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- AICTE updated syllabus and curriculum for B.tech
- Finite Element Analysis- Basic Study
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Heat production

A conductors resistance to electric current produces heat.

A current passing through a resistance for seconds generates

an amount of heat equal to

joules.

Magnetism

MAGNETISM

known to have the property of attracting tiny pieces of metal. This

attractive property is called magnetism.

A single magnetic pole has never been isolated. That is, magnetic poles are

always found in pairs.

All attempts thus far to detect an isolated magnetic pole has been

unsuccessful. No matter how many times a permanent magnet is cut in

two, each piece always has a north and a south pole.

Magnetic field lines

All magnets have two faces or ends called POLES, north and south. (i.e.

where the magnetic effect is strongest)

Like poles repel, unlike poles attract.

Do not confuse magnetic poles with electric charge. They are

different.

wont get isolated north

and south poles; instead

new magnets are

produced, each with a

north and a south pole.

lines by imagining a tiny compass

placed at nearby points.

The direction of the magnetic

field is tangent to a field line at

any point.

The direction of the magnetic

field B at any point is the same as

the direction indicated by this

compass.

Magnetic field is strong where

lines are dense and weak where

lines are sparse.

Hans Christian Oersted found that when a compass needle is placed near an

electric wire, the needle deflects as soon as the wire is connected to a battery

and the wire carries the current. An electric current produces a magnetic field.

electric field, the region of space surrounding any MOVING electric

charge also contains magnetic field.

surrounding space (in addition to its e-field)

on any other charge that is

present in the field

just like electric field, magnetic field is a VECTOR FIELD, that is, a vector

quantity associated with each point in space.

The magnetic field lines produced by a current in a straight wire are in the form

of circles with wire at the center.

Right hand rule: grasp the wire with your right hand so that your thumb points in

the direction of the conventional (positive) current; then your fingers will

encircle the wire in the direction of the magnetic field.

Magnetic field lines due to a

circular loop of wire

horseshoe magnet

= magnetic field. points out of its north pole into its south pole.

Magnetic force magnitude is proportional to the magnitude of the

moving charge.

The magnitude of the force is also proportional to the magnitude or

strength of the field.

Magnetic force depends on the particles velocity.

o Quite different from the e-field force, which is the same whether

the charge is moving or not.

Magnetic force does not have the same direction as the magnetic

field but is always perpendicular to both and the velocity .

The magnitude of the force is proportional to the component of

perpendicular to the field. When that component is zero (that is, and

are parallel or anti-parallel), the force is zero.

Units of .

the order of

or

.

through a uniform

magnetic field with magnitude

that is directed along the positive z-axis.

The velocity of each proton lies in the xz plane at an angle of

to the positive

+z-axis. Find the direction the magnitude of the force of the proton.

the tube with a speed of

along the x-axis. Surrounding the neck of

the coils of wire that create a magnetic field of magnitude

directed at

an angle of

to the x-axis and lying in the xy plane. Find the direction the

magnitude of the force of the electron.

current has a length

between the

pole faces of a magnet at an angle

. The magnetic field is

approximately uniform at

. We ignore the field beyond the pole pieces.

What is the magnitude of the force on the wire?

is a vector quantity that points in the direction of the current and has

a magnitude equal to the length of the segment.

from west

to east in a region between the poles of a large electromagnet. In this region

there is a horizontal magnetic field toward the northeast with magnitude

.

a) Find the magnitude and direction of the force on a

section of the rod.

b) While keeping the rod horizontal, how should it be oriented to maximize the

magnitude of the force?

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