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BIODIVERSITY

11.1 Biodiversity and its classification


Types of biodiversity
a) Ecosystem diversity
Big variety of environments produced by the interplay of the living (animals and
plants) and non-living world (soil, rocks and water)
b) Species diversity
Variety of different living things in a particular ecosystem
c) Genetic diversity
Varieties of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species
Hierarchical Classification
Domain *Kingdom *Phylum *Class Order Family Genus *Species
Classification systems
a) Five kingdom system by Whittaker (1969)
The 5 kingdoms are :
1) Kingdom Monera
2) Kingdom Protista
3) Kingdom Fungi
4) Kingdom Plantae
5) Kingdom Animalia
Based on
1) Level of cells organisation
(prokaryotes & eukaryotes)
2) Organisms
(Unicellular & Multicellular)
3) Types of nutrition
(Saprophytic, photosynthetic & holozoic)
b) Three-domain system by Woese (1977)
1)Bacteria Domain
2) Archaea Domain
3) Eukarya Domain

Domain Bacteria and Archaea


UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PROKARYOTES
Unicellular
No nucleus and membrane bounded organelles
Cytoplasm has ribosomes & plasmid
The cell wall is made of peptidoglycan
Some bacteria have capsule ( glycoprotein sticky layer outside the wall )
F(x) of capsule : 1) Provide additional protection
2) Increase resistance to host
Has flagella for movements/locomotion
Has pili
Reproduce by binary fission
Classification of prokaryotes
a) Domain Bacteria
b) Domain Archaea
Characteristic

Archaea

Bacteria

Cell wall

Lack of peptidoglycan

Made of peptidoglycan

Structure of
membrane lipids

Branched chain of fatty acid


bonded to glycerol
by ether linkage

Straight chain of fatty acid


bonded to glycerol
by ester linkage

Association of
histone protein to
DNA

Present in same species

RNA polymerase

Has three kinds

Example

Sulfolobus sp.

Diversity of bacteria based on :


a) Cell shape
i) Coccus II: spherical shape
ii)ABacillusI : rod shape
iii) SpirillumI: spiral shape
iv) Vibrio : IIcomma like
b) Gram-staining technique
i) Gram-positive bacteria
purple or blue stain
thick layer of peptidoglycan
less pathogenic
eg: Bacillus sp.
Streptococcus sp.
Clostridium staphylococcus

Absent
Only one kind
Escherichia sp.

ii) IGram-negative bacteria


pinkish stain
thin peptidoglycan
have outer membrane
eg: Esrichia coli
Salmonella sp.
Azotobacter sp.
c) IIPosition of fllagella
i) atrichous ( 0 )
ii) Imonotrichous (1,one side)
iii) amphitrichous (1, both sides)
iv) cephalotrichous (many, one side)
v) Ilophotrichous (many, both sides)

vi) peritrichous (all over the surface)

DOMAIN EUKARYA : KINGDOM FUNGI


UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FUNGI
Mostly multicellular eukaryotes that share a common mode of nutrition
Heterotrophic :
- Saprotrophic
Cells release digestive enzymes and then absorb resultant nutrient molecules
Some are parasitic (Harmful to other organisms)
Several have mutualistic relationship.
Filamentous body plan
- The filaments called hyphae. ( long, branched and threadlike)
- Hyphae form a mass or tissues like aggregation called mycelium
Lack of Chloroplast
Cell wall made up of chitin
Energy reserve is glycogen, not starch
Types of hyphae :
i. Nonseptate : hyphae not divided into cells, multinucleated
ii. ISeptate : hyphae are divided by cross walls, called septa
Most fungi reproduce by spores
Spores are produced on specialised aerial hyphae or in fruiting structure ( fruit body)
Fungi may produce spores sexually or asexually
Classification of Fungi
3 major phyla :
Phylum Zygomycota ( Zygote fungi )
Eg: Rhizopus sp.
Phylum Ascomycota ( Sac fuungi )
Eg: Penicillium sp.
Phylum Basidiomycota (Club fungi)
Eg: Agaricus sp.
Importance of Fungi
1. Decomposers that absorb nutrients from organic wastes and dead organisms
2. Some fungi form symbiotic relationships
Some fungi are parasites, live in other organism and harmful to their host
Mutualistic relationships with other organisms
Eg: Mycorrhizae (between fungiand plant roots)
- Fungi absorb sugar that made by plant while plant absorb water & nutrients
with the help of fungi
Eg: Lichens ( between fungus and green algae)
- green alga give nutrients to fungus while fungus provide shelter and
moisture to green alga