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Finance 640

Financial Management and Policy


Lecture Notes
Session 6
Introduction
Up to this point in the class we have progressed through several important steps in
corporate financial analysis. We began with an understanding of financial statements and
methods of evaluating standing and performance with the use of financial ratios. We then
learned how to forecast financial performance using financial statements and ratios to
develop an understanding of how companies might perform in the future. Next, we
turned our attention to present value and methods of pricing stocks and bonds. Stocks
and bonds are the means by which companies raise money, as well as the markets way of
assigning value to a company once it begins its operations. In our last unit, we examined
how those stock and bond pricing models can be used to determine the cost of capital for
a company. The cost of capital is an important measure because it represents the return
required by investors prior to their allowing a company to use their money. It becomes
the cost of using that money to the corporation.
In this unit, we begin to put these concepts together to determine the market value
of a corporation. The process will begin with financial statements and end with a net
present valuation using the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) as a discount factor.
Theory of Valuation
The main source of value of a corporation is the income it can provide its
investors. One way in which we have measured income is using the net income on the
income statement. While this is a great measure of the economic performance of a
company, it is not necessarily a good measure for determining value to investors. The
reason is that net income does not necessarily translate into available cash flow for
investors.
Investors in a corporation include bondholders and other creditors (such as
banks), and both preferred and common equity owners. Creditors are not paid out of the
net income of the company, but rather, out of the free operating cash flows generated by
the company in the pursuit of its business. A free cash flow is an amount of dollars that
are available for distribution to investors. This distribution can take the form of interest
and/or principle payments to creditors, dividends paid to shareholders, or funds used to
repurchase shares from stockholders. A firm may not have a positive net income, but
may have positive free cash flow. Likewise, it may have positive net income, but a
negative free cash flow. You will see why as you read on.
In finance, value is generally determined by discounting net cash flows. In the
case of determining corporate value, we first identify the free cash flows and then we
discount them using an appropriate cost of capital. If we are trying to value the firm as a

whole (as opposed to valuing the debt or equity separately), we will use the WACC as the
discount factor. More will be said about the implicit assumptions and limitations of this
use later on.
Free Cash Flows
Free cash flows represent cash available for investors after all of the needs of
operating the business including its ability to operate in the future are met. The starting
point for calculating free cash flow is the net operating income after tax (the book uses
the term NOPAT, or net operating profit after taxgenerally speaking, income and profit
are the same). The net operating income typically includes all revenues and expenses that
relate to the day-to-day operation of the business. It does not include interest expenses or
any other financial cash flow. It is important to note that the differentiation here is
between operating and financial cash flows.
Operating revenues are earned and operating expenses incurred as a direct result
of applying corporate resources to do business. Financial cash flows, on the other hand,
relate to decisions the company has made regarding how it raises its capital. For
example, interest and principle payments are financial cash flows. These need to be paid
out of the operating cash flows. The companys ability to make these payments is an
important factor in determining its value. Since the payments are made out of the free
cash flows, the amounts are not deducted from the free cash flows in determining value.
In addition to the NOIAT, there are two other elements to the calculation of the
free cash flow. First is the new investment in net working capital required to sustain
business operations. As you know, net working capital is the difference between current
assets and current liabilities. When measuring current liabilities, however, it is important
to include only those that result from day-to-day operations. This would not include any
interest bearing liabilities such as notes payable. Notes payable relate to financial and not
operating cash flows. The impact of these will be picked up in the WACC.
The new investment in net working capital is measured by the change in the level
of net working capital required to sustain operations from year-to-year. For example, if
the current years net working capital level is $469MM, and next years required level is
$522MM, the new investment in net working capital is the difference between the two, or
$53MM.
The second element included in the determination of free cash flow is the net
investment in plant, property and equipment (fixed assets) needed to sustain the business
operation. This amount includes the increase (or decrease) in gross fixed assets (that is,
before accumulated depreciation) less the depreciation expense for that year. Subtracting
the depreciation expense is the same as adding it back to the free cash flow. This is
important because depreciation is a non-cash flow expense that is deducted from the net
operating income before taxes are calculated. Since it is available cash, however, it
should be included in the free cash flow calculation.

In order to determine the free cash flow for a year, it is necessary to have the
income statement for the year and the balance sheets from both the beginning and end of
the year. The first step is to identify the net operating income after tax (NOIAT or
NOPAT) and then adjust for operating net working capital and net new fixed investments.
An example is included in a spreadsheet named freecashflow.xls.
From the example you can see several important points. First, dividend payments
are not included in the calculation. Dividend payments are residual financial cash flows
and are not part of the operating free cash flow. Next, note that the notes payable are not
included in the calculation for the same reason. The example shows an operating free
cash flow made up of the following:
Free Cash Flow Calculation for 2003E

2002

EBIT
Taxes at 40%
NOIAT (NOPAT)
Change in Operating Net Working Capital
Operating Current Assets (Total Current)
Change in Operating Current Assets (2003E-2002)
Operating Current Liabilities (A/P and accruals)
Change in Operating Current Liabilities (2003E-2002)

$9,471
($3,788)
$5,683

$5,610
$2,652

Increase (decrease) in Operating Net Working Capital


Change in Fixed Assets
Gross Fixed Assets
Change in Gross Fixed Assets (2003E-2002)
Less depreciation expense (2003E)
Net new investment

2003E

$6,292
$682
$3,105
$453
$229

$13,200

$15,700
$2,500
($1,320)
$1,180

Free Cash Flow for 2003E


NOIAT (NOPAT)
(Increase) decrease in Operating Net Working Capital
(Increase) decrease in Net new investment
Operating Free Cash Flow

$5,683
($229)
($1,180)
$4,273

Discounting to Determine Value


As mentioned earlier, determining value involves discounting a string of net cash
flows. In this application, the net cash flows are the operating free cash flows as
measured above. To complete the process of cash flow estimation, we would generate a
set of pro forma financial statement forecasts forward for about five to ten years. The
calculation of operating free cash flows would be replicated for each of those five to ten
years as above. Once this step has been completed, it is necessary to estimate the value

of any cash flow earned by the company beyond the end of the five to ten year forecast
period. The present value of these cash flows constitutes what is referred to as the
horizon or continuation value of the company. Calculating this value is important
because we assume that a company is a going concern with a theoretically unlimited life
as an entity. To determine this horizon value, we can take advantage of the constant
growth stock valuation model we learned in Session 4.
Suppose we have a five-year financial forecast, and that the operating cash flow
for the fifth year is $5,398MM. To calculate the horizon value we first need to make an
assumption about the rate of growth in the cash flows beyond year five. Here, it is
always safe to be conservative, so we will use four percent (4%). Assuming that we
know the discount factor (as will be seen, it is the WACC) is 12.83%, the horizon value
would be calculated as follows:
HV5 = OFCF5(1+g)/(WACC g) = $5,398(1.04)/(.1283-.04) = $5,614/(.0883) = $63,546MM.

The $63,546 will become a net cash flow measured at the end of period five. Imagine it
as the price at which the firm will sell at that time. If you were investing in the firm
today, the $63,546MM would be the value youd expect to receive when you sell the
company in five years. Regardless of whether the company is sold, however, it is still
worth that much at the time.
The Discount Factor
The discount factor used to discount the operating free cash flows is the weightedaverage cost of capital. As you learned in Session 5, the WACC accounts for the different
types of debt and equity in the capital structure of the company. The weights are
determined by the amount of capital raised by each unit. These amounts are usually
obtained from the balance sheet, and therefore represent historical book values. The
freecashflow.xls spreadsheet has a sample calculation of the WACC, assuming that you
already know the values of the individual component costs of capital (e.g. such as the
cost of equity that results from the CAPM). The component costs here are assumed (made
up), so dont worry about where they came from. The amounts come from the 2002
balance sheet.
Weighted Average Cost of Capital
Calculation
Type of Capital
Note Payable
Long Term Debt
Common Equity
Total Capital

Amount
$950
$1,200
$12,688
$14,838

Weight

Component
Tax
(2)*(3)*(4)
Cost
Adjustment
6.40%
9.20%
0.60
0.35%
8.09%
10.50%
0.60
0.51%
85.51%
14.00%
1.00
11.97%
100.00%
WACC=
12.83%

There are two critical assumptions we implicitly make by using the WACC as a
discount factor. First, we assume that the component costs of capital are going to be the
same over the entire forecast horizon (which is infinite in this case!). Second, We assume

that the relative weights of each source of capital (note payable, long-term debt and
common equity) will remain the same over the forecast horizon. While these are
somewhat restrictive, we will make do for now and show what happens when things are
allowed to change at a later time.
Discounting to Determine Value
Once we have completed the calculation of the operating free cash flows for the
forecast period (in this case, five years), the horizon value, and the WACC, we are ready
to measure market value. To do this we simply discount the net cash flows as follows:
Corporate Valuation Using Free Cash
Flows and WACC
Year
Operating Free Cash Flow
Horizon Value
Total Free Cash Flow
WACC
Present (Market) Value @ WACC

2002

2003E
$4,273

2004E
$4,658

2005E
$4,987

2006E
$5,123

$4,273

$4,658

$4,987

$5,123

12.83%
$51,774

Book Value of Note Payable


Book Value of Long Term Debt
Book Value of Common Stock
Total Book Value of Capital

$950
$1,200
$12,688
$14,838

Market Value Added (Market - Book)

$36,936

Note that the horizon value is included as a cash flow to be discounted in year five
(2007E). The present value of the total free cash flows discounted at 12.83% is
$51,774MM as of 2002. This is the market value of the company (this can also be
referred to as the market value of the assets, as this company has no non-operating
assets).
The market value added by managing the assets is $36,936. It is obtained by
subtracting the book value of the capital from the market value of the assets, as can be
seen above.
What you should do now is go through the textbook reading for this session
(Chapter 12) and reconcile what you find there to the material in this presentation. A
discussion problem will be posted to give you practice in making this calculation.

2007E
$5,398
$63,546
$68,944