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Heat production
A conductors resistance to electric current produces heat.
A current passing through a resistance for seconds generates
an amount of heat equal to


Since ancient times, certain materials, called magnets, have been

known to have the property of attracting tiny pieces of metal. This
attractive property is called magnetism.

A single magnetic pole has never been isolated. That is, magnetic poles are
always found in pairs.
All attempts thus far to detect an isolated magnetic pole has been
unsuccessful. No matter how many times a permanent magnet is cut in
two, each piece always has a north and a south pole.
Magnetic field lines

All magnets have two faces or ends called POLES, north and south. (i.e.
where the magnetic effect is strongest)
Like poles repel, unlike poles attract.
Do not confuse magnetic poles with electric charge. They are

If you split a magnet you

wont get isolated north
and south poles; instead
new magnets are
produced, each with a
north and a south pole.

We can describe magnetic field

lines by imagining a tiny compass
placed at nearby points.
The direction of the magnetic
field is tangent to a field line at
any point.
The direction of the magnetic
field B at any point is the same as
the direction indicated by this
Magnetic field is strong where
lines are dense and weak where
lines are sparse.

Field lines between magnets

Electric currents produce magnetic fields

Hans Christian Oersted found that when a compass needle is placed near an
electric wire, the needle deflects as soon as the wire is connected to a battery
and the wire carries the current. An electric current produces a magnetic field.

Magnetic force on a moving charge

Electric field surrounds any electric charge. In addition to containing an

electric field, the region of space surrounding any MOVING electric
charge also contains magnetic field.

a moving charge or a current creates a magnetic field in the

surrounding space (in addition to its e-field)

the magnetic field exerts a force

on any other charge that is
present in the field
just like electric field, magnetic field is a VECTOR FIELD, that is, a vector
quantity associated with each point in space.

The magnetic field lines produced by a current in a straight wire are in the form
of circles with wire at the center.

Right hand rule: grasp the wire with your right hand so that your thumb points in
the direction of the conventional (positive) current; then your fingers will
encircle the wire in the direction of the magnetic field.
Magnetic field lines due to a
circular loop of wire

Magnetic field lines due to a

horseshoe magnet

= magnetic field. points out of its north pole into its south pole.
Magnetic force magnitude is proportional to the magnitude of the
moving charge.
The magnitude of the force is also proportional to the magnitude or
strength of the field.
Magnetic force depends on the particles velocity.
o Quite different from the e-field force, which is the same whether
the charge is moving or not.

A charged particle at rest experiences no magnetic force.

Magnetic force does not have the same direction as the magnetic
field but is always perpendicular to both and the velocity .
The magnitude of the force is proportional to the component of
perpendicular to the field. When that component is zero (that is, and
are parallel or anti-parallel), the force is zero.

(Magnetic force on a moving charged particles)

Units of .

cgs unit of B, the gauss

the order of

. The magnetic field of the earth is in

Example 1: A beam of protons moves at

through a uniform
magnetic field with magnitude
that is directed along the positive z-axis.
The velocity of each proton lies in the xz plane at an angle of
to the positive
+z-axis. Find the direction the magnitude of the force of the proton.

Example 2: An electron in a television picture tube moves toward the front of

the tube with a speed of
along the x-axis. Surrounding the neck of
the coils of wire that create a magnetic field of magnitude
directed at
an angle of
to the x-axis and lying in the xy plane. Find the direction the
magnitude of the force of the electron.

Magnetic force on a current carrying conductor

Example 3: A wire carrying a

current has a length
between the
pole faces of a magnet at an angle
. The magnetic field is
approximately uniform at
. We ignore the field beyond the pole pieces.
What is the magnitude of the force on the wire?

is a vector quantity that points in the direction of the current and has
a magnitude equal to the length of the segment.

Example 4: A straight horizontal copper rod carries a current of

from west
to east in a region between the poles of a large electromagnet. In this region
there is a horizontal magnetic field toward the northeast with magnitude
a) Find the magnitude and direction of the force on a
section of the rod.
b) While keeping the rod horizontal, how should it be oriented to maximize the
magnitude of the force?

Prepared by: GGCalis 8/27/14