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W Greiner

QUANTUM MECHANICS
SPECIAL CHAPTERS

Springer-V erlag Berlin Heidelberg GmbH

Greiner
Quantum Mechanics
An Introduction 3rd Edition

Greiner
Mechanics I
(in preparation)

Greiner
Quantum Mechanics
Special Chapters

Greiner
Mechanics II
(in preparation)

Greiner Milller
Quantum Mechanics
Symmetries 2nd Edition

Greiner
Electrodynamics
(in preparation)

Greiner
Relativistic Quantum Mechanics
Wave Equations 2nd Edition

Greiner Neise . StOcker


Thermodynamics
and Statistical Mechanics

Greiner Reinhardt
Field Quantization
Greiner Reinhardt
Quantum Electrodynamics
2nd Edition
Greiner Schafer
Quantum Chromodynamics
Greiner Maruhn
Nuclear Models
Greiner Milller
Gauge Theory of Weak Interactions
2nd Edition

Walter Greiner

QUANTUM
MECHANICS
SPECIAL CHAPTERS
With a Foreword by
D. A. Bromley
With 120 Figures,
75 Worked Examples and Problems

Springer

Professor Dr. Walter Greiner


Institut fiir Theoretische Physik der
Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitt Frankfurt
Postfach Il 19 32
D-60054 Frankfurt am Main
Germany
Street address:
Robert-Mayer-Strasse 8-10
D-60325 Frankfurt am Main
Germany
email: greiner@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de

Title of the original German edition: Theoretische Physik, Ein Lehr- und Obungsbuch,
Band 4a: Quantentheorie, Spezielle Kapitel, 3. Aufl., Verlag Ham Deutsch, Thun 1989

1st Edition 1998, 2nd Printing 2001


ISBN 978-3-540-60073-2
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data.
Greiner, Walter, 1935 - [Quantenmechanik, English] Quantum mechanics. Special ehapters / Walter Greiner; with a
foreword by D. A. Bromley, p. cm. Includes bibliographical referenees and index
ISBN 978-3-540-60073-2
ISBN 978-3-642-58847-1 (eBook)
DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-58847-1

1. Quantum theory, 2. Electrodynamies, 3. Quantum field theory, 4. Mathematical physics. 1. Greiner, Walter, 1935 Theoretische Physik, English, Band 4a. Il. Title. QCI74.12.G74513 1998 530.12-dc21 97-24126
This work is subject ta copyright. AII rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned,
specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction an
microfilm Of in any other way, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publicatian or parts thereof is pennitted
only underthe provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current vers ion, and permission
for use must always be obtained from Springer-Verlag. Viol.tions are liable for prosecution under the German
Copyright Law.

Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998


Originally published by Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York in 1998

The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the
absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and
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Foreword to Ear Her Series Editions

More than a generation of German-speaking students around the world have


worked their way to an understanding and appreciation of the power and
beauty of modern theoretical physics - with mathematics, the most fundamental of sciences - using Walter Greiner's textbooks as their guide.
The idea of developing a coherent, complete presentation of an entire field
of science in a series of closely related textbooks is not a new one. Many
older physicists remember with real pleasure their sense of adventure and
discovery as they worked their ways through the classic series by Sommerfeld,
by Planck and by Landau and Lifshitz. From the students' viewpoint, there
are a great many obvious advantages to be gained through use of consistent
notation, logical ordering of topics and coherence of presentation; beyond this,
the complete coverage of the science provides a unique opportunity for the
author to convey his personal enthusiasm and love for his subject.
The present five-volume set, Theoretical Physics, is in fact only that part
of the complete set of textbooks developed by Greiner and his students that
presents the quantum theory. I have long urged him to make the remaining volumes on classical mechanics and dynamics, on electromagnetism, on nuclear
and particle physics, and on special topics available to an English-speaking
audience as well, and we can hope for these companion volumes covering all
of theoretical physics some time in the future.
What makes Greiner's volumes of particular value to the student and
professor alike is their completeness. Greiner avoids the all too common "it
follows that ... " which conceals several pages of mathematical manipulation
and confounds the student. He does not hesitate to include experimental data
to illuminate or illustrate a theoretical point and these data, like the theoretical content, have been kept up to date and topical through frequent revision
and expansion of the lecture notes upon which these volumes are based.
Moreover, Greiner greatly increases the value of his presentation by including something like one hundred completely worked examples in each volume.
Nothing is of greater importance to the student than seeing, in detail, how the
theoretical concepts and tools under study are applied to actual problems of
interest to a working physicist. And, finally, Greiner adds brief biographical
sketches to each chapter covering the people responsible for the development of
the theoretical ideas and/or the experimental data presented. It was Auguste
Comte (1798-1857) in his Positive Philosophy who noted, "To understand a
science it is necessary to know its history". This is all too often forgotten in

VI

Foreword to Earlier Series Editions

modern physics teaching and the bridges that Greiner builds to the pioneering
figures of our science upon whose work we build are welcome ones.
Greiner's lectures, which underlie these volumes, are internationally noted
for their clarity, their completeness and for the effort that he has devoted to
making physics an integral whole; his enthusiasm for his science is contagious
and shines through almost every page.
These volumes represent only a part of a unique and Herculean effort
to make all of theoretical physics accessible to the interested student. Beyond
that, they are of enormous value to the professional physicist and to all others
working with quantum phenomena. Again and again the reader will find that,
after dipping into a particular volume to review a specific topic, he will end
up browsing, caught up by often fascinating new insights and developments
with which he had not previously been familiar.
Having used a number of Greiner's volumes in their original German in
my teaching and research at Yale, I welcome these new and revised English
translations and would recommend them enthusiastically to anyone searching
for a coherent overview of physics.
Yale University
New Haven, CT, USA
1989

D. Allan Bromley
Henry Ford II Professor of Physics

Preface

Theoretical physics has become a many-faceted science. For the young student it is difficult enough to cope with the overwhelming amount of new
scientific material that has to be learned, let alone obtain an overview of the
entire field, which ranges from mechanics through electrodynamics, quantum
mechanics, field theory, nuclear and heavy-ion science, statistical mechanics,
thermodynamics, and solid-state theory to elementary-particle physics. And
this knowledge should be acquired in just 8-10 semesters, during which, in
addition, a Diploma (Masters) thesis has to be worked on and examinations
prepared for. All this can be achieved only if the academic teachers help to
introduce the student to the new disciplines as early on as possible, in order
to create interest and excitement that in turn set free essential new energy.
At the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt am Main we
therefore confront the student with theoretical physics immediately, in the
first semester. Theoretical Mechanics I and II, Electrodynamics, and Quantum
Mechanics I - An Introduction are the basic courses during the first two years.
These lectures are supplemented with many mathematical explanations and
much support material. After the fourth semester of studies, graduate work
begins, and Quantum Mechanics II - Symmetries, Statistical Mechanics and
Thermodynamics, Relativistic Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Electrodynamics, the Gauge Theory of Weak Interactions, and Quantum Chromo dynamics
are obligatory. Apart from these, a number of supplementary courses on special topics are offered, such as Hydrodynamics, Classical Field Theory, Special
and General Relativity, Many-Body Theories, Nuclear Models, Models of Elementary Particles, and Solid-State Theory.
This volume of lectures provides an important supplement on the subject
of Quantum Mechanics. These Special Chapters are in the form of overviews
on various subjects in modern theoretical physics. The book is devised for
students in their fifth semester who are still trying to decide on an area of
research to follow, whether they would like to focus on experiments or on
theory later on.
The observation by Planck and Einstein that a classical field theory electrodynamics - had to be augmented by corpuscular and nondeterministic
aspects stood at the cradle of quantum theory. At around 1930 it was recognized that not only the radiation field with photons but also matter fields,
e.g. electrons, can be described by the same procedure of second quantization.

VIII

Preface

Within this formalism, matter is represented by operator-valued fields that


are subject to certain (anti-)commutation relations. In this way one arrives at
a theory describing systems of several particles (field quanta) which in particular provides a very natural way to formulate the creation and annihilation
of particles. Quantum field theory has become the language of modern theoretical physics. It is used in particle and high-energy physics, but also the
description of many-body systems encountered in solid-state, plasma, nuclear,
and atomic physics make use of the methods of quantum field theory.
We use second quantization (creation and annihilation operators for particles and modes) extensively. The lectures begin with the quantization of the
electromagnetic fields. As well as the state vectors with a well-defined (sharp)
number of photons, the coherent (Glauber) states are discussed, followed by
absorption and emission processes, the lifetime of exited states, the width
of spectral lines, the self-energy problem, photon scattering, and Cherenkov
radiation. In between it seemed fit to elucidate on the Aharanov-Bohm and
Casimir effects. Many applications are hidden in Exercises and Examples (e.g.
two-photon decay, the Compton effect, photon spectra of black bodies).
Fermi and Bose statistics and their relationship with the way of quantization (commutators, anticommutators) are discussed in the third chapter. Here
also, tripple commutators leading to para-Bose and para-Fermi statistics are
reflected upon. After describing quantum fields with interaction (Chap. 4) we
address renormalization problems, not in full (as done in the lectures on quantum electrodynamics and on field quantization), but in a rather elementary
way such that the student gets a feeling for the problems, their difficulties,
and their solution.
In Chaps.6 to 9 the methods of quantum field theory are applied to
topics in solid-state and plasma physics: quantum gases, superfluidity, pair
correlations (Hanbury-Brown-Twiss effect and Cooper pairs), plasmons and
phonons, and the quasiparticle concept give an impression of the flavor of
these fields. The following chapters are devoted to the structure of atoms
and molecules, containing many fascinating subjects (Hartree, Hartree-Fock,
Thomas-Fermi methods, the periodic system of elements, the Born-Oppenheimer approach, various types of elementary molecules, oriented orbitals,
hybridization, etc.).
Finally we present an elementary exhibition of Feynman path integrals.
The method of quantization using path integrals, which essentially is equivalent to the canonical formalism, has gained increasing popularity over the
years. Apart from their elegance and formal appeal, path-integral quantization and the related functional techniques are particulary well suited to the
implementation of conditions of constraint, which is necessary for the treatment of gauge fields. Nowadays any student of physics should at least know
where and how the canonical and the path-integral formalisms are connected.
Like all other lectures, these special chapters are presented together with
the necessary mathematical tools. Many detailed examples and worked-out
problems are included in order to further illuminate the material.
It is clear from what we have said so far that these lectures are meant to
give an elementary (but not naive) overview of special subjects a student may

Preface
hear about in colloquia and seminars. The lectures may help to furnish better
orientation in the vast field of interesting modern physics.
We have profitted a lot from excellent text books, such as
E.G. Harris: A Pedestrian Approach to Quantum Field Theory (Wiley,
New York 1972),
G. Baym: Lectures on Quantum Mechanics (W.A. Benjamin, Reading, MA
1974),
L.D. Landau, E.M. Lifshitz: Quantum Mechanics (Pergamon, Oxford
1977),
which have guided us to some extend in devising certain chapters, examples,
and exercises. We recommend them for additional reading. The biographical notes on outstanding physicists and mathematicians were taken from the
Brockhaus Lexikon.
This book is not intended to provide an exhaustive introduction to all
aspects of quantum mechanics. Our main goal has been to present an elementary introduction to the methods of field quantization and their applications in
many-body physics as well as to special aspects of atomic and nuclear physics.
We hope to attain this goal by presenting the subjects in considerable detail,
explaining the mathematical tools in a rather informal way, and by including
a large number of examples and worked exercises.
We would like to express our gratitude to Drs. J. Reinhardt, G. Plunien,
and S. Schramm for their help in preparing some exercises and examples and
in proofreading the German edition of the text. For the preparation of the
English edition we enjoyed the help of Priv. Doz. Dr. Martin Greiner. Once
again we are pleased to acknowledge the agreeable collaboration with Dr. H.J.
K6lsch and his team at Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg. The English manuscript
was copy edited by Dr. Victoria Wicks.
Frankfurt am Main,
August 1997

Walter Greiner

IX

Contents

1.

Quantum Theory of Free Electromagnetic Fields . . . . . . .


1.1 Maxwell's Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Electromagnetic Plane Waves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 Quantization of Free Electromagnetic Fields . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4 Eigenstates of Electromagnetic Fields. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
1.5 Coherent States (Glauber States) of Electromagnetic Fields
1.6 Biographical Notes .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

1
1
3
5
12
16
29

2.

Interaction of Electromagnetic Fields with Matter. . . . ..


2.1 Emission of Radiation from an Excited Atom ..........
2.2 Lifetime of an Excited State. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
2.3 Absorption of Photons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
2.4 Photon Scattering from Free Electrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
2.5 Calculation of the Total Photon Scattering Cross Section..
2.6 Cherenkov Radiation of a Schrodinger Electron. . . . . . . ..
2.7 Natural Linewidth and Self-energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

31
33
35
48
55
57
63
74

3.

Noninteracting Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1 Spin-Statistics Theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
3.2 Relationship Between Second Quantization
and Elementary Quantum Mechanics .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

81
98

4.

Quantum Fields with Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

109

5.

Infinities in Quantum Electrodynamics:


Renormalization Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
5.1 Attraction of Parallel, Conducting Plates Due
to Field Quantum Fluctuations (Casimir Effect) ........
5.2 Renormalization of the Electron Mass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
5.3 The Splitting of the Hydrogen States 2S 1 / 2-2p3/2:
The Lamb Shift. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
5.4 Is There an Inconsistency in Bethe's Approach? . . . . . . . ..

6.

Nonrelativistic Quantum Field Theory


of Interacting Particles and Its Applications. . . . . . . . . ..
6.1 Quantum Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 Nearly Ideal, Degenerate Bose-Einstein Gases. . . . . . . . ..

99

133
133
143
149
156
161
165
174

XII

Contents
7.

Superfluidity.....................................
7.1
Basics of a Microscopic Theory of Superfluidity . . . . . . . ..
7.2 Landau's Theory of Superfluidity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

193
194
205

8.

Pair
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4

Correlations Among Fermions and Bosons ........


Pair-Correlation Function for Fermions . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Pair-Correlation Function for Bosons ................
The Hanbury-Brown and Twiss Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Cooper Pairs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

213
213
218
223
226

9.

Quasiparticles in Plasmas and Metals: Selected Topics. ..


9.1 Plasmons and Phonons .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

241
246

10. Basics of Quantum Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


10.1 Concept of Quantum Statistics and the Notion of Entropy.
10.2 Density Operator of a Many-Particle State . . . . . . . . . . ..
10.3 Dynamics of a Quantum-Statistical Ensemble . . . . . . . . ..
10.4 Ordered and Disordered Systems:
The Density Operator and Entropy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
10.5 Stationary Ensembles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

255
255
256
272

11. Structure of Atoms ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


11.1 Atoms with Two Electrons. . . . . . . . . .
11.2 The Hartree Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3 Thomas-Fermi Method . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.4 The Hartree--Fock Method . . . . . . . . . .
11.5 On the Periodic System of the Elements
11.6 Splitting of Orbital Multiplets . . . . . . .
11.7 Spin-Orbit Interaction. . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.8 Treatment of the Spin-Orbit Splitting
in the Hartree-Fock Approach . . . . . . .
11.9 The Zeeman Effect ... . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.10 Biographical Notes ....... . . . . . . . .

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

285
285
292
293
297
305
306
312

. . . . . . . . . . . . ..
. . . . . . . . . . . . ..
. . . . . . . . . . . . ..

324
327
332

12. Elementary Structure of Molecules ..................


12.1 Born-Oppenheimer Approximation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
12.2 The Ht Ion as an Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
12.3 The Hydrogen Molecule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
12.4 Electron Pairing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
12.5 Spatially Oriented Orbits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
12.6 Hybridization.................................
12.7 Hydrocarbons.................................
12.8 Biographical Notes .,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

335
337
339
346
349
351
353
356
358

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276
278

Contents

13. Feynman's Path Integral Formulation


of Schrodinger's Wave Mechanics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.1 Action Functional in Classical Mechanics
and Schrodinger's Wave Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2 Transition Amplitude as a Path Integral. . . . . . . . .
13.3 Path Integral Representation
of the Schrodinger Propagator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.4 Alternative Derivation of the Schrodinger Equation.
13.5 Biographical Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . ..

361

. . . ..
. . . ..

362
365

. . . ..
. . . ..
. . . ..

370
374
376

Subject Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

377

XIII

Contents of Examples and Exercises

1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2:13
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
4.1
4.2

The Coulomb Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


4
Computation of the Magnetic Contributions to the Energy
of an Electromagnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10
Momentum Operator of Electromagnetic Fields. . . . . . . . . . . . .
13
Matrix Elements with Coherent States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
18
The Mean Quadratic Deviation of the Electric Field
Within the Coherent State. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
20
The Aharonov-Bohm Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
21
Selection Rules for Electric Dipole Transitions. . . . . . . . . . . . ..
38
Lifetime of the 2p State with m = 0 in the Hydrogen Atom
with Respect to Decay Into the Is State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
40
Impossibility of the Decay of the 2s State of the Hydrogen Atom
via the p . A Interaction .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
41
The Hamiltonian for Interaction Between the Electron Spin
and the Electromagnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
42
Lifetime of the Ground State of the Hydrogen Atom
with Hyperfine Splitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
43
One-Photon Decay of the 2s State in the Hydrogen Atom. . . . ..
46
Differential Cross Section dO'/drl for Photoelectric Emission
of an Electron in the Hydrogen Atom (Dipole Approximation) ..
50
Spectrum of Black-Body Radiation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
53
The Compton Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
59
60
Two-Photon Decay of the 2s State of the Hydrogen Atom .....
The Field Energy in Media with Dispersion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
64
The Cherenkov Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
73
Plemlj's Formula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
78
Do the Commutators and Anticommutators
Fulfill the Poisson Bracket Algebra? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
85
Threefold Commutators from an Expansion of Paraoperators . ..
87
89
More on Paraoperators: Introduction of the Operator Gjk . . . . .
Occupation Numbers of Para-Fermi States ................
91
On the Boson Commutation Relations ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
95
Consistency of the Phase Choice for Fermi States
with the Fermion Commutation Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
97
Constancy of the Total Particle-Number Operator. . . . . . . . . .. 102
Nonrelativistic Bremsstrahlung. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 112
Rutherford Scattering Cross Section. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 121

XVI

Contents of Examples and Exercises

4.3
4.4
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
7.1
7.2
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
9.1
9.2
9.3
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6

Lifetime of the Hydrogen 2s State with Respect


to Two-Photon Decay (in Second Quantization) ............
Second-Order Corrections
to Rutherford's Scattering Cross Section. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Attraction of Parallel, Conducting Plates
Due to the Casimir Effect .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Measurement of the Casimir Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Casimir's Approach Towards a Model for the Electron. . . . . . ..
Supplement: Historical Remark on the Electron Mass. . . . . . . ..
Lamb and Retherford's Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
The Lamb Shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Field-Theoretical Many-Particle Problem. . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Equilibrium Solution
of the Quantum-Mechanical Boltzmann Equation ...........
Equilibrium Solution of the Classical Boltzmann Equation . . . ..
From the Entropy Formula for the Bose (Fermi) Gas
to the Classical Entropy Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Proof of the H Theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Entropy of a Quantum Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Distribution of N Particles over G States
(Number of Combinations) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stirling's Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Entropy and Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Maxwell's Demon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Choice of Coefficients for the Bogoliubov Transformation. . . . ..
An Analogy to Superftuidity in Hydrodynamics. . . . . . . . . . . ..
Pair-Correlation Function for a Beam of Bosons ............
Boson Pair-Correlation Function as a Function
of the Quantization Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
The Debye Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Correlation Length of a Cooper Pair. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Determination of the Coupling Strength of a Bound Cooper Pair
Electrostatic Potential of a Charge in a Plasma. . . . . . . . . . . ..
Classical Dielectric Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Details of Calculating the Dielectric Function E(q,W) . . . . . . . ..
Density Operators in Second Quantization ................
Transformation Equations for Field Operators. . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Commutation Relations for Fermion Field Operators. . . . . . . ..
Density Operator of a Mixture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Construction of the Density Operator
for a System of Unpolarized Electrons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Systems of Noninteracting Fermions and Bosons . . . . . . . . . . ..
Calculation of Some Frequently used Integrals. . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Proof of (11.49) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Hartree-Fock Equation as a Nonlocal Schrodinger Equation.
An Approximation for the Hartree-Fock Exchange Term .. . . ..
Application of Hund's Rules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
The Wigner-Eckart Theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

123
128
137
140
142
144
150
157
162
167
172
173
174
181
186
186
187
191
199
209
220
222
233
236
238
249
250
252
264
268
270
274
275
281
288
298
301
304
311
314

Contents of Examples and Exercises

11.7
11.8
11.9
12.1

Derivation of the Spin-Orbit Interaction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..


Transformation of the Spin-Orbit Interaction ..... . . . . . . . ..
The Stark Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Calculation of an Overlap Integral and Some Matrix Elements
for the Ht Ion .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
13.1 Momentum and Energy at the End Point
of a Classical Trajectory ................. . . . . . . . . . . ..
13.2 The Transition Amplitude for a Free Particle ..............
13.3 Trotter's Product Rule .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

317
323
329
343
364
369
372

XVII