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because of the ease of level-shifting using transformers. A transformer operates by

magnetically coupling two coils with typically different numbers of turns. If the number

of turns on the secondary winding is greater than the number on the primary winding,

then the transformer steps up the voltage. This is useful for transmission where, for a

given power being transmitted, we wish to have as large a voltage as possible so that the

corresponding current is small. A small current implies fewer I 2 R conduction losses and

less voltage drop between different points in the network. If the transformer has fewer

turns on the secondary, then the secondary voltage is less than the primary and we have a

step-down transformer. This is what we investigated in Experiment #13 as part of our

unregulated and regulated power supplies. Since in the 1890s DC had no comparable

mechanism for achieving voltage level shifting and therefore no comparable convenience

or efficiency, AC soon became dominate.

With the advent of switching technology, vacuum tubes and then semiconductors,

we now have the possibility of using controlled electronic switches, in concert with the

energy storage properties of inductors and capacitors, to realize DC voltage level shifting.

Now you might ask: cant we simply do this with voltage dividers to achieve lower DC

voltages? The answer is yes, but when significant amounts of power are required, this

approach quickly becomes very inefficient. A switchmode power converter that

efficiently steps down DC voltage is called a buck chopper. An alternative to the buck

chopper is the voltage regulator approach such as the LM317 that we investigated in Lab

#13. Now also interestingly, we have the capability of stepping up DC voltages

electronically. This device is called a boost converter and will be the focus of this lab

exercise.

iL

Vin

Rout Vout

To appreciate the need for a boost converter, consider that you have a 9-volt

battery but that you require additional voltages to energize various electronic circuitry,

for instance 12V, 15V and maybe 24V. Now one solution could be to resize the battery

for the maximum voltage required (here 24V) and then use buck choppers to efficiently

generate the lower levels. If this approach is not an option, then we need to consider the

boost converter. A separate lecture on the boost converter documents its principle of

operation, shows representative current waveforms, and develops design relationships to

aid in the selection of circuit components. This will not be repeated here in detail, but

some key results will be highlighted.

iL

switch

open

switched closed

I max

I min

t

DTs

Ts

The circuit for the boost converter is illustrated in Figure 1. For a given switching

period denoted by Ts , the switch is closed for a portion of the time, ton , and is open for

the remainder. This ratio of on time to switching period is termed the duty cycle,

designated by D. We then found that for continuous inductor current that the output

voltage was related to the input voltage by the following relation:

Vout =

Vin

1 D

Since D is constrained to be between 0 and 1, this implies that Vout Vin , hence a boost

converter. A representative waveform for the inductor current is illustrated in Figure 2.

For this current to be in the continuous mode, it must not fall to zero (that is, I min > 0 A ).

As indicated in lecture, we prefer to operate the converter in this mode. As a

consequence, we derived a necessary and sufficient condition to ensure that the inductor

current would remain continuous for all anticipated load conditions. This relationship

helped us identify the minimum inductance required for the converter.

R

(1 D ) D

= out ,max

2 fs

2

Lcrit

1

is the switching frequency and Rout ,max is the largest value of output

Ts

resistance anticipated. In our exercise today, our choice of L will be constrained and we

will resolve the equation to identify the minimum permissible switching frequency.

In the above, f s =

R

(1 D ) D

= out ,max

2L

2

f s ,min

The corresponding equations for the minimum and maximum inductor currents then

become.

I min =

I max =

Vin

Rout (1 D )

Vin

Rout (1 D )

Vin D

2 Lf s

Vin D

2 Lf s

We also derived a design requirement on the output capacitance based on the permitted

peak-to-peak ripple in the output voltage. Here we found that the capacitor had to be

sized to satisfy the following minimum constraint.

Cmin =

Vout D

Rout ,min f sVout , pp ,max

We could rearrange this relationship to identify the output ripple given a value of

capacitor.

Vout , pp ,max =

Vout D

Rout ,min Cf s

The final element that we need to discuss before pushing on to the exercise is the

implementation of the switch in Figure 1. This can be achieved by suitable selection of

Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT), but today we will introduce a new friend called a

Power FET (Field-Effect Transistor). This is a voltage-controlled device (vice the

current-controlled BJT switch) that has very fast switching characteristics. Like the BJT,

the Power FET has three terminals: the gate, the drain, and the source. To make it look

like a switch, we need to apply an 8V signal to the gate to turn it on and a zero or

negative voltage (not less than 8V) to turn it off. The Tektronix CFG function generator

will be used to realize the pulse waveform and will enable us to adjust the duty cycle so

we can adjust the output voltage.

Section A. Theoretical Design

Given: The boost converter that you will build and evaluate must satisfy the following:

the input voltage is +5V, the output voltage must be adjustable for values of +10V, +15V,

and +20V, you must use a 1mH inductor, the output must stay continuous for load

resistances ranging from 500 Rout 2k , and the output capacitor has been selected

to be a 47 F aluminum electrolytic.

1. For each output voltage, identify the required duty cycle, calculate the minimum

permissible switching frequency, and then evaluate the theoretical output peak-topeak voltage ripple.

Vout

10V

15V

20V

fsmin

Voutpp

2. From the above, identify the switching frequency that will lead to continuous

current mode for each output voltage condition (round the value up to the nearest

integer multiple of 5kHz; for example, 145kHz or 150kHz). Calculate the

theoretical switch on-time based on the required duty cycle and the identified

switching frequency. Recalculate the anticipated maximum peak-to-peak output

ripple for the three output voltages. Finally, calculate the maximum and minimum

output power.

Switching Frequency: _______________

Vout

10V

15V

20V

Ton

Voutpp

Pmin

Pmax

INSTRUCTOR VERIFICATION: _____________________

1mH

UP1004

IRF510 FET

TOP VIEW

5V

Protoboard

Supply

D

G

47uF

Rout

S

Function

Generator

500

or

2k

Electrolytic

G D S

1. Build the circuit illustrated in Figure 3. DO NOT hook up the function generator

signal or apply proto-board power until explicitly instructed.

a. Use the 1mH, 1A toroidal core inductor for L.

b. Use the proto-board +5V supply for the input.

c. The pin-out for the IRF510 FET is indicated in Figure 3. Note, to

understand what is the top, consider (but dont do) bending the device

over and mounting it to a heatsink.

d. A fast-recovery diode is provided to you for D (a fast-recovery diode is

one specifically made for fast-switching applications). Make the

connection from the FET drain to the diode as short as possible to

minimize the wiring inductance between the two components.

e. Remember that the aluminum electrolytic capacitor is polarized and must

have its positive terminal connected to where the output voltage will be

positive.

f. We will implement the load resistance by either paralleling two 1k

resistors (to give 500 ) or by series connecting two 1k resistors (to

give 2k ). Determine the required wattage of the resistors.

Required Resistor Wattage: _____________

g. Set-up the circuit initially for a 500 load.

h. Use the Tektronix function generator and your scope to establish to a +8V

to 8V pulse waveform at the desired frequency with the duty cycle

necessary to produce +10V out.

2. Have the instructor verify your function generator waveform and your circuit

layout.

INSTRUCTOR VERIFICATION: _________________

3. Set up the oscilloscope to measure the output AC ripple and the Digital MultiMeter (DMM) to measure the DC output voltage.

1. Energize the proto-board power supply. The output DC voltage should be one

diode drop below the input voltage (we have not yet applied the switching

command signal).

2. Apply the function generator output to the FET gate. Record the output DC

voltage and peak-to-peak ripple (note, do not include the switching transient

voltage in your measurement of peak-to-peak ripple).

Output DC Voltage with Theoretical Duty Cycle: _____________

Measured Peak-to-Peak Output Ripple: _____________

3. Adjust the symmetry knob on the function generator to vary the duty cycle and

achieve an output voltage of +10V. Put the function generator output on CH2 of

the scope and measure the actual duty cycle required to achieve +10V. Measure

the peak-to-peak output ripple. Repeat the measurements for output voltages of

+15V and +20V. The discrepancy between theory and practice comes about

because of our assumption of ideal components in the theoretical derivation. In

practice, a real inductor has some series resistance, a real switch and diode

have some voltage drop across them, and the dynamics of switching will also

create additional heat loss in both the transistor and the diode.

Vout

+10V

+15V

+20V

Dtheo

Dmeas

Voutpp

4. De-energize the function generator and then de-energize the proto-board supply.

Reconfigure the output load resistance so that the 1k resistors are in series. Reenergize the proto-board supply. Re-apply the function generator pulse waveform.

Repeat the measurements of step 3. Note, with different output power and current

flowing, we will have different losses and require a new duty cycle.

Vout

+10V

+15V

+20V

Dtheo

Dmeas

Voutpp

INSTRUCTOR VERIFICATION: _______________

6. De-energize the function generator and then the proto-board power supply.

1. In order to measure the inductor current, we will place a known resistor in series

with the inductor and then measure the voltage across that resistor using a

difference amplifier. Note, we cannot use a conventional inverting or noninverting amplifier since we are looking at the voltage across the resistor and not

at a voltage point referenced to ground.

2. Modify your circuit to include the elements shown in Figure 4.

a. Note that the LM741 op-amp will be powered from the +15V and 15V

supplies of the proto-board.

b. Precision 1% resistors are used in the differential amplifier to improve the

accuracy of the measurement.

c. Return the boost converter output resistance to 500 (two 1k in

parallel).

1 , 5%

1mH

Rest of circuit, same as Figure 3.

10k, 1%

5V

Protoboard

Supply

10k, 1%

+15V

7

6

10k, 1%

Vout

-15V

10k, 1%

INSTRUCTOR VERIFICATION: _______________

4. Energize the proto-board power supply. Re-apply the function generator input.

Re-adjust the duty cycle to obtain +20V at the output. Calculate the DC output

current.

DC Output Current: ______________

Vin, DC I in, DC = Vout , DC I out , DC

Calculate the theoretical input DC current.

Theoretical DC Input Current: ______________

With the DMM, measure the DC value of the output of the differential amplifier.

Measured DC Input Current: _______________

Any differences are attributed to losses in the actual circuit.

5. Place the output of the differential amplifier on the scope (DC coupled). Note the

large spikes in the measured voltage waveform (also the current waveform since

this is a 1 resistor) at the switching instances. Attempt to ignore these spikes

and try to measure the values of I max and I min for this full-load condition.

Measured I max : ____________

Measured I min : ____________

6. Have the instructor verify your measurements.

INSTRUCTOR VERIFICATION: _______________

7. De-energize the function generator and then the proto-board power supply.

Reconfigure the output resistance for 2k .

8. Energize the proto-board power supply. Re-apply the function generator input. If

necessary, re-adjust the duty cycle to obtain +20V at the output. Calculate the DC

output current.

DC Output Current: ______________

For a 100% efficient converter, the following must hold.

Vin, DC I in, DC = Vout , DC I out , DC

Calculate the theoretical input DC current.

Theoretical DC Input Current: ______________

With the DMM, measure the DC value of the output of the differential amplifier.

Measured DC Input Current: _______________

9. Place the output of the differential amplifier on the scope (DC coupled). Note the

large spikes in the measured voltage waveform (also the current waveform since

this is a 1 resistor) at the switching instances. Attempt to ignore these spikes

and try to measure the values of I max and I min for this full-load condition.

Measured I max : ____________

Measured I min : ____________

10. Have the instructor verify your measurements.

INSTRUCTOR VERIFICATION: _______________

11. De-energize your function generator and then your proto-board supply. Remove

all piece components and return them to the appropriate bin drawer. Return all

proto and measurement equipment to the appropriate cabinet.

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