to Victorian

endowing animals with

the semblance of

taste

bv

Inspired by the images of the

Romantic novelist

Scott, he travelled to Britain's

remote places and painted

Sir

Walter

Chillingham

animals and landscapes which he knew might one day be


threatened.

lis

father

sketch animals from

was an engraver who taught him

life

and he was only

exhibited at the Royal Academy.


artist, his

human emotions.
Sir

(battle at

most famous works

Queen

are the

Oil

on canvas.

lions in

Trafalgar Square. Despite his sentimentality, there

evidence of
to his

gratuitous cruelty which

mental breakdown.

He

may have

died insane.

" Agasse. Cuyp. Marc. Stubbs

h228xwl56cm. h89& x w61i*

in.

to

first

Victoria's favourite

bronze

Edwin Landseer. b London. 1802. d London. 1873

Wild Cattle at Chillingham. 1867.

when he

Laing Art Gallery. Newcastle upon Tyne

is

some

contributed

Lanyon p
The white mass,

Fly

ete r

large yellow triangle, red

fluent brushstrokes

bands and bold

of Fly Away form an apparently abstract

composition. Lanyon embraced

this heavily

painted

expressionistic style in the 1950s. In 1959 he took


flying

and was able to obtain

Cornish landscape. With


rectangle

on

the right

brushstroke and thin

a totally

this in

becomes
line

new

glider

Away. 1961.

Oil

of yellow become the quays of

on canvas. hl22 x

and worked there with associates

Heron and Ben Nicholson


as

an

artist

for

who

most of

Naum
his

Lanyon

Gabo, Patrick

life.

He

is

reinvented the British

cut short by a fatal gliding accident in 1964 at the age of 46.


a
'" Frankenthaler. Gabo. Heron,

1964

wl83 cm. h48 x w72

atmosphere. Born in

landscape in the 1950s. Lanyon's career was unfortunately

mind, the blue-black

harbour, and the red and yellow shapes assume the forms of

Fly

in the

the English artists' colony of St Ives, Cornwall,

acknowledged

vision of the

the sea, the single white

Peter Lanyon. b St Ives. 1918. d Taunton,

elements of an aircraft floating

lived

up

Away

in.

Gimpel

Fils.

London

De Kooning, Nicholson

La Tour
The

The Cheat

G< arges de

card players' shifty eyes suggest that not one of them

is

honest. Only one cheat, however, obviously withholds two

cards behind his back.

The

shadows, heightens the


contrast, the

the areas of
is

warm

background
light.

Although

geometric simplicity

oval face of the seated

of the earlv

is

Italian

Georges de La Tour, b

Lorraine.

colours of their clothes. By

in total

this

is

Baroque

woman -

for

in

that harks back to painters

Vic-surSeille.
of

1593. d

Luneville.

Diamonds. cl647.

Oil

of

artists at this

time travelled extensively, but

French province of

le specialized in candlelit

scenes, achieving eerie

warm, glowing reds and browns, and


is

his paintings

who

liked

it

was accepted
so

much

as a gift by the

that he

had

all

the

Caravaggio. Honthorst, Lucas, Piero della Francesca

1652

on canvas. hl06

their

reminiscent of the works of Caravaggio.

other painters removed from his chambers.

Renaissance such as Piero della

The Cheat with the Ace

One

France,

the

Ace of Diamonds

his entire life in the

luminous quality

painting, there

example

effects with

darkness, intensifying

in the figures

Many

Franccsca.

La Tour spent

bright light, casting deep

with the

wl46cm. h41VSxw57V4in. Museedu

Louvre, Pans

King of

works bv

Laurencin:Marie

The Dancers

Five beautiful dancers in diaphanous costumes practise their

demonstrated here

in a straightforward portraval

of the

enchanting scene. The seductive pastel

dancers without any extraneous 'message'. Besides painting,

shades in which they are painted are typical of Laurencin's

she also illustrated books with watercolours. Laurencin had

movements

in this

work, magnifying their almost ethereal

quality.

Her

the advantage of being included in a social circle which

paintings convey her curious vision of a world peopled


entirely
artistic

by beautiful young

mood

of the 1920s

girls,

included Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, Henri Matisse,

and perfectly embody the

in their lighthearted

Juan Gris and Robert Delaunay and she held

and

discussions in her Paris apartment.

decorative tone. She resisted the pressure of contemporarv

movements

in art

Marie Laurencin. b

and retained her

Paris.

The Dancers. 1937.

Oil

own

- Degas.

individual stvle,

Dufy. Foujita. Toulouse-Lautrec. Utrillo

1883. d Pans. 1956

on canvas. h53.3 x w64.1 cm. h21 x w25y*

Private collection

mam

artistic

Lawrence
Although the inscription on
the

Duke appeared

Sir

this

at the battle

Thomas

work

The Duke

states that this

of Waterloo,

it is

how

is

unlikely that Wellington could have sustained such a staged

pose with

approach

a tierce battle raging


is

more

staid

Antoine-Jean Gros

and

in the

opponent. Napoleon, but

around him. Lawrence's

less realistic

windswept
like

achieve a romantic vision of a great leader

furthermore,

Sir

victorious one.

Thomas Lawrence, b

The Duke

of

Bristol.

Wellington 1818.

royal painter

on

at the

age of only 20 and being appointed

the death of Sir [oshua Reynolds.

to

innkeeper, he

to paint

all

the major figures in the struggle

work has

great force; his worst

was probably dashed off to pay debts: he had


but was

in

constant

difficulty.

Clouet. Van Dyck. Gericault. Gros, Marini

1769. d London. 1830

Oil

With

reputation extending to Europe, he was commissioned by

against Napoleon. His best

and

The son of an

tor his portraits at the age "t ten, painting

Charlotte

George IV

than that of

portrait of" his

Gros, Lawrence wanted

was famed

Queen

most

of Wellington

on canvas. h396.2 x w243.; cm. hl56 x

w96

in.

The Bathurst Collection. Sapperton

huge income

Leger Fernand
The massive

scale

The

of the building

is

cleverly

cutting off the image at the top and bottom, so that

appears to stretch away endlessly


horizontals and verticals etch
intense primary colours.

its

in

evidence

it

both directions. Strong

in this painting

harsh, angular lines

worked

outline against the sky in

The massive

Builders

shapes of machinery and construction work. There

conveyed by

robot-like workers,

for the

in

many

and

of the Cubist movement

its

focus

areas: ceramics, stained glass, stage designs

scrambling about on the girders, and the passing clouds

'abstract' film, using objects as 'actors'.

contrast dramatically in shape and colour with the ironwork

works were huge decorative murals

was

New York.

fascinated by industrial technology, and by the

dynamic

Fernand Leger. b Argentan, 1881. d

The

Builders.

1950.

Oil

Gif-sur-Yvette,

on canvas. h299.8 x

w200

w78%

in.

Among

for the

UN

Boccioni, Braque, Brown, Delaunay, Gris. Picasso

1955
cm. hll8 x

Musee

its

on machinery. Leger

Swedish Ballet and even film - he made the

skeleton. Trained in an architect's office, Leger

is

in

National Fernand Leger,

first

his last

building in

LeightOll Frederic, Lord

The Bath of Psvche

and mythology of Antiquity, which was

sensuous, porcelain-skinned goddess gazes at her

reflection

as she prepares for her bath.

The

soft yellows,

her and the

tall,

is

accentuated by the Ionic column behind

thin shape

invisible to the eye, arc as

of the canvas. The brushstrokes,

smooth and polished

surface of the water. Lord Leighton,

Europe, was a leader of Classicism

who

as the

still

studied art in

in Britain, his style

Lord Leighton. b Scarborough. 1830. d London.


of Psyche.

1890.

Oil

his first picture

Victoria. His paintings

opposition

was purchased by

became hugely popular

through mass-produced reproductions, and he was also an


excellent sculptor.

Lord Leighton was

later elected

of London's Royal Academy.

and

choice of subject being profoundly influenced by the statues

The Bath

Queen

in direct

Medievalism of the Pre-Raphaelites. He had an

immediate success when

whites and flesh tones create a sense of calm while her

elongated body

to the

Alma-Tadema,

Burne-Jones, Cranach, Ingres. Rossetti

1896

on canvas. H189.2 x w62.2 cm. h72V4 x w24V4

in.

Tate Gallery. London

President

Lely

Sir Peter

Glancing nervously
letter

The

opener.

lack of intimacy

reflect the real relationship

was

Charles

at his father's face, a

Hampton Court when

portrait

was painted. James, along with

sisters, lived at

allowed, this

Sir

is

visits to

the

with James,

Duke of York

Lely for this commission demonstrates

Anthony van Dyck. Ten

in the

and

the

King were

years after he

Haarlem Guild, Lely was

King

in

portrait painters

with James.

Duke

of York.

1647.

Oil

Dyck, Holbein. Kneller, Reynolds

wl46.7 cm. h49% x w57%

in.

Syon House. Isleworth

Master
painted

influential

of the seventeenth century.

1680

on canvas. hl26.4

flood of portraits

made him one of the most

an important record of one such meeting.


" Dobson, Van

succeeding

became

London and had

as well as the royal children.

followed which

tones and rich modelling are hallmarks of Lely':

Peter Lely. b Soest. Westphalen. 1618. d London.

Charles

Sir

this

his brothers

The choice of

his increased status as portrait painter to royalty,

as

Syon House under the guardianship of the

Duke of Northumberland. As few


The subde

style.

between them may

between father and son,

Charles

a prisoner at

son hands him a

Leonardo da Vinci

Mona

The Mona

by Leonardo, which allowed the

L/sa

famous

is

all

over the world tor her

enigmatic smile and for being one of the few paintings by


the

debate
a

The
still

identity

remains unknown, and some

the painting, with

controversy

this

sitter

rages over whether the figure

woman, but

above

of the

its

is

indeed

the

oil

Leonardo da

Mona

Lisa.

painting technique

Vinci,

man

haunting landscape,

in the quality

of

its

execution.

traditional Renaissance portrait in composition,


lies in

(known

its

Oil

on panel. h77

or

rises

Equally adept

as sfumato) created

in.

in

anatomy, engineering and

aeronautic pursuits, Leonardo completed

number of paintings during

reflect the diverse talents

Durer, Griirlandaio.

Musee du

Louvre. Paris

of

and

scientific

remarkably small

his lifetime. Fortunately,

numerous drawings and sketchbooks have survived

beauty

xw53 cm. h30VSxw21

execute subtle,

the egg-based tempera paint used by contemporary artists.

b Vino. 1452. d Amboise. 1519

1503/6.

artist to

atmospheric shading that was impossible to produce with

most esteemed of the Renaissance masters, Leonardo da

Vinci.

Lisa

this genius.

Massys, Ramsay. Sittow

to

Lewis Wyndham
The

characteristically tortured landscape

angular outlines. Billowing

shown

as a series

appear as

rigid

smoke from

Western Front,

is

painted in harsh,

the shelled battery

of segmented towers, and

waves, while the figures

are portrayed as mechanical robots.

his

first as

bomb

in the

is

craters

background

Lewis served on the

bombadier, then

as

war

artist.

This,

major work of that period, shows that he has toned

down

Battery Shelled

was absurd. Lewis, a


portraitist,

was

novelist, art critic

experimentalist of British

movement,

most

in his time the

a kind

art.

and superb

influential

He founded

of Cubism found only

its

brutality

makes

it

clear that

he thought war

suggest

its

three-dimensional shape. Tragically, he was blind

for the last six years

Wyndham

Lewis, b At sea (off Nova Scotia), 1882. d London,

A Battery

Shelled. 1919.

Oil

itself

England, which

superimposed views of an object from several angles to

of

his

life.

his pioneering abstract style in order to record the

war, yet

the Vorticist

in

'-

Bomberg, Braque,

Friedrich,

Nash, Picasso

1957

on canvas. hl52.5 x w317.5 cm. h72 x v125

in.

Imperial

War Museum, London

LeWitt

Open Geometric

Sol

This white, open-cube structure


guidelines.

is

based on mathematical

Bv showing projecting cubes which

are defined

to

be there and what

see, a characteristic that links this

The

ideas of the Minimalist

work's

rigid

calculations

work

to

we

actually

Conceptual Art.

movement can be

seen

in the

its

Structure IV

and made Minimalist sculptures which he

'structures'.

He

itself,

and the planning

Sol LeWrtt. b Hartford, CT.

1928

Open Geometric Structure

IV.

1990. Painted wood. h98 x

w438

is

is

more

more

important than the construction. His wall drawings, a series

of
in.

lines, are

He

sold like patterns, with a 'licence' to

then usually obliterates his

impersonal nature, with no fixed centre

of interest. LeWitt worked for an architect before becoming

called

has said that the idea behind a work

they have been exhibited.

adherence to geometric mathematical

and

artist

important than the work

only by their edges, LeWitt exploits the contradiction

between what we know

an

~ Andre,

Buren. Ravin, Judd, Vasarely

cm. h38'4 x wl72V6

in.

Lisson Gallery, London

own

draw them

wall drawings once

LichtensteiriRov
Lichrenstein's

impact with

blown-up comic

its

strip creates a

In the Car

bold primary colours and direct

original cartoon

is

faithfully

stvle.

The

reproduced but on a large

imitating the coarse screen technique (Ben

making

powerful

Day

scale,

dots) that

comment on

the content but trying to

make

people more aware of the aesthetics of 1960s USA.

prime

exponent of American Pop Art,

mass

a social

used for printing cheap comics and newspapers.

forms

Lichtenstein used mass-produced imagery and the materials

popular imagery

in his

and products of the

exhibition of his

work was held

industrial

in

media and products from modern

is

environment, often extracting

images from their original context and parodying them. By

Art

magnifying and over-simplifying these images he was not

"

in

which
life

in themselves, Lichtenstein has

artefacts,

were used

continued to use

work. In 1993 a major retrospective


at the

Museum

New York.

Dine. Hamilton, Oldenburg, Rosenquist. Warhol

Roy Lichtenstein. b New


In

the Car. 1963.

York. NY, 1923


Magna on canvas. hl72xw203. 5 cm. h67 3/4 xh80'^

in.

as art

Scottish National Gallery of

Modern

Art,

Edinburgh

of Modern

Limbourgjean and
A

fine

example of miniature painting,

this

Paul

is

January

page from

one of the greatest manuscripts of Northern European


Illustrating

Januan,

identified

by the

stellar

1410 and

art.

chart with the

for

constellations of Capricorn and Aquarius, the festive

banquet depicted
the

Due

de Berry

in the

main scene includes

who commissioned

a large fur hat

Most

the paintings in this

bv three brothers

who

all

died in the same year as their patron,

its

unprecedented attention

marvellous sense of narrative.

during the Middle Ages as

of

He

is

and an elaborate blue and gold robe.

wearing
(if

a portrait

the manuscript.

who

before the manuscript was complete. Their work

Book of Hours were executed

joined the Duke's court in around

devotion.

It

to

everyday

A Book

a prayer

of

book

lours

praised

and for

was used

for private

recorded the daily cycle of monastic services

throughout the year and

this particularly

sumptuous

example devotes a single page to each month.


" Beauneveu. Del Cossa. Van Eyck, Fouquet

Jean and Paul Limbourg. Active cl400. d place unknown. cl416


January from the Tr$s Riches Heures). cl413. Illumination on vellum. h24

is

detail

wl5.2 cm. h93* x w6

in.

Musee Conde.

Chantilly

its

-L/IO T.2LL

Q Jean

This charming portrayal of

of chocolate

is

striking for

The Chocolate Pot

Etienne
maid carrying

its

an informal subject. The cool

direct
clarity

and the unbroken oudine of the

cup

a tray with a

work has

and

it

where he was probably

whose

emphasize the

the lightness and gaiety

and

his return to

slightly

Europe he continued

to

h32'/4 x

lighting,

On

wear the Turkish dress

and beard he had adopted, enjoying the notoriety

this

gave

him. In England, his portraits were successful, despite their

like to please'.

Chardin. Fragonard. Greuze. Ingres, Manet, Watteau

1789

The Chocolate Pot. cl745. Pastel on parchment. h82 x w52 cm.

even

formal expression of the maid.

being described by Walpole as 'too

looks forward to the figures of Jean

Auguste Dominique Ingres and Edouard Manet. Liotard

Jean-Etienne Liotard. b Geneva. 1702. d Geneva,

characteristics can be seen here in the

clear tones

of Liotard's French Rococo contemporaries but without


their artifice,

years in Constantinople,

of the picture's tones

figure

all

some

influenced by the tradition of Turkish miniature painting,

pattern formed by the maid's colourful clothes against the


plain background. This

spent

and simple approach to

w20V5

in.

Staatliche

Kunstsammlungen, Dresden

LipdlitZ Jacques
The

strict,

layers

Half-standing Figure

mathematical composition of

this

work, with

its

of solid stone and intervening spaces, shows that the

sculptor wanted to represent architectural, geometric forms,

while creating a

of the

lyrical,

harmonious whole. Lipchitz was one

earliest sculptors to

Cubism and

to apply

to three dimensions,

fragmenting forms to reconstruct them

and formal

qualities

Jacques

Lipchitz. b Druskieniki.

figures

called 'transparent

and animals

mainly

in the

sculpt a

in Lithuania,

developed

h98 cm. h38 /i


:

in.

in

was more dynamic and non-abstract. From 1941 he

USA

Madonna

Tate Gallery. London

bronze
lived

and executed some important

there. In 1946 Lipchitz

for a

was commissioned

modern church

in France.

and

very

1891. d Capri. 1973

Half-standing Figure. 1915. Stone.

making what he

work of

terms of space

in

of composition. Born

training initially as an engineer, Lipchitz

sculptures'. His later

commissions

understand the principles of

them

individual abstract style,

Archipenko, Braque. Gaudier-Brzeska, Gris, Smith

to

Lippi Filippino

Portrait

The

set off alone for

plain blue background,

unadorned pale tunic and hat

gende eyes of this old man,

highlight the wrinkled face and

whose

portrayal

straightforward.

looking direcdy
seen.

The

is

striking because

He

sits at

at the

it is

viewer most of his face can


is

unknown,

personality shines through this portrait,

yet

be

his

his

Roman

painted

in

when

his father,

Filippino Lippi. b Florence.

Portrait of an Old

to

complete

they

Fra Filippo Lippi, died, he

Rome

in.

was working with

Florentine fresco

his frescos that

left

have made

allowed him to study

in his

Botticelli. Ghirlandaio, Filippo Lippi,

Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence

later

his father. His first

became so important

would crop up repeatedly

1457. d Florence, 1504

Man. C1485. Fresco. h47 x w38 cm. hl8! x wl5

in

remains, which

it is

were appropriate to the subject or

the graceful and simple style that characterized Filippino's

work. Aged

former pupil of

name. Years spent

sdll

is

Botticelli, a

unfinished by Masaccio, and

much of

which

Florence and a year

major commission was

so direct and

an angle and although not

old man's identify

Sandro

Man

of an Old

to

him

that

paindngs, whether they

not.

Masaccio

Lippi
An

PP

The Coronation of

<

elaborate hierarchy defines the realms of the angels,

saints, clerics

and donors

Lippi's rotund figures

who

look

on

at this coronation.

and understanding of space ensure-

panning.

The

cleric

portrait ot Lippi,
at the

that the figures are not crushed together in an unrealistic

unstated to the

model

rules

of perspective and suhtlc

lighting techniques, the artist has depicted the


logical

way.

means of

The viewer

is

drawn

into the

crowd

in a

composition by

the angel in the foreground and the bishop in the

green robe on the

left

who

looks directly out from the

Fra Filippo Lippi. b Florence. C1406. d Spoleto.

The Coronation of the

Virgin.

looking out on the

who was

age ot eight to

manner. By employing the

for

released

life,

many of

from

his

the Virgin

sent as an

become
le

his

vows

monk

eloped with

far left

orphan

is

to a

a self

monastery

but found himseU

nun (who became

Madonnas) but although he was


in

order to marry her, no wedding

ever took place. Their son, Filippino, also became an

important Renaissance

"

artist.

Fra Angelico, Filippino Lippi. Martini, Lorenzo

1469

1441/7. Tempera on panel. h200 x w287 cm. h78>i x wll3

in.

the
later

Gallena degh

Uffizi.

Florence

Monaco

Lissitzky m

Composition

Revolving geometric objects painted

in delicate

colours

sense of

appear to be floating

in the air, thus creating a

depth and an

of space. Some of the shapes are given

illusion

Marc Chagall appointed him professor of architecture and


graphic art

at the art

school in Vitebsk, where he came

under the influence of Malevich. His

series

of 'Prouns'

is

three dimensions, and this suggestion of architectural forms

well-known -

was developed

dramatic architectural qualities and an overall flatness, with

in Lissitzky's later

works. In

its

concentration of pure form and colour, the drawing shows


the influence of Suprematism, an abstract art

form invented

by Kasimir Malevich based on pure geometric


Lissitzky trained

El Lissitzky

first as

an engineer, then

as

architect.

(Eleazer Lissitzky). b Smolensk, 1890. d Moscow,

Composition. C1920. Gouache, ink and pencil on paper. h41 x

number of abstract works of straight

no suggestion of depth.

lines,

Lissitzky's creative versatility

extended to designs for costumes, exhibitions, posters and


books.

figures.

an

Chagall, Van Doesburg, Gabo, Malevich, Moholy-Nagy

1941

w33 cm. hl6& x wl3

in.

Private collection

Lochner

Doll-like angels serenade the Virgin

Christ child while

God

arbourcd rose garden

symbol

or"

The

Stefan
and

in

which the Virgin

her purity. With

its

the

offer fruit to the

the Father watches from above.

The

sits is a traditional

grace and mysticism,

Virgin and Child in a Rose Arbour

Cologne school. The gentle modelling of

given the

name

Child painted by other

do the images of

painting, as

pure colours of the robes, the work has a number of

some contemporary

characteristics typical of Lochner. This

last

is

the earliest

the Virgin that can be found in

illuminated manuscripts.

known

who has been described as the


and who was principal master at

this lyrical painter,

of the Gothic

artists,

Stefan Lochner. Active

in

Cologne. 1442. d Cologne.

The Virgin and Child

Rose Arbour cl440.

in

Oil

Botero. Campin, Van Eyck, Limbourg, Schongauer

1451

on panel. h50.5

was

the Rhine valley bear similarities to this pretty and poetical

its

subde technique, the sweetness of the Virgin's face and the

work bv

his figures

Many images of the Virgin and


fifteenth-century German artists in

'soft style'.

w40cm. hl9*^xwl5'/4

in.

Wallraf-Richartz

Museum. Cologne

Long

Cornwall Slate Line

Richard

This linear sculpture has been created out of pieces of slate


picked up on

walk through the Cornish countryside. Each

one has heen chosen


straight line

at

random, but

which can be moved

accommodating

its

massive

size.

to

is

carefully placed in a

any place capable of

This work can be

considered as Conceptual as the installation of the

Long

line

has extended the definition of sculpture to

include a dimension of time; his sculptures are a record of

Richard Long, b

Bristol.

at

in different

all

corners of the world.

ways; he

may

brushwood or seaweed, using


such as a

of

line

years.

basic shapes

Some of his

of rocks

Anthony d'Offay Gallery. London

He marks

his

leave a simple sculpture

laid

journey

of stones,

known

to

man

sculptures are permanent,

high in the Himalayan

wilderness; the less permanent are exhibited in the form of

photographs or maps.

* Andre, Buren,

Christo. Judd

1945

Cornwall Slate Line. 1990. Delabole slate. 12540

Now

taken him to

for millions

represents the idea of the walk, which has already taken


place.

the artist's journey through a landscape. This approach has

xw230 cm. 1999 xw87

In.

Installed at Tate Gallery, London.

Longhi
Painted with

almost

precise observation of detai] born of an

scientific curiosity, a

enclosure, placidly

rhinoceros stands

munching

bemused audience dressed


carnival.

Exhibition of a Rhinoceros

Pietro

in

in

all

hay, an exotic spectacle for

costume

William

an
a

capitals

by

pictures of middle-class Venetian

never

life

satirical (unlike, for

Pietro Longhi. b Venice. 1702. d Venice.

were

theatrical

and

example, those bv

One of the most charming of

Venetian eighteenth-century painters,

were imitated bv others or repeated by

Oil

on canvas. h60 x

somewhat

show no

great artistic genius, they

many

pupils,

form

paintings

and although

a valuable

record of an eighteenth-centurv Venetian society, long past


its

peak and slipping into decadence.

" Agasse,

Hicks, Hogarth. Teniers

1785

Exhibition of a Rhinoceros at Venice. cl751.

if

innocent, Longhi dispassionately recorded the everyday

they

its

captor, and brought to Venice in [751. l.onghi's small-scale

witty, but

Ver

events that captured his imagination. His

tor the Venetian

This odd painting commemorates the rhinoceros

which was toured around the F.uropean

logarth in England).

at

w47 cm.

h23'/S x

wl814

in.

National Gallery. London

LorenzettiAmbrogi
Dominating the composition from
sits

his magnificent

throne

Good Government. He is dressed


and white the colours of Siena. At his

the personification of

as a judge in black

feet sit the twins Senius


a

Allegory of

and Ascanius, feeding greedily from

she-wolf- characters from

symbolize the

city's

Roman mythology

ancient origins.

On

the

used to

left is

Peace, a

Classically-inspired figure dressed in gauzy white robes

reclining
are

on

a suit

of armour. Crowding round the platform

members of the

Sienese community. This fresco

Ambrogio Lorenzetti. Active


Allegory of

and

in

Good Government

Siena. 1319. d Siena.


(detail).

is

part

of

a cycle

Good Government

painted

on

Siena'-- tc<v.n hall in

the walls of the council

chamber

in

order to inspire responsible

government. The imagery

is

highly

complex but Ambrogio

rose to the challenge and, by adding a wealth of incidental


detail,

proved himself to be one of the most

original artists

brother Pietro,
civic

"

Ambrogio was responsible

and religious commissions

cl348

for

and
his

numerous

in his native Siena.

Duccio. Martini. Delia Quercia. Raphael

C1338/40. Fresco. Palazzo Pubblico. Siena

brilliant

of the fourteenth century. Together with

Lorenzo Monaco

The Coronation of

The construction

dazzling range of colours, place

(if this

Renaissance altarpieces.

by smaller paintings

painting

The

'predella' depicting the Nativity.

in

of

typical

set into the frame.

small panels along the lower edge

life

is

a saint; the gables

show

Above

The way

in

surrounded

is

The sequence of

combine

to

form

are scenes

is filled

from the

with

Monaco

periods.

Lorenzo

began
this

late

\va< a

famous

for

as a miniaturist

one for the high

him

in the transitional

Gothic and early Renaissance

monk and

its

took

his

vows

b Siena. cl370. d Florence.

altar

of Santa Maria

degli Angeli in

Duccio. Gaddi, Giotto. Filippo Lippi. Lorenzetti. Martini

C1424

The Coronation of the Virgin 1414. Tempera on panel. h450 x

w350 cm. hl77^ x wl37%

in.

He

but progressed to altarpieces, painting

which Lorenzo has crowded


*

in a

illumination of manuscripts.

Florence.

the saints around the Virgin and Christ, and his use of a

Lorenzo

period between the

monaster),-

the Annunciation and Christ

Glory, while on each side, the frame

individual saints.

of early

principal scene

the Virgin

Gallena degli

Uffizi.

Florence

Lotto Lorenzo
The

Latin inscription praising Lucretia's exemplary

clearly

meant

Roman

lire is

to associate the lady in this portrait with the

Lucretia

who,

after

being defiled by the son of

Tarquin, stabbed herself rather than

live as a spoiled

woman. Virtuous women from Antiquity were much


admired during the Renaissance. Lotto's

early

works show

the strong influence of Venetian painters such as Giovanni


Bellini,

his

Lady

style

as Lucretia

based on the Venetian interest

account book has survived


that he

was

success.

vividly to

many

(a rare

a difficult individual

in

colour and

who

achieved

skilful portrait painter, able to

life,

his career

took him from

parts of northern Italy.

he became a

lay

his

own

idiosyncratic

m~ Giovanni

Dossi. Luini, Palma Vecchio

Lorenzo Lotto, b Venice. cl480. d Loreto. cl556

A Lady as

Lucretia.

cl530.

Oil

on canvas. h95.9x wll0.5 cm. h37 3/4xw43V6

in.

National Gallery, London

little

his native

brother in a monastery.

Bellini,

His

financial

bring his subjects

few years before

but he was impressionable, reflecting a multitude of

contemporaries before developing

light.

occurrence), and shows

Venice to

his

death

Louis M(
Thinned

acrylic paint

lines, staining the

is

poured

bare canvas.

colour cover so small


its

Alpha Phi

wing-like diagonal parallel

picture plane, demonstrates the painting's connection with

the rivulets of bright

the Post-Painterly .Abstraction

proportion of the massive expanse,

dazzling near-emptiness

spirit

in

As

irresistibly

suggests a

of meditation. Louis had developed

way of painting by

rejecting shape

and

pure colour, as the fabric of the canvas


paint.

in this

light in

Zen

new

favour of

is literally

soaked

worked on

series

movement

of paintings

at

vertically

which magnifies the

flatness

Morris Louis, b Baltimore. MD. 1912. d Washington DC.

ISA. Louis

down

the canvas, covering

most of

its

area,

the 'Unfurleds' series, to which Alpha Phi belongs.


in

This concern with colour by saturation without

visible brushstrokes,

in the

one time. These

include the group 'Veils', in which the paint was poured

like

work

usually

of the

Frankenthaler, Hodler. Kelly. Noland, Rothko

1962

Alpha Phi. 1961. Acrylic on canvas. h259.1 x w495.1 cm. hl02 x wl94'4

in.

Tate Gallery, London

and

Lowry LS

Coming from

Factory workers pour in a stream from the mill at Sal ford.

houses, scenes which often exist only as

Observed with great

affection

and captured

in

muted

Lowrv's raw

style

the Mill

of painting

colours, the scene has been painted straight onto the canvas

individual, uninfluenced

with no preliminary sketch. Lowry portrays William Blake's

'dark satanic mills' with great

Although often referred


figures are full

sympathy and charm.

eye,

to as 'matchstick people', his

of movement,

vital

and

alive.

clerk

all

His

working

he studied

until 1939,

This work

his

first

is

who

art in his spare

its

cotton mills and rows of back-to-back

52,

kept away from the public

and then almost by accident.

one-man exhibition followed immediately.

W Blake.

Burra, Gontcharova.

H Rousseau

S (Lawrence Stephen) Lowry. b Manchester. 1887. d Glossop. 1973

Coming from the

Mill.

1930.

Oil

on canvas. h42 x

w52

cm. hl6!4 x

w20&

in.

today.
entirely

time and was not discovered

provides a fascinating pictorial record of the industrial north

of England, with

and

by the French Post-Impressionists.

life

when he was

memory

idiosyncratic

Salford

Museum and

Art Gallery, Salford

Lucas van Leyden

The Card

Fashionably dressed

although

group of men and

in felt hats

women

sit

and colourful cloaks, a

round

Others look passively on, or take

more

active interest in

the proceedings. This charming picture, with

its

of bright colours and careful composition,

fresh

appealing.

superb draughtsman,

and Mabuse

a table playing cards.

is

Van Levden

portray amusing scenes from everyday

life.

painters,

profusion

Players
his father's

all

works have been

travelled to Flanders, giving

and he

also spent time in Italy.

Albrecht Diirer can be seen

and

engravings:

Van Leyden

is

in his

lost.

The

numerous woodcuts and

At the age of

nine he learned to paint on glass and onlv a vear later was a

competent engraver. He was

said to

be a pupil of his father,

Diirer,

Honthorst, La Tour, Mabuse, Terbrugghen

Lucas van Leyden. b Leyden. 1494. d Leyden, 1533

The Card Players. cl520.

Oil

on panel.

h34xw48cm. hl4xwl8

in.

Wilton House, Salisbury

local

influence of

believed to have been the

engraver to etch onto copper instead of iron.

liked to

Van Levden

banquets for

first

.Lllini Bernardino
The
to

Baptist's

head

is

The Executioner Presents John

placed on a dish for Salome to take

in

Herod, but instead of presenting a scene of horror, Luini

tackles the subject with

gesture

is

Head

to

Herod

in rich colours,

using his subtle

skill

to create soft,

smoky

contours. Luini's style was entirely dominated by Leonardo

calm decorum. Salome's only

to gently avert her eyes

the Baptist's

he was better suited to painting tender Madonnas and saints

from the gory spectacle

da Vinci,

who

had come to Milan by 1483. Although he

before her, with no indication of the revulsion or shock

could not match Leonardo's profound analysis of character

which we might expect

and

more

in the

circumstances. Luini was

interested in harmoniously balancing the elements of

his picture

than

in illustrating a real life event. In fact,

and tension were bevond

Bernardino

Luini.

his

Uffizi,

Florence

of Leonardo's work made

most popular Milanese

Gentileschi, Ghirlandaio, Leonardo. Lotto

1532

The Executioner Presents John the Baptists Head to Herod


Gallena degli

the

drama

range of pictorial expression;

b Luini. cl481. d Milan.

feeling, Luini's imitations

him one of

527-31. Tempera on panel. h51 x w58 cm. h20 x w22 7/

painters of his time.

Mabuse
Sr

Luke

sirs at a

Saint

lectern in

Child, his hand guided b)


first

trip

Flemish painters

r<>

can be seen clearly

.1

church, drawing the Virgin and

.in

angel.

visir Italy,

in the

architectural setting, in the

direction (that of the halo

Mabuse was one of the


and the influences of

this

the light

comes from one

around the Virgin), and

in the

heavy, sculptural forms of the figures. However, the


traditions

of northern painting are also reflected

lyrical folds

Mabuse

was one of

Romanists',

group of Netherlandish

who wanted

saint.

artists,

to follow the ideals

poses and

details, the

1527 he travelled

in

> Durer, Van Eyck,

Oil

of the

their

on panel. hl09.2 x w81.9 cm. h.43 x w32'/j

in.

'the

Italian

Flemish

borrowed

essence of Classicism escaped him. In

Flanders with Lucas van Leyden.

Lucas van Leyden, Massys

Maubeuge, cl478. d Middelburg. 1532

Saint Luke Painting the Virgin. cl525.

Mabuse

nicknamed

realism and painstaking technique. Although he

in the

of the draperies, which are entirely Flemish, and

(Jan Gossart). b

Luke Painting the Virgin


uncomfortable pose of the kneeling

High Renaissance hut were hampered by

Renaissance-inspired

way

in the

Kunsthistorisches

Museum. Vienna

Magritte Rene

The Treachery of Images

Magritte appears to contradict reality by nonsensically

something
as

that

denying that

does not need to be named,


it is

what

it

obviously

is.

By

not a pipe' beneath the picture of one, he

at the

naming

same time

writing 'This

is

illustrates that the

image of an object must not be confused with something


tangible

and

real.

One

of Magritte's most famous images, the

painting questions the concepts of definition and


representation. All

is

not as

it

appears to be, Magritte

society

see

is

assault

on

the accepted

think. Initially inspired

way

in

which people

by Giorgio de Chirico,

Magritte's Surrealist paintings often use fantastic, disturbing

and dream-like images, such

as a

steam

the centre of a fireplace, or a sky in

train

emerging from

which the clouds have

turned into French loaves. Born in Belgium, Magritte began


his career as a

saying; the picture thus presents a challenge to ordered

commercial

artist,

and

this

may be

reflected in

the sharpness and clarity of his work.

Bellmer, Brauner,

Rene Magritte. b Lessines, 1898. d Brussels. 1967


of Images. 1928-9. Oil on canvas. h60 x w81 cm. h23% x w31%

The Treachery

and an

and

in.

De

Chirico, Dali, Delvaux.

Los Angeles County

Museum

Tanguy

of Art. Los Angeles.

CA

Maillol

The Three Nymphs

\ristide

He was

Originally conceived as a classic representation of the

energy of his contemporary, Auguste Rodin.

mythic Three Graces,

this

interested in calm than in drama, in timeless serenitv than in

and weightiness

smooth, rounded curves and

restrained

in

its

bronze statue has great

movements. Although

while he was working

on

Maillol's

solidity

fleeting expressions

Classical representations

the preparatory plaster casts, the

girl, is

also typical

tapestries, in the

Aristide Maillol b Banyuls-sur-Mer.

fluid

of

his life

he concentrated

revived the Classical ideas of Greece in the


in

shapes and intense

which

figures

Botticelli.

wl44 cm. h63 x w56 3/<

in.

had

a fixed

fifth

and monumental

Canova. Ingres. Powers. Rodin. Rubens

1861. d Perpignan. 1944

The Three Nymphs. 1930-37. Bronze. hl60 x

second half of

almost exclusively on sculpting the female nude, and

of the Three Graces. Maillol did

not adopt the rough surfaces,

and emotions, seeking the eternal rather

than the momentary. After spending several years designing

concept changed

mirroring effect of the three nudes, which gives the

impression of three views of the same

more-

Private collection

century BC,

quality.

Malevich Kasimir
Geometric elements painted
as

it

Suprematism

in basic colours

appear to

suspended on the canvas. Malevich has created

complex composition by overlapping the forms


sense

or"

perspective and depth.

to

float

convey

Suprematist work,

Kasimir Malevich. b Kiev. 1878. d Leningrad.

on canvas. hl01.5 x

white background, the abstract to end

he could take the

concept no further, he reverted to figurative paintings.

what he

Gabo,

Lissitzky,

Moholy-Nagy, Popova, Rodchenko

1935

w62 cm. h40 x w24

conclusion

in.

Stedelijk

Museum, Amsterdam

in

on White', consisting of a

method

constituted an expression of pure artistic feeling, or

Oil

entitled "White

system which strove to achieve

absolute purity of form and colour. For him, this

Suprematism. 1915.

of works

he took the

art to its logical

abstracts. Realizing at this point that

between form and colour. Malevich was the

founder of Suprematism,

a series

white square on

it

banishes every trace of subject, relying solely on the


interaction

called 'non-objective sensation'. In 191 8,

development of non-objective

all

Man Ray
Displayed on

Tomorrow

curved surface and ambiguous

in

Alter Studying art

its

movement and sexual tension, dramatically emphasizing


female form. Man Ray was one of the most inventive

the

new techniques

new medium.

lis

techniques as an

Dada, an

Man

anti-art

York,

Man Ray founded


a

leading figure

development of the Modern Movement.

moved

to Paris,

where he made

in

the

In the 1920s he

several Surrealist films.


a

photographic

in

what was then an exciting

image made without

rich, fertile

imagination and irrational

the forefront of the avant-garde, he influenced several

artist fitted in well

with the principles of

movement intended

Ray. b Philadelphia. PA, 1890. d Paris.

Tomorrow. 1932.

New

Solarized images and the famous rayograph,

photographers of his time, experimenting with and


pioneering

in

Dadaist group there and became

distorted triple exposure, tins photograph suggests

Triple

to

shock and outrage.

generations of

"

h!6%

in.

camera, were his invention. Always

artists.

Brauner, Dali, Leighton, Sheeler,

1976

exposure photograph. h41 cm.

Private collection

Sherman

at

Manet Edouard
A

woman

nude

two young
canvas

is

sits in a

gallants in

glade, nonchalantly picnicking with

contemporary

clothes.

The

large

of Classical

art

condemned by

led to this painting being widely

the critics

of colour, and the

was

to liberate artists

reduces the modelling of the figures to

and

literary subjects.

treated with broad applications

stark, direct lighting

the bare

Dejeuner sur l'herbe

minimum. Basing

his figures

on

composition by

brilliant

when

first

shown. Manet's aim

from the doctrines of academicism

An

technique with

artistic rebel,

much

he developed a

use of black. Later he was

Raphael, and evoking the pastoral atmosphere of Giorgione,

influenced by the Impressionists' lighter colours.

Manet has consciously

that he scandalized

Renaissance

art.

tried to

ideals

of

This daring mixture of ancient and modern

- contemporary bohemian

Edouard Manet, b

evoke the high

Paris,

life

1832. d

Dejeuner sur l'herbe. 1862-3.

Oil

given the context and scale

Paris.

conventional

both

artists like

art critics

Diego Velazquez and

w271

Titian.

Courbet. Degas. Giorgione, Tissot. Titian, Velazquez

1883

on canvas. h215 x

cm. h84 3/4 x wl06V$

in.

Musee dOrsay.

Pari;

It is

ironic

and public, yet revered

MangOld

Robert

Attic Series III

This irregularly shaped canvas, whose bottom edge


parallel

with the floor, has been painted with a

One of a

series

of 28 and named

the Metropolitan

Museum

in

after the

New

York,

movement. Mangold

this

things.

Often more interested

than

turning

it

in

Minimalist
is

without

deliberately distorts a precise

geometric form to question the way

in

roller.

Greek pots

work has no image, suggests no emotion and

by works made up of sections put together to make

is

into a

in

which we perceive

in the preparation

work of art, Mangold

is

whole, and he

likes

an element of visual

included spray-painted

wood

content. In the

last

palette reminiscent

III.

1990.

Acrylic

in

canvas shape and

decade he has taken on

more

of Henri Matisse.

of an idea
fascinated

and coloured pencil on canvas. h229 x

Through

panels and works on canvas

which explore geometric proportions

Andre. LeWitt. Lissitzky. Matisse. Nicholson.

Robert Mangold b North Tonawanda, NY. 1937


Attic Series

illusion.

the years Mangold's painting has been highly varied and has

w310 cm.

h90! x

wl22

in.

Private collection

Ryman

lyrical

Mantegna Andrea

The Agony

Five angels appear to Christ as he prays, while three of his


apostles sleep in the foreground,

crowd of

on

soldiers are

aspect of the scene

their

unaware

way

of the most important

Andrea Mantegna. b
The Agony

In

to arrest Christ. Ever}'

painted in

is

Mantegna was of humble

was adopted and taught by

of other Renaissance

and

the bizarre rock formations, the

imaginary town, the rigid folds of drapery


stony, precise detail.

that Judas

minor

artists

artists,

of

painter,

his time.

birth,

but

becoming one

His

sculpture.
a

in the

Garden

Many of his works

are in fact executed in

painted imitation of marble or bronze

Mantegna was Court painter

his

life

for

whom

of

art.

Isola di Carturo.

to the

grisaille,

For much of

Duke of Mantua,

he formed a major collection of Classical works

He was

also a pioneer in the art

of engraving and

engravings on classical subjects were later to influence

Durer and

others.

style, as that

was inspired by ancient Roman

C1430/31. d Mantua, 1506

the Garden. cl460. Tempera on panel.

relief.

h63 x w80 cm. h24 3/4 x w31V

in.

National Gallery. London

his

Manzu Giacomo
With only
of

his

hand appearing

voluminous robes,

once severe and

beneath.

geometric unity

to disturb the

orifice.

His conical shape

represents a thread of

lyrical qualities.

harmony and

Manzu's work

figurative order

running

through the fragmented schisms of rwcntieth-centurv

The

is

feeling for continuous, undisturbed outlines has

contributed to the statue's

hrst Italian artist tor

Giacomo Manzu.

whom

museum was

b Bergamo. 1908. d Bergamo,

7
The Cardinal. 1955. Bronze. h208 cm. h81 4

in.

Manzu was born

shoemaker, and was apprenticed to

with no suggestion of the body

lyrical,

Cardinal

during his lifetime,

a cardinal reflects in priestly

solemnity on the authority of his


at

The

woodcarver before he began

the son of a

a plasterer

to study art.

Ie

and

was

to make religious reliefs and statues of saints


many churches including St Peter's, Rome and also for

commissioned
for

the University of Milan.

He

the Classical techniques of

later

taught sculpture, reviving

working

in

art.

created

"

Algardi.

Bacon, Brancusi,

Maillol, Marini

1991
Galleria Internazionale d'Arte

Moderns

di

Ca' Pesaro. Venice

bronze.

Marc

Franz

Little

Three yellow, curvaceous horses dominate the foreground


of a detached

hilly

landscape.

The main theme

is

colour,

Yellow Horses

inner feelings

it is

of Expressionist

good example of

artists called

the

Der Blaue

work of the group


Reiter ('the blue

The two most important members, Wassily

yellow signifying the passive female element, while the

rider').

sensual red of the horses' flanks contrasts with the spiritual

Kandinsky and Marc, invented the name because Marc

blue of the background.

It is this

use of luminous colour,

coupled with the representation of the animals

of

a life-force

make

that

the

way

it

this

and

as projections

of the

as

symbols

imagination,

one of Marc's most memorable images. In

uses colour and symbols to express the

Franz Marc, b Munich, 1880. d Verdun,


Little

artist's

Yellow Horses. 1912.

Oil

artist's

horses,

Kandinsky

Most of Marc's
but from 191

he was

work became more

Verdun

liked

liked blue.

abstract. Tragically,

in 191 6.

Delaunay, Jawlensky, Kandinsky, Marini, Stubbs

1916

on canvas. h66 x wl04.5 cm. h26 x w41'/6

and they both

paintings were of horses in strong colours,

2 his

killed at

liked riders

Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart

Marin John
Painted as

if

Maine Islands

seen through a window,

this

watercolour plays

with the amhiguities of space. Marin has taken a favourite


subject, a traditional seascape,

and simplified

it

into

its

most

room

basic forms and bright colours. Standing in a

itself

look

he

playing a visual

is

like a flat

window

painting

frame, making the view

hung on

a wall.

By doing

game with perceptions of

depth. Marin originally trained and

worked

as

flatness

his early

works show the influence of James McNeill

He went on

style, filtered

to

develop

this

and

an architect,

unique and individual

through Fauvism (with

Islands.

1922. Watercolour on paper. h42.8x w50.1cm.

distortions,

(with

flat

its

fragmentation of forms and play on perceptions), but seen

from an American perspective. Although he sometimes


painted in

oils,

he

is

best

known

usually of landscapes or studies

Davis.

for his watercolours,

of architecture.

Diebenkom, Hodler, Turner, Whistler

John Marin, b Rutherford. NJ. 1870. d Addison. ME, 1953

Maine

its

Cubism

patterns and violent colour) and

overlooking an expanse of sea dotted with islands, he has


enclosed the scene within a

and

Whistler.

hl6^xwl9&

in.

Phillips Collection,

Washington DC

Marini?Marino

Horseman

Solid and enigmatic, this statue with

conveys

a primitive

and sober, but

produced

sense of

rich in pathos

a series

vitality

its

simple outlines

and power.

and poetical

It is

feeling.

formal

and he explored many versions

that

of the horse and

of

over a long period of years.

it

rider,

leading Italian sculptor,

he often '-nmbined different techniques to obtain the effect

Marini

he wanted, but he was also a painter, whose portraits

of horsemen which were inspired by

seeing peasants fleeing from their villages in wartime. Like

included such major figures as the composer Igor

Giacomo Manzu, Marini was an

Stravinsky, the author

any

artistic

to his

own

individualist,

never part of

group or movement, and remaining


vision.

The only

influence

the statues of Classical Greece. His

Marino Marini. b

Pistoia.

faithful only

upon him was

"

Chagall. Clouet. Epstein, Lawrence.

1901. d Viareggio, 1980


in.

Museum

of

Miller

and the

that of

best-known theme was

1947. Bronze. hl01.6 cm. h40

Henry

Chagall.

Modern

Art,

New

York,

NY

Manzu

artist

Marc

Martin John
Concentrated into
dark sky, are

all

could muster to

nothing
fires

less

this

huge landscape, under an ominously

the intensely

show

The Great Dav of His Wrath

the

dramauc

effects that

awesome power of

Martin

nature.

It is

than the end of the world. Mountains crumble,

rage and bolts of lightning

fall

as

God

exacts his final

revenge on mankind. In the centre, tiny figures, naked


their

shame and

in

disgrace, are sucked into the primeval void

from whence they came. Nicknamed 'Mad Martin',

The Great Day of His Wrath. cl853.

Oil

fertile

imagination produced the grandiose and

lurid visionary paintings that created a sensation in

and Europe, and influenced

\\"

England

Turner and others.

Inspired by the works of John Milton, his huge canvases

showed

Biblical subjects

on

figures, exotic architecture

Paralysis

from

a stroke

a vast scale,

and

brought

" Bosch. Church.

lurid,

peopled with

menacing

his career to

Cole. Cozens. Friedrich. Turner

1854

on canvas. hl96 x

this

visionary began as a struggling heraldic and enamel painter,

John Martin, b Haydon Bridge. 1789. d Douglas.

before his

w303 cm. h77M x wll9%

in.

Tate Gallery. London

tiny

skies.

an abrupt end.

Martini Simone
This painting depicts the

when

Gabriel

she

to

is

first

moment

The Annunciation
in the

Annunciation

appears to the Virgin to announce that

be the mother of Christ. His billowing cape and

extended wings suggest that he has only

words of his greeting


as if issuing

from

his

are

just arrived.

mouth

at that

very

moment. Mary

recoils in horror at Gabriel's message, turning

him and
white

pulling her cloak

lilies

Simone

The

engraved on the gold background,

away from

Annunciation scenes, are depicted with unusual realism.

With

its

work

is

elegant figures and richly patterned surface this

one of the most perfect examples of the fourteenth-

century Gothic

style.

Simone worked

for

some of the most

important and enlightened patrons of his day, including the


Sienese government, the poet Petrarch and King Robert of

Anjou.

around her for protection. The

and Man's book,

traditional attributes

Martini, b Siena. cl284. d Avignon,

of

*-

Fra Angelico. Duccio, Lorenzo

Monaco, Tintoretto

1344

The Annunciation. 1333. Tempera on panel. hl84 x w210 cm. h72H x w82%

in.

Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence

Masaccio
The

The Holy

vaulted arch in this painting

is

a perfect illustration

of

short

the linear perspective which fascinated contemporary

Florentine
sightlines

artists.

Masaccio painted

converge on

the lines painted

on

pilasters reflect the

The

Masaccio (Tommaso
The Holy

Trinity.

The

renewed

figures

presence, of a solidity

di

scene so that

a single point, just as

a straight

stretch into the distance.

at the rime.

this

we would

all

the

interest in Classical architecture

unknown

Giovanni), b

real,

pioneer became one of the greatest fifteenth-

a situation

a telling

and

of

and space. His major surviving works are

light

his

economical tcchnie|ucs suggest a

Tragically, this brilliant painter died before he

* Grunewald. Masolino.

wl24 /6
7

in.

Santa Maria Novella. Florence

glance or
real

was

Piero della Francesca, Rouault

San Giovanni Valdarno. 1401. d Rome. cl428

C1420. Fresco. h667 x w317 cm. h262V6 x

through

gesture,

physical

before Masaccio. In his

who

followed. Original and authoritative, he had the ability to

convey the drama of

see

columns and

have an impression of

this

century Florentine painters, and an influence on those

road getting smaller as they


vaulting,

life,

Trinity

sense

frescos.
50.

Masolino
The two

saints

may be

Saint Peter and Saint Paul

identified

by the objects

Masaccio frequently worked together; Masolino, although the

in their

hands. Paul holds a sword, from his days as a soldier, whereas


Peter holds the keys of Heaven, given to

him by

Christ.

style

Originally part of an altarpiece for the church of Santa Maria

Maggiore

in

Rome,

this

panel was a collaboration between

Masolino

is

the

more

delicate artist

of the two, was profoundly influenced by Masaccio's

so

much so that experts


who painted what

working out

often have difficulty in

of

The
Tom' and 'Bij

in their collaborations.

names Masolino and Masaccio, meaning


Tom', may have come from an attempt

Masolino and Masaccio; the figures have Masaccio's


characteristic solidity.

elder

'Little

to

tell

them

the two, as seen here in the soft features of Peter's face, and

International Gothic style of his youth.

the relationship of colours in the robes. Masolino and

Giotto, Lorenzo

Monaco, Masaccio,

Sluter, Uccello

Masolino da Panicale. b Florence, cl383. d Florence, cl433


Saint Peter and Saint Paul. cl428.

Oil

apart.

After Masaccio's early death, Masolino reverted to the

on panel. hll4.5 x w54.4 cm. h45 x w21%

Philadelphia

Museum

of Art, Philadelphia,

PA

MaSSySQuenrin
The

cross, feather, rose,

indicate that this

documents

man

is

Portrait

paper and writing instruments


a notary,

someone who

for the public, but his actual identity

known. There

is

a directness in the

in the

is

not

way he looks out

Mono

influence:

certifies

of a Notary
hisa : There are other indications of Leonardo's
.

some of his

at the

women,

called 'grotesques'.

who
A

viewer, and a precision in the whole painting, from the

was

accurate likeness of the sitter to the landscape beyond the

and man of culture.

arcade. Massys

was profoundly influenced by Leonardo da

Yinci and Albrecht Diirer, and his


against a

sitters are usually

wooded or mountainous landscape

original

and

ironical

similar to Leonardo's caricature heads

a blacksmith

painter,

transformed himself into a musician


disnnguished and

C1510.

Oil

on panel. h80 x w64.5 cm.

h31*

w25^

in.

realistic portrait

he developed a highly polished technique.

Durer. Holbein. Leonardo. Memling. Sittow

Quentin Massys b ^ouvam. 1465/6. d Antwerp. 1530


Portrait of a Notary.

men and

According to legend, Massys

seen

similar to that

drawings are

of old

National Gallery of Scotland. Edinburgh

Matisse h<
A

flurry

The Dinner Table (Harmony

of primary colours dominates

of the interior of a room with a


entire surface

is

woman

harmonized into

of pure colour which has been

wall,

flattened, distorted

dazzling painting

laying a table.

The

a vibrant, unified pattern

skilfully integrated into the

structural composition, saturating the

merges with the

this

room. The tablecloth

and the forms have been completely

and

simplified. This

enhances the

lyrical

in

Red)

than description and has deliberately flouted the

conventional rules of drawing and perspective.

He and

primitive savagery of their style. Matisse's Fauvist

spanned the years 19058 and


develop throughout

his

central role in his work,

his style

manner

continued to

long career. Colour always played a

however,

as

can be seen

in the

flow of the ornamental forms and iridescent colours.

vibrant paper collages he produced in his last years.

Matisse has used colour as a means of expression rather

>* Bonnard, Derain, Gauguin.

Henri Matisse, b Le Cateau-Cambresis, 1869. d Cimiez,

The Dinner Table (Harmony

in

Red). 1908.

Oil

Van Gogh, Heron, Kirchner

1954

on canvas.

his

followers were called 'Fauves', or wild beasts, due to the

hl80x w246 cm. h71xv97

in.

Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg

Matta Roberto

Sebastian Fxhaurren

Untitled

Strange shapes inhabit this fantastical, amorphous

into infinite space. Matta

landscape. Visions from a dark imagination dart

turned to painting

spontaneously across the picture surface and beyond,


electrical currents.

to direct

rhythm.

them

An

They seem

into a

York and came

like

to resist any polar attraction

semblance of compositional unity or

unnatural blue-ish colour suffuses the scene

forms seem to be the

result

of

a bizarre

Untitled.

1950.

Oil

on canvas. hl30 x

Chile.

Ic

spent the war years

into contact with

movement. His

style

is

typical

in.

Latin

New

of painting, using the

symbiosis

h51'^ x vil&%

in

many members of the

of Surrealism, and was

Bellmer. Brauner, Gorky, Lam, Pollock

1911

wl95 cm.

trained as an architect, but

'automatic' technique of entirely free brushstrokes without


rational control,

of organic limbs and mechanical components extending

Roberto Sebastian Echaurren Matta. b

to inspire

Jackson Pollock and Arshile Gorky among others.

with an aura of mystery and other-worldliness, while the


pictorial

Surrealist

first

in 1957.

American Masters. Beverly

Hills.

CA

Memling

Descent from the Cross

H;
moment
men who

compositions. Memling's versions, however, lack the

Poignantly simple, this emotional

in the Christian

latter's

story has

been reduced

support Christ's

dramatic tension of the elder

body, and

cross.

The

to three

glimpse of the ladder which leans against the

figures are

crowded

picture, while the landscape

into the foreground of the

behind

is

became

his life in

artist. It

may be

popular figure

in the history

of

art.

His

Hugo van

der

in

evoke the quintessential elements of Netherlandish painting.

Bruges, where he

Goes and he often copied

of

realistic faces,

the leading painter of his day. His style was

influenced by

this lack

which has made Memling such an approachable and

luminous colours and simple, yet self-assured compositions

a visible, but not

prominent, part of the composition. Memling was born

Germany, but spent most of

artifice

the

Bouts. Van der Goes, Grunewald, Van der

Hans Memling. b Seligenstadt, 1433. d Bruges. 1494


Descent from the Cross. 1480/90. Oil on panel. h53.7 x w38 cm. h21^ x wl5

in.

Capllla Real.

Granada

Weyden

JVLCnP^S
Dressed

Mengs

in a

simple

Anton Raphael
brown cloak with

Self-portrait
into the character

a red underjacket,

unpretentious image of himself. His rather shabby clothing,

are excluded.

unkempt

Rome

hair

and drained features with

are an honest depiction

Many

known being

Gogh and Rembrandt. These


plumbed

swollen eyes

of an exhausted man, worn out with

hard work and inner struggle.


self-portraits, the best

tired,

painters have

of the

artist.

made

those of Vincent van

A German

by birth

and Spain, Mengs was

of the Xeo-Classical

Oil

who worked

a painter

all

glimpse of his

he has

real personality.

searching introspections,

Kauffmann. Raeburn. Rembrandt.

on canvas. hl02 x w77 cm. H40VS x w30Vi

in.

Hermitage Museum. St Petersburg

mostly

in

of religious and

emotions and heroic

era, yet here

Anton Raphael Mengs. b Aussig. 1728. d Rome. 1779

C1774.

)ften, as in this painting,

historical subjects in the restrained


style

into the inner psyche, give a penetrating insight

Self-portrait.

concrete details apart from a brush and a folder of sketches

presents us with a completely informal,

Vigee-Lebrun

let

us have a

Merz
The words

Mario

Unreal City
unreal

cittd irreale ('the

statement on the

artificial

contemporary urban
puzzling work.

city')

framework.

light within a triangular

life

are inscribed in

It is a

neon

brash, succinct

and transitory nature of

- but

also

an enigmatic and

very elusiveness can be interpreted as the

Its

source of infinite ambiguities of meaning, demonstrating

Merz's interest

in

exploring the fleeting, subtly changing

processes of thought as a
standardization of

comment on

modern

the bland

technological culture.

new form of Conceptual Art

an exponent of Arte Povera, a

developed

in Italy in the 1960s

disassociating artistic creation


culture.

As

the

name

which aimed

suggests, the defining criteria for Arte

Povera were poverty and lack of refinement, whether of


means, materials or
art

effect; banality

was

raised to the level

and commonplace objects were invested with

metaphysical significance.

Merz was

'* Beuys, Flavin,

Nauman, Oldenburg,

Viola

Mario Merz. b Milan, 1925


Unreal City. 1968.

Iron, wire

mesh, wax and neon

light.

at

from the notion of high

h200 x wl64 cm. h78% x w64i$

Stedelijk

Museum, Amsterdam

of

Metsu
A

delicate air

which

The Music Lesson

Gabriel

of mystery enshrouds

man and

woman

this little interior, in

Ostensibly a music lesson, the picture probably also depicts


a

scene of courtship, where music acts as the

is

achieved by

its

cool luminosity, as in the pale

tones of the wall. Brilliant areas of pure colour, such as in


the

woman's red bodice and

delicate spatial harmonies.

Gabriel

Metsu

Oil

based on the stable horizontals and verticals

intruding.

Metsu was

chair, with

pupil of Gerard

few diagonals

Dou, who

rich in subtle poetical allusions, providing revealing insights

into the lives

of the Dutch middle

classes in the seventeenth

century.

the man's blue hose, create

The

b Leyden. 1629. d

The Music Lesson. cl658.

is

specialized in domestic interior scenes. His paintings are

accompaniment of love. The calm, balanced mood of this


painting

composition

of the spinet, picture- frames and

are seated at a virginal.

carefully structured

" Dou. Hammershoi, De Hooch.

Amsterdam. 1667

on canvas. h38.4xw32.2 cm.

hl5Hxwl2%

in.

National Gallery. London

Ter Borch.

Vermeer

Michelangelo
With

its

The Doni Tondo

intriguing composition, stunning colours

monumental

figures, this painting

masterpieces of Western

art.

The

is

by Michelangelo but they are consistent with the

and

considered one of the

Virgin, Joseph and the

The

through recent cleaning). This painting

Doni Tondo because

Infant are masterfully entwined to create an animated

sculpted nudes in the background are

it

was owned by
round

Florence and because

it is

unrelated to the Holy Family but they give Michelangelo an

Michelangelo was not

just a painter

opportunity to show off his

poet and military engineer and

composition.

skill

for depicting muscles

the play of light over the surface of the

vibrant colours are surprising

human

body.

and

The

compared with other works

is

is

the

brilliant

(revealed

often called the

Doni

{tondo) in

family in

shape.

but a sculptor, architect,

considered to be one of

the greatest masters of the Renaissance.

iW

Bronzino, Delia Robbla. Rosso Fiorentino. Palma Vecchio

Michelangelo Buonarroti, b Caprese, 1475. d Rome, 1564

The Doni Tondo. C1503/4. Tempera on panel, dlam.120 cm. diam.47%

Rome

colouus He used in the Sistine Chapel in

in.

Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence

Millais Sir John


The

richness of tins painting

is

Mariana

Everett

movement.

reminiscent of a jewel

encrusted Medieval book cover.

The

entire

room, with

Victorian

its

Millais

artists.

was probably the most

stained glass, velvet wall coverings and suggestive religious

academic painter, he was

atmosphere,

Brotherhood which sought

reflects the Victorian taste for decorative

craftsmanship inspired by Gothic designs.


crafted details of the painting

- from

from

bring together the

table

to

emulate painters

- and

the

Their aim was to reintroduce

a style

HVv

Burne-Jones, Hunt, Simone Martini, Raphael, Rossetti

JHUtfl^l

.'vj^^d'v'H

<fm

fofl

Hj:l &mt

;,

jj

H^^'t^jp

PH

fOSafl

"''HH

'

jjf

^f^fl
ra

v9b3

"By'

ill
.tW^^^M

)fjy

IBHH^H

John Everett Millais. b Southampton, 1829. d London. 1896

Mariana. 1851.

Oil

of fresh Christian

sincerity painted with detailed clarity.

features of the Pre-Raphaelite

"

Sir

earlier than

contemporary poem by Tennyson,

mam

on canvas. H59.7 x w49.5 cm. h23'/, x wl9!

all

co-founder of the Pre Raphaelite

iuw

ml

of

Raphael, the sixteenth-century High Renaissance mister.

superbly

the garden outside to

on the

the delicacy of Mariana's embroidery


subject, taken

The

filed

fashionable and technically brilliant

in.

Private collection

JVLlllCt Jean-Francois

The Gleaners

Three peasant

women

harvest after

has been reaped. In the distance, the

it

collect the scanty remains

harvesters are loading up the plentiful crop.

golden

light gives a

painting

is

noble dignity to the

more than

a harsh social

comment on

are far

also

by the

rich,

Jean-Francois Millet, b Gruchy. 1814. d Barbizon.


Oil

form and

their

'" Corot, Courbet. Daubigny, Pissarro, T

1875

on canvas. h83 x wllO cm.

h32%

provoked

monumental

qualities.

Millet transformed scenes

of heart-breaking poverty into images of epic heroism,

The Gleaners. 1857.

their intimacy with

century. Millet's drawings are also notable for their


sculptural simplification of

the poor, peasant classes,

away on the horizon.

of peasants and

much criticism among his contemporaries, this painting is


now regarded as one of the masterpieces of the nineteenth

this

life. It is

left

toil

the land with flagrant realism. Although this

cool,

but

figures,

mere depiction of rural

reduced to labouring over the slim pickings

who

The

depicting the noble

of the

x w43V4

in.

Musee

d'Orsay. Paris

Rousseau

Miro

Women,

Bird by Moonlight

Playing and mingling acrobatically with one another, these

this

imaginary, frolicking Figures project themselves vivaciously

hallucinatory beings, which

into the foreground.

away

to

show

The background

paint has been rubbed

the canvas underneath, lending

it

raw,

Spanish

artist's

works. In

its

seem

portrayal of weird,
to spring

subconscious dream-world, the picture


Surrealist

is

movement, of which Miro became

earthv quality. Kvoking imagery from a primitive world, the

member. He worked with Max Ernst on

magical figures conjure up thoughts of prehistoric cave-

decor for Diaghilcv's

paintings, restored to us with

all

their freshness.

painting forms part of a series entided

and

is

The

'Women and

executed
Birds'

considered to be one of the most important of

all

throughout

"

ballet

Bird by Moonlight. 1949. Oil on canvas.

h81.5 x w66 cm. H32 x

Romeo and

his

life.

Arp, Baumeister, Brauner. Dali. Ernst

w26

in.

of the

prominent

the creation of the

Juliet,

and also

wide range of lithographs, etchings and ceramics

Joan Miro. b Montroig. 1893. d Palma. 1983

Women.

from

typical

Tate Gallery. London

Modersohn-Becker
Gazing out

in a

deep

reverie,

a foxglove in her hand.

She

an old

sits at

woman

firmly holds

the very edge of the

picture-plane in front of a held of poppies and an inverted


bottle.

The

flowers, bottle

and

woman

are

great solidity; their massive shapes easily

Modersohn-Becker's

sensitivity to colour

all

fill

is

painted with

in

luminous yellow-green

Germany and worked

there

light.

with a Glass Bottle

\\(

frequent trips to Paris gave her contact with the thick,


textural technique

of Vincent van

Gogh and

the solid,

simple forms and colours of Paul Gauguin. This work was


painted in the

last

year of Modersohn-Becker's

age of

the canvas.

tragically early at the

equallv

colour and form, and emphasis on

important to the composition. The sky, for example, glows


with

Paula Old Poorhc

German

life;

31. In its simplification


line,

she died

of

her work anticipates

Expressionism.

Although she was born

most of her

life,

the artist's

- Van Gogh. Gauguin, Gontcharova, Jawlensky, Nolde

Paula Modersohn-Becker. b Dresden. 1876. d Worpswede. 1907


Old Poorhouse

Woman with

a Glass Bottle 1907.

Oil

on canvas. h96xw80.2cm.

h37%x w31V$

in.

Ludwig Roselius Sammlung, Bremen

Modigliani

Nude

\mcck

The female model

leans against a chair in a plain interior

restrained style of painting and was nol

which provides no

distractions, allowing us to gaze at her

any

The nude was

beauty.

and

this

is

portrayals.

Modigliani's main pictorial subject

considered to be one of his most beautiful


It is

also

one of

his earliest

works.

The

The

in Italy,

he went to Paris

his short life there.

elongated, angular lines, and the almost

I'

is<

1)

affiliated to

Cubism, African sculpture and the work of Paul Cezanne.

Born

girl's

<

he was profoundly influenced by

painter and sculptor, Modigliani lived

submissive and serene expression gives the painting an


erotic charge.

movement although

his

When

in

at

1906 and spent the

he died, aged

;s,

work. Modigliani developed

Amedeo

his

Modigliani. b Livorno. 1884. d Pans.

Nude. cl912.

Oil

on canvas. H92.1 x

own

individual,

in.

of

beloved girl-friend [eanne Hebuterne committed suicide.

* Boucher,

Brancusi, Cezanne. Foujita. Munch. Picasso

1920

w60 cm. h36% x w23%

rest

of tuberculosis,

sculptural quality of the sitter's face, are typical of the


artist's

an exhausting pace.

Courtauld Institute Galleries. London

Moholy-Nagy u
A

perfect illusion of objects suspended in space

this painting.

The

artist

CHX

S2 io
is

created by

has placed geometric forms within

demonstrate the relationship between space and volume.

Moholv-Nagy was

active in industrial design, photography,

the confines of a narrowing grid pattern to create an

sculpture, cinematography, writing

impression of three-dimensionality and perspective. The

his notable

importance of
ability

this painting lies in the

way

of light and colour to move objects

infinite

it

explores the

in a

seemingly

environment. Influenced by the ideas of the Russian

Constructivist

movement,

geometric forms of

all

ornamentation, using them to

Oil

from 1920

on canvas. h76 x w96.5 cm.

IL,

h29% x w38

1946
in.

to 1937

Institute

when he

Private collection

settled in

of Design.

i- Gabo. Lissitzky, Malevich,

One of

Alexander Korda's movie More Things

Come. Hungarian by birth, Moholy-Nagy lived in

Laszlo Moholy-Nagy. b Bacsborsod, 1895. d Chicago,

CHX. 1939.

special effects for

The

the artist has stripped the

and stage design.

commercial achievements was the creation of the

Rodchenko

to

Germany

Chicago and founded

Mondrian
A

Composition

Pict

simple black grid pattern interspersed with vivid sections

of primary colour

is

composition. Mondrian developed

a style that

banished the

conventions of three-dimensional space and the curved

He wished
-

to build his pictures

straight lines

line.

from the simplest elements

and primary colours - which he moved

around the canvas


balance. His aim

until

was

he found the perfect composition

to create an objective art

whose laws would somehow

reflect the

of discipline

order of the

universe.

The

use of pure line and colour highlights the

painting's connection to the

boldly displayed in this geometrical

Mondrian was
in 1938,

and

a leading

travelled to

De

movement, of which

Stijl

member. He

Oil

on canvas. h45

native Holland

his studio

was

destroyed by bombing. After two years he went on to

York and

his

reflecting the

compositions became

more

restless

slightly

rhythms of

more

life in

Broadway and boogie-woogie.


" Albers. Van Doesburg, Judd. Malevich. Rodchenko

Piet Mondrian. b Amersfoort. 1872. d Ni

Composition 1929.

left his

London, where

Museum. New

York.

NY

New

colourful,

the land

of

Monet

Claude

Waterlily

Shimmering with mingling colours and


landscape

achieved

is

airy

and saturated with

this effect

by covering

his

the

reflections, this

light.

Monet

blues, reds

and greens

When Monet

Giverny he began to see

became

a subject

death. His

house

pictorial possibilities

and

Paris,

1840. d

Paris,

air

1900, reflect the constant

across the surface of the water-lily

movement, but

his

member of the

experiments with paint,

colour and light also formed a starting point for abstract

eye, but

it

God what

an

eye!'.

until his
in

- Cezanne.

Kupka. Pissarro, Seurat,

1926

h88 x w93 cm. h34 3/4 x w36'/4

art.

His near-contemporary Cezanne described him as 'only an

in

of paintings of the garden, executed

Waterlily Pond. 1899. Oil on canvas.

Impressionist

on the surface of
at his

which he painted again and again

first series

Claude Monet b

its

water-garden

and

pond. Monet was not only a leading

canvas with individual

that glint like light

built a

summers of 1899 and

variations of light

has

brushstrokes of different colours, creating a rich mist of

water.

Pond

in.

National Gallery, London

Sisley, Turner

Moore

ik tin

Recumbent

Monumental and almost primeval,


to

this

carved statue stems

have been created more by the forces of nature than by

man. Semi-abstract
outlines suggest the

in

form,

work of

its

smooth and rounded

the elements, while

the

at

primitive sculpture,

Moore

vitality

same

of ancient and

revived the tradition

of"

consciously reflected the contours and qualities of landscape

and rock. As

simple, solid shapes of his

a result, the

direct

works he

they wire often pierced.

Ienry Moore's

open

Figure. 1938. Green Hornton stone.

air,

>nc of the

works

America and Europe.

Bourdelle, Hepworth. Maillol. Manzu, Rodin

h88.9 x wl32.7 cm. h35 x w52Vi

in.

Tate Gallery. London

are

and several of

commissions stand outside major buildings

Henry Moore, b Castleford. 1898. d Much Hadham. 1986


:

distinguishing hallmarks of his ligures or groups was that

frequently displayed in the

carving into stone or wood. In so doing he emphasized the


natural textures of his material, and in his massive

igure

sculptures have a powerfully brooding presence.

time evoking the soft curves and flowing outlines of a

female body. Inspired by the

his

North

Morandi
Remote and imprisoned
collection

of

jugs,

Giorgio

Still

in their austere,

cups and containers

is

contemplative compositions. While he was influenced briefly

enveloped

by Giorgio de Chirico's idea of Metaphysical Painting,

in a

Morandi's withdrawn, sensitive personality led him to stand

neutral background; they appear to exist in a complete

vacuum.
scene.

With

variations

it

harmonious composition and subtle colour

conveys an

his

of meditative

air

almost exclusively painted

throughout

still

long career.

He

lifes

serenity.

Morandi

sought to express the pure,

Giorgio Morandi. b Bologna. 1890. d Bologna,

1960.

Oil

contemporary

hl4^x wl3i*

The

many

sense of calm meditation that

pervades his paintings invites comparison with the work of

that

of his contemporaries.

W Cezanne,

1964

on canvas. h38 x w33.5 cm.

artists.

Jean-Baptiste-Simeon Chardin and Paul Cezanne rather than

of bottles and jugs

poetic beauty of these objects in his powerfully simple,

Still Life.

aloof from the intellectual turmoil and experiments of

sense of mystery pervades this simple, intimate


its

Life

cool tones, a

in.

Private collection

Chardin.

De

He

is

also

Chirico, Nicholson.

known
De

for his etchings.

Stael

Moreau
A

sensual,

which

is

naked nymph

fantastically

Gustave
sits

Galatea

languidly in an exotic grotto.

colourful anemones, corals and other mineral flora. She

watched by an
based on

eerie, three-eyed

a story

monster. This picture

from Greek mythology,

telling

is

is

of the

The technicolour myriads of underwater

blooms, and the softness of the execution, give the painting


a magical, dream-like quality.

Moreau was

Gustave Moreau b

Paris,

Galatea. 1880.

Oil

Paris.

1826. d

on panel. h85 x

associated with

in.

painters

moved awaj from


They

preferred to derive their inspiration from an imaginative


synthesis of often literary or mythological source--.
this painting,

Moreau

Private collection

in

rather than descriptive meaning.

also painted a large

" Bonnard.

they used colour and form to imbue their

were highly acclaimed by

1898

w67 cm. h33% x w26%

movement, whose

work with expressive

unrequited love of the Cyclops, Polyphemus, for the


Nereid, Galatea.

the Symbolist

the objective naturalism of the Impressionists.

decorated with a profusion of

number of watercolours, which

his

Klimt. Modigliani,

contemporaries.

Mucha, Redon.

Vuillard

Morisot Berthe
A

young mother

baby

in a cradle.

is

The Cradle

watching devotedly over her sleeping

The tenderness and

love implicit in this

painting are achieved not only by the careful disposition of


the

and

two

figures but also in the

delicate

brushwork. The sensitive handling of textures,

such as the diaphanous


satin curtain

subde harmonies of colours

behind the

veil

draped over the crib and the

woman

(the artist's sister),

enhance

Honore Fragonard. She was taught by Edouard Manet (who


became her brother-in-law) and
directness ot this

the even light and

work owe much

to his influence. Later,

she was to be heavily influenced by Pierre Auguste Renoir.

Although she often exhibited her paintings alongside those


of the Impressionists, Morisot's work retained
delicacy

all

of

its

own.

the intimacy of the scene. Morisot was the great-

granddaughter of the eighteenth-century painter Jean-

Berthe Morisot. b Bourges. 1841. d

The Cradle. 1872.

Oil

Paris.

on canvas. h56 x

Cassatt. Corot. John. Manet. Renoir. Reynolds

1895

w46 cm. h22 x wl8

in.

Musee

d'Orsay, Paris

feminine

Moroni g
Splendidly regal, this
all

his

pompous

man

iovanni Battista

Portrait of the

has been captured by Moroni

dignity and luxurious clothing.

He

in

sumptuous

effects

background

defend the honour of

distinction to the

conflict.

This chivalrous attitude

restrained

and
is

citv in

the wall: 'Here


terror'. It is

am

with no

fear,

times of

in the inscription

and of death

detail, the simplicity


sitter.

of the composition lends

Moroni's grandiose treatment of the

full-length portrait (especially those depicting ordinary

further reflected in his

and proud bearing, and also

which he derived from the Venetian

masters Giorgione and Titian. Tree from unnecessary

is

carrying a sword, which probably refers to his readiness to


his family

Duke of Albuquerque

on

have no

people)

made him one of

of picture

the leading exponents of this type

in the sixteenth century.

an intimate and confident portrait, blending a

striking realism with the artist's love

of rich colours and

Giovanni Battista Moroni b Albino. 1520/5. d Bergamo.


Portrait of the

Duke

of

Albuquerque 1560.

Oil

"

Dossi, Giorgione. Kneller. Lotto, Titian

1578

on canvas. hll6 x

w86 cm.

M5% y w33>

in.

Private collection

Motherwell Robei

Elegy to the Spanish Republic No.

Broad, massive forms are dramatically applied

on

the white canvas.

in

black paint

These heavy, slow-moving shapes have

engendered numerous and varied interpretations - from


phallic

symbols to musical notes - but none,

are totally convincing.

power

to suggest so

The

many

however diverse they may


of the numerous works
by the Spanish

Civil

painting's quality
rich
be.

in themselves,

the

title

suggests

it is

It

has

become one of

artist

Helen Frankenthaler, Motherwell was one of the

principal

members of

numerous drawings,

Collection, Cambridge,

MA

prints

attention to

paper which incorporate paint.

wll8&

in.

made

and inspired collages of ripped

( Flavin, Frankenthaler. Kline. Louis,

Robert Motherwell, b Aberdeen, WA, 1915. d Cape Cod, MA, 1991


Elegy to the Spanish Republic No. 134. 1974. Acrylic on canvas. h237.5 x w300 cm. h93! x

Graham Gund

the Abstract Expressionist

movement. His spontaneity of technique and

approach. Apart from his paintings, Motherwell also

one

in the artist's 'Elegy' series, inspired

War.

34

formal rather than narrative qualities epitomize their

lies in its

and varied analogies,

As

Motherwell's most renowned images. Married to fellow

Ryman, Soulages

Moulins Master of

Coronation of the Virgin

Elegantly dressed in rich red and blue velvet brocades, the

contemporaries.

Virgin and Child are portrayed surrounded by angeis and

painters, he

bathed

in a mystical light.

Behind them

visionary background, and a crescent

The

is

a fantastical

moon

lies at their feet.

Master's refined technique brings out the luminous

opulence of the jewels

in the

crown, and the elongated

in

One

Moulins Cathedral.

his real

of the great

was named

him

Little

is

Some

work,

Goes and adopted

experts believe that he

may have been

Court painter to the French King, Charles VIII.

Master

was influenced by Hugo van der

the restrained elegance of his Flemish

of Moulins. Active

Van

Eyck. Van der Goes, Filippo Lippi. Van der

1480-1500

Coronation of the Virgin. cl500.

Oil

on panel. hl57 x

wl42

cm. h61 3/S x

w55 ^ in.
7

Notre Dame. Moulins

including

several theories about

features of the Virgin have a marvellous lyrical quality. This

highly accomplished artist

a triptych

known about him,

name, which has produced

his identity.

after his principal

Weyden

the

MuchaMphc
As noble and

spiritual as

La Trappistine

Joan of Arc,

yet sensually

provocative and appealing, a dream-like seductress stands


resting her

hand on

botde of liqueur. The round

decoradon surrounding her head

like a

halo gives this

style

attempted to blend

decorative unity based

Mucha was
Style's

flowers

Delineated in elongated, curvilinear strokes and coloured in

Mucha

the stylish elegance of Art

is

an example of

Nouveau, of which Mucha was

one of the chief exponents. The

artists

of the Art Nouveau

Alphonse Mucha. b Ivancice. 1860. d Prague. 1939


La Trappistine. 1897 Lithograph on paper. h206 x w77 cm. h81 x w30&
.

sets

categories of art into a

graceful, elegant linear forms.

largely responsible for popularizing

in.

the

on slender twining stems.

prolific graphic artist,

also designed jewellery, stained glass, furniture, stage

and costumes. He spent much of

his career in Paris, but

returned to his native Czechoslovakia in 19 10.

many of

key motifs, such as undulations of flowing hair and

temptress an almost divine appearance of rare beauty.

pale, watery- tones, this advertising poster

all

on

Klimt.

Moreau. Munch. Toulouse-Lautrec

Suntory Ltd Collection. Osaka

Munch
\

Edvard

The Madonna

mysterious sensuality draws us into

of the Madonna, daringly depicted

this vibrant painting

in a

pose of naked

abandon. Uneasily provocative, she exudes


sexuality,

but there

is

The

Munch's own

Horn

in

life

was tinged with death,

Norway, he began

frenetic energy

made him

Expressionism,

and nervous

his career painting in a

more conventional manner but soon became

The

paintings

troubled soul.

illness

in

Oil

on canvas. h91 x

founder of the

style

Bernini. Gauguin,

known

maximum

in.

Nasjonalgallenet. Oslo

Van Gogh, Kokoschka. Modigliani

art.

Ins intense,

which emotive distortions and

expressiveness.

interested in

w71 cm. h35% x w28

and simmering passions of

exaggerated colours are used to achieve

Edvard Munch, b Lote. 1863. d Oslo, 1944

The Madonna. 1894/5.

Instead

express his innermost feelings and desires through his

swirling,

tempestuous background seems to evoke

crises.

a challenging

also an underlying sense of tragedy in

her deep black hair and dark eyes.

work of Vincent van Gogh and Paul Gauguin,

the

of painting the world around him he began to seek to

as

Murillo Bartolome Esteban

The Immaculate Conception of the

Munllo's

visionary painting of deep piety and religious sentiment,

this

depiction of the

commissioned
Sacerdotes

Madonna

in the

heavenly realm was

for the Hospital de !os Venerables

in Seville.

The

softness of the

the harsh, almost brutal realism


his

brushwork and

own brand of spiritual

devotion.

and heightened emotions of

Spanish contemporaries, Jusepe Ribera and Francisco de

Zurbaran, Murillo's

style

is

more tender and

the delicate yet rich colouring, bathed in a gentle light,

reminiscent of the sixteenth-centurv Italian

imbue the composition with tenderness.

His works were

pntti

surround the Madonna

like

Swirling, playful

an aureole. The

century.

century Spanish art theorists, but the painting

W Andrea

Bartolome Esteban

Murillo. b Seville.

The Immaculate Conception

1618. d

of the Escorial.

Seville,

cl678.

much

in

sentimental,

artist

fired

with

del Sarto. Correggio, Ribera. Velazquez. Zurbaran

1682

Oil

Correggio.

demand throughout Europe and

were widely copied and imitated well into the nineteenth

composition follows the form prescribed by seventeenthis

Escorial

Compared with

on canvas. h274

wl90

cm. hl08 x

w74%

in.

Museo

del Prado, Madrid

Nash

This nightmarish image of


metal

is

Dead Sea

Paul
a vast, static sea

of photographs taken by the

German

of wrecked

tragedy and triumph of those bitterly glorious years.

an imaginative and visionary transformation of a set

aircraft near

are discernible in this

artist at a

dump

for

wrecked

essentially an artist

Romantics,

bleak

moonlight permeates the whole scene and evokes an eerie

atmosphere of death and destruction.

most compelling statements


Air Ministry in the

as

an

official

style

war

Oil

who

of painting

" Bomberg,

in the

1930s and 40s. His

Burra, Friedrich. Lewis.

1946

w60

sometimes associated with the Neo-

photography.

artist to the

on canvas. hl01.6 x wl52.4 cm. h40 x

is

practised a strongly theatrical, romantic


artistic

range

included engravings, book illustrations, industrial design and

one of Nash's

Second World War, capturing the

Paul Nash, b London. 1889. d Boscombe.

Dead Sea 1940-41.

It is

of visionary landscapes. The dramatic

content of his work

Oxford. Wings, wheels and fuselage

mass of metal carnage.

Although influenced by Surrealism, Nash remained

in.

Tate Gallery, London

Wadsworth

Nauman
Flickering
in

neon

coloured capital

enchantment

is

Bruce

lights flash
letters.

Life Death,

words which

sense of

are boldly written

wonder and

like

arbitrary sequences.

to

convey 'hidden' meanings and

flash

idea to

on

The overlapping phrases

its

ultimate expression by

and association: the work of art has


message, presented in

human communication and the


The use of

multi-layered meanings of worldly experience.

IA. 1941
Knows Doesn't Know. 1983. Neon

Beuys.

Flavin,

itself

Life

Death.

tubing with clear glass suspension frames.

become

pure and disdlled form.

Merz. Oldenburg, Viola

Bruce Nauman. b Fort Wayne.

Anthony d'Offay Gallery, London

Nauman

takes this

means of representation

contradict each other and can be taken to represent the

ambiguities inherent in

art (especially in

northern Europe) since the Middle Ages.

judgments

from on high, and bv the words themselves, which


and off in

Knows Doesn't Know

and symbols

mes! ages has been a popular feature of

generated both by the medium, through

which the messages mysteriously appear

signs

.203.2cm.diam.80in.

the

Newman
Austere

of red

in its restraint

is

and

Covenant

Barnett

direct in

its

simplicity, a flat held

divided and ordered by two thin, vertical stripes of

brown and cream-white. Traditional

artistic

techniques have

been discarded in favour of creating a pure tension between


the as\ mmetrical blocks

of sm<x>th colour. The

arrangement of the stnpes encourages the viewer to


concentrate

make

on

the spatial experience of pure colour, they

the picture plane almost

open out before

stnpes.

which came to be known

Barnett

Newman

Covenant. 1949.

b
Oil

New

York. NY.

as 'zips',

1905. d New

us.

These

were to become

York. NY.

trademark of Newman's
minimalistic of the

making him one of the most

style,

Amencan

painters. Rather than beauty,

Abstract Expressionist

Newman

sought to suggest

abstraction; he intended that

only look

paintings but also sense the refined

at his

spirituality

and mysticism suggested by

sheer

He was

size.

their colours

Ravin. Judd. Reinhardt. Rothko.

Ryman. Serra

1970

on canvas. hl21.9x wl52.4 cm. h48xw60in. Hirshhorn

Museum and

and

deeply influential on younger painters of

the 1960s.
a

we should not

son of mystical

Sculpture Garden. Washington

DC

Nicholson Ben
A

series

work

of

lyrical,

in the 1950s,

arabesque

August 1956 (Val d'Orcia)

lines, typical

of Nicholson's

weave between some apparently

from

abstract

forms that on closer inspection turn out to be everyday


objects such as bottles, glasses, plates and jugs.

essence of the

flat,

are synthesized in his painting.

Only the

Nicholson played

coloured outlines has been captured,

each reduced to a fragmented geometrical shape that

different angles, as well as in the pure structural

compcc'tions of Piet Mondrian. Both of these influences

is

still-life

forms. His career spanned over 60 years, embracing

his revolutionary

background. Nicholson was interested

prints.

Cubism, where forms are

split

(Val d'Orcia).

1956.

innovations of

and viewed simultaneously

b Denham. 1894. d London.

August 1956

Oil

caned

reliefs, paintings,

w214

drawings and

Braque, Hepworth. Mondrian. Morandi, De Stael

1982

and pencil on board. hl22 x

European avant-

garde while maintaining attachment to the landscape and

arranged on a white table set against a half-grey, half-brown


in the

A pioneer of abstract art,

a significant role in the

cm. h48 x

w84

in.

Tate Gallery. London

Noguchihamu
Suspended
solid

in

midair

bronze stone exudes the

of the forces of nature.

unashamedly, as
are

more

if

Its

vitality

magical object, a

and palpable presence

sheer rawness

is

presented

to assert that the stone's inner qualities

significant than anything

cast, to represent.

Stone of Spiritual Understanding

like a gravity-defying,

it

could be caned, or

Buddhist philosophy (which strongly

influenced Noguchi) ascribes such principles to natural


objects.

Noguchi believed sculpture

space, the

continuum of our

to

existence'.

Isamu Noguchi. b Los Angeles. CA. 1904. d

be

'the

much of his inspiration from


own sculptures, however, are

the older sculptor's work. His

invested with a

new

and primordial dynamism, of which the material


essence. In addition to sculpture

briefly

York. NY.

elemental

itself

is

the

Noguchi concerned

himself with theatre and costume designs, garden plans and

even playground

facilities.

perception of

Working

New

with Constantin Brancusi (from 1927 to 1928), he derived

Bourgeois. Brancusi. Calder. Kapoor. Moore, Smith

1988

Stone of Spiritual Understanding. 1962. Bronze, wood and metal. hl33 cm. H52VS

in.

Museum

of

Modern

Art.

New

York.

NY

Nolan
A

bearded man, with

his

expression on his face,


with rope.

evoked

The

Gray Sick

sir si dne<
hands clenched and an intense

dysentery and had to he lashed to the saddle of his camel;

secured to the back of

he died

is

relentless heat

August i860

of eroded earth underfoot.

In

men

first

left

Melbourne on

the

camel

from

and scorching desert are

In the cloudless, oppressive blue sky

Australia.

group of

the forces of nature

18

its

objective

Charles

it

lives

oil

on board. h92 x

wl20

cm. h36 x

w47

upon them. He

paintings of the notorious bushranger

Ned

modern

Boyd, Cole.

Kitaj.

Manni

Collection of Lord McAlpine of

West Green

toll

also painted a series

widely recognized as the leader of the

in.

outback of

of explorers and the

Sidney Nolan, b Melbourne. 1917. d London. 1992

Gray Sick. 1949. Enamel and

1949 Nolan travelled

to paint in the

school of painting.

rray,

one of the explorers, suffered from severe headaches and

Sir

17 April 1861. In

Queensland, describing the

expedition to cross

in disaster.

on

Melbourne

and the ridges

Although the expedition completed

was badly organized and ended

at sunrise

his native

Kelly.

Nolan

Australian

of
of
is

Noland Kenneth
Concentric
the

image of an apparendj spinning

movement
the paint
(

is

.is

it

produced by the
is

target.

oncentradng the

order to achieve

irregular staining caused by

effect

of colour

Noland

maximum

In using

Leaves

area unpainted

visual intensity.

first

in this

way. The technique of staining adds

le

ambiguity: the paint actualK


the tain

was one

mists to exploit the possibilities of hare canvas

1962.

Acrylic

on canvas. hl82 x

wl82 cm. h72

'

w72

in.

movement
in

is

in

becomes

part

connected

of the weave of

to the Post Painted)

us exploitation of the

the prccisck centred image,

flat

which

generates no physical or emotional reverberation beyond


itself.

Noland often painted

in series,

using the same motif

recurrently. These included the target,

chevron and lozenge

shapes.
Albers. Frankenthalet. Louis.

Kenneth Noland b Asheville. NC. 1924


Gift.

This painting

Abstractionist

a visual

as.

canvas surface and

thinned acrylic

.1

a large

of the

This illusion of

absorbed into the unprimed canvas.

paint for this staining,


in

Gift

of paint surrounded by bare canvas create

circles

Tate Gallery. London

Ryman,

Stella

Nolde Emil

Red Poppies

Watery splotches of colour seem to

The shapes of the poppies and

Nolde included

float across the paper.

most important elements of the composition. Nolde

was

trained

initially

to be

Most of his works

officially

characteristic

imbued with the deep emotions

of the German Expressionist

artists

of whom

art

he was perhaps the most powerful. His goal was to 'grasp

what
it

lies at

and landscapes, many of

Hitler as a

menace

own mind and

spirit'.

Emil Nolde. b Nolde, 1867. d Seebull,

Red Poppies. cl920. Watercolour on

Common

"

subjects for

He

and worked

nevertheless continued to

in

Germany

h34.3

w48.3 cm. hl3&

wl9

Ensor, Modersohn-Becker, Pechstein, Vlaminck

in.

He

and

do so and

for the rest of his

1956
paper.

beliefs.

to society

the very heart' and 'transform nature by infusing

with one's

own

prohibited to paint, draw or produce any kind of

whatsoever.

lived

his

swept up by the nationalism of the Nazis, only

condemned by

as a furniture-maker, turning to painting later in his career.

are

Biblical scenes

which were based on the expression of

their vivid red colour are the

Leonard Hutton Galleries. New York, NY

life.

O'Keeffe

Radiator Building

reorgia

New York

Rising above the dusky street-lights of a

md

topped by

gleaming, decorative pinnacle, a

Skyscraper towers over the surrounding buildings.


slender form

is

punctuated by the bright

windows, giving
night sky.

it

the appearance

of a

work

night

glowing

ret!

scale.

right.

Balancing

this

on

the left

light.

is

As

Her

clear,

pioneer of

is

known

new modernism

Davis. Estes, Hopper, Sheeler

llll
III

III III

mi

II

:
Ml

iiiiini

inn nun 111


|

ill

ir
|

" "
llll

llll
I

II

IIIJIIIII

inn

Radiator Building 1927.

Prairie. Wl.
Oil

1887. d Santa

Fe.

HUH

mini

Hill llll illlll


1 1

Georgia O'Keeffe b Sun

in

III

HIIIIII
ii i

III

II

nun mi
i

because of its

nun

ii i

llll HIIIIII

inn mini

NM. 1986

on canvas. hl21.9 x w76.2 cm. h48 x

w30

in.

Rsk

of

for her paintings of


latter

often

on

a giant

simple forms, bordering on naivety, and

O'Keeffe's

'Precisionist'

well as simplified renditions

unconventional choice of subject matter, made her

strange light projects upwards from behind,

horizontal band with neon

clarity.

mountains, bones and flowers - the

glittering jewel in the

illuminating the misty, wintcrv sky and the vaporous

emanation on the

sometimes termed

urban architecture she

Its

of the

lights

is

machine-like

tall

University. Nashville.

TN

in the

USA.

Oldenburg
Absurd and

kitsch, this massively over-sized version

of a

He wanted

sense of incredulity.

The

all

twentieth-century icon evokes


artist's

desire to imitate

and displace one of the most potent

symbols of American culture enhances


impact.
also in

Not only
its

Giant Hamburger

Claes

soft

form

it

crushes

all

traditional sculpture being solid

an American Pop

its

power and

artist

preconceived notions of

and hard. Oldenburg was

concerned with making

art

his art to reflect

contemporary, everyday

complexity and change. This work clearly takes

cue from the American 'fast-food' empire that was


developing,

unconventional subject matter but

in its

its

at

meteoric speed,

Oldenburg established

shop

in the 1960s.
in

Green

In 1964

Street,

New

York, from which he sold painted plaster replicas of

food and other commodities.

from

materials and products from the commercial environment.

"

Dine.

Duchamp. Hamilton,

Lichtenstein, Segal. Warhol

Claes Oldenburg b Stockholm. 1929


Giant Hamburger. 1962. Printed sailcloth stuffed with foam.

H132

w213

cm. h52 x w82>6

in.

Art Gallery of Ontario. Toronto

life in
its

Orcagna
Both the centra] figure

in this

Sainl

patron saint of Florentine bankers


k-.it',

allude to the Bankers' Guild

work

to

and the use of gold

who commissioned

adorn the church of Orsanmichele. This

painting, called 'gold ground' because of


topical

between the master and


workshop.

tins

style

of

background,

of fourteenth-century Florence. The figures are

idealized, colourful

and highly patterned, but they do not

Bare the realism and depth evident


jOrcagna's

artistic

Orcagna (Andrea
Saint

its

di

predecessor

in

in

the

Florence) or

of his Life

his real

In this case,

in his style,

in later

working

in a single

>rcagna (local slant; for 'archangel'


ill

Cione) was the main master.

work was

finished

by his younger brother Jacop

of the workshop.

Duccio. Giotto. Masolino. Lorenzo

Monaco

1368

cl367. Tempera on panel. h291

his Life

painting was a collaboration

Ins assistants,
(

name was Andrea

but he died before the

member

this

work of Giotto

Cione) b Florence. cl320. d Florence.

Matthew Surrounded by Scenes

Galleria degli Uffizl. Florence

Matthew Surrounded bv Scenes of

works. \s was customary,

Matthew, the

painting

xw265 cm. hll4%x wl04%

in.

lpleted,

Organ
The

Prince of Wales

Charles, Prince of Wales

Bryan
sits in

a relaxed pose, dressed in casual

clothes in front of a green fence. Painted almost entirely of

blue and green, only a few elements in the painting are not
in these

his

two colours - the Union Jack, the Prince's

boots and

traditional

shirt collar.

Organ revolutionized

face,

and

the

sitter

with the

He has
pomp and ceremony

Organ was commissioned

now hang

in

London's National

Portrait Gallery.

man who

has just finished a friendly

game of polo.

Organ was

non-French

commissioned

also the first

to paint a

" Hockney. Kauffmann,

hl77

wl78

cm. h70 x w70Ve

in.

of

citizen to be

French President (Francois

Mitterrand).

Richter, Sutherland

Bryan Organ, b Leicester. 1935


Charles, Prince of Wales 1980. Acrylic on canvas.

insightful portrayer

associated with his position, but as an intelligent, aware and


sensitive

to paint the portraits

consummate draughtsman and


character,

approach to portraits of the monarchy.

not chosen to depict his

In the 1970s

of four members of the British royal familv, three of which

National Portrait Gallery, London

OrOZCO
This sensational image
portraying Christ as
cross.

A mountainous

modern

is

artist

scene from

Orozco's large fresco

militant revolutionary destroying his

up behind him. While creating

developed

this

technique which evolved from

meticulous study of ancient Mexican mural paintings

and masonry. The evocative message seems to be that the


all-powerful Creator-Destroyer figure of Christ

is

the total destruction of the prevailing forms of

modern

Jose Clemente Orozco b Jalisco. 1883. d Mexico

Modern Migration

of the Spirit

City,

politics, religion

this fresco

is

and

society.

implicit in

its

The

Spirit
Expressionist nature of

principal

theme of dramatic

upheaval and change, subjects which OrOZCO had been

|unk heap of various remnants of

civilization rises

work, the
his

Modern Migration of the

Jose Clementc

passionate about since the Mexican Revolution of 1910.

was

a politically

committed

artist

peasants and workers by painting large murals depicting

scenes from the

life

and history of the Mexican people.

calling for

Botero, Grunewald. Rivera. Rouault. Siqueros,

1949

1933. Fresco. Dartmouth College, Hanover. NH

He

and promoted the cause of

Tamayo

Orpen
Under

Sir

The Cafe Roval

William

the glittering ceiling of a fashionable meeting-point

for well-to-do Kdwardians, a congregation


artists

gathers together.

The

stiff

of successful

demeanour and elegant

dress-code give a sense of formal bohemianism to this

of Orpen and

which includes the

group

portrait

artists

Augustus John, William Nicholson, James Pryde and

Alfred Rich.

two of the

Orpen has

diluted this stiffness by depicting

figures chatting

between

acclaimed society portraitist

Sir

his friends,

tables.

in his day,

in

London 1912.

Oil

London

success to his confident style and precise, angular technique

which captured the often haughty, 'upper-crust' Edwardian


character of his
pieces',

sitters.

which was

are engaged in

Orpen

a type

some everyday occupation. One of

famous of these

is

and other

grouped

artists

his

Homage

to

his

Bazille.

wll4

cm. h54/ x

w44 %

of Edouard Manet's

Manet. Renoir. Sargent. Sickert

MuseedOrsay,

Paris

sitters

the

most

Manet, with Walter Sickert

in front

1931

on canvas. hl38 x

specialized in 'conversation

of group portrait where the

Portrait of Eva Gonzales.

highly

Orpen owed

William Orpen b Stillorgen. 1878. d London.

The Cafe Royal

in

Van Ostade
In a chittcred interior, a
as three boorish

The household

men
is

mother and

carouse noisily

clearly

Interior with Peasants

Vdriaen
child

sit

by

window

offered to them'; although the overall tone of the painting

more decorative than

background.

in the

who

one of great poverty, emphasized

by the mussel- and egg-shells strewn around the untidy


floor.

)ther objects in the scene, such as the spinning-

of the
poor.

idle rich

The

its

mother's food

moral message "Poverty comes to those

who

Adriaen van Ostade b Haarlem. 1610. d Haarlem.


Interior with

Peasants. 1663.

Oil

on panel. h34 /

may

what

is

One of his

this type

- P

hl3V^

daily life (called

featured peasants in

pupils

was Jan Steen,

who

also depicted

of popular subject matter.

Bruegel.

De Hooch, Rembrandt. Steen. Vermeer

wl5/i m. Wallace

Collection.

London

i^

a prolific artist

works, his palette became more-

1685

w40 cm.

was

colourful and his peasants better behaved and their room'.


tidier.

refer to a

refuse

many of which

interiors. In his later

but the instruments of hard labour for the

baby's refusal of

from

specialized in painting scenes

genre' paintings;,

wheel and wool-winding frame, represent not the pastimes

moralizing. Ostade

OVCrbCCKjohann Fnedrich
Figures based

on simple geometric forms;

which recedes

into a hazy distance; colours

The Adoration of

landscape

all

are elements

more appropriate

to a fifteenth-

centurv Italian altarpiece than a nineteenth-century


painting.

Overbeck

German

idolized the artists of the Italian

Renaissance and sought to recreate their

even painted on

wood

panel, in the

style.

This work

manner of

Renaissance altarpiece. After 1810, Overbeck

left

he was better able to studv the masters he

is

co-founded an
'Na.^arenes'.
early

artistic

of the

Magi 1813.

Oil

on panel. h49.7 x

Roman

The Nazarenes aimed

in

influential

on

an abandoned

cloister.

set

w66

cm.

in.

their

the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in England.

Fra Angelico, Brown, Gentile

hl9^ x w26

up

Their work was

Germany

as the

to revive the spirit of

Medieval religious brotherhoods, and

workshop

Catholicism and

group which became known

Johann Frledrich Overbeck. b Liibeck. 1789. d Rome. 1869

The Adoration

Magi

so admired. There he converted to

dominated by

the blue and gold robe of the Virgin and the subject of the

Adoration:

Rome where

for

the

Kunsthalle,

Hamburg

da Fabriano, Gozzoli

Palma Vecchio
Colour and
its

subject.

fluctuate

light effects are as

The tones

from dark

in

important to

The Holy Family

this painting as

the Virgin's robe, tor example,

to light red as the

garment drapes "\er

her knees. In contrast to this realistic depiction, the Virgin's


face

is

idealized into a cherubic image.

are deeply rooted in Venetian painting

painterly tradition

an

idyllic,

characteristics

and follow the

of Giorgione. Like the older

Vecchio specialized
in

These

in

artist,

Sweet faced
artist's style.

was an accomplished

le

also received a large

These included

pastoral setting.

These often featured plump,

Uffizi.

Florence

and

several large altarpieces depicting the Virgin


saints (a

His most famous

is

composition called

Santa Maria Formosa, Venice.

Giorgione, Michelangelo, Sebastiano del Piombo, Titian

Oil

on panel. h87 x

wll7 cm.

h34V4 x

a sacra

the Santa Barbara altar in

Palma Vecchio b Serina, C1480. d Venice, 1528


degh

hallmark ol the

the placement of a religious subject

The Holy Family with Mary Magdalene and the Infant Saint John. C1520.
Galleria

portrait painter

number of ecclesiastical commissions.

and Child surrounded by


conversazioni).

Palma

with Mary Magdalene...

Monde women, who became

w46

Pannini Giovanni Paolo

Roi

Capriccio

Pannini has combined a selection of Rome's ancient

events, scenes of contemporary

monuments

combinations of actual buildings, but

in

glorious past.

one image, creating

The

a celebration

circular building to the left

Colosseum, with Trajan's column standing


base

is

the figure of the

Arch of Constantine
free
in

Dying Gaul.

in the

On

is

of

its

(such as the

the

in front; at

specialize in views

its

the right stand the

background and

a set

moved

to

Rome where

Oil

the

painter to

tourists, equal in

own.

Canaletto. Guardi, Poussin. Siberechts

1765

on canvas. h97.2 x wl34.6 cm. h38'/i x

wrong context
first

kind and his enormous output of

the city's

Giovanni Paolo Pannini b Piacenza, cl692. d Rome.


Capriccio 1734.

this

in the

He was

work became very popular among

at first similar to his

impressive ruins inspired him to paint views of historical

Roman

of

here).

and imaginary

ways to the views of Venice by Canaletto, whose

of three

-landing Corinthian columns in the foreground. Born

Piacenza, Pannini

work shown

life,

w53

Maidstone

Museum and

Art Gallery.

Maidstone

some

style

was

Parmigianino
The

The Madonna with

elongated, languid features of the Virgin, Child and

attendant angels were purposeful!; exaggerated by the

- hence

this painting's

the static

harmony

popular

movement. This tendency

is

new vibrancy and

usually used compositions with a few figures,

crowd scenes, so
his figures.

there.

as to lay

conscious srvlization and attempt to rework

of

artists

"

Correggio,

in

Parma - from where

Rome, where he

El

wl35 cm.

h86Vi x w53i

Palazzo

Pitti.

Florence

after

studied the

Greco, Pontormo. Raphael. Signorelli

in.

his life

made

such as Raphael.

1540

on panel. h219 x

emphasis on the grace

native of

This painting, however, was

had spent some time

the balanced proportions of the Renaissance. Parmigianino's

Oil

He

rather than

working

often called Mannerism,

Parmigianino. b Parma. 1504. d Casalmaggiore.

Style.

he took his name - Parmigianino spent most of

and Pcrugino, and

The Madonna with the Long Neck. C1532.

Long Neck

elegant and intimate paintings exemplify the early Mannerist

and languor of

associated with fifteenth -century

infused the composition with a

its

Parmigianino has taken

title.

paintings, such as those by Raphael

because of

artist

the

he

work

Patenier joachim
Fantastic geological structures

Saint Jerome in a

dominate

genre whose popularity has never dimmed. The smooth

this visionary

landscape, which has been conjured up from Patenier's


ferule imagination.

The

grand, sweeping vista

is

Rocky Landscape

finish

punctuated

and technical perfection of the painting are

typical

Patenier's style. His naively imaginative landscapes

on Flemish

had

by tiny figures and architectural confections. Carefully

great and lasting influence

observed and sensitively depicted, the detailed topography

extraordinary blend of fantasy and naturalistic detail they

of the scene makes

anticipate the

it

convincing setting for the

works of Jan Bruegel

painting; with their

in particular.

diminutive figure of the hermit saint to inhabit. Patenier has


unified light, atmosphere and physical elements to create

what must be one of the

earliest real

landscape paintings - a

Joachim Patenier b Place unknown. cl485. d Antwerp. 1524


Saint Jerome in a Rocky Landscape. cl500. OH on panel. h36x

Altdorfer, Antonello,

w34 cm. hl4fcxwl3*i

in.

Bruegel, Van Eyck, Leonardo, Reni

National Gallery. London

of

Pechstein:Max Hermann
All

elements of

perspective

is

this

Meadow

townscape are exaggerated. The


and figures are

distorted, the buildings

reduced to basic shapes while the vivid pinks, blues, greens

and yellows heighten the emotion


has been applied to the canvas
thickness.

At times

it is

through the paint. The


realities

type of

or"

the scene.

The

paint

varying degrees of

so thin that the white canvas shows


artist

of the natural world


art.

in

has deliberately ignored the


in search

of a more expressive

Pechstein was part of a group of

artists

at

Moritzburg

similar, Expressionist, goals

with

who

linked themselves in a

movement

called 'Die Brucke' ('the bridge'). Pechstein

one of the

first artists

Perhaps

this

is

of

this

because his paintings tended to be more

decorative and less profound than those from other


in the

was

group to achieve popularity.

artists

group, such as Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. His vibrant

sense of colour was greatly influenced by the

work of Henri

Matisse and other Fauvist painters.

Heckel, Kirchner. Matisse, Nolde, Schmidt-Rottluff

Max Hermann Pechstein. b Zwickaw. 1881. d Berlin. 1955


Meadow at Morrtzburg 1910. Oil on canvas. H70.2 x w80.3 cm. h27%xw31%

353
in.

Leonard Hutton Galleries.

New

York.

NY

Perugino

The

Virgin and Child with Saints

Altarpieces with a Virgin and Child surrounded by the

tilted

heads, are typical of Perugino's

patron saints of a family often adorned family chapels. Here

customarv

the saints Michael the Archangel, Catherine

of Alexandria,

saint's

life.

by his or her attributes, representative of the


Apollonia, for example, holds the forceps that

were used to
to

pull

out

all

her teeth in an attempt to get her

renounce the Christian

faith.

The

As was

compositions, such as the arrangement used here with the

worked throughout
perhaps best

works

known

Italy, especially in

as the teacher

Umbria, but

and

are very close to his master's style.

" Andrea

del Sarto, Delia Quercia, Raphael. Signorelll

Perugino (Pletro Vannuccl). b Citta della Pieve. 1445/50. d Fontignano, 1523


Oil on panel. H276 x w213 cm. hlOSfc x w83%

in.

is

of Raphael whose

gracefully elongated,

rather sentimentalized figures, with drooping postures

The Virgin and Child with Saint. cl497.

style.

time he generally employed simple

Virgin and Christ above and four saints below. Perugino

Apollonia and John the Evangelist are included, each


identifiable

at the

Pinacoteca Nazionale, Bologna

early

Picabia Francs
There
its title

is

Amorous Parade

nothing inherently erotic about

triggers

this

machine, but

inanimate, un-erotic object with sexual undertones. This

our imagination. Within moments, the

gangling apparatus has

become charged with

non-conformist Dada movement. Picabia was

connotations of a hilarious, yet unsettling, nature. This


fantastic,

complex contraption

comment on man's

activities

is

figure in this anti-art, anti-reason

with Marcel

primarily intended as a

and experiences.

It

USA. He

could be

interpreted as a parody of the noisy thrashing of love-

making. In

its

playful ambiguity

it

30s

Francis Picabia. b Pans. 1879. d Pans.


Oil

Duchamp

Davis,

helped create

Dadaist group

remarkable

series

of collages.

Duchamp, Grosz, Hausmann, Leger

1953

on canvas. h96.5 x w73.7 cm. h38 x

w29

in.

leading

in the

turned to Surrealism, and in the 1920s and

later

produced

movement, and together

displays Picabia's

innovative and unusual imagination, which has invested an

Amorous Parade. 1917.

and absurd humour connects the painting with the

irrational

sexual

Private collection

Picasso Pablo
The

scaring

woman

is

\\

emotion of grief experienced by

reflected with great intensity

rigid paint-strokes.

The

viewer's attention

this distraught

the harsh colours

focused on the cold blue and white area around her


teeth; her exes

with sorrow.

and forehead are dislocated -

The

figure

massacre of

women
is

literally

and children

same
in the

year,

Woman

by Picasso entitled 'W eeping Women'. The way the

woman's

been distorted and fragmented

face has

development of Cubist

Braqae was the inventor of Cubism, executed an immense

in Spain,

which portrays the

Picasso

his life in France.

Spanish Civil War. The

on canvas. N60.8 x

is

with Georges

body of work through

w50 cm. h24 x wl9'X<

his

moved
He

is

long and

to

Pans

much

in 1901

publicized

in.

considered the greatest

artist

Boccioni, Braque, Gris, Jawlensky, Kupka, Leger

Tate Gallery, London

life.

and spent the

twentieth century.

"

Pablo Picasso b Malaga. 1881. d Mougins. 1973


Oil

who

broken up

one of the most expressive examples from

Weeping Woman 1937.

ideas. Picasso,

mouth and

echoes those of Picasso's monumental

painting Guernica, executed in the

work shown here

a series

and

immediately

is

eeping

Born

rest

of the

of

Piero della Francesca


St

|ohn baptizes Christ

distance,

in the

man removes

Rivet fordan. In the middle

his tunic so that

he too can he

Three angels with glorious multi-coloured wings,

blessed.

robes ami wreaths

in their hair

as the holy spirit, in the guise

heavens.

The

tranquillity

are achieved bj the series

witness this peaceful scene

of a dove, descends from the

and serenity of
of vertical

this

lines

composition

formed by the

The Baptism of Christ

for linear perspective


Italian

Renaissance

subject of intense interest to early

artists

is

noticeable in the treatment of

the figures and trees in the background,


size as they

Piero

which decrease

recede into the distance. At the end of his

abandoned painting

scholarly treatises

to concentrate

it

slowly glides into the distance. Piero's fascination

one of the most popular

Piero della Francesca. b Borgo Sansepolcro.

The Baptism

of Christ.

artists

of the fifteenth century.

Fra Angelico. Filippo Lippi. Masaccio, Uccello

1410/20. d Borgo Sansepolcro. 1492

1450s. Tempera on panel. hl67 x

wll6

cm. h66 x

w45%

in.

on writing

on perspective and geometry. He remains

standing figures and tree trunk and the gentle bends of the
river as

in

life

National Gallery, London

Piero di
Fantastic, curlv crests

Cosimo

Perseus Freeing
which once hung

of waves echo the horror of the

monster attacking Andromeda

who

is

Florence. Piero di

chained to a rock.

Racing to the rescue of his true love, Perseus

bizarre fashion,

is first

He

Andromeda

in the palace

of the Strozzi family

Cosimo often depicted

which

led to

rumours of his own eccentric

manv

years as a recluse and

depicted flying into the scene from the right, and later

behaviour.

standing on the monster's back, poised to slay the beast.

reputed to have eaten nothing but hard-boiled eggs

Subjects from Classical mythology were popular in

is

Renaissance painting because they implied that the owner

festivals

was acquainted with Ancient

texts,

which were enjoying

fashionable revival at this time. This

Piero

dl

Cosimo

work

b Florence. 1461/2. d Florence.

Perseus Freeing Andromeda. cl515.

Oil

is

one of a

an unlikelv

lived for

tale.

He

also

worked on designs

and processions.

series

Botticelli.

Peruglno. Pollaiuolo. Raphael. Signorelli

1521

on panel. h66 x

wl52

cm. h26 x w59'/4

in

in

his subjects in a

Galleria degli Uffizi. Florence

for

is

which

masques,

Pietro da Cortona
Painted

on

the ceiling

this

of one of Rome's most sumptuous

ambitious fresco

is

It

its

composition

is

based around an

architectural structure,

which

is

as sotto

Baroque

sin

The

from under")

is

typical

spectator's attention

Pietro da Cortona (Pietro Berrettini). b Cortona. 1596. d


Glorification of the Rule of

- representing

mass and gravity

seen from below, with the

(Italian for 'up

ceiling decoration.

where angels carry the papal

member of the

himself a

illusionistic

brilliant light,

Baroque

sky appearing to open out above. This type of perspective,

known

focal point,

St Peter's keys

also represents an

of Divine Providence. The daunting grandeur of

allegory

Urban YIII

quickly channelled by the swirling fluidity of the design to

celebration of the

powerful and noble Barberini family.

this

Glorification of the Rule of

is

Barberini family. All sense of

making

this

one of the great masterpieces of

art.

Bernini.

Rome. 1669

Urban VIM. 1633-9. Fresco. Palazzo Barberini.

Rome

and

dissolved in the sparkling colours and

of

is

tiara

the Papacy of L'rban VIII,

Domenichino. Giordano. Guercino

Piper John

Holkham, Norfolk

Solid architectural tonus are highlighted in bright yellow,

white and pink, beneath

water

in the

fountain.

foreground

dramatically stormy sky.

reflects the sketchy buildings

Sombre tones evoke

brooding

feeling,

The
and

landscape tradition.

with abstract

The composition has been reduced and

art in the

synthesis of

artist

an almost abstract form. Piper experimented

approach by the time

to

in that capacity

produced

book

bombed

versatile artist. Piper

Oil

on canvas mounted on panel. h51 x

this picture

w76

cm. h20 x

w30

in.

was

characterized bv a

areas of Bath

worked

Turner, Siberechts

Private collection

official British

war

number of

illustration, stained glass, textiles

" Bonington. Cozens. Nash.

John Piper b Epsom. 1903. d Fawley. 1992

Holkham, Norfolk 1939.

is

Romanticism and topographical accuracy.

watercolours depicting the

as

had returned

and

Coventry.

1950s but, disillusioned with the

limitations of non-representational painting,

naturalistic

During the Second World War he was an

with the

charged emotional content of the English Romantic-

distilled into

more

painted. His deeply personal style

and

in fields as varied

and theatre design.

Pisanello
Her
in
is

hair pulled

Ginepro d'Este

back to reveal

high forehead, and dressed

an elaborately embroidered gown,


portrayed as being

identifiable as a

at

in Italian)

name. She

pinned
is

the International Gothic Style, of

main

is

The

sleeve.

in profile, a

sprig of juniper {ginepro

pose which

Italian

exponent

which Pisanello was the

after Gentile

da I'abnano.

interest in the realistic depiction

of nature.

recalls the

The

medals were as cnsplv rendered as

in this painting.

profiles in his

Such

Gentile da Fabnano. Ghirlandaio.

Mantegna

a,

^k

nfl
A

*
.,

^1

ill
^e

If ill

Bl

(Antonio Pisano) b Pisa. C1395. d Place unknown, cl


d'Este. cl440.

Tempera on panel. h43 x w30 cm. hl7

wl2

lis

to the

decorative conventions of the time, demonstrate a lively

sitter's first

artist's skills as a portrait medallist.

numerous drawings of animals, although conforming

the noble Este family of Ferrara

to her shoulder, alludes to the

shown

natural details as the flowers and butterflies are typical of

woman

the height of fashion. She

member of

from the pattern on her

this elegant

in.

Musee du

Louvre. Paris

Pisano

Vndrea

Saint

Sculpted with a delicacy of line and

bronze

relict'

shows

the River Ionian.

St John baptizing a

Behind him

is

group of people

mountain with

John the Bapt

doors made for the Baptistry

Ivrical fluency, this

in

sculpted 28 scenes from the

patron

trees,

saint.

(The other two

completely out of scale but conveying the setting

fifteenth century by

successfully within the limited space. Pisano probably

within

trained as a goldsmith.
to apply refinement

Such

a skill

and meticulous

which have been executed with


draperv. This panel

would have enabled him


detail to the figures,

elegant, curving swathes

comes from

the

first

of three

sets

a quatrefoil

Gothic France.
della

He

at Florence, for

life

sets

Lorenzo Ghiberti.) Each scene

1330/33.

Gilt

bronze.

h50

w43

cm. H19V, *

wl6 ^

Ghiberti. Giotto, Piero della Franceses. Della Quercia

in.

Battistero di

in the

set

influenced Donatello, Ghiberti and Luca

Robbia.

is

frame, a fashionable form imported from

of

of

city's

of doors were made

Andrea Pisano b Pontedera. C1290. d Orvieto. 1348


Saint John the Baptist.

which Pisano

of the Baptist, the

San Giovanni. Rorence

Pissarro

Landscape

at

This tranquil landscape embodies the bucolic peacefulness

house*, and sky,

of the countryside. Vibrant hatching strokes have been used

(lis

to enliven the painting's surface.

and

a restricted palette

range of subtle effects.

With

very simple subject

of colours, Pissarro has achieved

feeling

of intimacy and direct

landscape which
with very

little

is

is

to

web of rapidly

on top of one another,

applied pure tones

is

typical

experiments of the Impressionists. Born

artist

enhanced by the skyline

sit

reduction of the landscape to a spontaneous, intricate

Pissarro arrived in Pans in 1855

personal contact with the scene, reminiscent of the


paintings ofCamille Corot,

Chaponval

seem almost

and

a key figure in the

the only artist to exhibit at

circle.

Camille Pissarro b St Thomas. 1831. d Paris.

Landscape at Chaponval. 1880.

Oil

on canvas.

made up of

held,

* Boudin. Cezanne.

Corot. Daubigny, Monet. Sisley

1903

h54xw65cm.

h21'/4x v25'^

in.

Musee

d'Orsay, Paris

Indies,

a prolific

He was

the Impressionist exhibitions.

depicted in a series of horizontal bands

sky showing. These bands,

West

where he became

Impressionist

all

of the

in the

PoliakoflF Serge
A

series

make

of flat, two-dimensional planes of colour

interpenetrate in a lyrical formation.

composition
apparent

Abstract Composition

in

is

the

defined by the shape of the canvas; this


artist's

is

quartering of the dominant forms of

colour. Poliakoffs master,- of the brush

is

this picture

demonstrated by

in

his firsr abstract

de Paris

"

among

Oil

on canvas. h89

wl30

cm.

h35x w51%

to Paris

in 19;^.

He

achieved fame

steadily

towards

in the 19SCS.

Deiaunay. Riopelle. Souiages. De Stael. Vieira da Silva

in.

his

the abstract painters of the Ecole

Serge Pollakoff b Moscow. 1906 d Pans. 1969


Abstract Composition 1952.

who came

the Kandinsky Prize for painting in

from which time he progressed

194^,

foremost position

combined with the

Russian emigre

compositions

when he was awarded

the multiplicity of hues that have been incorporated within

positioning of the intersecting abstract forms of colour,

1923 with his aunt, the singer Nadia PoliakorT, he began

each colour section. This controlled, expert handling of the


paint [ground by the artist himself,

an important example of the post war Art

Informel movement.

The geometric

Archives Serge Pollakoff. Paris

Polke Sigmar
The female nude

is

Three Girh

represented by a chorus

line

strippers, their fetishistic stilettos crushing a

underfoot. His impotence

Conventional

fine art

is

symbolized by

images -

knight triumphant over the serpent

Sigmar Polke

soft porn.

in the 1960s.

formed

emerging

left

a flightless bird.

the supine nude,

East

of

male

and the

are transposed into

Germany

for Diisseldorf

Together with Gerhard Richter and others he

German branch of the Pop Art movement then


in Britain and the USA. He boldly combines the

atmospheric colour experiments of Abstract Expressionism


with photography, and graphics appropriated from comic

books and pulp

fiction.

His work demolishes the barriers

between

'high' art

matter

often provocative: his paintings of the 1970s and

is

and

'low' popular culture. Polkc's sub|ect

1980s, with their images of concentration

of bodily

fluids,

history.

Baselitz, Jones.

De Kooning. Sherman. Wesselmann

Sigmar Polke b Oelsnitz. 1941


Three

Girls.

1979. Mixed media on pape

camps and

h99.8xw69.9cm. h39*xw27/,

in.

traces

confront the taboo of Germany's wartime

Anthony d'Offay Gallery. London

Pollaiuolo Antonio
Daphne

seen

is

laurel tree in

her,

in the

process of transforming herself into

he subsequently wore a

laurel
is

wreath

not clear

furniture.

if this

in

in

often

Renaissance Florence, but

it

Antonio and

his

is

V>atik oftbt

variety

painting was ever set into a piece of

the

city

also

famous for

Nudes

in

who

executed

first artists to
its

his engravings, especially the

dissect the

human body

Botticelli.

on panel. h29.5 x

w20 cm. hllfcxw7fc

in.

in

order to

inner woi kings and structures.

Raphael. Van Scorel. Verrocchio

Antonio Pollaiuolo b Florence. cl432. d Florence. 1498


Oil

and

in a

of positions. Fascinated by anatomy, he was one of

understand

cathedral,

its

as the Medici.

which he explored the human form

brother Picro were important

Florentine goldsmiths, sculptors and painters

Apollo and Daphne. cl470.

of Florence and

prominent Florentine families such

Antonio

deference to

this size

commissions for the


for

painted in a delicate, jewel-

manner. Mythological paintings of

adorned chests or cupboards


is

order to escape from Apollo. (Smitten with

her memory.) This small scene


like

Apollo and Daphne

National Gallery. London

Pollock Jackson
lock's violent

Number

method of dripping and smearing

the canvas in dramatic, sweeping gestures


arent in this painting.
Ig sticks

around

landmark

strikingly

fling the paint,

it

hard wall or

floor.

This enabled him to

and allowed him almost to become the gesture

1948
make

this

work an important

post-war international

in

Abstract Expressionism

lies in its

art. Its

random

as they

express

my

may seem;

no

the flow of paint: there

beginning and no end.' Pollock died

abandonment of

easel painting

and the

lack

of

is

IA. 1948. 1948.

Oil

on canvas. hl72.7 x w264.2 cm. h68 x

wl04

Frankenthaler, Hofmann. Kline,

in.

want

accident, just as there

Museum

of

Modern

Art.

in a car

to

New York. NY

is

no

crash in 19^6.

De Kooning, Motherwell

Jackson Pollock b Cody. WY. 1912. d Springs. Long Island. NY. 1956
I

'I

feelings rather than illustrate them... I can control

he painting. Pollock's highly innovative technique

Action Painting. Such radical elements as

are not as

the artist has said,

ame known

as

connection with

energetic technique and

freedom of expression. Pollock's paintings

and knives, onto an unstretched canvas which

been tacked to
k

He would pour and

is

ia,

traditional perspective

paint

Pontormo

The

jacopo

pregnant with Christ, meeting her cousin Elizabeth,

who

is

pregnant with |ohn the Baptist. Pontormo has subordinated


the storv as a

whole

to the

embrace of these two women.

\n\ superfluous detail has been eliminated.

Visitation

example of Mannerism

This painting depicts the biblical episode of the Virgin,

The emotion of

its

height.

He

trained in the

something of an eccentric. His neurotic and withdrawn


chata_:er
details

of

is

revealed in his diary, which chronicles the

his daily life

Agnolo Bronzino was

the meeting has been heightened by the use of bright,

at

Florentine school but as his painting style suggests, he was

sometimes
a pupil

to the point

of obsession.

and follower.

almost fluorescent, colours and elongated figures with dark,

sunken

eves. Distorted

are characteristic

or"

shapes and intensely

Pontormo's

style,

brilliant

hues

which provides

Beccafumi. Bronzino. Parmigianmo. Rosso Fiorentino

a fine

Jacopo Pontormo b Pontormo. 1494. d Florence. 1556

The Visitation 1530/32.

Oil

on panel. h202 x

wl56 cm.

h79V$ x w61VS

in.

Pleve

di

San Michele. Carmignano

Popova Mubov
(

Space-Force Construction

hrerlapping geometric shapes, painted in

muted

colours,

appear to be floating on the unpainted plywood

background. The interplay of these various

and diagonal

lines

is

circles,

curves

enhanced by multicoloured shadows


of

which contribute

to the effective play

sense of depth

created by the diagonal lines, which appear

to extend

is

beyond the

picture. In

its

light.

From

192

Popova turned her

costume and

further

emphasis on colour and

set design. In

purpose, claiming that 'no


satisfaction as the sight

artistic

length of material designed by me'.

Lissitzky, Malevich.

of

One

me

worker buying

such
a

of the most

h30% x w30%

in.

at the height

Moholy-Nagy, Rodchenko,

1924

on panel. H77.7 x w77.7 cm.

textile,

important members of the Russian avant-garde, she died

the painting demonstrates the influence of Constructivism.

Oil

spirit

success has given

of a peasant or

prematurely of scarlet fever,

Space-Force Construction C1920-21.

towards

Constructivism, she believed that art should serve a useful

form and the use of added shadow to increase perspective,

Ljubov Popova b Moscow. 1889. d Moscow.

talents

tune with the

Private collection

of her career.
Tatlin

Poussin Nicolas
\n elegiac inscription
I

[ie

Death]

am

present')

/;/ in

The Arcadian Shepherds

Arcadia Ego ('Even in Arcadia

- on an ancient Roman

sarcophagus arouses the curiosity of

Its

group of shepherds.

warm, autumnal colours and

idyll

is

spirit,

more

serene strain of the

which was based on the Classicism of

Raphael and the Antique. In sharp contrast to the theatrical


emotionalism of such contemporaries

carefully

staged figures give a resigned, tragic air to the picture, as the

shepherds' pastoral

also represents Poussin's

Baroque

This melancholy phrase sets the tone for the bucolic,


enigmatic painting.

work

broken by the reminder that

as Peter Paul

form and moral content. They were highly praised by the


intellectuals in

Rome.

death occurs even in the most perfect of worlds.

Reminiscent of the mysterious paintings of Giorgione,

Nicolas Poussin b Les Andelys. 1594. d Rome.

The Arcadian Shepherds 1638-9.

Oil

this

Rubens

and Gianlorenzo Bernini, Poussin's paintings emphasize

*" Bernini, Claude, J-L David, Giorgione. Raphael,

1665

on canvas. h85 x wl21 cm. h33^ x w47!

Musee du

Louvre, Paris

Rubens

Powers

The Greek

Hi

Gracefully and smoothly caned, a statuesque young


stands, apparently peacefully, looking to her

inspection,

we

Greek goddess,

to the

Greek

The

Turks
\\ ar

On

woman

American sculptors of

closer

great fame with The Creek Slave,

notice that her hands, held tenderly by her

side, are in fact tied to chains.

be

left.

at

At

glance she appears to

first

second she

is

Greek

Christian, sold

as a slave. (Poignantly coinciding with the

of Independence, the statue was well received.;

soft surface

and grace of her form give

subtle lyricism to the figure.

Slave

calm and

Powers was one of the leading

works, which was cast

in.

in

many

one of

He

achieved

his best-loved

copies. His preciseness of

handling, emotional restraint and choice of subject matter

reminiscent of the work of the Greeks and


ingredients that link

him

American

sculpture.

m- Canova,

Donatello, Leighton, Maillol,

Yale University Art Gallery.

New Haven. CT

Romans -

to the high ideals of

Classicism, the style which then dominated

Hiram Powers, b Woodstock. VT. 1805. d Florence. 1873

The Greek Slave. cl843. Marble. hl66.4 cm. h65i

the nineteenth century.

Moore

are

Neo-

European and

all

Primaticcio francesco
Danae

depicted naked, seated

is

on her bed

tails a

murder by

summoned
Florentine)

in a

was

King of Axgos, when an oracle predicted

to

seduce her. In

bv Francis

M32

to France, to

in the

form

his

of" a

a Dainter,

combination of painting and

work with Rosso

here. Primaticcio

combined

gave the interior decoration of the palace


expression.

He

schemes have
~

at

shown

sculptor and architect; his

Cellini. El

its full,

style,

now been

but sadly

many of his

destroyed.

Greco. Pontormo. Rosso Fiorentino

Francesco Primaticcio b Bologna. 1504. d Pans. 1570

Danae

533-40.

Oil

on panel with stucco

reliefs.

hl05

w254

cm.

h41*

wlOO

in.

skills

opulent

gready influenced the formation of the

French Renaissance

Primaticcio was

on the decoration of the King's palace

in a

stucco in high relief such as that

bronze tower by her

son of hers. Zeus appeared

shower of gold

schemes, specializing

putt/ in

shower of gold. In Greek

mythology, Danae was locked


father Acnsius,

Fontainebleau. There he devised elaborate decorative

in a

sumptuously coloured room, with her maid and


attendance; above her

Danae

Chateau de Fontainebleau. Fontainebleau

decorative

Prud'hon
A

beautiful anil thoughtful

shawl
st\ le

in

in a

rockv glade.

The

The impress Josephine

Pierre-Paul

young

woman

delicate sleeve

rests

on

Napoleon commissioned

red

dress has slipped from her shoulder as she gazes, deep

Once married

thought, across the picture.

who was

to a viscount

infidelity, their relationship

in 1796.

Riddled with

Oil

A Frenchman

birth,

of Jacques-Louis David and

is

known

Canova.

wl79 cm. h96 x w70'/2

Prud'hon
1>\

work of Antonio Canova, Correggio and Leonardo da

Correggio, J-L David. Leonardo

1823

on canvas. h244 x

by

where he was deeply impressed

depictions of romantic and mysterious

husband

son, and the marriage was declared null and void in 18 10.

Pierre-Paul Prud'hon. b Cluny. 1758. d Pans.

the

rival

was passionate and

unpredictable. Josephine was unable to bear her

The Empress Josephine. 1805.

travelled to Italy in 1784

Yinci. Supported by both of Napoleon's wives, he

guillotined during the French revolution,

Josephine married Napoleon

this portrait shortly after his

consecration as Emperor.

of her F.mpire-

in.

Musee du

Louvre.

Pans

for his

women.

became

Delia Quercia Jacopo


This tree standing .group of statues of the

Virgin and Child with Saints

Madonna's
her an

human

air

solid

pose and the heavy folds of her

The

in

graceful

her stance, which gives

her inclined head through to her


the flow

gown

lend

of great monumentality, yet she also expresses

tenderness and charm.

apparent

movement

Madonna and

Child with Saints decorates an altar in a Sienese church.

a lyrical

left foot,

of drapery. This pose (known as

reflected in the figures

of the

saints.

'S'

Such

curve

the

new

movement from

a typical feature

of Gothic

ideas of the Renaissance.

art,

although Delia

solidity characteristic

his

very" well

known - even Michelangelo

works when he painted the

copied one of

Sistine ceiling.

emphasized by
contrapposto)

of

contemporary of

Donatello and Lorenzo Ghiberti, Delia Quercia's work

became

is

is

Quercia has also given the forms a

is

a delicate swaying

Jacopo della Quercia b Siena. 1374/5. d Siena, 1438


Virgin and Child with Saints detail). C1423-25. Gilt wood. hl40 cm.
H55.1

Cimabue, Donatello, Duccio, Ghiberti. Michelangelo

In.

San Martino, Siena

Raeburn
Revelling

in die

Sir

The Reverend Robert Walker

lenrv

Golden Age during the Enlightenment

winter weather on the frozen lake of an

Edinburgh suburb,

sprighth (Church minister

is

produced over 1,000

depicted

lis

of a member of the Church establishment


not only reveals the
intimacy with the
artists,

Sir

humour of the

sitter.

humour and

The depiction

in

such

and

colourful Highland lairds,

conservative, black attire stands out sharply

against the blurred grey of the background.

portraits.

scholars, philosophers

nonch.il.intk ice-skadng in an exaggerated, semi-theatrical

pose.

Skating on Duddingston Loch

manner

George IV

joviality.

in

As one of Scotland's most popular

Limner

National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh

Oil

his death,

a few-

was appointed His Majesty's

for Scotland.

on canvas. h76 x

freely painted with

Raeburn was knighted bv King

Henry Raeburn. b Stockbndge. 1756. d Edinburgh. 1823

The Reverend Robert Walker Skating on Duddingston Loch. 1784.

said to have

local dignitaries, as well as the

who were

" Goya. Mengs, Ramsay, Vigee-Lebrun

Raeburn captured the personalities of Edinburgh's

le is

1822 and the following year, only

months before

painter, but also his

These included poets,

w64 cm. h30 x w25^ in.

Ramsay

Lady Robert Manners

Allan

Softly modelled, this exquisite oval portrait exudes a sense

of tenderness and
with

sympathetic grasp of character. Painted

feathery sense

colours, the form and

conveyed with

of touch and executed

demeanour of

flattering delicacy.

in

muted, pastel

poet,

the Scottish counterpart to Sir

Allan

Ramay b

Edinburgh. 1713. d Dover.

to

George

Edinburgh before continuing

his studies

Here he was impressed by the elegance of the


Italian painters, especially

portraits

Rome. Ramsay went on

captivating

charm and

to

of

develop

sensitivity.

Pompeo

Batoni

aristocratic English visitors


his

He was

own

style

also

much

of

influenced by the refined finesse of contemporary French

Joshua Reynolds and

London, becoming the Court Painter

trained in

contemporary

to

R.imviv was one of the foremost portraitists of his day

Thomas Gainsborough. Although he worked mainly

first

in Italy.

who produced many

the noble lady are

The son of a

he

in

III in

art.

i-6c.

Batoni. Gainsborough.

Mengs. Raeburn. Reynolds

1784

Lady Robert Manners. cl756. OH on canvas. h74.3 x w61.6 cm. h29V. x w24'/i

,n.

National Gallery of Scotland. Edinburgh

Raphael
A

The School

group of animated men, young and

hallway. Five figures crouch over a

old, gather in a vast

compass and

slate to

group of

of Athens

artists to

redecorate his private apartments.

\h,

School ofAthens and other frescos in the Stan/a dclla

discuss geometry, while others (holding a globe and a starry

Scgnatura took Raphael about three years to complete.

sphere discuss astronomy. In turn these bustling groups

Younger than

debate the seven

liberal arts.

The two

figures at the centre

either

Leonardo or Michelangelo. Raphael

and ambitious man, an architect, painter and

of the composition, walking towards us with assurance and

art.

appearing to exude an unreal sense of calm, are Plato and

designer of sculpture, Raphael

Aristotle, the

two

greatest philosophers

world. In October

so8

Pope

fulius

II

of the Ancient

commissioned

prolific

greatest

w770

cm.

w303

in.

is

draughtsmen ot Western

considered one of the


art.

Perugino. Pollaiuolo. Poussin. Leonardo, Michelangelo

Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio). b Urbmo. 1483. d Rome. 1520

The School of Athens. 1508-11. Fresco.

is

seen with them to epitomize the high point of Renaissance-

Palazzo del Vaticano.

Rome

Rauschenberg Robert

Reservoir

An assortment of commonplace

gap between'

objects

against a bespattered background.


lefi

was

set

when

the other clock

the artist

was

set to

This "combine' painting

began

The
to

is

boldly displayed

clock at the upper

work on

the painting;

record the time of completion.

illustrates

Rauschenberg' s method

mundane

art

and

had traditionally used


inspiration for the

the

life.

objects into his

Rauschenberg incorporated

work

provided

Pop Art movement

most notorious gestures of

many artists
much of the
the USA. One of

as naturally as

paint. This

in

this self-consciously avant-

of selecting and combining groups of disparate images and

garde figure was his cabled reply to a request b\ Parisian

He did not do this in order to make social


comment but rather to break away from the traditional idea
ot picture space. le wanted, in his own words, 'to act in the

gallery-owner

objects.

Reservoir 1961.
National

Museum

Clert

if

Iris

American

Art.

wood and

metal. H217.2 x

Washington DC

Clert for a portrait: 'This

say so

is

a portrait

- Robert Rauschenberg.'

Broodthaers. Duchamp. Hamilton. Johns. Schwitters

b Port Arthur. TX. 1925

Oil. pencil, fabric,

of

Iris

wl58.7 cm. H85V6 x w62Vi

in.

of

Redonodi
In this scone

Cyclops, spies upon the naked

he

is

The Cyclops

Ion

was

from Greek mythology, Polyphemus, the giant

hopelessly in love.

The

nymph

giant's

Galatea, with

huge eye casts

gaze over the object of his devotion.

More

same theme, Redon's interpretation has

introspection and thought

longing

belief in an

or"

on

inspire

the part of the viewer.

enchanted inner vision

led to the creation

lis

of

highly imaginative paintings and lithographs, with fantastical

horrifying than

Gustave Moreau's rather more romantic treatment

form of artistic expression that would

to rind a

whom

subjects representing fragments of dreams.

the

Redon

also

produced vibrantly colourful landscapes and flower paintings.

a tcrrifyingly

nightmarish quality. In accordance with Symbolist theories,

His work was very influential on the work of a group of

Redon was more

younger Symbolists

interested in exploring the inner psyche

Bonnard,

than in depicting reality in a straightforward manner. His aim

Odilon Redon. b Bordeaux. 1840. d Paris.

The Cyclops. 1898/1900.

Oil

who

called themselves the Nabis.

Denis. Matisse. Moreau. Rouault. Vallotton

1916

on panel. h64

xw51

cm.

h25Mxw20X

Rijksmuseum

Kroller-Muller. Otterlo

Rego
An

The Family

Paula

apparently innocent family scene

is

undermined by

disturbing, sexually-charged undercurrents.


takes place
sister

between the furious youth and

who conveys

an incestuous sexual

The main
his

thrill

action

sinister,

her paintings are characterized by their

monumentality and psychological drama. They often deal

determined

with ambiguous relationships between men,

as she presses

children.

Rego has

women

also executed etchings based

and

on her own

her body close, helping her kind, trusting mother to undress

interpretation of nursery

him. This theme of rebellion and domination, with

providing us with disturbing scenes from the traditional

erotic undertones, provides the twist

scene. The painting

Rego has become

is

all its

and ambiguity of the

representative of the style for

internationally

rhymes and

stories.

which

renowned. Simple yet

Balthus. Modersohn-Becker, Spencer. Weight

Paula Rego b Lisbon. 1935

The Family. 1988.

Acrylic

on paper mounted on canvas. H213.4 x w213.4 cm. r.84 x

w84

in.

Saatchi Collection. London

Barrie's Ptter Pan,

Reinhardt
A glowing

VI

Abstract Painting, 1959

suffusion of grey envelops this canvas. Distilled

and immaculate,

pure surface

its

taint cross, barely

isible to the

is

violated only b)

naked

eye.

verj

A shrouded

atmospheric aura emanates from the painting's depths. The


iconic image of the cross has

way, taking the expressive


extreme. Nothing

is

been treated

ejualities

an abstract

of colour to

their fullest

allowed to intrude upon the stark

intensity

of the work. Reinhardt reduced

essence,

\ssociated with the Abstract

Ad Reinhardt. b

in

Buffalo. NY.

1913. d New

Abstract Painting. 1959. 1959.

Oil

USA, he

entirely

eschewed

all literal

in his search to refine the purest

theoretician and teacher, he

completely separate from


art-as-art

is

nothing but

art.'

Only

was adamant

life,

and everything

is

York. NY.

Kelly.

Newman. Rothko. Ryman

1967

on canvas. h274.3

wl01.6 cm. hl08 x w40

in.

Private collection

is

life

that art should be

from

everything

art,

saying, 'Art

else. Art-as-art

abstract art, he believed, could

express this pure standard.

and

else

art to its ultimate

expressionists in the

and painterly overtones

of statements. Also

Rembrandt

Jacob Blessing

The solemnity of this important Old Testament


which |acob blesses

his

grandsons,

is

episode,

and pious respect. The

in

the foreground,

expressed in the bold,

uncluttered composition and luminous tones of this


painting.

The

artist's

technique of applying his paint

broad, thick strokes, then building


th(

it

up with

visual relief to the overall severity

glazes, gives

treated with a

dignity, as Joseph anil his wite

modest

also reflects the restrained

monumental

Rembrandt Harmensz van

Rljn b Leyden.

on canvas. hl76 x

emotions and devout

'* Caravaggio, Fabritius, Michelangelo,

1606. d Amsterdam. 1669

w210

cm. h69'/4 x

w82%

of the subject matter.

of Calvinist Holland.

observe him with humility

Jacob Blessing 1656.

Oil

yet

in

contemporary, Peter Paul Rubens, Rembrandt's vast output

is

also invested with a deep, religious sentiment. Jacob, the


is

drapery

Much of Rembrandt's work reflects his abilities to penetrate


the human character. Less superficially dramatic than his

in

scene added depth and gravity. Each of the figures

elderly patriarch,

rich, velvety red ot the

and Joseph's flamboyant turban, provide

in.

Staatliche

Kunstsammlungen, Kassel

Rubens

spirit

Reni Guido

Saint Jerome and the Angel

This intensely spiritual painting shows an ascetic St Jerome


translating the Bible into Latin, sitting in a cave.

^ense of

vision of

an angel appears to him, inspiring and helping him with his

arduous

task.

The imposing

rich red draper,

naturalism

is

figure

of St Jerome, swathed

in

dominates the canvas. Reni's feeling tor

expressed

in the saint's

greying hair and

movement and

rich colour to create a powerful!}

expressive effect. Reni's formal composition and colouring,

however, are based on the Classical training he would have


received as a pupil at the Carracci

Academy

Perhaps because of their subject matter,

in

masters of the Baroque

style,

made Reni one of the

which employed

early

a dramatic

Antonello. Caravaggio. Carracci. Hals. Domenichino

Guido Reni b Bologna. 1575. d Bologna. 1642


Saint Jerome and the Angel

1640-42.

Oil

on canvas. hl98 x

were

highly popular in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

sagging muscles, vestiges of C.aravaggio's influence. His

devout, often ecstatic paintings

Bologna.

his paintings

wl49

cm. H78 x

w58%

in.

Detroit Institute of Arts. Detroit. Ml

IVCnOir Pierre Augtu


Men

top hats and boaters and

in

chatter, drink

women

in pretty dresses

and dance under the glowing

lights

of

Parisian dance hall. Renoir loved this subject

painted

it

bv the

number of

light as

it

and

times, reproducing the patterns

catches the figures

moving around

made

Pierre

all

as

he sat

him each day

At

in

Moulin de

la

Galette. 1876.

Oil

Don

wll4

dance

hall; his friends

his canvases

the time the Moulin de

back and

la Galette

was

painred Renoir was working very closely with Claude

the fleeting effects of sunlight as

landscape.

With

his

'rainbow

it

scatters across a

palette',

Renoir painted over

6,000 canvases of women, children, flowers and

Impressionists, Renoir

on canvas. h78 x

Galette

moving

Bazille. Cassatt.

Monet. Morisot.

Auguste Renoir b Limoges. 1841. d Cagnes. 1919

Ball at the

la

in the

Monet. Thev spent much time painting outdoors, capturing

the

Many of Renoir's friends acted as models for the


dancers. The couple in the middle distance are his favourite
Pedro de Solares y Cardenas. Like

life

forth to his studio.

floor.

model Marguerite l.egrand and the Spanish painter

Moulin de

painted from
assisted

this

famous

Ball at the

cm. h31 x w44V6

in.

Private collection

fields.

Sisley. Toulouse-Lautrec

Reynolds
The tenderness of
way

the delicate

this

Sir

charming

countess's dress an

skilfully

cloudy sky

known

continued
in

Sir

emphasized by

and

silk

rather loose

manner

Italian

in

Although grandeur

anil formality are

Reynolds

manner of

is

credited with having elevated portrait-painting

in Britain to a height equalling that

shaggy hair of the dog, and the


best

which he married the Grand

Style

masters with portraits of the English

masters.
that

when

lis

status during the reign

the

The

Earl

Spencer. Althorp

Oil

Reynolds was appointed


- Dobson, Gainsborough,

on canvas. hl22 x

of the great
of George

Italian
III

King formed the Roval Academy


its first

Lely.

wll5

cm. h48 x

President.

Morisot,

Joshua Reynolds, b Plympton. 1723. d London. 1792

The Countess Spencer with her Daughter Georgiana 1760/1.


Collection of

minimized

they are alluded to in the background

elements of the column, drapery and brooding clouds.

of the

is

aristocracy.

in this picture,

minimum

the background. Sir Joshua Reynolds

tor the

of the great

in the

lace

painted with a

number of brushstrokes. This


is

is

which the mother clasps her arms

in

around her young daughter. The

painting

The Countess Spencer with her Daughter Georgiana

[oshua
portrait

w45^

Ramsay

was such

in 1768,

Riberaj usepe
Si

Paul the

lermit

was the

Saint Paul the

first

Christian saint to seek a

of solitude, meditation and asceticism. Here he


as

is

an old man, worn out by the frugal austerity of a

spent

in the

Egyptian desert. Yet he

ardour as he contemplates the

skull

is still

fired

life

depicted
life

by religious

before him, a symbol of

man's mortality. The harsh, theatrical lighting emphasizes


the saint's sagging muscles, furrowed

brow and

Hermit

century Spain, which

is

expressed with a strong and

dramatic use of light and shade


Italian artist

and

{chiaroscuro)

his style laid the

foundation for the great tradition of

Neapolitan painting with


called 'the poetry

its

emphasis on what one

of the repulsive'.

expressive

hands, giving the painting a startling sense of realism.


Ribera's art invokes the fervent spirituality of seventeenth-

Caravaggio,

El

Greco, Guercino, Reni, Zurbaran

Jusepe Rlbera b Valencia. 1591. d Naples. 1652


Saint Paul the Hermit. 1640.

Oil

on canvas. hl43 x

wl43 cm. h56W x w56'/4

in.

Museo

derived from the

Caravaggio. Ribera settled in Naples in 1616,

del Prado, Madrid

critic

has

Richter Gerhard
[Tie .mist's
letail.

She

:lose-up

daughter Betty
sits

is

Betty

painted with photographic

representation, giving us a painting that looks like a

very near to the surface of the picture, as in a

camera

railed a portrait

shot.

The

painting could not realK be

of Betty, however, as

it

teaches us very

urns away; her face

md

is

invisible. Instead

little

he has concentrated

white and pink patterns of her jacket and dress,

her hair gathered at the back of her head. Richter has

expression, Richter's
the

background of

different abstract

monochrome,

Dix, Estes,

Gerhard Richter b Waltersdorf. 1932


Betty. 1988. Oil on canvas.

hl02 x w72 cm. b40%

w28V

in.

turns

work

is

back on

extremely diverse.

this painting

works

its

new ways of
The

wall in

resembles some of the very

that Richter creates.

thickly painted canvases

These

evoke sadness and

despair and were executed in response to the Vietnam war.

"

.indcrmined accepted notions ot painting and

literally

convention. Continually discovering

ibout her. Richter has chosen to paint his daughter as she

>n the red,

photograph, a portrait that

Collection of the artist

Organ, Schad

Riley Bridget

Cataract

Red, turquoise and grey curves undulate across the canvas


in a

uniform sequence, evoking an illusionary sense of

its

colours appear to vibrate with a

dazzling intensity. This technique of exploring and


exploiting the

sensation
the

and

Op

on

Art

lines

fallibility

of the eye provokes

the spectator.

movement

is

which produces

Bridget Riley b London.

The

powerful

in the interplay

aims go beyond the merely

of

their formal

and colouristic

with a magical lyricism. Riley's

painting's connection with

apparent
a

illusion. Rilev's

of colour

sainning, shimmering optical

1960s,

were almost

all

in

w222 9

cm.

hills.

More

much a
a sum

than

parts, her paintings vibrate


first

paintings, in the early

black and white. Her

work has

developed dramatically over the vears and she has recently


tended to paint straight

parallel lines in intense colours.

Albers. Louis. Vasarely. Vieira

1931

Cataract 3 1967. Emulsion on canvas. h221.9 x

scientific,

however. She sees the elements she uses as being as


part of nature as are trees, clouds and

movement. The canvas seems distorted by the almost


hallucinatory image, as

h87* x w87 /4
3

in.

British Council.

London

da

Silva

Riopelle jcan-p,
Irregular patches

Large Composition

of vivid colour create

.1

lyrical

image,

mosaic of flickering light The densely layered paint

like a

Riopelle's controlled use of thick areas of (laming colour.

The

is

heavily textured surface and free application of paint

ipplied directly from the tube with a palette knife, creating

connect

this

intense areas of pure colour

born

Montreal, Riopelle has lived

ihrc.uls <>f
>n

the ink

which

are

pigment. The structure of

interwoven with

this

painting

is

couple of years

earlier,

combining

ind coloured taches Ol stains. This

one of the

Large Composition 1949-51.

to the Art

to

work

on board. hl70.2

>

in Paris

in

since 1948.

an abstract format while developing

paint application.

Fautner, Hartung, Pollock, Tobey. Vieira da Silva

1923
Oil

Informel movement. Although

first

paintings to exploit this technique, and demonstrates

Jean-Paul Riopelle b Montreal.

free calligraphic gestures


is

work

Although he has moved away from Surrealism, he continues

based

and watercolour works Riopelle had developed

in

w260.5 cm. h67 xwl02Vf

in.

Private collection

looser

Rivera d
Tlu- peace

women

and

The

lego

tranquillity

of

this kitchen,

are preparing tortilla, are

simplicity

where peasant

conveyed by the painting's

of colour and form. Executed

at a

time

when

Tortilla

the essential

Maker

human

dignity of people.

earlier influenced

by Cubism,

Rivera's ability to

work

Mexican subjects that were so close

specialized technique can clearly be seen in the sensitive

also deeply inspired

handling of the warm, glowing colours, which express a

cultures. Rivera

painting
the

wav

lies in its

in

which

The importance of

representation of Mexican culture, and


it

reflects Rivera's firm convictions

Diego Rivera, b Guanajuato. 1886 d Mexico

The

Tortilla

the

Maker 1926.

Oil

City,

about

throughout
artist.

He

is

was

He was

by the ancient Mayan and Aztec


active in the

his career

renowned

remained

Mexican revolution and

a politically

committed

for his large-scale murals.

Tamayo

1957
in.

using the

to his heart.

'" Botero, Gauguin, Kahlo, Rego, Spencer,

on canvas. H107.3 x w89.5 cm. h42'/i x w35'/4

demonstrates

in the Classical style,

Rivera was beginning to paint frescos, the influence of this

sense of nostalgia and intimacy.

Although he was

this painting

University of California,

San Francisco, CA

Delia Robbia
'Delia

Robbia blue' has become

glaze pioneered by the Delia

the blue

is

Madonna and

standard term tor the

Robbia

family.

The depth of

heightened by the juxtaposition with

white glaze. Reliefs such as


painting nor sculpture; they
Like his contemporary

was concerned with

this arc
fall

pure

categorized neither as

between the two media.

Lorenzo Ghiberti, Luca

Robbia

della

the depiction of three-dimensional

effects ot a painter.
this sculpture

as

Angels

could not have been achieved without

one of the great

artistic

century. His flourishing

nephew, Andrea,
sculptures.

"

terracotta

Two

subtle modelling and crisp lines of


a

painting and sculpture. Luca was ranked by contemporaries

however, enabled him also to reproduce the colouristic

Madonna and Child between Two Angels. 1475/80. Glazed


Museo Nazionale del Bargello. Florence

The

strong understanding of drawing the basis for both

space in a shallow plane. His introduction of colour,

Luca della Robbia b Florence. 1400. d Florence. 1482

Child between

who

innovators of the fifteenth

workshop was

inherited by his

continued to produce terracotta

Ghiberti, Filippo Lippi, Pisano. Delia Querela

Rodchenko

Composition (Overcoming Red)

\lexander

Triangular shapes balanced in front of circles create a three-

on

enhanced by the dark shading

illusion,

which

is

the left diagonals

of the

triangles.

dimensional

The

divided by colour and appear to rotate.


Strictly

geometric designs traced with

flat

forms are

in

painting

pure, primary colours. In the

Rodchenko exhibited

his

Constructivist

compass and

design and the applied

ruler,

same year

famous Black

St Petersburg.

this

group he

industrial design,

later

gave up easel painting


arts.

He was

abstract,

in

favour of

particularly active in

typography and photography, the

on Black

on White'

* Van Doesburg, Gabo,

Lissitzky, Malevich, Tatlin

1891. d Moscow. 1956

w62

its

latter

often exploiting unusual perspectives and angles of vision.

as this

Composition (Overcoming Red). 1918. OH on canvas. H78.5 x

to

movement. In common with other members

of

painting, a response to Kasimir Malevich's 'White

Alexander Rodchenko b

Rodchenko's desire to reduce painting

Composed of

the painting reflects the artist's search to create elementary

shapes

series.

geometric essentials led to his incorporation into the

cm. h30*. x

w24% in.

Annely luda Fine

Art.

London

Rodin
Fwo

lovers are Locked in an infinite embrace.

force and vitality


into

The

uguste
\uu
The emotional

of this monumental sculpture have made

one of the world's

Bowing forms of the

Ik-si

known winks

tit

art.

The

it

softly

lovers contrast starkly with the block

Kiss

bodies'. Rodin's interest in the idea


I

i"i

le

in

In .in

of liberating the human

stone reflects his admiration

belongs to

product of

late

universal tradition

Romanticism

fol

Michelangelo.

of sculpture and

anil a herald

ofroughlj hewn marble to which they are attached

The

symbolic of their earth-bound union. Both passion and

have had an enormous impact on twentieth-century

rendered so believably

one

critic

put

Auguste Rodin, b

it

'the

Paris,

in

cold inanimate stone, emphasizing

impossible union of souls by their

Bourgeois, Brancusi, Canova, Giambologna, Michelangelo

1840. d Meudon. 1917

The Kiss 1886. Marble. hl83.6 cm. H7216

in.

Musee

both
art.

pulsating energy and form of his statues, such as ihis,

despair are evoked by the paradox of the sensuality of flesh

as

is

of modern

National Auguste Rodin. Paris

artists.

Romneyceo^

Mrs Mary Robinson,

Confidently attired in a fashionable black


grey muff, her

powdered

cape and a

behind a white cap, an

hair folded

eleganl lady looks toward us with

silk

coy demeanour. Her

tures are sharply delineated in a soft,

Mrs

Man

Yak

at

Robinson was an
fter

the

actress,

formal

playing that role in Shakespeare's

Drury

I.

ane Theatre

in

London. An

and charming woman, she enjoyed

style.

and was nicknamed

Winter's

attractive

brief liaison with the

Prince of Wales around the time that this portrait was made.

George Romney b Dalton

le

Furness, 1734. d Kendal,

Mrs Mary Robinson. PerdltaV 1781.

Oil

on canvas.

'Perdita'

Thomas Gainsborough and Sir Joshua Reynolds also


painted her. Romney was a fashionable portraitist, and

at

one time was considered the equal of Reynolds and


Gain-borough. After a

visit to

Rome

he dreamed of

painting ambitious historical works in the 'Grand Style', but


despite

numerous preparatory drawings

this

dream was

never realized. His popularity declined in the 1790s and he


left

London

to return to his native Kendal,

>" Gainsborough. Lawrence, Raeburn.

1802

h76xw63 cm. h30xw24/4

in.

Wallace Collection. London

where he

Ramsay, Reynolds

died.

ROSaSalv;
Regarding us over
expression, the

his

artist

Self"

shoulder with

words, 'Be

silent,

Ribera,

a rueful, disdainful

on

the tablet he holds are the

unless what you have to say

is

better than

appears to

Naples by [616, and

was evident even

threateninglj

above

us.

Romantic landscapists of

his

hand

to engraving, poetry,

Durer, Kauffmann,

AVT

Salvator Rosa, b Naples. 1615. d

cl640.

Oil

Rome, 1673

on canvas. hll6 x

w94 cm. h45% x w37

in.

own

poetic

the later eighteenth and

nineteenth centuries. Rosa was not only

painter hut turned

music and acting.

Rosa was

of (usepe

his

in his

sinister quality; the strange, horizonless sky

make him loom

greatly influenced In the almost cruel realism

Self-portrait.

settled in

'savagery'

landscapes. This particular quality was to he important for


the

The stern message of this sombre self-portrait is


made even more real In Rosa's dark cloak and hat, giving

silence."

him an almost

who had

much-admired

appears to be admonishing us with

disapproval. Indeed, inscribed

portrait

National Gallery, London

Mengs, Ribera, Vigee-Lebrun

Rosenquist

Study for Marilyn

This striking image seduces the viewer with


colours and erotic overtones.

The

its

Monroe) obscured by

brash

visual devices Rosenquist

has used are those of commercial advertising: the half-open


lips,

perfectly

manicured

nails

and provocatively placed

stick

image and the

flat,

commercial colours used have an

immediate impact. These

facile

Forks. NO,

Study

on canvas. h95.2 x w91.5 cm. h37V6 x

962.

Oil

with the

is

society. Its use

Pop Art movement


as a

in

Pop

of popular

America.
artist: his

He

turned to painting as an art form in

i960.
'"

w36

painting

were spent painting billboards and gasoline signs

De Kooning,

Lichtenstein, Oldenburg, Warhol,

1933

James Rosenquist b Grand


Marilyn

it

around the USA.

why

one-half of the woman's face (supposedly that of Marilyn

for

imagery Uoks

early years

images are undermined,

however, by the baffling composition of the canvas -

one of the foundations of urban

Rosenquist had impeccable credentials

give off suggestive signals, while the bold cropping of the

The

a large glass tumbler?

demonstrates the power of advertising, which has become

in.

Private collection

Wesselmann

Rosselli Cosimo
The

simple harmony of

this

The

composition

is

fifteenth-century Florentine altarpiece design.

The presence

of saints |ohn the Baptist and /.cnobius (patron

dictated
ease. St

more than

The

desires of Renaissance clients often

|ust the subject

Andrew and

St

in a

of an

altarpiece; in this

Bartholomew were probably

included because they were the patron saints of the

commissioning

Cosimo

client.

Blue paint,

made of ground

Rosselli b Florence. 1439. d Florence.

lapis

Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints

lazuli (a

semi-precious stonej, was the most expensive of

tempera pigments, so the more blue included


the

Florence) indicates that this altarpiece once stood


Florentine church.

of

typical

more expensive

for the

it

an issue of great

Here

became. Blue was therefore reserved

most important passages

robes of the Virgin.

marble floor

" Masaccio.

The

artistic

Rosselli's use
tiles.

in a painting,

use of perspective

debate

in

in

such as the
painting was

Renaissance Florence.

of one-point perspective

is

visible in the

Rosselli's pupils included Piero di

Piero della Francesca. Piero di

1507

The Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints. C1478. Tempera on panel. hl90.5 x wl75.2 cm. h75 x
The Rtzwilliam Museum. Cambridge

all

in a painting,

w69

in.

Cosimo

Cosimo.

Rossetti Dante Gabriel


The

painting itself gives

no indication

The Day-dream

as to the nature or

subject matter of the absorbing day-dream of this beautiful

woman,

yet her reverie

and her flower

lie

is

so

green which surround her


leaves

on

consuming

forgotten in her lap.

the branches

in the folds

which enshrine

overall sensuality of this painting.


Rossetti's

works

womanhood.

it

that

both her book

was

artistic

aim was

to return to

High Renaissance

artist

Raphael, as a reaction against

contemporary Victorian

of her dress, and the

characteristic Pre-Raphaelite techniques, such as the use

her,

add to the

As with many of

co-founder of the Pre-

Dante Gabriel Rossetti b London. 1828. d Birchington on-Sea. 1882


1 880. Oil on canvas. hl59 x w93 cm. H62V6 x w36V, in.

The Day-dream

whose

The many hues of

presents us with an idealized vision of

Rossetti

Raphaelite Brotherhood,

the simplicity of paintings before the time of the Italian

artists.

This work

illustrates certain

of

luminous expanses of bright colour, meticulous attention


detail

poetry which echoed the themes in his paintings.

'

Fra Angelico. Botticelli, Burne-Jones, Hunt. Millais.

Victoria

to

and the study of outdoor subjects. Rossetti also wrote

and Albert Museum, London

Moreau

Rosso Fiorentino
jethro's seven daughters
their father's flock

by

were prevented from watering

group of obstinate shepherds

iught off single-handedly.

muscular body

is

seen

in the

fiercely beating a figure

daughter top

Moses and

on

development from the

whom

Moses' twisted and

right, the billowing

The

static,

pink cloak top

and the

Moses and the Daughters

di

left his

of France

native Italy to

at

work on the palace

Fontainebleau. Rosso,

earned his

name because of

rumoured

to

his

shock of red

have committed suicide;

Bourdelle, Bronzino. Giulio

Jacopo). b Florence. 1494. d Fontainebleau.

of Jethro c.1523. Oil

and order associated with

it is

who

hair,

more

was

likely that

show Rosso

Fiorentino at the height of Mannerism. This style was a

Rosso Fiorentino (Giovanni Battista

stability

such as Pcrugino. Towards the end of

he died from natural causes.

intertwined forms, contorted poses and oddly perverse


scattering of truncated limbs in the foreground,

artists

Rosso

of Francois

stunned
left,

Renaissance
his career,

centre of the composition

the floor.

the Daughters of [ethro

on canvas. hl60 x

Romano. Pontormo.

1540

wll7 cm. h63 x w46

in.

Galleria degli Uffizi. Florence

Primaticcio

Rothko Mark

Untitled

ntense colour float


canvas. Their blurred edges

make

upon

rgely a self-taught painter,

the

the colour masses appear

to vibrate with a misty, magical quality.

An

^urTuses the painting, dissolving

scale.

tension of

form and contrasts of tones into an inner glow. Restrained


yet deeply evocative,

containing

Rothko's works give the feeling of

some burning

hko emigrated to the

b Dvinsk. 1903. d New


1951-5.

Oil

USA with

Yorti.

on canvas. hl89

NY.

wlOl

of intimacy.

transaction;

it

w39fc

takes

in a total

A large picture

you into

it.'

is

an

Rothko was

spirit

of the movement an ultimate

response to the unattainable mysteries of the

Heron.

Kelly.

1970

h74*

he usually worked on a

immerse the viewer

reate a state

canvases evoke the true

Bom in

his parents in

cm.

to

leading figure in Abstract Expressionism, and his formless

truth, as if they represent the

embodiment of long and arduous meditation.

He wanted

colour experience, saying, i paint large pictures because

ethereal
all

huge

in.

Tate Gallery.

London

Newman.

Pollock.

Ryman. Se

human

psyche.

ROUault Georges
he

composibon and

fills

The

to the

power of this image of

effect, especially the

icbneate the coloured areas,


.

cross dominates the

the ennre canvas. Rich colours and

drawn forms add

sahanon. The whole

glass

on

the Cross

cross and the surrounding figures are depicted in

simple, outlined areas of colour.

crudely

Christ

is

heavy black

lines

entering the studio

fluid, paint-like effects.

of his work

of Gustave Moreau

The

ic:

stre_

-". r.c-

expressive, emotional content

contt

Rouauh

iCtenzed by br

to train as a

Rouault has used luminous

recalls

painting. Nevertheless,

reminiscent of stained

Rouault was indeed apprenticed in stained glass

painter. In this print

used the medium of aqu

harsh

IVOUbllllC
This statue

of Six Isaac

Louis Francois

Sir

Newton - mathematician,

astronomer and philosopher- proudly proclaims


subject's status as a

marble
to

is

man of unique

talent.

imposing and monumental,

presence.

The

France and setded

wished

towering

features are vividly sculpted with a superbly

vitality

The

Louis Francois Roubiliac b Lyons. 1702. d London,


Sir

Isaac

Newton

755. Marble.

hl83 cm.

h.72

Gardens.

College,

of

men

England, where he made his

caned

for

native

name

London's Vauxhall

a highly acclaimed sculptor, gaining

of the Enlightenment and nobles, and

portrait busts

- Canova. Houdon.

1762

in. Trinity

He became

the calm

left his

numerous commissions. His wide range of work includes


numerous

befits the eighteenth-

in

with a statue of Handel

statues

resulting statue breathes an air of

and restrained exuberance. As

work exudes

grandeur of greatness. As a young man, he

confident technique, and brought to a smooth, highly


polished finish.

Roubiliac's

its

as if Roubiliac
his

Age of Reason,

century

The grandiose

convey Newton's supreme genius through

Newton

Is

physicist,

Cambridge

and monuments.

Moroni, Powers

Rousseau Ha
Three

monkeys

The Monkeys

peer out from behind the thick foliage of

the jungle, while an unusual bird perches

on

a delicate

who

branch laden with heavy leaves. The uninhibited


imaginativeness ol the scene
the world.

The

is

typical

of Rousseau's view of

intense colours, crisply painted shapes and

meticulous attention to detail demonstrate his naive


This imaginary jungle derives

Rousseau's numerous

its

visits to

Rousseau (Le Douanier) b

The Monkeys. 1906.

Oil

from

le

of the Parisian avant- garde

exhibited at the Salon des Independants in 1885.

became widely admired by Pablo Picasso and

for his fresh, direct vision, so obviously

academic

customs

Customs

training.

agent')

Rousseau's nickname

was an amateur painter

Laval.

1844. d

on canvas. hl45.5 x

Paris.

wll3

l.e

stems from his profession

in

service.

Ernst, Gauguin, Hicks,

Lam, Picasso, Vlaminck

1910

cm.

H57H x w44VS

in.

Philadelphia

Museum

of Art. Philadelphia.

PA

his circle

untrammelled by

the Parisian botanical garden,

the Jardin des Plantes. Rousseau

Henri

inspiration

Style.

attracted the attention

when he

Douaniet

('the

the French

Rousseau Theodc
\

simple forest scene

times.

Composed

painting

is

is

The Forest of Fontainebleau, Morning

marvellously fresh and inornate.

enveloped by the misty, early morning


reflected in the silvery puddle in

the

its

un-academic

The cows,

pale, subtlv

which they stand. Rousseau

changing dawn

light.

damp

of

Paris.

1812. d

Paris.

840s he settled in the village of Barbizon, in the forest of

countrvside with intimacv and realism. Rousseau became

paint the scenery and peasant

life

of

their

an unprettihed, direct manner.

" Constable.

landscapists of the seventeenth century, as well as by the

Theodore Rousseau b

to introduce a freer,

of landscape to French painting. In the

Corot. Daubigny.

Hobbema.

Millet

1867

Fontainebleau. Morning. 1850.

Oil

on canvas. h98 x

who aimed

to

adopted locale

in

one of the founders of the Barbizon School,

Inspired by

work of facob van Ruisdael and other Dutch

The Forest

style

Fontainebleau, where he began to paint the surrounding

are delicately

air,

has given careful attention to the depiction of the


forest with

Englishman John Constable, he wished

painted in shimmering, pearly

within an encircling arch of trees, the

wl34

cm. h38V6 x

w52 3/S

in.

Wallace Collection. London

Rubens sn
to P. ins.

They

The Judgement

Peter Paul

Mercury, with his billowing cloak,

h.is led

are |uno, with a peacock,

three goddesses

Venus, with Cupid,

and Minerva, with her helmet and shield bearing


head. Attorned with jewels and very

stand before Pans


to the

who

little

else, the

holds the golden apple he

most beautiful of the

three.

Gorgon's

women
will

award

Rubens has displayed

this

most popular of mythological subjects with the verve and


grandeur so typical

or"

the

Baroque

Style that

he pioneered.

Sumptuous colour and sinuous brushstrokes have been

Sir

Peter Paul Rubens, b Siegen. 1577. d Antwerp.

The Judgement

of Paris.

1632-5.

Oil

of Paris

used to evoke the rich sensual female figures. In i6^o

Rubens married the [6-year-old Helene Fourment After


this date his Style

To

achieve

this,

became imbued with

Rubens used

a lyrical

tenderness.

rich colours inspired

Venetian masters, Titian and Veronese. Rubens'

brushwork and luscious colouring, and the


his

compositions, contributed to

greatest

* Van

Baroque painter north

ot"

1640
in.

National Gallery. London

emotion

his reputation as the

the Alps.

Dyck. Jordaens. Maillol. Titian. Veronese

on panel. H144.8 x wl93.7 cm. h57 x w76V4

rich

by the

riuid
or"

Ruisdael Jacob van


Warmlj spacious, with

celebrate the beauty of the countryside.

autumnal tones
It is

not a

static

scene of chocolate-box prettiness, however; the restless,


mi n ing skj suggests that the weather

is

about to change,

ns<

if

both the

power of natural

forces. Ruisdael instilled a

grandeur and drama into


tlat

plains of his native

his

painting demonstrates
the sky

became

works, which depict

Holland and the more

how

the expressive possibilities of

increasingly important to

Dutch

breathing

air

Torrent.

cl655.

Oil

painters,

and space into the scene. The appeal of

acclaimed by

lies in its

many

naturalistic approach.

as the greatest

and most

Claude, Constable, Van Goyen.

Hobbema

on canvas. h77.5 x

w95 cm. h31 x w38

in.

Private collection

He

is

versatile

seventeenth-century Dutch landscape painters.

Jacob van Ruisdael. b Haarlem, 1628. d Amsterdam. 1682

A Mountainous Wooded Landscape with a

Torrent

not only serving to balance the composition but also

RuisdaeFs work

while the gushing river reminds us of the potentially


destructive

rugged and dramatic areas of northern Germany. This

wealth of closely observed

naturalistic detail, this landscape's rich,

Mountainous Wooded Landscape with

of all

Ruysch R
Resplendent against

achcl

distant statue, a crystal vase

and the

of depth and
rich,

creamy

artist's brilliant

light

technical

skill is

commonly used

Dutch seventeenth-century

beaut\- will eventually decay.

of

this painting.

veil

of

softly depicted

were

of

Rowers. 1689.

Oil

on

even natural

life

earth:

Ruysch was one of

painters of floral

still lifes,

Fantin-Latour.

on canvas. h67.2 * w55.2 cm. h26'/

<

w21 %

in.

De Heem,

Private collection

the

mosi

excelling at

of beautiful bouquets. Her paintings

arrangements they imitated.

Rachel Ruysch b Amsterdam. 1664. d Amsterdam. 1750


Still Life

of nature hut

continue to be as highly prized as the jewel-like

flowers, a

at the time. Floral still lifes

Dutch

naturalistic depictions

further demonstration of Ruysch's

on the

successful

painting.

as a celebration

symbol of the transience of

as a

the inclusion of insects

device

They were regarded not only

technique give an added sense

descends gendy onto the

of Rowers

The scrupulous tendering of

clarity to the surface

local arrangement.

Life

popular subject

glows with the luminous

textures of colourful flowers.


detail

Still

backdrop of Classical buildings and

Kalf,

Vermeer

Ryman

Robert

Courier

White enamel paint has been applied to


aluminium sheet screwed
fasteners

form an

which aims to
illusion.

integral part

rid the painting

The work provides

tranquillity that

is

a thin,

constant

emotion and illusionism

unframed

to the wall with metal bolts.

the materials

of any trace of painterly

(canvas; plastic,

also

II.

Nashville, TN.

is

attention

demonstrated by the lack of

from these concerns. He continues

Andre,

Kelly.

Mangold, Rothko, Serra, Tobey

1930

1985. Impervo on aluminium. h40.6 x w40.6 cm. hl6 x

wl6

its

qualities

of

support

aluminium and so on). From the mid-1960s

and the wall-plane behind. The work's

connection with Minimalism

Ryman. b

the paint itself and

with a wide range of media and brushstrokes.

demonstrates the unique interaction between the flatness of


the picture's surface

used both

he has used exclusively white paint, so as not to distract

the spectator with an ecstatic


it

in the painting's construction.

Ryman's work concentrates on emphasizing the

These

of the blank composition,

in its intensity;

II

Private collection

to

experiment

Salvia ti
Salviati

was

Charity

great admirer of Michelangelo

adapted the intertwined figures of the


painting of Charity.

Not

only

the obsession with muscular

is

Dom

rhis

the composition similar, but

form and the play of light over

the surface of the skin are also derived

While

Florentine art of the time, which had

and has

Tondo for

from Michelangelo.

Salviati achieves a strikingly three-dimensional,

sculptural quality, this painting

is

too studied and

encumbered by

become somewhat

the genius of the previous generation. Also

influenced by the graceful fluidity of the work of

Parmigianino, Salviati was the earliest and most convinced

of the converts to
his

Roman

surname from one of his

ideal

of Mannerism. Me took

early patrons, Cardinal Salviati.

self-

conscious to merit the same status as Michelangelo's


masterpiece. Nevertheless, this

Francesco

Salviati. b Florence.

Charity 1543/5.

Oil

work

is

characteristic

of the

Bronzino. Michelangelo. Parmigianino. Signorelli

1510. d Florence. 1563

on panel. hl56 x

wl22

cm. h61i< x

w48

in.

Galleria degli Uffizi. Florence

Sanchez-Cotan

Still

Painted with astonishing immediacy and presence, this

simple

still life is

startlingly illusionistic.

vegetables assume a

monumental

The

fruit

way thev have been positioned -

either

northern

still lifes.

it

of

their

artist.

is

The

highly

goes against the tradition of

These were generally

depicting lavishly prepared food and

its

if

any,

is

ambiguous, but the austerity and sense of order of

seem

the painting

Cotan's

monk

Granada and

set table-pieces

in

trappings. Here, by

" De Heem,

Ufe.

C1600-10.

Oil

on canvas. h69.5 x w96.5 cm.

t\27'A x

w38

in.

some higher purpose. Sanchez-

was more than merelv decorative. He became

a status that

Carthusian

to imply

contributed to the elevation of the genre to

still lifes

Kalf.

Juan Sanchez-Cotan b Orgaz. 1561. d Granada. 1637


Still

humble and unadorned and

have been taken out of the context of eating. The message,

hanging from strings

or placed on an ambiguous window-like structure

unconventional since

contrast, the vegetables are

and

quality as a result

meticulous depiction and dramatic lighting by the

Life

Private collection

in

1605 and also painted religious pictures

Seville.

Ruysch. Snyders. Zurbaran

Sargent
Even though
known,

the

names

nhn Singer

Paul Helleu Sketching with his Wife

of the couple in this painting arc

the plav of light over

the subject matter and execution are closer to an

Impressionist painting than an official portrait. Just as the


Impressionists

worked outdoors, Helleu

sits

on

bank

direct observation.

would

also have painted his friend

The handling of the

Impressionistic. Short, sharp strokes

reeds and grasses while the

paint

is

Style in this picture.

for the

)ld

from

Me

is

clearly trying to

emulate their

also maintained a great admiration

Masters, particularly Frans Hals and Diego

Velazquez. Born

painting directly from nature. Sargent would have been


veiled opposite and

red surface. Sargent was not one C

its

the Impressionists, but he

Sargent settled

in

in Italy

of American expatriate parents,

London where he became

a prolific

fashionable painter of Edwardian society portraits.

also

of colour define the

moored canoe

is

an exercise

in

Hals. Monet. Orpen. Tissot, Velazquez

John Singer Sargent, b Florence. 1856. d London. 1925


Paul Helleu Sketching with his Wife. 1889.

Oil

on canvas. h66 x w81.5 cm. h26 x

w32

The Brooklyn Museum. New

York.

NY

and

Sassetta
This scene depicts the
his family in favour

to the

of

Saint Francis of Assisi

moment when
life in

Church money belonging

appealed to the

civil

St Francis

renounces

the Church. Francis hat) given


to his father,

who

then

courts. Francis tore off his clothes,

altarpiece

which

Renouncing

told the story

originally stood in the

his Earthly Father

of the

life

of St Francis and

church of San Francesco

centurv were

perspective and proportion

less interested in

than their Florentine counterparts; this scene

recognized any father but God. In

nut as

realistic as a

would

be.

abandoned

his clothes at the feet

runs n> the Bishop,

who

protection. This panel

Sassetta (Stefano

dl

offers

of

both

scene he has

his
real

was once part of

enraged father and

and symbolic
a large

double-sided

Giovanni) b Siena, cl392. d Siena.

town

painters of the early fifteenth

saying that they were his father's and he no longer


this

in the

ofBorgo Sansepolcro. Sienese

in its

**

What

it

Florentine

is

therefore

work of the same period

lacks in realism,

however,

it

makes up

graceful sophistication and subde use of colour.

Duccio. Giotto. Piero della Francesca

1450

Saint Francis of Assisi Renouncing his Earthly Father 1444. Tempera on panel. H87.5 x
National Gallery, London

w52.5 cm. h34V4 x w20&

in.

for

Savery r
Surrounded by
of die

forest,

.1

(]

He

is

motley collection of the animals and birds

who

.ire

drawn by

music, Orpheus reclines


river.

Kindt

seen playing

die irresistible

rocky,

in a

wooded

a violin, the

charm of

glade near

his

)rphcns

tact

based on the Alpine scenery Savery saw while travelling

Switzerland

in

paintings of

him

honeyed tones of

He made

in the early i6ocs.

Orpheus and

the

several

dozen

Garden of Eden which gave

the opportunity of depicting his favourite subjects in

which mesmerize the colourful array of exotic creatures.

magical worlds. His

Savery delighted in richly detailed, lush, decorative

crammed with

detailed paintings,

lively,

incident,

show

which

landscapes with an assortment of flora and fauna. Although


highly fantastic and idealized, and very

much

in the

Mannerist tradition, the topography of these landscapes

%S^^

;-

is

in

Bruegel, Hicks, Patenier, Piero

di

Cosimo

---_A^^^^I

1
1

.#W^J

yL

T^

*s

W*0
3^

:'

**f

^^^l

pHr JH

%A
'

Roelandt Savery b Courtrai. 1576. d Utrecht. 1639


Oil

on panel. h53 x

w82 cm. h21

w32

in.

National Gallery. London

f
..

Orpheus 1628.

'

are

the influence of |an Bruegcl.

(Mi,

Schad
With

Portrait

Christian

a catheter in his breast pocket,

candidl] out

of the painting

menacing shadow of his

lover, a

macabre tension created by

model

of her

Christian

to arrest him.

in politics

The

was almost

failed marriage,

1953 the doctor poisoned himself

uninterested

stares

when he

and

in

Schad b Miesbach. 1894. d

and introspective,
degree of

learnt that the

New

reality.

social implications. Isolated

his subjects often take

Objectivity painters, a group of

who aimed
realism. His

on

Schad has been described

to achieve a

work has

surgical operation,

new

all

and

a hallucinatory

as the coldest

German

Keilberg,

(-

Beckmann,

Dix,

kind of unidealized, objective

the precision and exactitude of a

this painting

is

typical

of his

style.

Grosz, Richter, Sheeler

1982

OH on canvas. h80.5 x w55 cm. h34% x w21%

in.

of

artists

Schad himself was

and concentrated on subjects that

Portrait of Doctor Haustein. 1928.

had psychological rather than

the

was completed Haustein's wife

it

committed

Gestapo were about

called Sonja.

this painting

prophetic: three years after


suicide because

Doctor Haustein

Behind him looms the

at us.

of Doctor Haustein

Fundaci6n Coleccion Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid

Schiele Egon
(

barged with

on

seated
at

the

less
I

ler

the

Seated

nervous energy, Schick's model

ground

in

lewer; her gaze

threatening than

is

portrayed

an informal pose. She looks directly

and pose

many

are erotic, yet the painting

ofSchiele's portraits of

women.

sinewy features, anguished hands and contorted neck

make

this

powerfully compact picture

disturbing. Schick's intense

uncompromising

in their

all

the

more

and distorted images are

expression of

human

feeling.

Deeply affected by Sigmund Freud's explorations of the

is

Woman

Knee

with Bent

unconscious, Schick's work gave form to his

and

insecurities.

lis

of his works are sexually


artist's

The
the

brief

explicit.

Woman

most important Expressionist

movement. He died

just as his

Balthus, Baselitz, Klimt, Kokoschka,

w30 cm.

hl816 x

made him one of

painters, although he never

formally identified himself with the

with Bent Knee. 1917. Gouache, watercolour and black crayon on paper. h46 x

Narodni Galerie, Prague

many

tin

imprisonment for 'making immoral drawings'.

work was recognized.

Munch

Egon Schiele. b Vienna. 1890. d Vienna, 1918


Seated

anxieties

Indeed, this led to

acute nervous intensity of his style has

prematurely of influenza,

own

career was briet but prolific, and

wl2

in.

Schmidt-Rottluff Karl
The dark

rich colours

and harsh treatment of forms, such as

the violently delineated tree that

have been painted


quivers with

in a

vitality.

Flowering Trees

forceful

and dynamic

Like Vincent van

Gogh

style

earlier,

of contrasting, saturated hues. These are not

the true colours of nature, but reflect the ardst's


sensitivities

and

impassioned

state of

style

of

this painting,

Oil

exponent. During the

was

own

galleries

reinstated in 1945,

who removed

all

W Van

1884. d

Berlin.

on canvas. h69 x

Gogh. Heckel, Kirchner. Nolde, Pechstein

1976

w81

cm. H27V& x w3144

Private collection

his paintings

paint.

from which time the

East Germany.

and the freedom of its

of

and forbade him to

mind. The surging vibrancy and

Karl Schmidt-Rottluff b Rottluff.

Flowering Trees. 1909.

peisecuted by the Nazis

from German

the artist has used heavily laden brushstrokes, applied in

layered planes

German Expressionism of

a leading

Second World War Schmidt-RotdufTwas severely

which

20 years

execution, are characteristic of

which Schmidt-Rottluff was

dominates the landscape,

His work

artist lived in

Schnabel
The

Mclc

Julian

surface of tins unusual and expressive portrait

from

bits

painted. Schnabel

Guell

in

was inspired

bj

some

walls in the Park

Antoni Gaudi, which had been surfaced with

Surrealists'

Me was

mosaic of

experiments with 'automatic' drawing,

which was supposed

to

come

directly

Schnabel. b

1987.

Oil

New

York. NY,

enabled him to paint on

immediate

effect.

surface without seeing the

The fragmented

surface causes the image

to recede in places, the china acting as a screen rather than

medium

to project the image. Schnabel painted

was considered the

enfant terrible

form o

from the
Motherwell, Rauschenberg, Schwltters, Twombly

this

1951

and china plates on wood. hl52 x

wl22 cm. h60 x w48

on

othl

unconventional surfaces, including velvet and tarpaulin. In


the 1980s he

also influenced by the

unconscious. Schnabel's 'plate paintings' such as

made

Barcelona, designed by the Catalan architect

ceramic fragments.

art

is

of broken china, onto which the linage has been

in.

Private collection

of -American

Schongauer Martin
It

is

surprising that this

Madonna and

each other. Each seems absorbed

The Madonna of the Rose Garden

Child look away from

in a different

world, even

Mary's robe which are divided into planes of

shadow

parallel the

manner

in

light

and

which an engraver would

though the Virgin tenderly cradles the Christ child and he

represent tones. Prints were cheap and easy to transport.

has his arms around her neck. Schongauer

This would have

printmaking and was

was

a pioneer in

much admired by Albrecht

Durer.

He

concentrated on images of the Virgin that were very similar


to the altarpiece

documented

shown

here. This

is

Schongauer's only

painting, yet his talents as a printmaker are

evident even in paint. For example, the sharp folds of

facilitated the rapid dispersion

over a large area of Europe. Schongauer was


influenced by Flemish

art,

exquisite details of the flowers

of the

Rose Garden 1473.

Oil

on panel. H200 x

and birds

Bouts, Campin, Durer, Lochner, Van der

wll5 cm. h78% x W45V*

in.

much

especially apparent in the

Martin Schongauer. b Augsburg, cl435. d Breisach, 1491

The Madonna

of

Schongauer's compositions, thereby making his reputation

Saint Martin. Colmar

in this painting.

Weyden

Schwitters
\n

.ism

irtment

if

Picture of Spatial

Kurt

items - including a used enveli

tpe,

meaningful.

.1

postcard, discarded packaging and 1ms tickets - have been

attached to
at

piece

of board. Combined with words picked

random from newspapers, and daubed with

have been arranged without meaning to form


result

is

balanced, abstract composition

tr.uliM011.il

random

notion of

collection
art as

The

made from

meaningless fragments: Schwitters has created


non-art. His

paint, they
a collage.

art

Growths -

public's

from

191

to 1922,

Wlerz', a

Ernst, Gris, Hamilton.

Man

Kurt Schwitters b Hanover. 1887. d Ambleside.


Picture of Spatial Growths - Picture with
Tate Gallery, London

to the Berlin

own branch

word derived from

to disrupt the

traditional values.

in

Collage on board. h96.5 x

w68 cm. h38 x w26 *

Dada

lanover which he

the proper

Comwcr^bank.
* Duchamp,

Dogs

Schwitters

group of writers and

membership
his

Small

artist,

who wanted

complacency and acceptance of

Schwitters was refused

named

out of

1948
Two Small Dogs. 1939.

was associated with the DadaistS,


artists active

Two

talented poet as well as an

group and established

of objects undermines the

something expressive, or

Picture with

Ray. Schnabel

noun

Van
The

Scorel Jan

robust, statuesque figures of

lush trees

and with

the distance,

Scorel

a river

dominate

was much

this

travelled

Adam

Adam

and Eve, framed by

landscape winding

its

way

Renaissance

into

artist

his style

and

of painting

synthesizes the delicacy of his Netherlandish predecessors

with the substantiality of form of Italian

art.

firm, confident outline, are tvpical

The bold

of Scorel's

style

and reveal the influence of the

fill

540.

Oil

lived in

whom

Rome. His northern

was so famous by the mid-sixteenth

century that he was asked to restore the great


altarpiece

Ghent

by Jan van Eyck.

of

Italian

on panel. H47.6 x w31.8 cm. H18V4 x wl2Vi

the

roots

with delightful details such as the small animals in

Durer. Van Eyck. Van

van Scorel. b Scorel. 1495. d Utrecht. 1562

Adam and Eve

Michelangelo and Raphael

the foreground. Scorel

nudity and the solid forms of the figures, contained within a

religious painting

artists

knew when he

enabled him to depict the landscape with great sensitivitv

scene from the Garden of Eden.

and

and Eve

in.

Private collection

derGoes. Massys, Michelangelo

Sebastiano del

Piombo

Venus teams of the death of her lover Adonis who, having


been

by

slain

a boar, lies

dead

in the

background. The

The Death of Adonis

native Venice, in particular the


his friend

work of Giorgione who was

and teacher. Sebastiano

also

asymmetrical composition with a concentration of figures

where he came

on

strongly influenced by Michelangelo

the right of the canvas, and the pointing fingers,

outstretched arms and

movement
style

which

paintings.

moving heads which

and cartoons to develop. The

create

within the painting, are typical of Sebastiano's


is

free

from the

rigidity

of eadiet Renaissance

The nudes and surrounding landscape

in a delicate light characteristic

of the

art

painting reflect the

artist's

solid,

of Adonis.

C1511.

Oil

who

Rome
was more

gave him sketches

muscular bodies

Michelangelo's nudes.

are bathed

of Sebastiano's

on canvas. hl89 /

in

deep understanding of

"

Giorgione. Michelangelo. Palma Vecchio. Raphael. Titian

Sebastiano del Piombo. b Venice. cl485. d Rome. 1547

The Death

worked

into contact with Raphael but he

w285 cm.

h74M> x W112VS

in.

Galleria degli Uffizi. Florence

in this

Segal George
Four ghost-like
in

figures

the everyday acth

plaster casts

itj

Bus Riders

appear to have been frozen in time

mundane,

of riding on

society in

.1

bus. Segal created

of his friends and family and placed them

alienation in the

in

familiar settings to highlight the banal but necessary


activities that are routinely

performed by

all

of

sit

Although

us.

rough on the outside, inside each cast bears the imprint of


every detail of the

on

.1

sitter's

daily actions that are

which we

clothes and skin. Like real people

typical

plaster

men and women

diners and shave their legs.

activities

of Pop Art, a

America

imposed on us by the

and to capture mankind's sense of

modern world. His

in <-h urs, cat in

of familiar

live,

which the spectator could

The

movement which developed

in the 1960s.

bus these figures keep themselves to themselves.

Segal's intention

was

George Segal, b New

to portray the

York. NY.

anonymity of the

Dine. Hamilton, Oldenburg, Rosenquist,

Wesselmann

1924

Bus Riders. 1964. Mixed media. hl75.2 x wl93 cm. h69

>

w76

in.

Hirshhorn

Museum and

Sculpture Garden, Washington

DC

portrayal

relate to
in

was

Serra Richard
Two immense
drawn by an

Clara, Clara

plates of steel curve towards each other as

irresistible,

resonating force.

The

surrounding

it"

power

or" its

York, works

structural might. Serra,

in a variety

who

of commonplace

lives in

New

materials,

rusted nails, and


including metal squares, firebricks, fogs and

demonstrates

in a

Conceptual way

Clara. Clara.
in

1983. Cor-Ten

steel.

the Square de Choisy, Paris

to

its

Clara, Clara

is

paradoxical extreme - the most

new

also

much

controversy.

of

world

free

insists that his

To some

it

offers a forlorn glimpse

from mundane function. Richard Serra


works are illustrated in black and white.

a material's ability to

structures
express energy and develop tensions with the

Richard Serra b San Francisco. CA.

newly created form.

amplified into
simple, unadorned message of purity of form
dimension. Serra's work has kindled awe, despair and

square in which
dominates rather than decorates the public
presence aggressively stating
it stands, its uncompromising
the

its

Minimalism taken

sculpture

m-

Andre. LeWitt. Noguchi. Smith

1939

h3.6 * w36.6 m. hl2 x

wl20 ft.

Ongmally

,n

the Jardin des Tuilenes. Place de

la

Concorde. Pans.

Now

SeUr at George
Seurat has painted a typical
pular site

north west of

months

tor six

P. ins.

to

on an
1

Sunday Afternoon on the Island of the Grande

Sunday afternoon

at the

Grand

[e \ isited

the

Grand Jatte every day

make preparatory drawings of

child,

his studio.

When

this carefully

the painting

was

planned composition
first

shown

it

Paris.

1859. d

Sunday Afternoon on the Island

Paris.

of the

Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL

known

as

is

dots of pure colour.

When

infection at the age of 32.

was

884-6.

Oil

The

viewed

at a

mesmerizing haze of brilliant colour. Seurat died of a severe


in

Duty,

Monet, Pissarro, Signac, Vlaminck, Vuillard

1891

Grande Jatte

as 'Pointillisme'.

broken up and the colour painted

distance the dots appear to fuse together, creating a

received with great indignation by the majority of artists and

Georges Seurat b

strongly disapproved of Seurat's revolutionary

onto 'he canvas

the

with her fashionable bustle and the mother and

before creating

They

painting technique,

surface of the painting

landscape and to sketch numerous figures, such as the

woman

critics.

new

island in the River Seine to the

Jatte

on canvas. h202 x

w300

cm. h81 x

wl20&

Severini Gino

Pierrot the Musician

number of

Pierrot the musician, dressed in an immaculate white

costume which contrasts with


tommedia

dtll'arte, sits in

room

his black

and writers

who

movement,

group of

art.

He was much

this painting

became

stiff

folds

figures in

which dominated Severini's work

Oil

on canvas. hl30 x

friends with a

w89 cm.

h51vt x

The calm

of Pierrot's

until his death.

"

Balla. Boccioni. Greuze, Picasso. Seurat.

in.

Museum Boymans-van

Terbrugghen

Gino Severini. b Cortona. 1883. d Paris. 1966

1924.

>.

rubbery hands and the guitar, marks the

influenced by Georges Seurat,

evident in his use of pure colour, and

Pierrot the Musician.

Picassi

and the precision and care with

artist's

movement away from the influence of futurism and


Cubism and towards a rekindling of the Neo-Classical spun

motion, and went on to create some masterpieces of


Futurist

iubist artists, including Pabli

which Severini has executed the


outfit, his

expressed the dynamism of the

modern world by representing machines and

composition of

the

with brightly patterned walls.

In 1910 Severini joined the Futurist


Ktists

mask of

w35

Beuningen. Rotterdam

Sheeler Charles

Windows

Skyscrapers soar up into the Manhattan sky.

The windows

of these 36-storey buildings are not intended to give the


spectator an insight into the people

who

live

with Stuart Davis, Georgia O'Keeffe and others, Sheeler


reveals in his

and work

to the

inside but to create an abstract pattern across the surface

of

work

a pristine, static,

unpopulated approach

North American environment, executed

the precisely painted picture. In 1920 Sheeler took a series

reflections suggested in this painting have

of photographs of New York's skyscrapers which he used

by Sheeler's use of superimposed images

to

make

a film called Mannabatta.

complex arrangement of
inspired

him

to

make

These images of a

buildings,

photography.

shadows and windows

his first 'Precisionist' paintings.

Along

Davis, Estes, O'Keeffe, Richter,

Schad

Charles Sheeler b Philadelphia, PA, 1883. d Dobbs Ferry. NY. 1965

1951.

Oil

on canvas. h81.3 x w51.1 cm. h32 x w20!*

in.

in styles

ranging from photographic realism to pure abstraction.

Hirschl

and Adler Galleries

Inc.,

New York, NY

The

been influenced

in his

Sherman
This photograph

is

Cindy

Untitled No. 96

reminiscent of Victorian

disguised, she acts out a series of narratives often

art in its

romantic portrayal of a meditative young woman. The

from cinema or the history of great


baroque works of the

symbolic motifs of the Pre-Raphaelites, however, are


replaced with the brash surfaces of modernity; the

woman becomes
section

of"

teenager; the

'letter'

she holds

is

is

one of an ongoing

series

photographic tableaux which Sherman stages, acts

Sherman

is

the

'star'

of

Cindy Sherman, b Glen Ridge. NJ.

all

gurjtwl.

in

as a corpse

is

and

woman

of

for traditional values

and

powerful and original

her works where, heavily

"

1980s have

late

The female body

is

pornographic prosthetics

.1

the lonely hearts column; and the framing

cinematic. Untitled Xo. 96

directs

young

art.

Her

drawn

increasingly

moved mto grand

dismembered or replaced with

in a violent

as victim.

evocation of the image

But Sherman's disrespect

combines with grim humour


artistic

to

form

approach.

Dine. Estes. Gilbert and George.

Man

Ray. Millais

1954

Untitled No. 96. 1981. Colour photograph.

h61

wl22

cm. h24 x

w48

in.

Saatchi Collection. London

Siberechts Jan
Longleat

is

one of the

largest

monuments of Elizabethan
Flemish landscape painter

A View of Longleat

and most impressive

who

lived in

Renaissance
erection of a
.1

to record this masterpiece

just as a

modern

could be

in the
life,

said,

more of a topographical record of the

work of high

art.

grounds of the house give

but Ciberechts has

managed

certain restrained formality

made

Jan Siberechts b Antwerp. 1627. d London.

1703

1675.

Oil

rather

little

to

figures lingering

indication of courdy

imbue the scene with

the taste of the seventeenth-century English nobility.

symmetry and
it

The few

which would have appealed

building today. Siberechts has chosen

bird's-eye view of Longleat, but the strict

of Longleat.

and

of the English

photographer might record the

dispassionate style of the painting has

A View

it

building than a

England from 1672,

specialized in the depiction of noble country houses

was commissioned

and,

architecture. Siberechts, a

stiff

on canvas, hill. 8 x wl72.7 cm.

h44xw68i

Canaletto, Guardi, Pannini, Piper

.ii'

<

'Ik

to

Sickert w
Time seems
puffs

on

woman
painting

to stand

his cigar

head

in

on the

still

and

in this

languid setting.

A man

hand and stiHed by boredom, gazes up


wall

which she must have looked

Irish descent, Sickert

friends with F.dgar

and portrayals of

stares into the distance, while a voting

hundred times before. Born

Ennui

alter

in

at a

was trained

in Paris,

where he became

U was also the pupil of James McNeill Whistler


in

in his use

his

Oil

reflected the

w44

in.

same

His studio

in

from

of sombre colours and rough dark tones.

work

is

British Impressionist

not typical of Impressionist painting.

Camden Town, London, became

in

painting landscapes, townscapes

on canvas. hl52.4 x W112.4 cm. h60 x

These

meeting-

place for the avant-garde artists and writers of his day.

'" Degas. Gilman,

Walter Sickert. b Munich. 1860. d Bathampton, 1942


Ennui. cl914.

life.

was the most important

although

Degas and the French Impressionists.

London. He specialized

them

Sickert

at a

Germany of Danish and

daily

interests as his friends in Paris although he differs

Tate Gallery, London

Hammershoi, Orpen, Whistler

Signac Paul

The Papal

Small patches of pure colour are fused together optically to


create an

image of the Papal Palace

at

Avignon.

On

the

left,

picked out in hues of green, stands Avignon's famous


bridge.

devotee of Georges Seurat's

'Pointillist'

dots that merge together

when viewed from

is

a series

a distance.

Signac exploited the Impressionists' discoveries about

colour changes under different light conditions.

Paul Signac. b Paris, 1863. d Pans.

The Papal Palace, Avignon 1900.

of

The

how

purples

Avignon

and pinks which dominate


similar to the colouring

of the cathedral

technique,

Signac placed complementary colours next to each other

without blending them together. The result

Palace,

his ideas

at

this painting, for instance, are

of Claude Monet's famous visions

Rouen. Seurat himself was opposed

Signac to expound theories on Neo-Impressionism and the


use of colour.

From around

1900 he abandoned the round

dots of Pointillism and began to use square spots of primary


colours.

"

Boccioni, Monet, Pissarro, Seurat

1935

Oil

to

being over-verbalized, but his early death enabled

on canvas. h73.5 x w92.5 cm. h29 x w36V4

in.

Musee

d'Orsay, Paris

Signorelli LUCa
Christ, tied to the
is

being beaten

at

column

at

The

the centre of the composition,

the behest of

Fontms

Pilate

who

does not

Son of God. The

sculptural reliefs in

the background, the Corinthian capital

of the column and

believe

th.it

he

is

the

the decorative frieze at the

bottom of the painting

the Renaissance interest in motifs

from

reflect

classical Antiquity.

Strong, oblique lighting, including the shadows cast

on

Flagellation of Christ

symmetrical composition are characteristic of Signorelli's


style

of paindng which was

greatly influenced

by Piero

Pollaiuolo. His beautiful black-chalk drawings of the


in

The muscular

calves of the figures and strong

before Michelangelo.

the

Perugino. Piero della Francesca, Pollaiuolo. Sassetta

Luca Signorelli b Cortona. cl450. d Cortona. 1523

The Flagellation of Christ. cl490.

Oil

on panel. h85.5 x

w62 cm.

body

motion were the most rigorous studies of the nude

ground, helps to define the three-dimensional space of the


scene.

della

Francesca, his teacher, and the brothers Antonio and Piero

h33Vi x w24!<,

in.

Pinacoteca

di

Brera. Milan

Siq lielfOS David Alfaro


Crowds of people have congregated
experiencing

of

miraculous religious vision - but instead a

grotesque dead chicken


front of them.

Death and Funeral of Cain

as if in anticipation

lies

The crowd's

slumped across the


inability to

recognize the inanity

their mission. Siqueiros

was one of the founders

futility

of

Revolution.

in

Mexico

The bold composition of this

David Alfaro Siqueiros b Chihuahua, 1896. d Mexico

Death and Funeral of Cain 1947.

Acrylic

City.

on panel. h76 x

reminiscent of the

activist

exiled

of

free mixture

Surrealists

artist's

work

reality

and

and Mexican

in murals.

folk art,

political

and revolutionary, Siqueiros was imprisoned and

many

times throughout his

life.

His impassioned

vitality-

and

is

its

dynamic and provocative suggestions and ideological

Orozco. Rivera. Snyders. Tamayo

1974

w96

cm.

h29^ x w3734

in.

Museo de

Arte Alvar y

Carmen T de

Carillo,

style

ripe with

meaning.

after the

painting,

is

by the

of painting has immense power and

(with

Diego Rivera and Jose Clemente Orozco) of the school of


mural painting which developed

of colour and

fantasy, influenced

cliff-top in

of the object they are venerating emphasizes the

striking use

Mexico

City

Sisley

Snow

Vlfred

Subtle tones of white and grey form the colour base of

almost monochromatic- winter scene.

The

as if it

is

thickly

accumulating on the ground, walls and

sketchily painted small figure fixes the centre

picture and our attention, and gives a sense

light led

him

to

experiment

He was

Alfred Sisley. b Pans.

Snow

at

in

Louveciennes

at

he evolved an impressionistic

and tones

became

trees.

is

a leading

Oil

on canvas. h61 x

Sisley
a

landscape painter. His predilection for roads and pathways


leading into the painting, which opens fan-like in this

of purpose and

scene, reveals the influence of Camille

and

by Claude Monet with

of luminosity

which

exponent. Sisley was almost exclusively

W Avercamp.

Corot. Monet. Pissarro

1839. d Moret-sur-Loing, 1899

Louveciennes 1878.

Their search to

the basis of Impressionism, of

varying atmospheric

greatly influenced

style.

translate visual perceptions into pure effects

of the

scale to the landscape. Sisley's quest to capture colour

conditions.

this

and

depth and heaviness to the

distinctly applied paint gives

snow

The

whom

w50 cm. h24 xwl9&

in.

Museed'Orsay. Pans

Corot

snow

Sittow Michiel
1).. win. ist

Netherlandish tradition of detailed portraiture while living

eyes, hair parted in the middle, a close-fitting

headdress and
tranquil

Katherine of Aragon

halo heighten the

and pensive

portrait.

It

is

mood

of

this

demure,

in Italy

believed that the subject

The

alternating

Ks and roses of her elaborate

and Spain. His

unlikely that a

more

has been depicted as a saint in deference to her pious


character.

it is

exact than the

exquisite religious

style

is

very

smooth and

photograph of this
artist's

in brilliant

number of Sittow's

colours, only a small

dress have led to the suggestion that the sitter

highly perceptive portraits have survived

rj

Sit*

Bruges under

>\v

was an Estonian

lans

artist

who

Katherine

trained in

fine

"

lemling and continued the

Michiel Sittow. b Reval. 1468. d Reval,

Katherine of Aragon. C1503/4.

Oil

example.

Anguissola, Clouet, Holbein, Memling

1525/6

on panel. h29 x w20.5 cm. hll

/,

x w8!*

I'ain ,i|ii',ioii',i h,.', Mil'.

and

be any

precise likeness. Besides a few

works painted

gold necklace and the shells which ring the bodice of her
is

realistic

woman would

cum. Vienna

but subde

beautiful

and

including this

Sluter Glaus
1

he

The Prophets Daniel and

garment and the

dements

intricacy

of his loosely

hitherto unseen in north

created a thoughtful, intelligent

founded
in

tied belt, are

European

Rather than an archetypal image of

personality. In

craftsmen available to create a group of buildings and

expressions, the detail of Isaiah's two-

realistic facial

pronged heard, the decorative brocade on the edge of

man

France. In the

Claus Sluter. Active

at

Sluter,

all

the

sculpture.

prophet, Sluter has

six life-size

wooden

with an individual

Duke of Burgundy,
Champmol near Dijon

390s he commissioned the greatest

in

for this site. One of these artisans was Claus


who produced a large well to stand by the entrance to
ducal chapel. Known as The Well ofMoses, it comprised

monuments

his

;8* Philip the Bold,

Carthusian monastery

prophets carved

crucifix

and

h66&

in stone,

five statues.

the

figures,

which

most important influences on northern sculpture.

>* Donatello, Ghiberti, Delia Quercia,

in.

surmounted by

These

include the prophets Daniel and Isaiah, are seen as one of

Haarlem. cl380. d Dijon. 1405

The Prophets Daniel and Isaiah. 1404-5. Stone. hl69 cm.

Isaiah

Hopital la Chartreuse. Dijon

Van der Weyden

Smith David

VB XVII

This agglomeration of industrial parts has

become

a series

which enabled him

to

make much
work

larger sculptures

quickly and easily. His

Smith, a former metal worker in

progress and destruction of the industrial age which

one of the most

influential

a car factory, is

considered

American sculptors of the mid-

twentieth century. Influenced by the welded Cubist

constructions of Pablo Picasso he was the

first

sculptor to use welding for sculptural purposes.

used 'found objects' for

his sculptures

American

He

VB

XVII

IA,

1906. d Bennington.

1962. Steel. h206.4 cm. h81V4

in.

dynamic compositions launched

Always

a pioneer,

and was influenced by many

styles yet

VT.

Caro. Duchamp, Moholy-Nagy. Picasso, Tatlin

1965

Collection of Candida

and Rebecca Smith

new
in

he always evoked an

expressive element within the form and structure of

later

Smith experimented

and from the 1950s

ordered industrial parts from manufacturers' catalogues

David Smith b Decatur.

fascinated him. His


era in sculpture.

reflects the

more

power, movement,

of unstable volumes that are ripe with dynamic energy.

steel.

Snyders
A man

in a
i

market

stall.

this

whole

A Game
a

plumed poultry and game

dead peacock amidst


in this richly

stocked

His two dogs look on inquisitively, tempted by

effect

canvas

^s

dandified costume holds

ol

on

the tastv morsels


the

Snyders was concerned with

of colour, texture and

is left

gourmet drama

display.

free

that

is

of meticulous

feeling.

No

in

specialize in animal
fruit,

still lifes

(large

game and

flowers, dead

compositions featuring

so on). His talent and luscious

painting style were highly praised by his contemporaries,

including Jacob

Rubens with

part of

detail, creating a visual

marvellously rendered

Stall

ordaens and

whom

his close friend Peter Paul

he collaborated to paint the

animal parts of his exuberant hunting scenes.

sumptuous

colouring and with great craftsmanship. Snyders painted

manv vigorous hunting

scenes and was the

first

painter to

Frans Snyders b Antwerp. 1579. d Antwerp,

1657

A Game

w254 cm. h67

Stall.

1620s.

Oil

on canvas. hl70 x

wlOO

Fabritius,

De Heem,

York City Art Gallery, York

Kalf,

Rubens, De Troy

still-life

and

Sodoma

The Descent from


group of

Billowing draperies of oranges, reds, greens and blues add


\

ibranq to

from the

this

cross.

scene of Christ's body being taken

Sodoma's work

is

down

characterized by beautiful

The background

in this

painting

is

believed to

although

many

Italian artists, including

Vinci, also used landscape as a

Renaissance paintings such as

Sodoma

background
this

Leonardo da

(Giovanni Antonio Bazzl). b Vercelli, 1477. d Siena,


Oil

Despite

this

team

effort, the

Lombardy, he worked
received

feature.

were often made by

The Descent from the Cross. C1505/10.

painting key elements of the work, while his assistants

painting

would

in

both Siena and

w264

in

Rome where

i- Van Eyck, Leonardo, Memling, Signorelli, Van der

cm. hl63 x

have been

many important commissions.

1549

on panel. h414 x

figures.

still

considered a product of the master's hand. Born

have been inspired by Flemish painters such as Jan van


I'.vek,

or workshop, working under one master.


responsible for the composition and for

would complete the background and secondary

colours, subtle effects of light and a poetic feel for

landscape.

artists,

The master was

the Cross

wl04

in.

Pinacoteca Nazionale, Siena

Weyden

he

Soulages

Painting 16

p.cn-e

broad strokes of black paint sweep


in a

heavy, bold formation.

The

In the contrasting small white-

painting

down

the canvas

large black mass, intensified

gleams of

monumental and serene

light,

aspect.

It is

gives the

Remonstrated

h\ the constrained

movement

is

in

in

w51

in

an

reminiscent of the prehistoric dolmens


his native

as black

and shiny

Auvcrgnc.

as patent leather, intersecting

freedom of the

on canvas. hl62 x wl30 cm. h64 x

south west Prance,

1946 and started to work

Soulages' paintings often consisted of broad bands, usually

Hartung, Kline, Riopelle, Da Silva, De Stael

Soulages b Aveyron. 1919


Oil

Pans

one

another to form latticed structures against bright colours.

is

brushstrokes which have been articulated to create a

Painting 16. 1965.

in

and Romanesque sculpture of

this skilful

which makes the picture so unique. The

work's connection to the \n Informd

Soulages settled

abstract style that

Humiliation, combined with the sculptural quality oi the


distinctive tonus,

powerful abstract composition. Born

in.

Private collection

Soutine Chaim

The

Thick smears of paint animate the surface of

The

distorted forms

this picture.

and excited colouring give an

air

of

disjointed vivacity to the cook. Soutine's turbulent style

influenced by the expressive and dynamic

van Gogh, although he protested not to

work of Vincent

like the

Dutchman's work. Indeed, Soutine claimed

work of

his

own

Chaim Soutine
The

Little

to despise the

unique

style

and declared

b Smilovitchi, 1893. d Paris.

Pastry Cook cl922.

Oil

He

preferred to

a close affinity

Cook

with Old Masters such as Rembrandt. Born in Lithuania,

Soutine
lifes,

moved

to Paris in 191

moving

w54

His usual subjects were

stil

trees

- and

psychologically revealing portraits of

and bakers. The highly charged movement and

impulsive brushstrokes in his paintings anticipate the free

sale of Willem de Kooning and

embody

the spirit

as Expressionism.

* Bacon, Van Gogh, De

Kooning, Rembrandt. Schiele

1943

on canvas. h72 x

3.

tempestuous landscapes - with dark clouds and

valets

contemporaries and was indifferent to the

experiments of the Fauves and the Cubists.


paint in his

was

Little Pastry

cm. h28'/ / w21fc

in.

Musee de

I'Orangerie, Paris

known

Spencers

Saint Francis and the Birds

Sir Stanley

nd

enlarged figure of St Francis, his

Lip to

the skv.

back towards

with Ins arms outstretched

us, gesticulates wildlj

.is

he looks

Ducks, hens and birds on the roof gaze upon

him

as if in adoration.

cam

as;

strangely, his

has been applied

in

The

large figure

dominates the

tapestry-like pattern, while the figures are solid, almost


cylindrical in form. This imaginative

rejected by the Royal

Sir

and

lively

Stanley Spencer, b Cookham. 1891. d Cookham.

as a living,

good

of

Cookham

in Berkshire. Francis

rather than his usual


father,

as the

who wore
model

his

brown

is

clad in green

habit because Spencer used his

dressing-gown and bedroom

for the saint.

<* Botero, Gauguin, Rego. Rivera, H

its

w61

cm. h28 x

taste.

everyday

experience and drew most of his inspiration from the small

1959

h71

the arbiters oi

painting was

Academy, probably because

Saint Francis and the Birds. 1935. Oil on canvas.

humour offended

Spencer depicted Christianity

village

hands have been reversed. The paint

broad. Hat swathes giving the surface

outrageous

w24

in.

Tate Gallery. London

Rousseau. Sassetta

slippers,

SpilliaertLeon
At

first

glance the strong lines and broad bands of tone in

this picture

viewer's eye
a

Moonlit Beach

make

it

look

like

an abstract work of

becomes accustomed

art.

to the painting,

moon

highlights

at first

seem

light

of

waves coming into the shore and dark

breakwaters stretching into the

which

the

however,

beach scene becomes apparent; the sweeping, pale

the

As

limited

sea. Similarly, the

- become

colours

concentrated on the effect of moonlight on a beach

captured effectively the


is

kno\vr. for his

that are devoid

mood

of

Leon

Spilliaert b Ostend,

Moonlit Beach. 1908.

Ink,

moon. The

of human

life.

Kroyer, Marin,

Mucha

1881. d Brussels, 1946


watercolour and pencil on paper.

h50

haunting landscapes

executed in and around his native Ostend.

< Grimshaw,

has

in

Most of these

richer as the eye

artist

this solitary place. Spilliaert

economy of form

begins to appreciate the subde differences in tones and the


scaring white of the rising

at night

rather than a realistic depiction of the scene, and has thus

w65 cm. hl9% x w25'/6

in.

Private collection

paintings were

De
The

Stael x.coias

vibrant luxuriousness

used by

De

Stael to

around the bottles

evoking

importance

of the paint

convey

in this

in the

still life is

a sense

lies in its

representational imagery, and

its

of abstract and

interplay

Stael has eliminated

Nicolas de Stael. b St Petersburg, 1914. d Antibes.

Red Bottles. 1955.

Oil

on canvas. h73 x

wlOO cm.

his

he began to paint more

freely his

themes

from

period were musicians, athletes, nudes and

this

De

Stael

committed suicide shortly

" Braque, Morandi.

1955
in.

began

figurative. His favourite

was painted.

h28ft x w39&

1c

as

De

background, ornament and outline, a

was much influenced by

became more

lifes.

between and

control of powerful hues of exquisite colour and form.

his lyrical style.

paintings

Georges Braque, but


paint's

of timelessness. The painting's

delicate balance

which characterizes

career as an abstract painter, and

calm beauty. The space

creamy texture of the

Bottle

feature

almost as rich as the objects

is

themselves which float


surface,

Red

Private collection

Nicholson, Vieira da Silva

still

after this picture

Steen
A

The Christening

j,

proud father holds

relations gather

round

his

new-born

to gossip,

child while friends

Feast

one of the most popular of all Dutch genre

and

admire the baby and to

pupil of Jan van

Goyen, he

partake of the christening feast being prepared by the three

went on

women on

brcvT, he supplemented

the right

(if

the painting. This happy, bustling

to depict scenes

initially

painters.

painted landscapes but

of middle-class
his artist's

life.

The son of a

income from 1654 by


and many

tableau accurately depicts a typical scene in a seventeenth-

becoming an inn-keeper.

century Dutch household. In the foreground, however, the

other paintings were influenced bv the merrymaking he saw

artist

has painted broken eggs, a well-known symbol of

certain that this

at that time.

remind us of the death that waits for

mortality. This

is

everyone, even

at the celebration

to

It is

of a

birth.

Jan Steen was

"

Dou, Van Goyen, Van Ostade. De Troy, Watteau

'

t.

^^pTI
S4
m 1 *? *'
tft

-'

%A

'*

ifr"''

Ik 1

^fc*'
^^vE

Jan Steen. b Leyden, cl626. d Leyden,

The Christening Feast. 1664.

Oil

\M

1679

on canvas. h89 x

wl09

cm. h35 x

w42%

in.

Wallace Collection, London

Ka

>

Stella Frank

Kastura

Thi- massive wall-relief is constructed from sections of

brightly painted

aluminium which have been

fixed to a

rectangular base. Stella has skilfully balanced the

monumental
of

it^

quality

support, offered by a discreet curved

behind.

industrial

of the work with the apparent freedom

which permits the spectator

to see

The three-dimensional

grille

structure

through to the wall

abstract cut-outs challenge

the traditional confines of the picture plane as their

Frank Stella, b Maiden. MA.

Museum

of

Oil

Modern

made by

in the

method of enlarging
the

artist.

Another

is

Minimalism,

maquerte which was hand-

Abstract Expressionism,

includes highly innovative prints,

monumental

some of which

in size.

Caro. Hofmann. Johns. Kelly. Pollock.

Ryman

1936

New York. NY

is

evident in the freely applied paint. Stella's wide range of

work

and epoxy on aluminium and wire mesh with metal tubing. H292.1 W233.7 cm.
Art.

these

use of mass-made material and the

freedom

of construction permits no defined edges. The work shows

Kastura. 1979.

number of influences. One of

demonstrated

hll5xw92

m.

are

Still
The

Painting, 1944

Clyfford

black expanse of paint, applied with a palette knife,

interrupted by a jagged red line


lightning and
streaks of
at a

is

fire.

in

which cuts through

is

like

turn sliced through with yellow and white

Typical of

formative period

Still's style, this

work was painted

when most of his contemporaries

were working with archaic themes,


mythical creatures.

it

Still

and

Clyfford

his diverse textural surfaces.

Still,

Painting,

b Grandin. ND. 1904. d

1944 1944.

Oil

sought to release the creativity of the unconscious mind by

emphasizing spontaneity. Like

his thickly

he lived

in rural

York

art

Burri.

Man-land

world which he scorned.

Motherwell.

Newman.

Pollock,

Rothko

in.

Museum

of

Modern

Art.

New York, NY

and Mark

From

1961

from the

New

scale.

in virtual isolation

New Windsor. MD. 1980

on canvas. h264.5 x w221.4 cm. hl04>* x w87'/4

Abstract

Newman

tended to work on a massive

Still

His paintings were

his fellow

Expressionists Jackson Pollock, Barnett

Rothko,

applied abstract areas of colour which appear like slabs of


earth,

reminiscent of the Surrealists and their 'automatic' painting,

and

literary subjects

broke new ground with

an early example of Abstract Expressionism which,

Stuart Gilbert

George Washington

Reflecting the ideals of the country over which he presided,


this portrait

of the

President of the United States

first

is

an

honest representation executed without pomp. The muted


colours sublimate the background

which

is

in

favour of the face,

painted with great realism to reflect Washington's

London
\\ esi, a

anil studied

with the history painter Benjamin

fellow countryman.

He

returned to North America

with an understanding of the portraiture of the British


artists

Thomas Gainsborough and

which he infused with

Sir

trustworthy and capable character. At the beginning of the

approach. His portrait of Washington

eighteenth century Stuart was the most celebrated American

for the President's

portraitist.

le lived to

paint

all

of the

first five

During the American Wat of Independence he

Gilbert Stuart, b North Kingstown, Rl,

George Washington. 1795.

Oil

Joshua Reynolds,

a characteristically frank

image on dollar

is

bills.

Presidents.
lived in

~ Gainsborough, Houdon, Lawrence, Reynolds. West

1755. d Boston. MA, 1828

on canvas. H76.8 x w64.1 cm. h30V4 x w25V4

in.

Metropolitan

Museum

of Art,

New

York,

American

used as the basis

NY

StubbS George
With

a deft

delicately

Mares and Foals

and steady hand, Stubbs has

faithfully

and

reproduced the horses and the foliage above

them. The minutely observed

details,

such as the

tail

hairs

and hooves, the individual colouring of each horse and the


delicately painted leaves

of the oak

tree,

have been captured

To

assist

studies

the

him

in his

Land scape

work Stubbs drew

from even conceivable


-

bone and muscle

understand

how

detailed anatomical

angle, thoroughly

examining

structure of horses in order truly to

to portray the

mechanics of movement.

His paintings are more than mere scientific studies,

with remarkable accuracy. Stubbs earned an unrivalled

however, and show a masterful understanding of design and

reputation as a painter of horses, dogs and wild animals for

composition.

noble patrons. Primarily an anatomist, his depictions of


horses came from hours of observation and scientific study.

George Stubbs b

Mares and Foals

Liverpool.

in

- Agasse. Audubon. Bassano. Marc.

Marini

1724. d London. 1806

a Landscape. 1763-8.

Oil

on canvas. h99.1 x wl58.8 cm. h39 x

w62^

in.

Tate Gallery. London

Sutherland c^am
ham Somerset Maugham,
rwright,
niried.

sits

Portrait of

the English novelist

His features

.ire

almost caricature-like, especially

had

much

head

of the picture, towards the viewer. Sutherland was one


he leading British
ated
r

many

years

ions.

became
[is

artists

of the twentieth century. He

landscapes and religious paintings and


a successful portrait painter

semi-abstract

style,

balanced by

in his

strong influence on the voung Francis Bacon, created


controversy.

criticized for

madam

in a

When

this

Somerset Maugham 1949.

Oil

brothel

in

first

appeared

like 'an

destroyed

superb

Auerbach. Bacon,

it

w64 cm. h54 x w25!

in.

it

was

old Chinese

Shanghai' and his famous portrait of

Winston Churchill was so loathed by Lady Churchill

of the

on canvas. hl37 x

painting

making Maugham look

following her husband's death.


Freud, Organ

Graham Sutherland, b London. 1903. d London. 1980


Portrait of

his

use ot amorphous-like torms and agonized imagery, which

which appears to push

his

Maugham

draughtsmanship, always followed the laws of realism but

and

against a vibrant yellow wall looking quietly

jowls and jutting chin,

Somerset

Tate Gallery. London

that she

Tamayo

Woman with Red Mask

Rufii

Painted in glowing sensuous colours, a

mask and with

red

on

a chair.

woman

mandolin on her knees -

The sense of mystery surrounding

wearing a

sits

upright

the figure

is

enhanced by the intentionally limited yet vibrant colourrange

or"

the artist's palette.

Tamayo was

by Pablo Picasso and the Cubists. This

works executed by the


It is

very likely that

without the use of

it

artist

one of the

is

first

incorporating angular outlines.

was painted

straight

1940.

Oil

City.

themes with a

diversity

of European

styles, chiefly

of the Mexican people

demonstrated the

pictorial values

and

This was painted before Tamayo's

their folklore.

visit to

the

Europe

in 1950.

He

also

worked

USA.

Jawlensky, Orozco, Picasso. Rivera. Severini

1991

on canvas. hl21 x

w85

cm. h54/6x

folk

Cubism,

Surrealism and Expressionism, and consistently

onto the canvas

preparatory sketch. Like his fellow

Rufino Tamayo. b Oaxaca, 1899. d Mexico

Woman with Red Mask.

deeply influenced

Mexican Diego Rivera, Tamayo combined Mexican

w33 /4
J

in.

Private collection

first

for a long time in

Tanguy

The

Y\

Abstract, biomorphic shapes climb rapier shaped objects

and appear
sky.

to float

upwards against

his

menacing, clouded

movement

and guru Andre Breton

after

theme

meeting the Surrealist writer

in 1925.

The

title

and theme of

who have

this

Yves Tanguy. b

Paris.

1900. d Woodbury. CT. 1955

1951.

Oil

Invisibles.

on canvas. h98.5 x

w81

cm. h38 7^ x

whose existence

much of his

Surrealist art,

w31%

is

is

common

where amorphous

the mind. Neatness and precision were deeply ingrained in

and these

qualities are also evident in his

paintings.

is

of Surrealist imagery: Tanguy has allowed

The

in

his personality,

escaped man's sensory frame of reference

by means of camouflage. The painting's visionary quality


a clear illustration

'create' these beings,

creatures tend to inhabit barren, hallucinatory landscapes of

painting refer to Breton's idea of the existence of invisible

animals

subconscious to

uncertain yet impossible to disprove. This

TangU) was much influenced by de Chirico and joined

the Surrealist

Invisibles

in.

Bellmer, Brauner,

Tate Gallery. London

De

Chirico, Dali, Matta, Miro

Tapies Antoni
The

Grev Ochre

thick surface of this painting has

lacerated by the artist to

been incised and

evoke feelings of desolation and

anger, and a sense of the ravages of time. It represents a


physical, forbidding obstacle yet also

beauty and elegance through

its

conveys a certain

partial destruction.

experiments with different materials, combining

oil

elapsed time, intimated by the ravaged surface of the paint,

apparently
artist's

work

worn by

hand,

its

is

a duration greater than that

one of the key elements

enduring power. Tapies

is

widely considered the

most important post-war Spanish

paint

achieved international acclaim. Recently he has produced

artist

and

his

heavy clay sculptures of everyday objects such

example, to create huge desolate surfaces which he covers

chairs.

Antoni Tuples b Barcelona,

Grey Ochre 1958.

Oil

work has

Tapies

with crushed marble, powdered pigment or latex, for

with creases, incisions and fossil-like imprints.

of the

that gives Tapies'

sense of

<W

Burri,

Dubuffet, Fautrier, Hartung, Riopelle

1923

and marble dust on canvas. h259.7 x wl94.3 cm. hl02V4 x w76^

in.

Tate Gallery. London

as baths

and

1 atlin Vladimii
Created
spiral

in a

Monument

moment of political

was designed

State Building in
central sections.

compartments

enthusiasm, this leaning

to be twice the height

New York
Space

is

of the Empire

and to have alternately rotating

ordered into fragmented

that are formally related to

each other

artistic

more

movement

experiments with abstraction but

utilitarian

Tatlin.

concerns.

He advocated

that
later

engineer' and saw the primary role of Constructivism

as fulfilling social needs. Tatlin also created a series

hanging
as

as in a

mathematic equation. Tadin was the founder of


Constructivism, a Russian art

'artist

to the Third International

relief

wood, metal,

glass

and wire and employing exclusively

geometric forms. This masterpiece, a symbol of


Constructivist ideals combining the disciplines of sculpture

grew out of
turned to

the idea of the

and architecture, was never constructed. The piece


illustrated

* Gabo.

is

modern

replica

Lipchitz, Malevich,

of the original model.

Popova, Rodchenko. Sheeler

b Kharkov. 1885. d Novodevichye. 1953

Monument to the

Third International. 1919.

Wood,

iron

of

constructions using a variety of materials such

and glass. h420 cm. hl65i6

in.

Musee

National d'Art Moderne. Paris

Teniers David
A

patchwork of paintings

is

on

The Archduke Leopold's


display in this gallery

belonging to the Regent of the Spanish Netherlands,

Leopold Wilhelm of Austria. There was


growth

when
vast

in

an

widespread

Court Painter to the Archduke and Keeper of his

collecting during the seventeenth cenrury

aristocrats,

noblemen and

rich bankers

numbers of works by contemporary

Renaissance masters. This

room

is

accumulated

artists

and

crammed with

Gallery

many of which are now in the Kunsthistorisches Museum


in Vienna. The large, bearded figure of the Archduke is
being shown the paintings by Teniers himself who was
paintings.

He made many

collection

and produced over 2,000 paintings, of even" kind

of subject, during

his

copies of the pictures in the

long and

prolific career.

recognizable paintings by Titian, Peter Paul Rubens,

Raphael, Giorgione and Annibale Carracci,

among

others,

Bazille.

Dou. Metsu. Vermeer. Zoffany

David Teniers (The Younger) b Antwerp. 1610. d Brussels, 1690

The Archduke Leopold s Gallery. 1651.

Oil

on canvas. hl27 / wl62.

cm.

h50xw64

In.

Petworth House. Petwortn

Ter Borch Gerard


A

stylish

Dancing Couple

and rather mischievous-looking courtier

uniform asks

in military

demure-looking young lady dressed

sumptuous white

silk

gown

to dance. Light falls

on the

furnished interior and the seated onlookers


portraitist

fall

into

shadow.

and painter of genteel

life

of his paintings and the curious

knowledge of almost
artists,

style

including

Oil

on canvas.

Ter Borch

silk

and

charm

travelled extensively

all

the great seventeenth-century

Rembrandt and Diego Velazquez,

of painting bears no hint of their influence.

satin.

"

Dou. Metsu. Rembrandt. Velazquez. Vermeer

Gerard Ter Borch bZwolle. 1617. d Deventer. 1681

Dancing Couple 1560.

classes.

and for the expertise

with which he captured fine fabrics such as

doll-like

appealed to the tastes of the Amsterdam and

Haarlem middle

genre paintings, achieved recognition for his intimate,

homely scenes of well-to-do family

detail

his figures

throughout Europe and must have had first-hand

couple as he takes her hand; the rest of the sparsely

Ter Borch, an early Dutch

The
of

in a

h76xw66cm. h30xw26m.

Polesden Lacey. Dorking

yet his

Terbrugghen Head
A

young dandy dressed


is

in a striped

brocade

subject.

overtones -

pure evocation of a

Dutch painting of

this

the five senses.

free

from

of

all

of Music, or may

The design of the

illustrate

picture

is

may

one-half of the picture

light

and shade, show the influence of the

Carava^in. Terbrugghen studied

light, joyful

this picture

fills

space. This directness of composition, and the dramatic use

in

called Utrecht

represent

Hearing, one of

Caravaggio's ideas to northern climes.

is

Caravaggio, Greuze, Honthorst. Lotto

Hendrick Terbrugghen b Deventer. 1588. d Utrecht. 1629

The Flute Player. 1621.

Oil

on canvas. h71.3x w55.8cm. h281*x

w21 ^
7

in.

Staatliche

Kunstsammlungen, Kassel

early

work of

and together

members of the

School was instrumental

unusual: the

boldly painted figure, outlined against a plain background,

Rome

with Gerrit van Honthorst and other

time generally held a wider

symbolic meaning, however, and


a personification

be

Flute Player

viewed close-to and almost

with baggy

playing a flute, his dark velvet hat setting his

profile into relief. This painting appears to


literary

The

rick

shirt

so-

in transporting

Thiebaud Wayne
A

display of delicious cakes has

colours - making

Various Cakes

been painted

them appear even more

in bright, lurid

false

and

synthetic than they arc in reality. Thiebaud's early

shape,

work was

devoted to the depiction of all-American foods, especially


pies,

which he executed

thick, juicy

pigment.

He

an impassive,

in

presenting them almost as

The

Wayne Thiebaud

on

display in a cafeteria,

ritualistic offerings to the

blatant rendition of the unmistakable

b Mesa. AZ.

Various Cakes. 1981.

Oil

using

often repeated variations of a single

object as though they were

spectator.

realist style

consumer

items, concentrating

American Pop

Art.

their texture, colour

Thiebaud worked

cartoonist and illustrator in

become an
in

on

and

makes the painting an important example of

artist at the

as a freelance

New York

age of 29.

before deciding to

He now

lives

and works

Sacramento and San Francisco and concentrates more on

the landscapes and cityscapes of his immediate

environment.
<" Dine, Morandi, Oldenburg, Rosenquist,

1920

on canvas. h63.5x w58.4 cm. h25xw23in. Private collection

Wesselmann

Tiepolo Giovanni

The Finding of Moses

Battista

Pharaoh's daughter has discovered Moses floating


Rivet Nile

down

the

Standing in the centre of a group of

in a basket.

male and female attendants she has entrusted the baby to a


bare-footed nurse.

woman

blue on the

left (to

possibly Miriam

to the Egyptian Princess,

is

Moses'

many

ed by

Rococo,

a style

to be

of

He was

a leading

characterized bv

Moses. C1730.

Oil

sister.

one of the greatest

the

who,

Tiepolo

artists

of

its

compositions.

effects.

its

airy frivolity,

on canvas. h202 x

cm. h79 x

is

The

last

of the great Venetian decorators,

some of his most impressive works were commissioned


church

ceilings.

The abundance of his work was

for

partly

thanks to a large workshop where he employed his two sons

and daughter.

Amigoni. Boucher. Canova, Fragonard

1770

w342

His work

luminous tones and imaginative

exponent of the

Giovanni Battista Tiepolo. b Venice, 1696. d Madrid.

The Finding

whom

is

the eighteenth century.


Italian

girl in

are pointing)

nurse and old

unknown

The

joyous sense of colour and playful


praised for

wl34

in.

National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh

Tinguelyjea
This ramshackle sculpture

is

Trophy of Chasse-Le-Golem

created from a variety of

together with

incongruous objects that have been welded together. The


addition of an electric

transformed into
current

is

motor enables

a living

work of

art.

art,

its

make

the electric

it

He

is

renowned

for organizing a

deterioration of machines, the

Art

movement can

occurred

March
"

at

the

Museum

Fits,

London

example

Iron, steel,

number of

most famous of which

of Modern Art

in

i960.

Calder, Klein,

Nauman.

Viola

Jean Tinguely. b Fribourg, 1928. d Fribourg. 1991

Gimpel

a late

public events which involved the construction and rapid

The

to the Kinetic

use of manufactured items

Trophy of Chasse-Le-Golem 1990.

it

machines.

the idea that light and

while

exhibitionist nature

Tinguely created self-propelling, edible and musical

motile quality of the sculpture connects

create a

its

Realism. Throughout the late 1950s and 1960s

When

clanking and groaning the assemblage into action.

work of

New

the static object to be

turned on the wheel slowly begins to revolve,

movement, based on

of

rubber band, electric motor and hippopotamus jaw-bone.

hl77.8cm. h70in.

New York

in

Tintoretto Jacopo
The Archangel

Gabriel,

violently bursts in

upon

The Annunciation

accompanied by numerous cherubs,


a startled Virgin.

contemporary scenes of the Annunciation, the Virgin

is

represented living in a house of decayed splendour and she


is

dressed in simple clothes. Outside, Joseph works

carpentry,
Little

be

is

on

outstanding sense of drama, achieved by the use of

unexpected viewpoints and striking perspective, extreme

In contrast to

his

unaware of the dramatic events occurring within.

contrasts of scale and brilliant effects of light and colour.

Tintcreno became the embodiment of Venice's cultural


energies; during his long
just

and

prolific career

he

left

once, for a brief visit to the city of Mantua.

known of Tintoretto's early years but he claimed to


of Titian. He is the leading representative of the

a pupil

Italian

Mannerist

style

and

his

work

is

marked by

its

Fra Angelico. Bordone.

Palma Vecchio.

Martini. Titian

Jacopo Tintoretto b Venice. 1518. d Venice. 1594

The Annunciation 1583/7.

Oil

on canvas. h421.6 x w544.8 cm. hl66 x

w214*

in.

Scuola Grande

di

San Rocco. Venice

the un-

TiSSOtjames

Holiday (The Picnic)

Yellowing leaves of the chestnut


dressed

men and women who

pond. The canvas, painted

London house which was


sparkles with colour
daily

life in

French
to that

the

shade

group ofwell-

in the

near Lord's Cricket Ground,

and exquisite

detail.

artists

In his depiction of

such as Edouard Manet. His

of the Impressionists,

style

who were working

is

crystal-clear vision

have recently enjoyed


for

Tissot. b Nantes.

1836. d
Oil

Bullion,

many

years they

in the latest

well-deserved revival in popularity;

were regarded

as the

society'.

also akin

at exactly
Duty. Fragonard,

Manet. Renoir. Sargent

1902

on canvas. h76.2 x w99.4 cm.

subjects. Tissot often

women, adorned

Victorian vacuous and decadent

as Tissot, but his paintings differ in their

Holiday (The Picnic). C1876.

and elegant society

focused on finely dressed

fashions and casting a spell over their men. His paintings

backyard of Tissot's

an outdoor setting, Tissot shares the realism of

same time

James

tree

are enjoying a picnic beside a

h30x w39%

in.

Tate Gallery, London

epitome of

late

Titian
Sumptuous

colour, captivating

composition mark

The

Diana and Actaeon

this as a

movement and harmonious

masterpiece of Titian's work.

voting prince Actaeon has stumbled

virgin huntress

and symbol of chastity

crescent moon),

remote grotto

who

is

bathing with her

in the forest.

Diana

is

upon Diana, the

(identified

nymphs

him

into a stag, to

powers reached

Titian (Tlziano Vecelllo)

b Pieve

Diana and Actaeon 1556-9.

On

Oil

di

his

own

Spain, his principal patron. Titian

During

was the

pfi&iters.

Impressionists in

its

his last years his stvle

hounds.

w202 cm. h72Hxw79M>

Guercino. Lotto. Rubens. Veronese. Vouet

In.

developed a

work of the

rendering of colour and light and ease

of form.

myths which

greatest of

very free handling which almost anticipated the

Cadore. C1488/9. d Venice. 1576

loan to the National Gallery of Scotland. Edinburgh

Classical

in a

their zenith in the

on canvas. hl84 x

and

50s at the instigation of Philip II of

Venetian

so incensed at Actaeon

be hunted to death bv

1 5

by her

for having glimpsed her divine nudity that she transforms

Titian's imaginative

interpretations of ancient legends

he created during the

Tobey Mark
the paper

White Journey

swarms with minute

abstract signs

pattern.

The

frenetic

delicate lines

is

rhythm created by these

typical

sophistication and

ofTobey's

dynamism

style;

that has

it

is

intricate

his

Expressionist

pursued

members of

work so

unique

parallel

is

similar

development

first

American

intellectuals to

Pollock,

strong reputation

in

become

interested in

Zen

Europe which was developed by

Tobey

partly through

m-

Kline. Pollock, Riopelle,

Ryman

-.

^mmmmim
Centreville. Wl.

He was

in

the

1950s as one of America's foremost painters and enjoyed

v-

Mark Tobey. b

East.

his

highly successful and influential Swiss dealer Ernst Beyeler.

the Abstract

movement, notably Jackson

on him by the Far

Buddhism. Tobey achieved international recognition

popular with collectors. Although the composition


to paintings created by

and

this

made

the influence exerted

deeply influenced by Chinese calligraphy and was one of the

and scratches of paint creating an apparently chaotic

1890. d Basel. 1976

White Journey. 1956. Distemper on paper. hll3.5 x w89.5 cm.

h44% x w35Vi

in.

Beyeler Collection. Basel

Toulouse-Lautrec h<
The Moulin Rouge,
exists today.

At

dance

hall in

Montmartre,

Paris,

the end of the nineteenth century

it

still

was

popular venue for middle-class gentlemen who,

accompanied by

women

in

now one of the

centurv French

artists,

best

known of all

Moulin Rouge, drinking and sketching music-hall

stars

members of royalty who wandered

somewhat

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec b

Dance

Albi,

Moulin Rouge

rapid style and visible brushstrokes of this

that Toulouse-Lautrec painted

An

aristocrat

by birth

who was

childhood, Toulouse-Lautrec always

He

felt

preferred the

it

as

he

isolated

from

company of the

and

clowns, dancers and prostitutes

who became

the subjects of

his paintings.
(*

Degas, Renoir, Laurencin, Seurat, Severini

1864. d Gironde, 1901

at the Moulin Rouge. 1890. Oil on canvas.

sat in the

severely disabled

marginal classes and surrounded himself with the actresses,

nineteenth-

frequently spent whole nights at the

into this dark,

hall.

The

at the

society by his deformity.

entertained by lively spectacles and dancing. ToulouseLautrec,

seedy world.

work show
dance

of dubious character, were

Dance

de

hll5x wl50cm. h45Vixw59

Philadelphia

Museum

of Art, Philadelphia, PA

1^/\Z
Inside

-L

lU y

The Oyster Lunch

Jean-Francois

sumptuously decorated Rococo palace, a group of

wealthy nobles, dignitaries and aristocrats are enjoying


lavish feast

of oysters and champagne.

colour, influenced by the

De

Troy's rich use of

work of Titian and Peter Paul

Rubens, and the meticulous attention paid to


the crusty bread

on the

table, the baskets

foreground and the bottles

left

such as

in the

to cool in the ice-cabinet,

XV

The

on canvas.

at Versailles.

De Troy

enjoyed

a great reputation in his

as a skilful decorator, portraitist

much

and genre

painter.

time in Italy enjoying social as well as

activities

and

Academie de France
died of grief

upon

in

Rome. There he

receiving the terrible

return to France and leave behind the

m- De Heem,

Kalf.

in.

Musee Conde,

day
spent

artistic

is

alleged to have

news

woman

Lucas van Leyden, Rubens,

1752

hl86x wl20cm. h73VSx w47&

He

1738 he was appointed director of the

in

painting

for his private apartments

Jean-Francois de Troy b Paris. 1679. d Rome.


Oil

details,

of oysters

give a sense of the extravagance of this event.

was commissioned by Louis

The Oyster Lunch. 1735.

Chantilly

Titian

that he

was

he loved.

to

Turner
A

small ship

to

keep

is

afloat.

caught

The

movement

the heart of a storm and struggles

in

sea,

snow and smoke from

the ship's

life

wind and spray which Turner has captured with

the unhesitating spontaneity of a

modern

abstract

in pale

glowing colours. Towards the end of

Turner showed particular

capture

all

li.e

to paint this picture

true atmospheric effects

have had himself

artist.

tied for four

hours

Well ahead of his time, few people understood Turner's

the bridge of a steamboat, sailing

work during

weather.

his lifetime

most masterly of
and

oils

but today he

British painters. His

is

regarded as the

work

captures the magical effects of

JMW (Joseph Mallord William) Turner, b London,


Snowstorm: Steamboat

off a

in

light,

of a storm, he
(at

Church. Cozens.

Friedrich. Martin,

from Harwich

Monet. Pollock

1775. d London, 1850

Harbour's Mouth. 1842.

Oil

on canvas. h91 x

wl22 cm. h36 x w48

in.

Tate Gallery. London

and

is

said to

the age of 67) to

watercolours

colour and

his

interest in the conflict

between the elements. In order

engine have been sucked together in a swirling mass of


lashing

Mouth

)no\vstorm: Steamboat off a Harbour's

\\

in

bad

Twombly
Random

Boh

C\

scrawls and scribbles animate the surface of this

painting recalling the freedom of expression of a child's


drawing.

The

loose,

unordered

images to emerge and melt

of

lines has

its

own

meaning may be
deliberately
inexplicable.

in the

imagination.

The

artist's

to represent

The system

Twombly

is

totally

this

paintings are

something

unintelligible or

white background.

Twombly shows some

Bolsena 1969.

Oil.

VA.

lyricism

and harmony.

"

Basquiat. De Kooning, Dubuffet. Pollock, Schwitters

1928

coloured chalk and pencil on canvas.

with

and deliberately provocative and lack Pollock's innate

W/

Cy Twombly. b Lexington.

affinity

)ackson Pollock, although his works are more disjointed

unhindered by traditional

formulae and ideas of composition. Like the Abstract

form the

substance of his pictures, usually on a white or partialiv

allows forms and

meaning, although to the observer

unclear.

meant

style

Expressionists, he favours a formless, prosaic response to


the creative impulse. Lines, scribbles and lettering

h200 x w240 cm. h78& x w94VS

in.

Private collection

Uccello Paolo
This

is

one of three panels

over the Sienese

were
in

originally

illustrating the Florentine victory

at the Battle

hung

The

of San

in the great hall

Romano

in

1432 which

of the Palazzo Medici

Florence. This image shows the leader of the Florentine

troops, Niccolo da Tolentino,

mounted on

during batde. Uccello was fascinated with

is

if

Romano

they have fallen on the receding lines of the

picture's perspective. Uccello's genius,


itself

here above

forms ?nd

all

in the

in the marvellously fanciful

craftsmen of his time.

lie

on

"

Castagno, Gozzoli. Masaccio, Piero della Franceses

Paolo Uccello b Florence. 1397. d Florence. 1475


of

background.

and master of marquetry,

particularly evident in the corpse

dressed in battle armour and the broken lances which

The Battle

however, expresses

profusion of detail and curious

Uccello was one of the most skilled and conscientious

to depict

space and became absorbed in the art of perspective and


foreshortening. This

the ground as

of San

painter, mosaicist, decorator

a white horse

how

Battle

San Romano. c!450. Tempera on panel. hl82 x w320 cm.

h71^x wl26

in.

National Gallery, London

Utamaro k^
Tun
that

lovers, their faces

opens out onto

Lovers

almost hidden, embrace

garden

terrace.

room

in a

and depth but

can be glimpsed through the delicate swathes of the


patterned

kimonos. The print

silk

lyrical lines

is

which gracefully delineate the forms and there

woodblock

first

become

print,

well

tradition,

century,

composed of flowing

no shading or suggestion of depth.

Utamaro was

known

in

the

fresh
is

master of the

Japanese

artist to

the West. In contrast to the

flat

shapes and patterns. His approach greatly

influenced artists such as Edgar Degas in the nineteenth

Their naked bodies

Western

he was not concerned with creating natural poses

who were

seeking a

way of viewing

collection of colour prints these

Lovers (from The

Poem

of the

Pillow).

and Albert Museum, London

1788. Woodblock

print

books

also depicted

amusing scenes from Japanese legends.

Cellini,

Degas, Gauguin, Hokusai, Rodin, Whistler

on paper. h24.8 x w37.4 cm. h9 3/i x

wl4 3/4

comes from The

Poem of the Pillow, probably the finest of Utamaro's erotic


albums. Sumptuously produced with an astonishing

Krtagawa Utamaro. b Tokyo. 1753. d Tokyo, 1806

Victoria

new mode of expression and

the world. This print

Utrillo

Maurice
>

An

dominates

air

of

tranquillity

town where

Flag
this

simple view of a small

group of people are gathered outside the

white wall of a garden. Only the French flag flying above


the

town

hall

is

painted in bright colours, punctuating the

son of Suzanne Valadon, an

artist

abuse which

the

Town

afflicted

Hall

him throughout

revealed a remarkable talent.

An

and model of

Auguste Renoir, Edgar Degas and Henri de Toulouse-

Maurice

Utrillo

Flag Over the

enhanced by

his unerring use

Hall.

1924.

Oil

of colour and tone.

spawned countless

* Degas.

wl30 cm.

h38V6 x

L'tnllo

street scenes

imitations and forgeries.

Duty. Foujita, Laurencin. Renoir

1955

on canvas. h98 x

and he

of the area around Montmartre. These became so popular


that they have

many bouts of alcoholism and drug

b Pans. 1883. d Dax.

Town

life,

atmosphere dominates many of Utrillo's paintings,

Lautrec. She persuaded her son to start painting in 1902,

following one of the

his

intense feeling of

produced mosdy tow-nscapes, including many

otherwise earthy tones of the canvas. Utrillo was the


illegitimate

Over

w51&

Musee de

I'Orangerie,

Pans

Vallotton
The

Landscape with Trees

Feiix

sinuous curves of the trunks and the clumped masses


ire

been reduced

the focal point of this study.


to their simplest

created by the trunks

Vallotton was a

is

The

trees

have

shapes and the pattern

silhouetted against the evening sky.

member of

the Nabis, a

group of late

who were

deeply influenced by Paul Gauguin's use of Symbolism and


flat,

pure colour. Like the Impressionists, Vallotton was

Felix Vallotton b

their

from

preferring to focus

before him.

The

on

result

Oil

on canvas. hlOO x

w73 cm.

He

did not share

cruelly realistic style

the tangible shapes and colours


is

meticulous and sometimes

through which

Japanese prints

his landscapes often

in

1890, Vallotton

h39V6 x

became

a prolific

engraver.

Bonnard.

Denis. Gauguin, Hiroshige. Pissarro, Vuillard

Lausanne. 1865. d Pans. 1925

Landscape with Trees. 1911.

life.

wish to capture the fleeting moment, however,

achieve great depth of feeling. After visiting an exhibition of

nineteenth-century French painters, including Pierre

Bonnard, Edouard Yuillard and Maurice Denis,

interested in painting nature

w28 A
i

in.

Musee des

Beaux-Arts. Quimper

wood-

Vasarely Victor

Pal-Ket

Purple, blue and green geometric shapes, arranged in a

chessboard pattern, appear to


canvas.

float

on and

artist,

whether painter or sculptor, can persuade the

spectator to see visual illusions by creating optical effects.

distort the

Through using opposing systems of perspective and

Vasarely was fascinated with the concept of perception and

violently contrasting colours, Vasarely has deliberately

how

created an optical illusion, giving an impression of

geometric principles. Hungarian by birth, Vasarely

movement

to the painting.

the eye. Vasarely

The shapes appear

to shift

was one of the pioneers of Optical

under

Pal-Ket.

1973-4.

Acrylic

or ambiguous images can be created by using exact

Paris in 1930. His

drawings

art,

known by the nickname Op Art, which developed alongside


Pop Art in the 1960s. Op Art is based on the idea that the

Victor Vasarely. b Pecs,

reai

is

work

always abstract in nature and

manipulation of visual sensations for

w59 3,6

in.

Museo de

Bellas Artes, Bilbao

relies

its effect.

Albers, F!avin, Hayter, Riley, Vieira da Silva

1908
on canvas. hl51.2 x wl50.8 cm. h59'^ x

moved

in painting, sculpture, prints

on

and

the

to

Vda2qUe2
The

five-year-old daughter of

Diego de

King

Philip

Las Meninas

Silva v

was appointed Court Painter

IV of Spain, the

Infanta Margareta-Teresa, stands in the centre

of die canvas

of Titian's work

in the

in

Madrid and became aware

Spanish Royal Collection.

surrounded by her retinue of maids and dwarfs. Velazquez

met Peter Paul Rubens, who shared

has depicted himself on the

while and

huge

portrait

left

reflected in the mirror directly

Velazquez
this

work

He was

who

portraitists

of

considered the masterpiece of his

little

Diego de Silva

influenced by other

artists

Oil

on canvas. h318 x

all

Italy.

in 1623

is

believed to have inspired Velazquez to

is

unique blend of realism

with atmosphere.

- Goya.

El

Greco, Kirchner. Rubens. Titian, Zurbaran

1660

w276 cm. hl27 / wl08&

in.

Museo

visit

characterized by freely painted

harmonies of colour and tone and

he

also

Velazquez had a deeply sensitive appreciation of

character. His painting

time and

final years.

although

Velazquez, b Seville. 1590. d Madrid.

Las Meninas. 1656.

can be seen

behind the Infanta's head.

one of the greatest

1-

is

of the canvas, painting

of the King and Queen

He

his studio for a short

del Prado. Madrid

Vermeer

Lady Seated

Jan

In this deceptively simple painting of an interior a


girl sits at a virginal

painting

on

young

with a viola da

gamba

to her left

feeling

of space

the wall behind her.

and

dominates the canvas, creating a sense of timelessness and


otherworldliness.
picture's rich

We

only gradually

become aware of the

and meticulous colouring. Vermeer was one of

the greatest of the seventeenth-century

he surpassed

all

Dutch

painters

he captures evokes the work of

light

and

at a Virginal

vision and the brilliant splendour of the

1 1

paintings were almost completely forgotten until the mid-

nineteenth century.

- Dou, Van

Eyck.

Hammershoi. De Hooch. Metsu

W
Delft,

1632. d

Delft,

Lady Seated at a Virginal. 1674-5.

1675
Oil

on canvas. h51 x

w46

countryman

little is

others in his portrayal of domestic interiors.

The poetry of his

Jan Vermeer. b

his fellow

known of Vermeer's life. His


calm and peaceful paintings derive from his own meditation
and analysis of the world around him. He died in debt at
the age of 43, leaving a widow and
children. His

Jan van Eyck. Very

cm. h20V4 x wl8

National Gallery. London

Veronese
The

silk

The Finding of Moses

brocade of the dress worn by the principal figure

so crisp and delicatel] portrayed

it

is

tempting to touch

subjects in

is

figures,

its

luxurious folds. Venetian artists arc often said to have been


great colourists, but

them

all.

The deep

and transparent greys

implies,

oi

Veronese

work of Titian.

also be admired.

Veronese specialized

Giorgione, Tiepolo, Tintoretto, Titian

;;

-rM-

St.

mm

r
1

Veronese (Paolo

The Finding

of

Caliari)

b Verona. 1528. d Venice,

Moses. cl580.

Oil

on canvas. h50 x

1588

w43 cm.

111924 x

wl7

in.

Museo

As

his

name

came from Verona, but he

in

narrative paintings of biblical, allegorical or historical

,;

originally

Venice where he was particularly influenced by

settled in

tones. In this painting, a late work, his finesse with loose

\.isi

monumental

architecture or against verdant landscapes.

the dresses displaj his loudness for rich hues and bright

brushwork can

courtiers, musicians, soldiers,

horses, dogs or monkeys, set within

Veronese was arguably the greatest of

blues, ochres

which he included crowds of elegantly dressed

accompanied by

del Prado. Madrid

tin

Verrocchio
The

crisply carved folds

of

this

woman's

created by the hand of a master sculptor.

out and
to be

slightly

shown

breast.

versatility

artists

was exceptional. Trained

Holding

Florence which trained

number of artists

workshop

be goldsmiths, sculptors and painters. These included

looks
first

in

to

Perugino amongst others, but the most famous product of


Yerrocchio's tutelage was Leonardo da Vinci. Leonardo's

of the Renaissance were

famous drawings and paintings

as a goldsmith,

style

he was

and

his

Yerrocchio's

are

founded on

hand can be recognized

own

in

led an extremelv active

Holding a Nosegay cl480. Marble. h60 cm.

h23^

in.

paintings and sculpture.

Algardi. Donatello. Ghirlandaio. Leonardo. Perugino

Museo Nazionale

del Bargello. Florence

his master's

some of

and one of the most accomplished

Andrea del Verrocchio b Florence. 1435. d Venice. 1488

Woman

Nosegav

placed irregularly on the

draughtsmen of the Renaissance. He

Bust of a

The head

most media and techniques, Yerrocchio's

also a painter, a sculptor

Woman

dress have been

upwards and the hands, which were the

in a portrait bust, are

Although Florentine

proficient in

Bust of a

\ndrea del

Vieira da Silva \h
d

colours and

squares, rectangles and lozenges

Elena

in soft

muted

random diagonal formations have been woven

together to form a net-like pattern.

The

system of perspective

Instead, the use

of gentle

light

is

Maria Elena Vieira da

origin.

Silva. b Lisbon,

Checkmate. 1949-50.

Oil

She

initially

worked

contrasts, often

multitude

use of muted colour

dominated by tones of greys and whites,

as

"

Bourdelle, Hayter, Leger. Poliakoff. Riopelle. Vasarely

1908. d Pans. 1992

on canvas. h89 x

and of linear structures placed against amorphous grounds.

peaceful and mysterious atmosphere. Yieira da Silva was

French painter of Portuguese

of works which are characterized by

not disturbing.

and soft colours creates

under Fernand Leger and engraving

with Stanley William Hayter. During the 1930s she

developed into an abstract painter and produced

surface of the canvas

appears to twist and turn but the painting

with F.mile Bourdelle and then after moving to

Paris studied painting

has been employed so that the central chessboard pattern


slowly recedes into the distance.

Checkmate
a sculptor

wll6 cm. h35 x w45%

in.

Private collection

Vigee-Lebmn
The

artist sits

palette,

her right hand

at

work on one of

made her famous. Painted on


portrait

is

brought to

life

a neutral

by the

artist's

the rich, triumphant red of the material

which

is

Marie-Louise -Elisabeth

holding a handful of paintbrushes and a

repeated on the

Lebrun was noted

tip

is

Oil

herself in the

full

flattering style

bloom of innocent

sougjji after throughout

women

waist,

sense of her

youth. This soft,

of portraiture made Vigee-Lebrun highly

around her

Europe. She excelled

and children; her reputation as an

confirmed

when

Antoinette

who

she executed a portrait of

she

is

said to

3 5

at the

time of

on canvas.

hl00xw81

cm. h39!x

"

have painted

Anguissola. Greuze. Mengs, Ramsay.

1842

w32

in.

Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence

in portraits

artist

evoked by her peaceful gaze and

Marle-Loulse-Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun b Paris, 1755. d Paris,

1790.

she has painted a somewhat idealized image of

radiant features and

and beauty and

engaging smile. Although she was aged

Self-portrait.

which

this self-

of one of the brushes. Vigee-

for her wit

charming personality

the portraits

ground,

Self-portrait

this painting,

Sherman

was

Queen Marie25 times.

of

Viola hi
The

cycle

To

of life - from the

birth to the death

the explosion of the universe to total darkness

condensed into the space of a day

sequence of images Hows across

cycles,

computer programmed

days

week.

A disembodied

excerpts from

\\ alt

glowing icon, the work's

devotional object:

is

it is

title

almost

further suggests that this


a

video installation.

Hours,

TV

screen in 12-hour

takes state-of-the-art video, audio

to repeat rvvice a day, seven

Whitman's poem Song of Myself. The

washed out by

as

each image relates to

a specific

itself like a

technology into visionary realms, drawing on sources

exploration of the unconscious mind.

- Beauneveu.

Flavin,

Limbourg, Merz.

Nauman

^9&

Viola, b

New

York. NY,

time of day. Viola

ranging from ancient mystic teachings to the

Bill

.1

and information

daylight

only the voice can be discerned. Projecting

is

contemporary Book of

in this

voice can also be heard reciting

strongest at night but

when

Pray Without Ceasing

of man, from

1951

To Pray Without Ceasing 1992. Video installation. Dimensions vary depending


on size of screen. Private collection

I.

riots in

an

Vlaminck:Maurice de

The

Sweeping brushstrokes of blues, oranges and pinks have

Paris Salon.

reduced the circus tent and the surrounding houses to their

painted in violent colours, their

most

basic shapes.

The

perspective has been distorted to

create a highly expressive

taught,

met

Vlaminck was

the artist

in

he became

he

Oil

its

distorted forms and

dubbed them

work

flat

patterns

created such a furore

lesfauves ('the wild beasts').

Initially

influenced by the expressive quality of Vincent van

907 Vlaminck became interested in the work

Gogh, from

member of the Fauve

of Paul Cezanne and he rejected bright colours

who

on canvas. h60 x

w73 cm. h23% x v28%

sombre tones and more

exhibited together at the

in.

Some

of Ybminck's best work dates from the Fauve period.

"

traditional subjects.

Derain, Van Gogh, Heckel. Kirchner, Peckstein

Vlaminck b Pans, 1876. d Rueil-de-Gadeliere. 1958

The Circus. 1906.

With

1900 and began to paint

group of artists including Derain, Henri

Matisse and Georges Rouault

that a critic

self-

a professional racing cyclist until

Andre Derain

seriously. In 1905

movement,

and turbulent scene. Largely

Circus

Private collection

in

favour of

Vouet

Time Overcome by Hope, Love and Beauty

Sim*

Two young wonu-n with deadly looking weapons threaten


man who desperately tries to protect himself. The

an old

sevthe that
in his left

lies

hand

beneath him and the hourglass that he holds


tell

personifications of
right);

us that he

Hope

Time. The two

(on the

left)

women

are

and Beauty (on the

together with Love (the cherub Cupid) they are seen

triumphing over Old


Beaut\-

is

Man Time,

suggesting that Youth,

movement of

the draperies as the figures push and pull

against each other, are hallmarks of Vouet's classicized

Baroque

style

of painting. His

richly

coloured and highly

dramatic compositions, mostly of religious and allegorical

works, set the

He

painted

artistic

many

fashion in seventeenth-century Paris.

large decorative paintings,

most of which

have unfortunately been destroyed.

and Love are eternal and immutable values. The

extravagant gestures of

all

Simon Vouet. b Pans, 1590. d

three figures, and the billowing

Paris.

" Bronzmo.

Caravaggio. Carracci, Domenichino. Poussin

1649

Time Overcome by Hope, Love and Beauty 1627.

Oil

on canvas. hl07 x

wl42

cm.

h42^ x w55 ^
7

in.

Museo

del Prado. Madrid

Vuillard Edouard
Two young

boys play

in a public

Two

garden which Vuillard has

turned into a magical dream world.

Schoolboys

inspired by the

chalky browns and greens create speckled harmonies of

paintings

colour, giving a delicately vibrant effect to the surface.

is

Vuillard

was commissioned

to paint a series of nine large

panels for the dining-room of a smart Parisian

The

panels were an

amalgam of

his

shimmering techniques of Georges Seurat

and Claude Monet and these panels

The motded bands of

rcnovned

harmonies,

town house.

for his use

a feeling for textures

the mysterious

at

Givernv. Vuillard

of bold but sensual colour

for having the rare ability to

impressions of the

in particular recall the

Monet executed of his garden

and patterned shapes, and

evoke atmosphere and reveal

charm ofeveryday

life.

parks of Paris, where he sketched children playing and

recorded the patterns of shadow and

light.

Vuillard

was

Bonnard, Denis, Homer, Monet, Seurat, Vallotton

Edouard Vuillard b Cuiseaux, 1868. d La Baule. 1940

Two Schoolboys

894. Distemper on canvas. h212 x

w96

cm. h83'/

<

w37>5

in.

Musees Royaux des Beaux-Arts de

Belgique, Brussels

Wadsworth Edward
utical

rine

objects are assembled in bold

relict"

The Beached Margin

against a

background of sea and sand. The painting displays

dsworth's technical

ability

and the

medium of egg tempera


handled skilfully. The

difficult

nch he mixed himself)

is

ginative quality of these fantastic geometric creations


:s

an intellectual pleasure

usual

still life.

The

much

painting

greater than

comes

use of unexpected juxtapositions and in

During the

First

is

recurrent subjects in his work.


engravings,

Wadsworth

As

the

well as his paintings and

also executed a

number of mural

decorations, notably for the liner Queen Mary.

offered by

close to Surrealism in

linen.

hyper-real

This led to an overriding passion for the sea and ships,

Carra,

De

Chirico, Dali, Lewis,

Edward Wadsworth. b Cleckheaton. 1889. d London, 1949


The Beached Margin. 1937. Tempera on

its

World War, Wadsworth joined

Royal Navy and designed and painted camouflage for ships

and meticulous

ughtsmanship: the minutest details are depicted with


tling detail

its

clarity.

H71.1 x wl01.6 cm. h28 x

w40

in.

Tate Gallery. London

Nash

Wallis Alfred
A

town with

its

harbour and lighthouse

high vantage point.


recalling

from
point.

St Ives with

The work

has a

images created by children;

optical

mannerisms such

Much of the brown

is

flat,
it

is

depicted from a

influential British 'primitive' artist

coasts and harbours, were not

completely tree

the

worked

as a

his 60s.

Discovered bv Ben Nicholson, he became the most

all

his life

and only started to paint

Alfred Wallis. b Devonport. 1855. d Madron,

1942

St Ives with Godrevy Lighthouse. cl935.

and

Oil

pencil on card.

worked on

on

the

mainly of ships,
life

but were

pieces of cardboard cut

into irregular shapes, a technique that

and black have been added. Wallis

fisherman

drawn from

his effect

spontaneous responses to remembered or imagined


experiences. Wallis often

left visible,

forming the colour-base of the painting to which only pale


blue, green, white

through

St Ives painters in Cornwall. His paintings,

naive quality,

as perspective or a vanishing

card has been

Godrevy Lighthouse

more

was

later

emulated by

sophisticated St Ives painters.

in

" Gontcharova,

Lowry. Nicholson, H Rousseau,

hl7 x w95 cm. h.6% x w37!*>

in.

Private collection

Wadsworth

Warhol Andy
Marilyn Monroe's face

is

Marilyn

presented as an impenetrable mask

luminous colours. Published

in bright

in ten different

colour

product of mass culture, packaged for the public as

consumer

item, connects this

work

to the

combinations, using the impersonal screenprinting process,

Art movement. Warhol, a painter, graphic

artist

the multi-coloured surface portrays her image in

maker, was

He

lurid

manner. Monroe

subject

le

used

is

still

as the basis tor this

other pictures of her, presenting us with

power of

the

most

Andy Warhol b

Pittsburgh. PA. 1928. d

tragic

of

during the 1960s.

everything about me, just look

paintings,

it's all

at

and

film-

remained,

the surface

there, there's nothing more.'

all

" De Kooning,

New York. NY. 1987


xw91.5cm. h36xw36

Marilyn 1967. Screenprint on paper. h91.5

know

and

frozen image that

Hollywood's personae. The portraval of Monroe as

a cult figure

however, an intensely private man, saving: If you want to

probably Warhol's most famous

a publicity

reinforces the universal

a startlingly

if a

American Pop

in.

Museum

of

Lichtenstein, Oldenburg, Rosenquist

Modern

Art.

New

York.

NY

of my

Waterhouse John
The luminosity of this

painting and

heighten the emotion

detail

poem.

)ne

doomed

girl

cm

almost

begins her

feel

in this

is

an exercise

careful attention to

artists

episode from Tennyson's

in closely

the water.

Waterhouse was

telling a tragic story, this

observed landscape painting

to rendering the reflections

though,

it is

of Shalott.

1888.

Oil

w200 cm.

from

displayed an unerring feel for the

instance believed to be the


artist's lasting

artist's

h60'/, x

" Alma-Tadema. Burne-Jones.

w78%

in.

all.

wife) that has ensured the

popularity.

on

follower of the Pre-Raphaelite

on canvas. hl53 x

He

the beautv of his wistful female models (in this

John William Waterhouse b Rome, 1849. d London. 1917

The Lady

their interest in depicting scenes

composition and superb painting technique. Above

journey, her haunting beauty

each rush and reed has been painstakingly depicted and the

same attention has been paid

and continued

poetry and mythology.

dramatic moment, combined with a fine sense of

the cool of the day as the

final

dominating the scene. Apart from

work

its

The Lady of Shalott

William

Tate Gallery,

London

Leighton. Martini. Millais

Watteau
Verdant

trees,

The Embarkation

\ ntoinc

plump cherubs, amorous couples and

type of idyllic,

grace this vision of graceful gallantry.

The

which

festooned statue of Venus and Cupid emphasizes that

this

reached before.

sumptuous

Arcadia

is

silks

devoted to the pursuit of

love.

overtlv erotic about the painting, but

eensuousness. lake

it

many ofWatteau's

There

at

nothing

has an undeniable
paintings,

mVolitj contains an undercurrent of melancholy


wistful

is

its

backward glance of the central hgurc seems

the transitoriness

magical

is

typical

of the Rococo
1

[e

Peter Paul Rubens,

style, to a height

who was

the

main influence on

French and

reflect the

XIV

pomp and

this

* Boucher.

Fragonard, Giorgione, Lancret. Rubens

Antoine Watteau. b Valenciennes. 1684. d Nogent-sur-Marne. 1721

The Embarkation

for Cythera.

1718.

Oil

on canvas. hl30 x

wl92 cm.

work of
his

extravagance of the

at Versailles.

to hint

of pleasure. Watteau championed

never

held a great admiration for the

work. Watteau's sophistication and elegance are inherently

of Louis

the

for Cythera

festive landscape and brought the genre,

H51V4 x w75!4

in.

Schloss Charlottenburg, Berlin

)ourt

Weight Card

Daisy in the Garden

The mundane and depressing atmosphere of a typical urban


back garden in south-west London on an overcast day has
been

effectively captured in this precisely painted

\\ eight's

open brushwork heightens the

scene; in a mysterious

way

appear to amplify the loneliness of the

is

An

individualist

Carel Weight, b London.


In

human

The

feeling.

who

environments and are often running or

urban and

walking briskly towards the edge of the painting, as

figure as she

originality

of the

rural

avoids the commercial art

Oil

on canvas. h76.2 x wl01.6 cm. h30 x

if

escaping. His compositions sometimes include spirits,

ghosts and witches. Most of his scenes are set

London where he

lives

and works.

Freud. Rego. Sickert. Spencer

1908

the Garden cl 962.

life

His figures are painted in

of the

demonstrated by Weight's instinctive feeling for

the subject

Daisy

us.

imbued with an uneasy

work.

the bleak and dingy surroundings

walks through the garden towards


painting

intensity

world, Weight paints personal visions of everyday

w40

in.

Private collection

in

south

Wesselmann Tom
The

erotic

Great American

image of the spread-legged nude, her features

blank to avoid any suggestion of a portrait,

is

left

juxtaposed

with cut-out images of milkshakes and ice-creams. This was

one of a

series

of works created by W'csselman

1960s in which he

combined nudes depicted

in the early

in flat, clear

colours with collage elements taken from brochures or


posters.

The

painting's importance

lies in its

demonstration of sexual freedom, painted


nuditv in the American media was

still

Tom Wesselmann. b Cincinnati. OH. 1931


Great American Nude No 27. 1962. Enamel

Nude No.

27

of the direct imagery of the new consumer age. This


manipulation of erotic symbols and the popular culture of;

consumer

society connects the painting to the

Pop Art movement. From 1983

American

YX'esselman abandoned

painting on canvas and turned to the construction of cut-

out metal wall-pieces derived from

felt-tip

or ink drawings.

conspicuous

at a

rime

when

rare,

and

paint

and collage on panel. hl22 x w91.4 cm. h48 x

its

inclusion

Boucher. Jones. Hamilton. Polke, Rosenquist, Warhol

w36

in.

Mayor

Gallery.

London

West
\\

ilium Penn

is

William Penn's Treaty with the Indk

Benjamin
depicted making peace with the Lenape

[ndians, a landmark in the creation

colony. This

somewhat romanticized and

representation of a

imposed
dress,

W est

is

a Classical

typical

documented

event, in

of the

historical paintings

his international reputation.

London

in Italy

and achieved great

Historical Painter to

inaccurate

Joshua Reynolds

was an extremely

contemporary

in

which earned

West was born

in

North

American
for

art.

George

PA,

He had enormous

flair

and

His studio in

Oil

on canvas. hl92 x

Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. Philadelphia, PA

He was

later

London was

development of
the training

some of the most important American

Cole, Hicks, Reynolds, Stuart

w273 cm. h75 /6 x wl07%


l

in.

appointed

replaced Sir

of the Royal Academy. West

period, including Gilbert Stuart.

and

influential figure in the

1738. d London. 1820

William Penn's Treaty with the Indians. 1771/2.

popularity-.
III

as President

before setting up as a

in 1763.

Benjamin West b Swarthmore,

versatility

which West has

composition on figures

America and studied


portraitist in

of the Pennsylvania

artists

ground

of the

V2.n ClCr

W CyClCn

Rogier

The Descent from

the Cross

tableau in a Christmas pageant than an accurate description

The sorrowful demeanour of these figures makes this one


or" the most moving paintings in the history of art and one

of a

of the masterpieces of fifteenth-century painting. Details

influence of Jan van F.yck and Robert Campin.

such as the tears


the

way

hands

keen observer of

the figures

sorrow show that Van der W'cyden was

in

life.

crowded

Yet the overall composition, with

into the front (if the picture frame as

they were standing in a shallow box, looks

more

Van der W'cydcn's

early

Oil

on painting

in

w262

le

northern Europe but throughout the

Continent.
if

like a

on panel. h220 x

the

achieved

extremely profound for a long time after his death, not only

Bouts. Campin. Van Eyck. Grunewald, Memling

Rogiervan derWeyden bTournai. cl399. d Brussels, 1464

The Descent from the Cross. C1435/8.

work shows

great success during his lifetime and his influence was

from Mary Magdalene's nose and

the fabric of her dress pulls across her back as she

clasps her
a

falling

real event.

cm.

h86% x wl03H

In.

Museo del

Prado. Madrid

Whistler James Abbot McNeill

Symphony

This beautiful, sultry portrait of Whistler's mistress Joanna

blossom. The technique of silhouetting a figure against an

Hiffernan

is

a study in the

shades of white.
centre,

cropped

arrangement of closely related

The asymmetrical composition with


figure,

and the direct lighting which reduces

the painting to a coloured pattern, clearly


interest in

marked
into

Japanese

in the

Europe,

is

1860s

on

James Abbot McNeill


in

shows Whistler's

This influence, which was most

when Japanese

art

was finding

also alluded to in the depiction

the porcelain jar

Symphony

art.

its

of the

way

2: Little

White

Girl.

1864.

Oil

White No.

2:

Little

White Girl

almost blank ground remained Whistler's standard practice.


In a reaction against the domination of subject matter in
Yictorutr. painting, Whistler

of

his

work by

emphasized the aesthetic nature

calling his paintings 'nocturnes'

and

'symphonies'. Whisder's growing fame as a wit and


eccentric coincided with his decline as a painter.

fan,

the mantelpiece and the cherrv

Whistler, b Lowell. MA. 1834. d London,

White No.

its off-

in

Chase, Degas. Goya. Hiroshige, Hokusai, Manet

1903

on canvas. h76 x w51 cm. h30 x

w20

Tate Gallery, London

Wilkie
\

Sir

young man presents

gentleman

who

regards

The

David

a letter

of introduction

him with suspicion, an

to

an elderly

reflected also by his dog. This subtle painting appeals to

emotions by juxtaposing the

lad's

our

ruddy, innocent country

candour with the old man's sidelong glance of sceptical


distrust, redolent

of a

life

spent

in the

corrupt

city.

Wilkie

specialized in painting moralizing domestic scenes in the

manner of seventeenth-century Dutch genre


as

Sir

David Wilkie. b Cults.

Fife.

of Introduction

1785. d At sea

1813.

Oil

Much of

(off Malta).

on panel. h61

Sir

forms with

lenry

him was when J

express his grief

in Fife,

art.

Perhaps the greatest eulogy given

M W Turner painted

at learning

coming home from


-

Lely.

Burial at Sea to

about Wilkie's death while

a trip to the

Middle East.

Van Ostade. Raeburn. Ramsay. Ter Borch. Turner

1841

xw50 cm. h24x wl934

in.

Wilkie

Raeburn and Allan Ramsay the great

triumvirate of Scottish
to

of Robert Burns

Walter Scott. The son of a minister

painters such

Adn.ien van Ostade and Gerard Ter Borch.

The Letter

Wilkie's art found us parallel in the poetry

and

attitude

Letter of Introduction

National Gallery of Scotland. Edinburgh

Wilson
Bucolic

hills

inhabited by cattle and deer contribute to this

pastoral scene.

become

as

The horizon

livestock, are
in

is

so low the clouded sky has

important to the picture as the land below. The

rustic peasants are

worked

View

Richard

not here to

tell

travelling to Italy

gready inspired by the

and Nicolas Poussin.

Italian paintings

Upon

returning

to paint Italianate landscapes but used the scenery

received

many commissions)

as the subjects

in

Windsor Great Park. cl765.

Oil

was

of Claude Lorraine

home, he continued

on canvas. hl04 x

of

his paintings.

designer Capability Brown. Wilson was one of the Founder-

achieved commercial success

in

in

London, but he never

England and died

obscurity.

* Agasse. Claude.

Pannini, Poussin, Zuccarelli

Richard Wilson, b Penegoes. 1713. d Mold. 1782

View

of

England and Wales and views of country houses (he

Members of the Royal Academy

where he

studied landscapes with imaginary Classical ruins and

Windsor Great Park

There paralleled the grand schemes of the landscape

a story but, like the

an integral part of the landscape. Wilson

London before

in

wl37 cm. H41

w54

in.

National

Museum

of Wales, Cardiff

in

Witz ko,
The

animate the sun-lit landscape of the shores around

figures
I

akc

The Miraculous Draught of

r.uher ungainly but solid and meticulously depicted

Geneva. Close attention has been paid to the

naturalistic detailing
(visible

of the rocks and plants

is

striking for

especially important in the history

of the

first

of

its

clarity

art for

and

known of his

life

suggests that he

in the shallows

through the water) and the trees and houses in the

background. The scene

greatest of the pre-Renaissance

is

containing one

although his strongly

must have been

spaciousness of the
that

although

hills

artists. Little

landscape before him. Witz

is

considered to be one of the

which recede into the

Oil

distance-

Witz was capable of rendering perspective,

this

was not achieved by mathematical

Eyck, Master of Moulins. Patenier,

Schongauer

Konrad Witz. b Rottweil. C1410. d Basel. C1446

The Miraculous Draught of Fishes 1444.

work of

The luminous

attempts by a painter to record faithfully the

Van

is

realistic style

familiar with the

the Flemish painter Jan van Eyck.

show

Fishes

German

on panel. H132.1 x wl53.7 cm. h52 x w60!^

In.

Musee

a" Art et d'Histoire.

Geneva

calculation.

Wood
Wood
saw

was captivated by

in a small

town

sister

and

simple Gothic-style cottage he

southern Iowa and created

in

picture around the image

used his

American Gothic

Grant

which

his dentist as

it

evoked

models

in his

mind.

He

for the couple

standing in front of the plain white house.

Wood was

accused of satirizing Midwestern values, but he insisted that


he

made

the

work

as a

homage

to the down-to-earth,

Puritan dignity found in small-town America.


resident of Iowa,

Wood

Grant Wood, b Anamosa.

American Gothic. 1930.

IA,

Oil

IA,

common

artists

in

North America

should end their cultural dependence on Europe by

finding inspiration for their art in their local surroundings.

His crisp, firmly delineated and precisely modelled

Wood

had studied

* Van

Eyck, Hopper, Martini,

in

Europe

in the 1920s.

Wyeth

1942

on board. H74.3 x w62.4 cm. h29'/4 x w24V6

style

derived from the Gothic and early Renaissance masters

A lifelong

was one of the exponents of

1892. d Anamosa,

Regionalism, a form of realism

during the 1930s and based on the desire that American

this

in.

Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago. IL

was

Wright of Derby Joseph


A glowing

tin- night scene. Its light

hi-

workers

in the

catches the founder, his family and

middle of their evening routine. The

enormous hammer which


driven bj

work of
to pay

make

is

used to heat the ingot was

him

a visit).

scene as

painting the

Although the

artist

realistic as possible,

smoke of the smouldering

in

some of

manufacturer J osiah Wedgwood.

is

* Brown, Caravaggio,

Correggio, Honthorst

Joseph Wright of Derby, b Derby. 1734. d Derby, 1797

The Forge. 1772.

Oil

on canvas. hl21.9 x wl32.1 cm. h.48 x

w52

in.

derived

the pioneers

of science and industry, including the porcelain

even to the point of


ingot, the scene

wealthy

contrast between light and shade. In the town

of Derby, Wright found admirers

has attempted to

in lighting effects, usuallv

a single artificial light source articulated by strong

chiaroscuro, the

the founder (which perhaps has enabled his family

this

market. Wright specialized

from

water wheel outside the forge, thus easing the

.1

The Forge
contrived vision of manual labour depicted for

ingot of iron provides the only illumination for

Collection of Lord

and Lady Romsey, Broadlands. Romsey

Wyeth
A young
at a

girl,

figure

Christina's

seen from behind,

farmhouse on top of the

and desolation

is

sits in a field

hill.

sunlight,

in
is

and gazes up

sense of melancholy

emphasized by the vast space between the

and the distant houses. The

executed

Andi

finely depicted surface,

subdued tones but with


typical

of

\\ veth's style

warm glow of bright

which

is

characterized by

World

landscapes and scenes conveying the conflicts of

emotional themes in
of r.iigazine
areas

a highlv detailed

illustration.

manner reminiscent

Wyeth works predominantlv

around Pennsylvania and Maine where he has

most of his

life.

in its

exactness of detail and the use of

unusual viewpoints. His usual subjects are deserted

Andrew Wyeth b Chadds


Christina's World

Ford. PA.

Estes. Hopper. Richter. Sheeler.

Wood

1917

1948. Tempera and gesso on panel. h82 x

wl21 cm.

h32'/S x

w47%

in.

in the

lived for

His work has tremendous popular appeal.

minute, precise realism, undoubtedly influenced by

photography

but Wyeth adds a disturbing element by depicting such

Museum

of

Modern

Art.

New

York.

NY

Yeats Jack

The

Butler

Slashing strokes of bright colour have been spontaneously

applied in a loose, expressionisric manner.

freedom of the

The passionate

and the bold approach to the

artist's style

free

Basin in

Which

and more violent

in iis

Pilate

Washed

his Mantis

use of colour. Yeats was grcath

influenced by the Irish Troubles which were reflected in the


subject matter of his later work.

le

was admired by

his

work

friend

Oskar Kokoschka and

simultaneously from the indiscernible mass of the landscape

draws

background. Yeats was the son of a painter and the brother

Yeats' subject matter, however, remains entirely Irish.

Subject are striking.

of the poet

W H Yeats.

and watercolour
until 191

The forms emerge and

at

artist

le

began

dissolve

his career a<

lis

style

close parallel with that of the Austrian-born painter.

an illustrator

and did not begin painting

the age of 44.

in oils

became mcreasingly

Appel. Gorky. Kokoschka,

De Kooning. Kossoff. Pollock

Jack Butler Yeats, b London. 1871. d Dublin. 1957

The Basin

in

Which

Pilate

Waddington Galleries

Ltd.

Washed
London

his

Hands 1951.

his Impressionistic

Oil

on canvas. hl01.6 x wl52.4 cm. h40 x w60

in.

Zoffany Johann
Marble
are

athletes,

crammed

Charles Towneley's Library in Park Street

nymphs, gods, goddesses and

into the library

seated in the chair

on

of

this collector.

the right, his faithful

portrait busts

Towneley,

dog

at his feet,

is

surrounded by fellow antiquaries and connoisseurs. The


elegant library contains

all

bust of Clytie

on

the desk

is

said to

have been such

favourite of Towneley's that he referred to

German by

birth,

it

He met Towneley

close friends. Zoffany arrived in

and

up

set

scenes.

the accoutrements of the cultured

eighteenth-century gentleman with highly refined tastes.

in Italy.

became

The

as a painter

le

to paint a

of

in

Florence and the two

London

portraits, interiors

and

attention of

King George

where he made

III.

in

Park Street.

783.

Oil

on canvas. hl27 x

went

to India

his fortune painting portraits.

(" Gainsborough, Hogarth,

w99

1760

theatrical

pieces and attracted the

In 1783 he

Kauffmann, Teniers

Johann Zoffany b Frankfurt-am-Mam, 1733. d London, 1810


Charles Towneley's Library

men

was commissioned by the actor David Garrick

number of conversation

as his wife.

Zoffany travelled and studied extensively

in

cm. h50 x

w39

in.

Towneley

Hall Art Gallery, Burnley

Zorn
Like

of

nymph watching

a lake, this

absorbed
soft

Dagmar

Anders
her reflection

nude perches

in quiet

at

rippled surface

in the

thought. Her pink skin

is

echoed by the

hues of the rocks and the greens of nature beyond.

Although there

is

nothing overtly erotic about the

figure,

her voluptuous body beckons the viewer to look at the


painting and there

is

this

composition and created prints of

artists

of

and moving
his solid

light

and colour

~ Boucher.

Anders Zorn. b Mora. 1860. d Mora. 1920


on canvas. h88 x

w63 cm.

h34'/4

w24

/4

him

Private collection

in

dancing brush

to the Impressionists,

in this

work

are characteristic of Scandinavian

painting at the turn of the century.

Kroyer, Manet. Schiele

'"ill

J06L

Oil

ally

his

made

his

cosmopolitan

he travelled extensively

forms and the luminosity and natural feeling that

^TfTlMi'ii

Dagmar. 1911.

One of the most

his time,

Europe and North America. Although

can be seen

something innocently sensuous about

her pose. Zorn was also interested in printmaking; he

an etching of

paintings and sculpture.

Swedish

the edge of the water

^ -

W\

Zuccarelli f,

Landscape with the Rape of Europa

background and

great softness and delicacy pervade this picturesque

landscape animated with elegant female figures and playful


putti. Zuccarelli

tlu story

and

of the rape of Europa to evoke an Arcadian,

pastoral landscape in the

manner of

painter Claude Lorraine. Zeus,


a bull,

Roman town

has used the motifs of a

swims ashore

to

who

playing.

He

almost incidental to the composition.

entices

and pleasing

style

of landscape painting

Zuccarelli

Academy

was one of the Founder-Members of the Royal


in

London.

her to climb onto his back and carries her away to Crete.

This narrative scene has deliberately been relegated to the

Francesco Zuccarelli. b

Pitigliano,

Landscape with the Rape

" Allston. Claude, Piero

di

Cosimo, Wilson

1702. d Florence. 1788

of Europa.

cl750.

Oil

on canvas. hl31 x

worked

Venice and London where he stayed for 17

inhabited by joyful peasantry was very popular in England.

has disguised himself as


is

principally in

years- r!i: light

the French landscape

where Europa

is

Zuccarelli, a Florentine landscape painter,

wl68 cm.

h51'/4 x

w66

in.

Private collection

Zurbaran
The image of St

Francisco de

Francis standing

thirteenth-century apocryphal

in his

tale.

Saint Francis of Vssisi

tomb comes from

Visitors to the crypt

of

flamboyant compositions Zurbaran infuses


an austere religiousness more

the church in \ssisi are said to have observed St Francis

Baroque paintings of

standing erect in his grave long after his death. Zurbaran

difficult to

made

the image of the saint even

use of strong lighting from the

more

left

startling

through the

which picks out

his

dark

robe and ecstatic face and casts the right side of his body
into dark

shadow. This lighting

is

Francisco de Zurbaran b Fuente de Cantos. 1598. d Madrid.

C1650/60.

Oil

contemporaries. Zurbaran found

adapt to the changing fashion

was challenged

his painting with

to the Spanish

in particular

Bartolome Murillo. Unable

by the

rise

in

painting and

of the young

to re-establish his

once high

reputation he died in great poverty in 1664.

inspired by Caravaggio's

use of chiaroscuro, but in contrast to the Italian's usual

Saint Francis of Assisi.

his

common

on canvas. h209 x

Caravaggio. Murillo. Sassetta. Spencer. Velazquez

1664

wllO cm. h82 x w43

in.

Museu Nacional

d'Art

de Catalunya. Barcelona

it

Glossary of technical terms


Abstract

A form
around

The term

us.

tional art'

which does not seek to represent the world

art

applicable to any art that does not rep-

is

resent recognizable objects, but refers particularly to forms of

twentieth-century art

which the idea of

in

nature has been abandoned.

\\ assilv

among

and Kashmir Malevich were

of

art as imitation

Kandinsky, Piet Mondrian

used synonymously with figurative

the properties of

of

a variety

Meaning

in the

1940s,

from

(see

washes

thin

David Alfaro

combining some of

mixed with water and applied to

can be used to create

It

(see

as fresco

secco,

which

it

as bnon

fresco,

up

from the

late

is

laid

or true

plaster,

known

durable as the pigment does not

penetrate the substance of the plaster. Fresco painting

Italy

Siqueiros).

known

is

powdered form
of wet, freshly

a surface

from painting on dry

far less

is

ticularly appropriate to

Morris Louis) to

kind of wall

'fresh' in Italian, fresco is a particular

painting in which pure pigment (colour) in

lime plaster. This technique

and watercolour.

oil

effects

brushwork

used

first

art.

Fresco

fresco, to distinguish

synthetic paint,

thick

is

abstraction's earlv pioneers.

Acrylic

Georges Braque). The term 'representa-

heavily distorted (see

of

par-

is

dry climates and was widely used in

Middle Ages

(see Giotto, Fra Angelico)

to the seventeenth century (see Pietro

da Cortona).

Antique, Classical

Genre painting

Terms

of Ancient Greece and

referring to the civilizations

Rome, and

on

their influence

the arts. Although often consid-

ered interchangeable, the terms have slightly different


ings.

The

Antique' generally refers to the physical remains of

Greek and Roman world, such

the

was

ture; this

as architecture

popular theme

a particularly

and sculp-

cm

lir.1111

continuation of style or approach which

light

and

'light-dark' in Italian

and shade

in a

work of

is

known

of

for their use

this

when

Rembrandt

with the
Pietro

rather than ideal-

pop-

particularly

in the

often

artists

in Italy

The

style

eighteenth century

work of Jean-Baptiste-Simeon Chardin

Longhi

ments

and William Hogarth

(particles

in

France,

in

England.

known

also

as

body

colour.

The

pig-

of colour) are bound together with glue;

lighter tones are achieved

Gouache

are

by adding white (see W'ilfredo Lam).

thus differs from transparent watercolour, where tone

can be lightened simply by adding water. The thick texture of

technique, which the) used

The technique was

lor dramatic effect.

used to describe

particularly

art,

they are strongly contrasting. Caravaggio and


well

life

Genre painting was

seventeenth century, and

specialized in subjects such as tavern scenes (see Jan Steen),

Opaque watercolour,

means
of

in the

Gouache

Powers).

Chiaroscuro

the use

Holland

became more prevalent elsewhere

be traced directly to the Ancient world (see Jacques-Louis

l).i\ id,

ular in

musical parties or simple interiors (see Jan Vermeer).

in the eighteenth

century (see Giovanni Paolo Pannini, Francesco Zuccarelli).


'Classical' suggests a

Painting that depicts scenes of everyday


ized or religious subjects.

mean-

particularly popular in

gouache can produce the same

effects as oil paint, but

the disadvantage of producing a final tone which,

the seventeenth century

lighter than

is

it

it

when

has
dry,

appears during application.

Classical see Antique


Illumination

Photomontage

Collage,

Refers to the colourful decoration of manuscripts which was


Collage, coining from the French world coUer (meaning 'to

technique

stick*), is a

puns

which

in

miscellaneous objects are pasted onto


ubistS

were the

I"

first

|uan Gri

Phi

1
I

in

Dadaism
n

(se<

used

ollagi

miontagi

olographs;

it

particularly popular

of paper, cloth and other


flat

.1

surface.
S

applies th<

The

'to adorn'.

artistic tech-

same

princi-

Pop

\rt

In

artists

Oil,

a< uti

ichard Estes) 01

manuscript gradually went out

fashion and In the earlj sixteenth century relativel]

en

b<

or vellum

luneveu, Jean and Paul Limbourg). With the inven-

Figurative

These images maj

to the Renaissance.

were written by hand and colourfully

tion ol printing the illuminated


oi

images o) the world around

from Medieval times

derived from the Latin word illuminan, meaning

The manuscripts, made from parchment

painted with miniatures, ornate capital letters and borders (see

such as Richard

[amilton.

Art which depicts recognizabli

is

(treated animal skin),

was an important technique

Raoul llausmann) and Surrealism, and has


ill

The term

us.

Oilstick
onsists of

oil

few

pn iduced.

medium,

pigment (colour) bound together with an

usually linseed

oil.

Its

invention

is

usualh credited

Byck

to fan van

in the fifteenth

century. Oil has the advantage

over tempera of being slow to dry and therefore reworkable.

h can be applied with


,i

Vnton Raphael Mengs) or

brush (see

Kan

palette knife (see

though certain woods

method,

this

and shade

light

as

can be

in

the

sen

Mima

the soft gradations

in

(particularly poplar)

were used

in earlier

more

of the properties of

paint with those of pastel crayons (see

oil

recent invention,

They come

either be gripped in the

hand

or diluted with a suitable

in

combining some

Stucco

and applied

mixed with powdered marble ami glue and

\ light plaster,

sometimes reinforced with

hair or wire, used for sculpture

architectural decoration.

was most widely used from

It

teenth to the eighteenth centuries and

various sizes and can

like a pencil

'neat',

is

Rococo

st\les (see

stucco could produce a

in

material similar to marble by adding large quantities

and colour to the mixture.

A drawing
paper and

a variety

gum.

resin or

of

effects

defined lines to soft shading.

means

from marble

material consisting of a stick of pigment (colour)


It is

on

generally used

Its

nature of pastel

in the eighteenth

century

when

medium underwent
work of

nineteenth century with the

became pop-

it

made from ground pigment

paint

for the production

was

prints, including

woodcut, engraving, etching, silkscreen, screen-

Woodblock and woodcut

are

known

while the rest

is

away

cut

comparison

in

e case

which the design

engraved on a metal

is

plate,

or

in

ade from

silk)

is

stretched on a frame, and colour

lithography, the design

ith

me

is

(see

is

a slab

of

and through the opposition of grease and water, areas

lich receive

and

reject the printing ink are separated (see

phonse Mucha).

arabic.
it

word

elt
i

into

one another

Vinci put

it,

ft/mo,

meaning smoke, 'sfumato'

of tones or colours so subtly


to

produce

a 'misty' effect, as

'without lines or borders, in the

noke'. I^eonardo

and Edward Wadsworth.

a water-soluble

medium such

as

usually diluted with water to the point

and applied to paper


is

often

highlights and washes applied over

of atmospheric

to the creation

left

broad areas

in

exposed to create

one another

to achieve gra-

painters such as

and was

effects

particularly

pop-

and nineteenth-century landscape-

John Robert Cozens and |MW Turner.

Waterpaint

A
of

that they

Ixonardo

manner of

was himself one of the greatest exponents

emulsion paint.

thick, water-based paint, similar to

the texture of
oil.

oil

paint

In this sense

medium,
the Italian

is

washes. White paper

however,

;scribcs the blending

This

translucent,

is

as

it

large-scale

rom

Balla

forced

Andy Warhol).

drawn with wax onto

have been twentieth-century

to oil there

Giacomo

ular with F.nglish eighteenth-

attached to a screen (traditionally

rough the unmasked areas of the screen

image

dations of tone (see Emil Nolde). Watercolour lends itself well

(see

anley William Hayter). In silkscreen and other forms of

rcen printing, a stencil

gum

known

of etching bitten into the plate by means of acid

accurately; reworking the

Watercolour

where

(see

atsushika Hokusai). Engraving and etching are 'intaglio methls',

nature of

Despite the medium's decreased popu-

Pigment (colour) bound by


as

methods' because the parts of the block which are to

int black are left in relief

The absorbent

support.

had to work quickly and

larity in

lief

wooden

virtually impossible.

praeddoners: see

ing and lithography.

technique

until the late fifteenth cen-

ed on a white chalky substance called 'gesso' which had been

artist

Jean-Etienne Liotard, Edgar Degas).

">odblock,

common

gesso and the quick-drying qualities of tempera meant that the

the Impressionists (see

of techniques can be used to make

of easel paintings

applied in layers to a

a revival in the

bound together

(colour)

Cimabue, Jean Fouquet). Tempera was generally paint-

tury (see

Photomontage see Collage

variety

to the touch.

with egg-yolk and water. This was the most

drawn image can

colours were limited to black, white and terracotta red.

ular in portraiture; the

warmer

of glue

only distinguishable

is

can be achieved, from sharply

The powdery

that without careful handling the

heyday was

is

it

stucco

Tempera

quickly deteriorate. Pastel dates back to sixteenth-century Italy

when

in that

Good

and

the six-

particularly suited to

the ornate decorations of the Baroque and

Francesco Primaticcio). Workers

medium.

Pastel

bound together with

between

Lisa.

Paul Riopelle), generally onto canvas,

periods. Oilsticks are a

lean Michel Basquiat).

of

it

is

it

when wet
is

similar to

crack-resistant,

work such

It

has

but dries without the sheen

gouache.

making

it

as wall painting.

an

L'nlike

ideal

gouache,

medium

for

twentieth century

was commonly used In Lucio Fontana.

Glossary of

artistic

Abstract Expressionism

A movement
York

in

had the

American painting

that

developed

They

(01 'gestural ) painters.

tic

New

in

Most Abstract Expressionists were

the 1940s.

in

movements

energetic

invariably used large canvases and

brushes, sometimes dripping or even throwing paint directly

onto the canvas. This expressive method of painting was often


itself.

that

it

was

of the Renaissance. The characteri

artisans

was simple, geometrical and highly

style

19,33 the school

Other Abstract

a centre

of communist

ideals as they left

its

continued to teach

staff

Germany and emigrated

Kooning and

Newmann

movement was

this

abstract (see

Guston) or expressive

Philip

and Mark Rothko), but


of the

that the spontaneity

would draw from and

artists'

it

Barbizon School

number of French

the

all

Willem de

(see Barnett

release the creativity

of

their

small village 40 miles south-west of Paris.

The

Barbizon and

village is called

on the

lies

outskirts of the
citv life,

these artists were able to take their easels into the countryside

work

their

artists travelled to a

Forest of Fontainebleau. Far from the pressures of

was generally believed

approach to

its

over the world.

all

* Albers, Kandinsky, Klee, Moholy-Nagy

In the early to mid-nineteenth century a

work from

Although the

intellectualism.

Expressionisi artists were concerned with adopting a peaceful

and mystical approach to a purely abstract image. Not

refined. In

was closed by the Nazi government claiming

school was physically dissolved,

applied paint rapidly and with force, sometimes using large

considered as important as the painting

and

artists

Bauhaus

uncon-

and paint from nature

in the

landscapes and people

at

open

work

They painted

air.

gentle

and studied the

in the fields,

scious minds.

of

fleeting effects

Guston, Hofmann, Kline,

rancis, Frankenthaler,

Kooning, Motherwell, Newman, Pollock, Rothko,

De

Art Informel

number of

uted to the Impressionists

The French word

means 'without form'

informel

'informal'. In the 1950s Art Informel artists

new way

and atmospheric

around them. Many of the Barbizon

Still

forgotten, and a

light

to create

forms used by

later exploited their

Cubism and

*" Corot, Courbet, Daubigny,

Millet,

Rousseau

The Baroque

style flourished in

Rome

to discover a

new

artistic

language.

They

invented shapes and methods thai came about by improvization.

The work of

thej

often useel free brushstrokes and thick layering of paint.

Likt

Abstract Expressionism, which developed simultaneously

Art Informel

Europe

artists

is

extremely varied but

meaning

the

\rt

\,

Informel

is

figurative (see Jean Iautrier)

Hartung) painters.

very broad label and includes

and non-figurative

(see

Madonna

in a swirl

mythology were

and

Italy

the Italian

is

word

barocco,

generally typified by

show

its

The

the saints or

of billowing draperies and fleecy clouds

also popular,

its

Spam,

art

archetypal Baroque religious picture might

exaggerated manner.
influence reached other parts of Europe, notably

Baroque

surrounded by cherubs. Themes such

Hans

Although centered mainly on Paris,

bizarre or zany.

until the eigh-

dramatic exuberance and emotive appeal to the viewer.

the
in

The name comes from

teenth century.

1600s and

in the earlv

persisted in varying degrees throughout

tonus and

attrib-

innovatory

Baroque

Expressionism). Their aim was to abandon geometrical and


figurative

virtually

have been

techniques.

rather than

were looking for

images without adopting the recognizable

their predecessors (see

have been

artists

their discoveries

who

on the world

effects

Not

all

as subjects

and were treated

art

from Ancient

in the

same

of the period was so luxuriant,

however, and the sombre dramaticism of

artists

such

as

lermany.
equally termed Baroque.

10 is

*" Burn, Dubuffet, faultier, Hartung, Riopelle,


Stael,

De

Soi.l.iges,

*" Bernini, Caravaggio, Cuyp, Gcntilcschi, Guercino, Kalf,

Tapies

Rembrandt, Rem, Rubens, Sanchez-Cotan, Velazquez, Zurbaran


Arte Povera see Conceptual Art

The Camden Town Group

Bauhaus
\n English group of painters formed

The Bauhaus school was founded by


Gropius

at

ign

isi

currents

in

Weimar

German]

di

in

the 1920s.

Europ<

.n

th<

R,efl<

Bauhaus Stud
sculptors and designers

daily

life.

should
I

b(

practical

the social
to

as

craftsmen

studied together in

workshops

life

in

much of

alter Sickert's studio in

their subject matter

191

1.

The

greiup

north London. The)

from urban working-class

artists

such as Vincent van

Gogh and

Paul Gauguin. In

1913 the group amalgamated with other groups, notablj the

*~ Gilman,

as

in

and were influenced In the strong forms and colouis used

VorticistS (see Vorticism), to

and affordable.

mists, architects, potters, weavers,

who

took

In

Gropius believed

hould be considered

that artist!

that their creations

,\

tunc, us philosophy wai

an and design into the domain of

and

often met

1919 and became the centre of modern

in
in

the architect Walter

Si< kert

become

the

London Group.

Cubism

Cobra

An

of

international association

from 1948 to 19s


initials

of the

ciation

were

The aim of

living

Europe

The name Cobra was made up from

1.

cities in

the

artists thai existed in

which the

original

members of

the

the asso

(Copenhagen, Brussels and Amsterdam).

Cobra

was

artists

promote

to

free expression

of the unconscious and they used thick free handling of paint

and striking colours

to give their

work

and

vitality

They

force.

put particular emphasis on the development of fantastical

This revolutionary method of making

decade of the twentieth centurv. Although


abstract

and geometrical, Cubist

objects.

These

are 'flattened'

docs

first

may appear

it

in fact depict real

onto the canvas so

that different

angles. Instead of creating the illusion of an object in space, as

had endeavoured to do since the Renaissance, Cubist

art

defines objects in the two-dimensional terms of the canvas.

bols of the unconscious rather than purely abstract forms.

This innovation gave

- Appel

the interaction between

of Western

Conceptual Art

art

image was
in the

of each shape can be shown simultaneous!] from various

sides

artists

derived from Nordic folklore, and from mystical sym-

a pictorial

invented by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braquc

an extraordinary reassessment of

rise to

form and space, changing the course

art forever.

" Archipenko, Braque, Gris, Leger, Picasso


In

Conceptual Art

than the technical

is

it

the 'concept' behind the work, rather

of the

skill

making

artist in

non

in the

The

ideas or 'concepts'

1960s and

its

that

is

impor-

manifestations have been very diverse.

may be communicated

of different media, including

texts,

becomes an

integral

site.

pan of

In

some

the

using a variety

maps, diagrams, film/video,

photographs and performances, and displayed


designed for a specific

art'

it,

Conceptual Art became a major international phenome-

tant.

in a gallery

or

cases the landscape itself

artist's

work,

as in the 'land

of Richard Long or the 'environmental sculptures' of

The

Christo.

ideas expressed through Conceptual

and

artist as a

political activism.

maker of

tional ideas

The notion of

ideas rather than objects

work have

about the status of the

artist

the Conceptual

undermines

and the

tradi-

art object.

'Arte Povera', a Conceptual tendency that established itself in

by using banal and worth-

1960s, developed this idea

Italy in the

less materials (see

The name Dada


an international

is

deliberately meaningless

'anti-art'

Josef Beuys, Mario Merz).

movement

main centre of

to 1922. Its

would gather

and was given to

that flourished

from 191s

was the Cabaret Voltaire

activity

Zurich, where like-minded poets,

artists,

writers

in

and musicians

to participate in experimental activities such as

nonsense poetry, 'noise music' and automatic drawing. Dada

was

a violent reaction to the

the art establishment:

been drawn from philosophy, feminism, psychoanalysis, film


studies

Dada

means within
bourgeoisie.

its

snobbery and traditionalism of

members were ready

typical

Dada work of

and put on exhibit


irrational,

as

art

from

essentially an ordinary object taken

of the

to use any

their imagination to cause outrage

amongst the

was the 'ready-made',


original context

its

The Dada movement,

'art'.

was important

in

with

cult

its

preparing the ground for

the advent of Surrealism in the 1920s.

*" Arp,

De

Duchamp, Hausmann, Man

Ray, Picabia, Schwittcrs

Stijl

*" Beuys, Buren, Christo, Long, Merz, Nauman, Viola

An
Constructivism

An

abstract

an movement founded

in

Russia

in

ing that

it

art,

believ-

should imitate the forms and processes of modern

technology. This was especially true of sculpture, which was


'constructed' out of

component

Theo van Doesburg and

Piet

parts using industrial materials

order and

of

De

clarity in a

Stijl

constant process of refinement.

square forms.
straight lines

It

should

'pure'

years

by

space

in

machine technology and were

almost architectural fashion. Although

Constructivism was current in Russia during the early

of the Revolution,

artists

its

aims and ideals have been used

throughout the twentieth century.

" Gabo, Lissitzky, Moholy-Xagy, Popova, Rodchenko, Tatlin

verse.

in

The work

was composed of the simplest elements:

were deeply philosophical and were rooted

in

in

men

and pure primary colours. The movement's aims

and techniques. In painting, the same principles were applied

suspended

Holland

was therefore austere and geometrical, using mainly

within a two-dimensional format; abstract forms were used to


create structures reminiscent of

in

Mondrian. These

believed that art should strive towards complete harmony,

1915.

Constructivism swept away traditional notions about

movement and magazine founded

artistic

191- by

some way

reflect the

The movement came

Doesburg's death, but had

and the applied

arts in

to an

end

profound

Europe.

*" Van Doesburg, Mondrian

in the idea that art

mystery and order of the uniin

1951 after

effect

on

Van

architecture

unconvincing. At the end of the fourteenth century there was a

Expressionism

An

artistic

move towards

Germany from

force concentrated mainly in

to 1930. Expressionist artists sought to develop pictorial

which would express

sent the external world. Expressionist painting

sionate and highly personal, based

is

intense, pas-

Violent, unreal colour and dramatic

Expressionist painting quiver with

and animals became

typical

not surprising

Vincent van Gogh, with his frenzied painting technique

and extraordinary use of colour, was the inspiration for manv


Expressionist painters.

was not confined

this later style

asm and
ings

'les

which included

room

One

passion.

- French

fames'

dubbed the

critic

for 'wild beasts'

mainly

creators of these paint-

- and

in the

name

the

dynamic brushwork and expressive depth of


which evoke

a fantastical, joyous

stuck.

life.

their pictures,

world of heightened emotion

Matisse, Vlaminck

in

Milan

in 1909. Its

bers aimed to liberate Italy from the weight of

modernity.

to glorif)

The

Futurists

its

mem-

past and

were fascinated by modern

machinery, transport and communications. In painting and

vey

sense of dynamism.

was

art

its

One

attempt to capture

were used

movement and

speed: this

or figure

in slightly differing

the impression of a

positions

at

the

same

Balla,

was

time, giving

is

Ages (from around

the style of the great cathedrals

mo

to 1500),

of Europe. Altarpicccs

time had elaborate erenell.itions which mimic-

ked church architecture. Gothic paintings and sculptures are


characterized b) elongated figures which are highly patterned. In
painting,

space.

dure

The

is

Degas, Manet, Monet, Morisot, Pissarro,

first

move-

introduced in the 1920s but reached

quite simple (such as Alexander Calder's wind-driven

The term may

also

be applied to works of

art that

wilder,

Tinguely

Mannerism

development of the Renaissance

ly

seen as a reaction against the harmony, order and perfection

style,

Mannerism

of the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. The

is

style

general-

was

Hum" of movement.

the Middle

this

Sunrise.

use light effects to give the viewer the illusion of movement.

tions,

made during

coined in derision by a

to describe art incorporating real or apparent

sculptures).

by

this

initially

mobiles) or complex (such as Jean Tinguely's motor-operated

same object

Gothic
in

of subject

height of popularity during the 1950s and 1960s. Kinetic art

may be

Boccioni

Predominant

Caillebotte, Cassatt,

prevalent

*"

pure pigment using free

Kinetic Art

to con-

of the main features of Futurist

usually achieved by depicting several images of the

in

also radical in their choice

Renoir, Sisley

*"
sculpture, angular forms and powerful lines

- whether dawn,

fascinated by the relationship

and colour, painting

entitled Impression

its

movement founded

They were

They were

ment. The idea was

Futurism
avant-garde

in the 1860s.

was inspired by one of Claude Monet's paintings

Term used
Van Dongcn,

France

in painting that originated in

The movement's name,

journalist,

strong colours,

and colour.
*" Detain,

often

matter, avoiding traditional historical, religious or romantic

'*"

itself

is

themes to concentrate on landscapes and scenes of everyday

have been painted with great enthusi-

to

This 'wildness' manifested

An

light

brushstrokes.

They seemed

it

Impressionism

A movement

between

of paintings that blazed with pure, highly contrasting

full

one country,

nature seen in the splendour of natural light

Fauvism

colours.

to

Fabriano, Limbourg, Lorenzetti, Lorenzo Monaco, Martini,

daylight or twilight.

in Paris

feature in paintings. Because

Delia Quercia

Kokoschka, Marc, Munch, Nolde, Pechstein, Rouault, Schiele,


Schmidt-Rottluff, Soutine

was held

Minutely detailed depictions of plants

common

Impressionist painters celebrated the overwhelming vision of

*" Beckman, Van Gogh, Heckel, Jawlensky, Kirchner,

In 1905 an exhibition

*" Beauneveu, Cimabue, Duccio, Fouquet, Gaddi, Gentile da

brushwork make the

vitality. It is

interest in natural themes.

called International Gothic.

on the concept of the

demonstrating emotions.

painter's canvas as a vehicle for

that

forms

innermost feelings rather than repre-

their

greater elegance and refinement, and an increased

1905

often

little

attempt to depict three dim

perspective that was employed

is

usually

random and

in

Italy

between 1520 and 1600.

It is

characterized

use of bright, almost garish colours, elaborate composi-

exaggerated forms and dramatic movement.

originates in the use of the

word

waniera,

meaning

The term
'stylishness'

and signifying grace, poise and harmony. The word has devel-

oped a variety of meanings over the centuries; however,


generally associated with art and artists
strated excessive

*" Bronzino,

skill,

virtuosity

Cellini, El

and

who

caprice.

Greco, Giambologna, Giulio R<

Parmigianino, Pontormo, Rosso, Tintoretto

it

is

openly demon-

Op Art

Minimalism
trend

\
I

SA

in

painting .nut sculpture thai developed primarily in the

during the 1960s and 1970s. As the

Minimalist Art

pared

is

down

to

its

and anonymous,

abstract, objective

name

essentials;

implies,

it

purely

is

expressive gesture. Minimalist painting and drawing

is

mono-

chromatic and often draws on mathematically derived grids and


linear matrices; vet

and of

it

can also evoke

sensation of the sublime

of being. Sculptors used industrial processes and

states

duce geometric forms, often made

in series.

illusionistic properties, relying instead

on

This sculprure has


a bodily experience

of the work by the spectator. Minimalism can be seen


tion against the emotionalism

as a reac-

art

*" Andre, Flavin, Judd, Kelly, LeW'itt, Mangold, Ryman, Serra,

method of painting

before being a horse, a nude, or

pure colour.

in

'Remember

some

by broad surfaces of

well as painting the

book

who were

that a picture,

kind of anecdote,

Metaphysical Painting was founded

de Chirico and Carlo Carra.

flat

colour or patterns.

group was interested

illustrations, textiles

in print-making,

dummies and

tailors'

it

meaning

developed

aims were

in the latter half

of previous

movement

of the eighteenth century;

return to Classical values and a revival

elegant styles of Ancient


architecture

it

is

Greek and Roman

of the

In art

art.

its

and

characterized by a preference for line and

symmetry, and by

its

frecjucnt

Expressionist characteristics

USA

common

in

in its

with

concern with

De

Chirico, Delvaux

Pop Art

A movement

in the

society

and pop

its

USA

culture.

produced objects

and Britain that emerged

inspiration

all

in the

from the imagery of consumer

Comic

strips, advertising

and mass-

played a part in this movement, which

was characterized by one of

members, Richard Hamilton,

its

low

'popular, transient, expendable,

cost,

subject matter

tion to detail in sculpture.

blage are also

common

in

often emphasized by hard-

is

in

painting and minute atten-

Photomontage, collage and assem-

Pop

Art.

" P Blake, Dine, Hamilton, Hockney, Johns, |ones,

Kitaj,

Lichtenstein, Oldenburg, Rauschenberg, Rosenquist, Segal,

Thiebaud,

\\ arhol,

YX'esselmann

Pre-Raphaelite Broth erhood

in

the

work of

An

and Europe, especially Germany,

particular artists
in the late

1970s.

association of

Dismayed

at

young English

what they saw

formed

artists

as the

decadent

painting, the Pre-Raphaelites sought to

in

state

evoke the

1848.

of British
sincerity

of

Xeo-F.xpressionist works tend to be highly personal, often

early Italian art before the Fligh Renaissance master Raphael,

executed with violent fervour. Neo-R/manticisum refers to

as

strongly theatrical

form of twentieth-century painting which

combines both Romantic and Surrealist elements.


" Neo-Classicism)

Alma -Tadcma, Canova, David,

Ingres,

Leighton, Mcngs, Powers, Prud'hon; (Neo-Expressionism)

Auerbach,

Baselitz,

mass-produced,

borrowing from Antique-

sources. Xeo-f:xpmsionism refers to the re-emergence of

in the

much

has

from Surrealism

edged photograph-like techniques

'new', refers to a revival

trends or ideas. Xeo-Classicism, for example, was a


that

movement

differs

young, witty, sexy, gimmicky, glamorous and Big Business'.

(-Classicism, -Expressionism, -Romanticism)


prefix 'neo',

body.

Metaphysical

compositional structure and architectural values.

*" Carra,

The brashness of
The

human

statues instead of the

in unlikely contexts, the

Painters aimed to create a dreamlike, magical atmosphere.

and theatre design.

*" Bonnard, Denis, Maillol, Yallotton, Yuillard

Neo

1917 by Giorgio

in Italy in

characterized by distorted

It is

perspectives, unnatural lighting and strange imagery, often

1950s and took

is

covered with colours.' Their pictures

essentially a flat surface

posters,

Although the work of

epitomized by a statement bv Maurice

is

Denis, one of the group's members:

As

the viewer bv creating images

pulsate.

Pittura Metafisica (Metaphysical Painting)

rigid

small group of French artists, active in the 1880s,

are characterized

)p

" Riley, Vasarely

In this respect the

Their approach

of the human

of movement.

illusion

Surrealism, but

inspired by Paul Gauguin's

the 1960s.

in

fallibility

the forms and colours used cause an optical

By placing objects

through the 1950s.

Stella

games with

shimmer and

to

art itself is static,

using

of Abstract Expressionism,

which had dominated modern

plays

artist

which appear

exploits the

art")

even fluorescent rubes, to pro-

materials, such as steel, perspex,

no

.1

The

eye.

developed

in abstract art that

(short for 'optica]

\rt

of surface decoration or

free

A movement

Bomberg, Boyd, Clcmcntc,

Schnabcl; (Neo-Romanticism; Nash, Piper

rink, Kiefer,

exemplified by

artists

such as Sandro

Botticelli

and Filippo

Lippi. Pre-Raphaelite pictures frequently depict literary, historical

and

on

social

religious scenes

and often make moralizing comments

behaviour and relationships. The

artists

textured anil minutely detailed pictures which


interest in the decorative qualities

** Brown, Burne-Jones, Hunt,

painted

show

of flowers and

Millais, Rossetti,

nchK

particular

fabric.

Waterhouse

Renaissance
Throughout

man

Vges

God

of

lived in fear

and Neo-Expressionism.

and

'*"

the heavens and saints, and bore

man began

From

earth.

to realize his

little

relation to

Etty, FrjSStech, Gericault,

what was

the fourteenth century, however,

importance and

effect

This rebirth (or 'renaissance') was reflected

Allston, Bierstadt, Blake, Church, Cole, Constable, Cozens,

showed

within the omnipresence of the Church. Art generally

happening on

more

space became

life-like,

Christian story began to be told from a

on the world.

Surrealism originated in France in the 1920s. In the words of

in art: figures
real

and the

human

main

Andre Breton,

theorist, the writer

the decades continued artists were able to recreate the

world on panels, frescos and altarpieces with increasing

and the ways

Artists painted

which

in

unnerving and

this

stylized

works of Giotto and Masaccio,

monumental

the Renaissance culminated in the

aim

the unconscious to express

Leonardo, Raphael and Michelangelo. Although generally asso-

widely.

scenes with photographic

from

collections of everyday

developed techniques of painting which would allow

objects, or

creations of

w^as to

of dream and

was achieved varied

illogical

ease.

precision, created strange creatures

Beginning with the

its

'resolve the previously contradictor}- conditions

point of view.
reality',

As

Goya, Martin, Turner

Surrealism

its

became more

Expressionism

the twentieth century in artistic strains such as

the Middle

figurative, represent

Surrealist pictures, while

itself.

an alien world, whose images range from

ciated with Italy, the Renaissance also developed independently

dreamlike serenity to nightmarish fantasy.


north of the Alps

Renaissance

Germany and

in

artists laid

German

of space, Flemish and

detailed, jewel-like depiction

,i

"

Flanders. While Italian

emphasis on perspective and the


artists

'*"

illusion

were more interested

Wadsworth

Symbolism

of the world around them.

Renaissance) Fra Angclico, Botticelli, Donatello,

ail]

Bellmer, Brauner, Dali, Delvaux, Ernst, Kahlo, Gorky,

Magritte, Matta, Miro, Tanguy,

in

literary

and

artistic

movement

that flourished in France in

Ghiberti, Ghirlandaio, Giotto, Filippino Lippi, Mantegna,

the late nineteenth century. Symbolist artists rejected realism,

Masaccio, Perugino, Piero della Francesca, Pollaiuolo, Signorelli,

believing that painting should convey ideas and states of

Verrocchio; (High Renaissance) Andrea del Sarto, Fra

rather than simply describe the visible world. Their styles var-

Bartolommco, Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael,

ied

Titian;

Northern Renaissance) Altdorfer, Diirer, Flsheimer,

from

interest

jewel-like richness to pale serenity but their

was

in

Subjects of

Rococo

and eroticism, death and


*" Moreau,

light, plavful

and decorative

emerged

stvlc that

in

The term comes from

rocailk,

meaning the

fancy shell- and

fountains and grottoes. Predominant^

Rococo

the

is

typified by

the French

rockwork used
style

.1

in

the

word

to decorate

of interior deco-

charm, elegance and playful-

ness and a palette usually consisting of pastel colours,

lis

subject matter frequently dealt with the leisurely pastimes of


the aristocracy,

and risque love themes.

and the

single definition

away from

is

is

late

eighteenth and carlv nineteenth

so varied in

its

manifi

almosi impossible. Romantic

intellectual disciplines
'

Europe

artists

turned

and placed importance on the

and individual expression

Inn paintings often

depict grand emotions such as tear, desolation, victoi


true love.

English avant-garde

Lewis

1914.

The movemi

were

common

themes.

movement founded by W'yndham

The name Vorticism came from

Futurist L'mberto Boccioni's

remark that

all

lied

out by the mid

nineteenth century but romantic tendencies have survived into

the Italian

creative art

emanates from an emotional vortex. Like Futurism, Vorticism

employed

harsh, angular and highly

dynamic

style in

both

painting and sculpture and aimed at capturing activity and

it

was

significant as the first

*" Bomberg, Lewis

Romanticism

centuries.

An

tion in English art.

the arts that flourished in northern

ISA during the

sin

Redon

Vorticism

War

Romanticism
in

or mythological flavour were popular,

movement. Although Vorticism did not survive

" Amigoni, Boucher, Iragonard, Tiepolo, Watteau

A movement

a religious

France

around 1700 and was disseminated throughout Europe


eighteenth century.

common

conveying a feeling of other-worldliness.

Grunewald, Mabuse, Massys, Van der Weyden

mind

the first

movement towards

World

abstrac-

'

museums and

Directory of

Kroyer, Summer Evening on

Austria

Museum

Kunsthistorisches
Burgling
,;

toio Vienna

5,

52177

Giovanni

Young

Bellini,

Woman

at ber Toilet

P Bruegel,

Peasant

edding

II

the

France

Musee National Fernand


Leger
Chemin du Val de Pome,
06410 Biot

Cellar

Leger,

klimt,

Painting the

'/>x'>i

of

Iragon

Belgium

Museum

Koninklijk

voor

HP

243,

44570800
Limbourg, January

(52

Troy, Tht Oyster Lunch

place d'Unterlinden, 68000

(35

1)

Fouquet,

'irgin

(33)

89418923

Cook

Little Pastry

Musee d'Orsay

(55

1)

ilc

la

Woman

at

Trouville

Musees Royaux des Beaux-

77300 Fontainebleau

Dundas

317

(1

Street West,

ON, M5T

Toronto,

(33)

67660654

Courbet

26 bis rue Thiers, 76000

10 rue

Narodnf Galeric

15,

11904

(33)

Georges-Clemenceau,

40416565

Greuze, The

Guitarist

(35

1)

Woman

with Bent

58 rue de Richelieu,

75084

Paris

Km,

(33

1)

47058126

556

Copenhagen V

Musee Bourdelle
16 rue

David, Th< Marriage

at

Cam

with a Flow*

(33

Musee

la Ville

98446444

east

(55

50847400

1)

Delacroix, The
oj the

Hussars

Houdon,

Bust

of

Denis Diderot

Ingres, The Ha/her

alp/iifon

La Tour, Tht Cheat with

Germany
Schloss Charlottenburg

Vinci,

(49 50) 320911

tht

for Cythera

Mona

Lisa

Pisanello, Ginevra i/T.ste

Ludwig Roselius Sammlung


Bottcherstrasse

45484727
/

Jerakles

d'Art

Moderne de

de Paris

Musee National Auguste


Rodin
77 rue de Varenne, 75007

Pans

of

Watteau, The Embarkation

in/onds

Leonardo da

Ha/fli

TaiHebourg

Luisenplatz, 1000 Berlin 19


0/

Prud'hoii, The Empress Josephine

Museum

L.rondumsvej, 9990 Skagcn


(45)

Poussin, The Arcadian Shepherds

Bourdelle,

Skagens

Musee National du Chateau

Anionic Bourdelle,

75015 Paris

Gauguin, Woman

Portrait of Yvonne LeroUt

Champaigne, The Last Supper

7,

59737787

(33

de Versailles
78000 Versailles

Psyche

Philip

Carlsberg Glyptotek

Dantes Plads

Arcimboldo, Summer

Canova, Cupid and

fordaens, The Four Evangelists

Beauneveu, Saint

Ny

Optevo%

rue Maurice Denis,

Denis,

40205050/151

lleem. Still Ufe of Dessert


Honthorst, The (oncer/

571775
Seated

Paris

De

Bibliotheque Nationale
Schiele,

at

78100 Saint-Germain-en-Laye

du Louvre, 75001

Gericault, Officer

z)

(35) 35712840
Daubigny, The Lock

Prieure

at Louveciennes

Boucher, Odalisque

Musee des Beaux-Arts


44000 Nantes

42

989H520

(33)

Rouen

Musee du Louvre
Palais

Courbet, Bon/our, Monsieur

Czech Republic

2 bis

Bonne Nouvelle,

Oldenburg, Giant Hamburger

Hradcanskc nam

place Saint Corentin, 29000

i(,4

416) 9770414

Prague

Third

Musee Departemental du

Snow

Musee Fabre

Art Gallery of Ontario

to the

Million

Avignon

54000 Montpellier

Canada

Monument

international

Signac, The Papal Palace,

Primaticcio, Danai

39 boulevard

of the journalist

larc/en

Musee des Beaux-Arts

Morisot, The Cradh

Sisley,

Two Schoolboys

I'herbe

Pissarro, Landscapt at Chaponval

64222740

(32 2) 5083211

Vuillard,

44781235

1)

Vallotton, Landscape with Trees

Sewing

Orpen, The Cafe Royal in

Arts de Belgique

l-L David, The Death of Marat

(35

Dix, Portrait

Quimper

Condamine

Boudin, Tht Beach


Cassatt,

du Musee. 1000 Brussels

de

Musee des Beaux-Arts

40494814

Bazille, The Artist's Studio on

Chateau de Fontainebleau

9 rue

Tatlin,

rue de Bellechasse, 75007

Millet, The Cleaners

and Child

(33)

ei

Pompidou,

reorges

rue Saint-Merri, 75191

Pans

42974816

Flag Over tht Town Hall

Manet, Dejeuner sur

Griinewald, The Crucifixion

Man

Hanged

oj

Musee d'Unterlinden
Colrmr

2587809

3)

letons Fighting for the

Hod\

51

the rut

Leopold de Waelplein, 2000

Culture

Paris

Schone Kunsten
Antwerp

d'Art

Centre National d'Art

Sylvia Von

(33)

De

Musee National
Moderne

Concorde, 75001

Bleriot

to

l'Orangerie

la

Soutine, The

Chateau de Chanrilly,

Kiss

Tht

Place de

60631 Chantilly

Sittow, Kathenm

47050134

1)

Musee de

Musee Conde

(55

47236127

(33

L'trillo,

Mabuse, Saint Luke

Rodin,

16 Paris

Delaunay, Homage

Builders

Tht

Pans

Fall of Man

Van der Goes, The

ave du President Wilson,

75

13656361

Sab

Cellini,

Southern Beach

galleries

Bremen

4,

2800

(49 421J

5219'

Modersohn-Becker, Old
Poorboust

Woman

Class Bottle

mtli a

Museum

Wallraf-Richartz

Bischofsgartenstrasse

Cologne

(49

5000

Michelangelo, The Doni Tondo

Potsdam

(49

irgin

and Child

a Rose Arbour

Family with

Konrad-Adenauer-Strasse 30-

the Infant Saint

Marc, Utile Yellow Horses

Dresden

(49 35') 495

56

Correggio, The Nativity

7") 2125050

(49

Philosophenweg 76, 7400

Sebasuano

The Death of Adonis

(49 7071)

Hamilton,

61444
What

fust

Today's

Museum

Different,

Diisseldorferstrasse 51, 4100

Italy

del

Vigee-Lebrun,

Piombo,

So Appealing?

40100

Campo,

Piazza del

00

(39 577) 292111

Good

Self-portrait

di Siena

1,

50100 Florence

del Sarto, Assumption

53100

31,

(39 577) 281 161

Sodoma, The

'irgin

Via San Pietro


Siena

210323/6673

(39 55)

of the
56,

Rome

City,

6983333

Government

Pitti

Piazza Pitu

Via Belle Arti

(39 6)

Lorenzetti, Allegory of

Pinacoteca Nazionale

283^630

Pinacoteca Nazionale

Palazzo

Andrea

(49 2 3)

00120 Vatican

Siena

That

is it

Homes So

Duisburg
Meckel, Windmill, Dangast

Palazzo del Vaticano

Kunsthalle Tubingen

III

Palazzo Pubblico

Daughters of Jethro

Tubingen

Makes

Urbi

Raphael, The School of Athens

Rosso Fiorentino, Moses and


Salviati, Chant]

Liotard, The Chocolate Pot

]uhn

Andromeda

Freeing

the

Wilhelm-Lehmbruck-

oj

Piero di Cosimo, Perseus

7000 Stuttgart

32,

Staatliche

801 z

his Life

Mary Magdalene and

Staatsgalerie Stuttgart

Kunstsammlungen Dresden
Georg [reu-Platz 1, PSF 450,

Surrounded by Scenes of

Palma Vecchio, The Holy

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Palazzo Schifanoia

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