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You are on page 1of 15

QUANTUM MECHANICS

SPECIAL CHAPTERS

Greiner

Quantum Mechanics

An Introduction 3rd Edition

Greiner

Mechanics I

(in preparation)

Greiner

Quantum Mechanics

Special Chapters

Greiner

Mechanics II

(in preparation)

Greiner Milller

Quantum Mechanics

Symmetries 2nd Edition

Greiner

Electrodynamics

(in preparation)

Greiner

Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

Wave Equations 2nd Edition

Thermodynamics

and Statistical Mechanics

Greiner Reinhardt

Field Quantization

Greiner Reinhardt

Quantum Electrodynamics

2nd Edition

Greiner Schafer

Quantum Chromodynamics

Greiner Maruhn

Nuclear Models

Greiner Milller

Gauge Theory of Weak Interactions

2nd Edition

Walter Greiner

QUANTUM

MECHANICS

SPECIAL CHAPTERS

With a Foreword by

D. A. Bromley

With 120 Figures,

75 Worked Examples and Problems

Springer

Institut fiir Theoretische Physik der

Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitt Frankfurt

Postfach Il 19 32

D-60054 Frankfurt am Main

Germany

Street address:

Robert-Mayer-Strasse 8-10

D-60325 Frankfurt am Main

Germany

email: greiner@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de

Title of the original German edition: Theoretische Physik, Ein Lehr- und Obungsbuch,

Band 4a: Quantentheorie, Spezielle Kapitel, 3. Aufl., Verlag Ham Deutsch, Thun 1989

ISBN 978-3-540-60073-2

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data.

Greiner, Walter, 1935 - [Quantenmechanik, English] Quantum mechanics. Special ehapters / Walter Greiner; with a

foreword by D. A. Bromley, p. cm. Includes bibliographical referenees and index

ISBN 978-3-540-60073-2

ISBN 978-3-642-58847-1 (eBook)

DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-58847-1

1. Quantum theory, 2. Electrodynamies, 3. Quantum field theory, 4. Mathematical physics. 1. Greiner, Walter, 1935 Theoretische Physik, English, Band 4a. Il. Title. QCI74.12.G74513 1998 530.12-dc21 97-24126

This work is subject ta copyright. AII rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned,

specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction an

microfilm Of in any other way, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publicatian or parts thereof is pennitted

only underthe provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current vers ion, and permission

for use must always be obtained from Springer-Verlag. Viol.tions are liable for prosecution under the German

Copyright Law.

Originally published by Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York in 1998

The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the

absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and

therefore free for general use.

Typesetting: Data conversion by A. Leinz, Karlsruhe

Cover design: Design Concept, Emil Smejkal, Heidelberg

Copy Editor: V. Wicks

Productian Editor: P. Treiber

SPIN 10850520

56/3111 - 5 4 3 2 1 O - Printed on acid-free paper

worked their way to an understanding and appreciation of the power and

beauty of modern theoretical physics - with mathematics, the most fundamental of sciences - using Walter Greiner's textbooks as their guide.

The idea of developing a coherent, complete presentation of an entire field

of science in a series of closely related textbooks is not a new one. Many

older physicists remember with real pleasure their sense of adventure and

discovery as they worked their ways through the classic series by Sommerfeld,

by Planck and by Landau and Lifshitz. From the students' viewpoint, there

are a great many obvious advantages to be gained through use of consistent

notation, logical ordering of topics and coherence of presentation; beyond this,

the complete coverage of the science provides a unique opportunity for the

author to convey his personal enthusiasm and love for his subject.

The present five-volume set, Theoretical Physics, is in fact only that part

of the complete set of textbooks developed by Greiner and his students that

presents the quantum theory. I have long urged him to make the remaining volumes on classical mechanics and dynamics, on electromagnetism, on nuclear

and particle physics, and on special topics available to an English-speaking

audience as well, and we can hope for these companion volumes covering all

of theoretical physics some time in the future.

What makes Greiner's volumes of particular value to the student and

professor alike is their completeness. Greiner avoids the all too common "it

follows that ... " which conceals several pages of mathematical manipulation

and confounds the student. He does not hesitate to include experimental data

to illuminate or illustrate a theoretical point and these data, like the theoretical content, have been kept up to date and topical through frequent revision

and expansion of the lecture notes upon which these volumes are based.

Moreover, Greiner greatly increases the value of his presentation by including something like one hundred completely worked examples in each volume.

Nothing is of greater importance to the student than seeing, in detail, how the

theoretical concepts and tools under study are applied to actual problems of

interest to a working physicist. And, finally, Greiner adds brief biographical

sketches to each chapter covering the people responsible for the development of

the theoretical ideas and/or the experimental data presented. It was Auguste

Comte (1798-1857) in his Positive Philosophy who noted, "To understand a

science it is necessary to know its history". This is all too often forgotten in

VI

modern physics teaching and the bridges that Greiner builds to the pioneering

figures of our science upon whose work we build are welcome ones.

Greiner's lectures, which underlie these volumes, are internationally noted

for their clarity, their completeness and for the effort that he has devoted to

making physics an integral whole; his enthusiasm for his science is contagious

and shines through almost every page.

These volumes represent only a part of a unique and Herculean effort

to make all of theoretical physics accessible to the interested student. Beyond

that, they are of enormous value to the professional physicist and to all others

working with quantum phenomena. Again and again the reader will find that,

after dipping into a particular volume to review a specific topic, he will end

up browsing, caught up by often fascinating new insights and developments

with which he had not previously been familiar.

Having used a number of Greiner's volumes in their original German in

my teaching and research at Yale, I welcome these new and revised English

translations and would recommend them enthusiastically to anyone searching

for a coherent overview of physics.

Yale University

New Haven, CT, USA

1989

D. Allan Bromley

Henry Ford II Professor of Physics

Preface

Theoretical physics has become a many-faceted science. For the young student it is difficult enough to cope with the overwhelming amount of new

scientific material that has to be learned, let alone obtain an overview of the

entire field, which ranges from mechanics through electrodynamics, quantum

mechanics, field theory, nuclear and heavy-ion science, statistical mechanics,

thermodynamics, and solid-state theory to elementary-particle physics. And

this knowledge should be acquired in just 8-10 semesters, during which, in

addition, a Diploma (Masters) thesis has to be worked on and examinations

prepared for. All this can be achieved only if the academic teachers help to

introduce the student to the new disciplines as early on as possible, in order

to create interest and excitement that in turn set free essential new energy.

At the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt am Main we

therefore confront the student with theoretical physics immediately, in the

first semester. Theoretical Mechanics I and II, Electrodynamics, and Quantum

Mechanics I - An Introduction are the basic courses during the first two years.

These lectures are supplemented with many mathematical explanations and

much support material. After the fourth semester of studies, graduate work

begins, and Quantum Mechanics II - Symmetries, Statistical Mechanics and

Thermodynamics, Relativistic Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Electrodynamics, the Gauge Theory of Weak Interactions, and Quantum Chromo dynamics

are obligatory. Apart from these, a number of supplementary courses on special topics are offered, such as Hydrodynamics, Classical Field Theory, Special

and General Relativity, Many-Body Theories, Nuclear Models, Models of Elementary Particles, and Solid-State Theory.

This volume of lectures provides an important supplement on the subject

of Quantum Mechanics. These Special Chapters are in the form of overviews

on various subjects in modern theoretical physics. The book is devised for

students in their fifth semester who are still trying to decide on an area of

research to follow, whether they would like to focus on experiments or on

theory later on.

The observation by Planck and Einstein that a classical field theory electrodynamics - had to be augmented by corpuscular and nondeterministic

aspects stood at the cradle of quantum theory. At around 1930 it was recognized that not only the radiation field with photons but also matter fields,

e.g. electrons, can be described by the same procedure of second quantization.

VIII

Preface

are subject to certain (anti-)commutation relations. In this way one arrives at

a theory describing systems of several particles (field quanta) which in particular provides a very natural way to formulate the creation and annihilation

of particles. Quantum field theory has become the language of modern theoretical physics. It is used in particle and high-energy physics, but also the

description of many-body systems encountered in solid-state, plasma, nuclear,

and atomic physics make use of the methods of quantum field theory.

We use second quantization (creation and annihilation operators for particles and modes) extensively. The lectures begin with the quantization of the

electromagnetic fields. As well as the state vectors with a well-defined (sharp)

number of photons, the coherent (Glauber) states are discussed, followed by

absorption and emission processes, the lifetime of exited states, the width

of spectral lines, the self-energy problem, photon scattering, and Cherenkov

radiation. In between it seemed fit to elucidate on the Aharanov-Bohm and

Casimir effects. Many applications are hidden in Exercises and Examples (e.g.

two-photon decay, the Compton effect, photon spectra of black bodies).

Fermi and Bose statistics and their relationship with the way of quantization (commutators, anticommutators) are discussed in the third chapter. Here

also, tripple commutators leading to para-Bose and para-Fermi statistics are

reflected upon. After describing quantum fields with interaction (Chap. 4) we

address renormalization problems, not in full (as done in the lectures on quantum electrodynamics and on field quantization), but in a rather elementary

way such that the student gets a feeling for the problems, their difficulties,

and their solution.

In Chaps.6 to 9 the methods of quantum field theory are applied to

topics in solid-state and plasma physics: quantum gases, superfluidity, pair

correlations (Hanbury-Brown-Twiss effect and Cooper pairs), plasmons and

phonons, and the quasiparticle concept give an impression of the flavor of

these fields. The following chapters are devoted to the structure of atoms

and molecules, containing many fascinating subjects (Hartree, Hartree-Fock,

Thomas-Fermi methods, the periodic system of elements, the Born-Oppenheimer approach, various types of elementary molecules, oriented orbitals,

hybridization, etc.).

Finally we present an elementary exhibition of Feynman path integrals.

The method of quantization using path integrals, which essentially is equivalent to the canonical formalism, has gained increasing popularity over the

years. Apart from their elegance and formal appeal, path-integral quantization and the related functional techniques are particulary well suited to the

implementation of conditions of constraint, which is necessary for the treatment of gauge fields. Nowadays any student of physics should at least know

where and how the canonical and the path-integral formalisms are connected.

Like all other lectures, these special chapters are presented together with

the necessary mathematical tools. Many detailed examples and worked-out

problems are included in order to further illuminate the material.

It is clear from what we have said so far that these lectures are meant to

give an elementary (but not naive) overview of special subjects a student may

Preface

hear about in colloquia and seminars. The lectures may help to furnish better

orientation in the vast field of interesting modern physics.

We have profitted a lot from excellent text books, such as

E.G. Harris: A Pedestrian Approach to Quantum Field Theory (Wiley,

New York 1972),

G. Baym: Lectures on Quantum Mechanics (W.A. Benjamin, Reading, MA

1974),

L.D. Landau, E.M. Lifshitz: Quantum Mechanics (Pergamon, Oxford

1977),

which have guided us to some extend in devising certain chapters, examples,

and exercises. We recommend them for additional reading. The biographical notes on outstanding physicists and mathematicians were taken from the

Brockhaus Lexikon.

This book is not intended to provide an exhaustive introduction to all

aspects of quantum mechanics. Our main goal has been to present an elementary introduction to the methods of field quantization and their applications in

many-body physics as well as to special aspects of atomic and nuclear physics.

We hope to attain this goal by presenting the subjects in considerable detail,

explaining the mathematical tools in a rather informal way, and by including

a large number of examples and worked exercises.

We would like to express our gratitude to Drs. J. Reinhardt, G. Plunien,

and S. Schramm for their help in preparing some exercises and examples and

in proofreading the German edition of the text. For the preparation of the

English edition we enjoyed the help of Priv. Doz. Dr. Martin Greiner. Once

again we are pleased to acknowledge the agreeable collaboration with Dr. H.J.

K6lsch and his team at Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg. The English manuscript

was copy edited by Dr. Victoria Wicks.

Frankfurt am Main,

August 1997

Walter Greiner

IX

Contents

1.

1.1 Maxwell's Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2 Electromagnetic Plane Waves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3 Quantization of Free Electromagnetic Fields . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4 Eigenstates of Electromagnetic Fields. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

1.5 Coherent States (Glauber States) of Electromagnetic Fields

1.6 Biographical Notes .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

1

1

3

5

12

16

29

2.

2.1 Emission of Radiation from an Excited Atom ..........

2.2 Lifetime of an Excited State. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

2.3 Absorption of Photons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

2.4 Photon Scattering from Free Electrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

2.5 Calculation of the Total Photon Scattering Cross Section..

2.6 Cherenkov Radiation of a Schrodinger Electron. . . . . . . ..

2.7 Natural Linewidth and Self-energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

31

33

35

48

55

57

63

74

3.

Noninteracting Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.1 Spin-Statistics Theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

3.2 Relationship Between Second Quantization

and Elementary Quantum Mechanics .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

81

98

4.

109

5.

Renormalization Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

5.1 Attraction of Parallel, Conducting Plates Due

to Field Quantum Fluctuations (Casimir Effect) ........

5.2 Renormalization of the Electron Mass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

5.3 The Splitting of the Hydrogen States 2S 1 / 2-2p3/2:

The Lamb Shift. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

5.4 Is There an Inconsistency in Bethe's Approach? . . . . . . . ..

6.

of Interacting Particles and Its Applications. . . . . . . . . ..

6.1 Quantum Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.2 Nearly Ideal, Degenerate Bose-Einstein Gases. . . . . . . . ..

99

133

133

143

149

156

161

165

174

XII

Contents

7.

Superfluidity.....................................

7.1

Basics of a Microscopic Theory of Superfluidity . . . . . . . ..

7.2 Landau's Theory of Superfluidity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

193

194

205

8.

Pair

8.1

8.2

8.3

8.4

Pair-Correlation Function for Fermions . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Pair-Correlation Function for Bosons ................

The Hanbury-Brown and Twiss Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Cooper Pairs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

213

213

218

223

226

9.

9.1 Plasmons and Phonons .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

241

246

10.1 Concept of Quantum Statistics and the Notion of Entropy.

10.2 Density Operator of a Many-Particle State . . . . . . . . . . ..

10.3 Dynamics of a Quantum-Statistical Ensemble . . . . . . . . ..

10.4 Ordered and Disordered Systems:

The Density Operator and Entropy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

10.5 Stationary Ensembles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

255

255

256

272

11.1 Atoms with Two Electrons. . . . . . . . . .

11.2 The Hartree Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11.3 Thomas-Fermi Method . . . . . . . . . . . .

11.4 The Hartree--Fock Method . . . . . . . . . .

11.5 On the Periodic System of the Elements

11.6 Splitting of Orbital Multiplets . . . . . . .

11.7 Spin-Orbit Interaction. . . . . . . . . . . . .

11.8 Treatment of the Spin-Orbit Splitting

in the Hartree-Fock Approach . . . . . . .

11.9 The Zeeman Effect ... . . . . . . . . . . . .

11.10 Biographical Notes ....... . . . . . . . .

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

285

285

292

293

297

305

306

312

. . . . . . . . . . . . ..

. . . . . . . . . . . . ..

. . . . . . . . . . . . ..

324

327

332

12.1 Born-Oppenheimer Approximation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

12.2 The Ht Ion as an Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

12.3 The Hydrogen Molecule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

12.4 Electron Pairing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

12.5 Spatially Oriented Orbits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

12.6 Hybridization.................................

12.7 Hydrocarbons.................................

12.8 Biographical Notes .,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

335

337

339

346

349

351

353

356

358

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276

278

Contents

of Schrodinger's Wave Mechanics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13.1 Action Functional in Classical Mechanics

and Schrodinger's Wave Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13.2 Transition Amplitude as a Path Integral. . . . . . . . .

13.3 Path Integral Representation

of the Schrodinger Propagator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13.4 Alternative Derivation of the Schrodinger Equation.

13.5 Biographical Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . ..

361

. . . ..

. . . ..

362

365

. . . ..

. . . ..

. . . ..

370

374

376

Subject Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

377

XIII

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9

2.10

2.11

2.12

2:13

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

3.7

4.1

4.2

4

Computation of the Magnetic Contributions to the Energy

of an Electromagnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

Momentum Operator of Electromagnetic Fields. . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

Matrix Elements with Coherent States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

18

The Mean Quadratic Deviation of the Electric Field

Within the Coherent State. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

20

The Aharonov-Bohm Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

21

Selection Rules for Electric Dipole Transitions. . . . . . . . . . . . ..

38

Lifetime of the 2p State with m = 0 in the Hydrogen Atom

with Respect to Decay Into the Is State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

40

Impossibility of the Decay of the 2s State of the Hydrogen Atom

via the p . A Interaction .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

41

The Hamiltonian for Interaction Between the Electron Spin

and the Electromagnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

42

Lifetime of the Ground State of the Hydrogen Atom

with Hyperfine Splitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

One-Photon Decay of the 2s State in the Hydrogen Atom. . . . ..

46

Differential Cross Section dO'/drl for Photoelectric Emission

of an Electron in the Hydrogen Atom (Dipole Approximation) ..

50

Spectrum of Black-Body Radiation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

53

The Compton Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

59

60

Two-Photon Decay of the 2s State of the Hydrogen Atom .....

The Field Energy in Media with Dispersion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

64

The Cherenkov Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

73

Plemlj's Formula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

78

Do the Commutators and Anticommutators

Fulfill the Poisson Bracket Algebra? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

85

Threefold Commutators from an Expansion of Paraoperators . ..

87

89

More on Paraoperators: Introduction of the Operator Gjk . . . . .

Occupation Numbers of Para-Fermi States ................

91

On the Boson Commutation Relations ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

95

Consistency of the Phase Choice for Fermi States

with the Fermion Commutation Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

97

Constancy of the Total Particle-Number Operator. . . . . . . . . .. 102

Nonrelativistic Bremsstrahlung. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 112

Rutherford Scattering Cross Section. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 121

XVI

4.3

4.4

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

5.5

5.6

6.1

6.2

6.3

6.4

6.5

6.6

6.7

6.8

6.9

6.10

7.1

7.2

8.1

8.2

8.3

8.4

8.5

9.1

9.2

9.3

10.1

10.2

10.3

10.4

10.5

10.6

11.1

11.2

11.3

11.4

11.5

11.6

to Two-Photon Decay (in Second Quantization) ............

Second-Order Corrections

to Rutherford's Scattering Cross Section. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Attraction of Parallel, Conducting Plates

Due to the Casimir Effect .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Measurement of the Casimir Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Casimir's Approach Towards a Model for the Electron. . . . . . ..

Supplement: Historical Remark on the Electron Mass. . . . . . . ..

Lamb and Retherford's Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

The Lamb Shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The Field-Theoretical Many-Particle Problem. . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Equilibrium Solution

of the Quantum-Mechanical Boltzmann Equation ...........

Equilibrium Solution of the Classical Boltzmann Equation . . . ..

From the Entropy Formula for the Bose (Fermi) Gas

to the Classical Entropy Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Proof of the H Theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Entropy of a Quantum Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Distribution of N Particles over G States

(Number of Combinations) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Stirling's Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Entropy and Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Maxwell's Demon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Choice of Coefficients for the Bogoliubov Transformation. . . . ..

An Analogy to Superftuidity in Hydrodynamics. . . . . . . . . . . ..

Pair-Correlation Function for a Beam of Bosons ............

Boson Pair-Correlation Function as a Function

of the Quantization Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

The Debye Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Correlation Length of a Cooper Pair. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Determination of the Coupling Strength of a Bound Cooper Pair

Electrostatic Potential of a Charge in a Plasma. . . . . . . . . . . ..

Classical Dielectric Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Details of Calculating the Dielectric Function E(q,W) . . . . . . . ..

Density Operators in Second Quantization ................

Transformation Equations for Field Operators. . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Commutation Relations for Fermion Field Operators. . . . . . . ..

Density Operator of a Mixture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Construction of the Density Operator

for a System of Unpolarized Electrons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Systems of Noninteracting Fermions and Bosons . . . . . . . . . . ..

Calculation of Some Frequently used Integrals. . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Proof of (11.49) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The Hartree-Fock Equation as a Nonlocal Schrodinger Equation.

An Approximation for the Hartree-Fock Exchange Term .. . . ..

Application of Hund's Rules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

The Wigner-Eckart Theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

123

128

137

140

142

144

150

157

162

167

172

173

174

181

186

186

187

191

199

209

220

222

233

236

238

249

250

252

264

268

270

274

275

281

288

298

301

304

311

314

11.7

11.8

11.9

12.1

Transformation of the Spin-Orbit Interaction ..... . . . . . . . ..

The Stark Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Calculation of an Overlap Integral and Some Matrix Elements

for the Ht Ion .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

13.1 Momentum and Energy at the End Point

of a Classical Trajectory ................. . . . . . . . . . . ..

13.2 The Transition Amplitude for a Free Particle ..............

13.3 Trotter's Product Rule .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

317

323

329

343

364

369

372

XVII

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