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KENR8370

October 2009

Systems Operation
797F Off-Highway Truck Power Train
LAJ1-Up (Machine)

SAFETY.CAT.COM

i03684547

Important Safety Information


Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to observe
basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially hazardous
situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This person should also
have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have
read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard warnings
are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the Safety Alert Symbol and followed by a Signal Word such as
DANGER, WARNING or CAUTION. The Safety Alert WARNING label is shown below.

The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:


Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or pictorially
presented.
A non-exhaustive list of operations that may cause product damage are identified by NOTICE labels
on the product and in this publication.
Caterpillar cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard.
The warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. You must
not use this product in any manner different from that considered by this manual without first
satisfying yourself that you have considered all safety rules and precautions applicable to the
operation of the product in the location of use, including site-specific rules and precautions
applicable to the worksite. If a tool, procedure, work method or operating technique that is not
specifically recommended by Caterpillar is used, you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you
and for others. You should also ensure that the product will not be damaged or become unsafe by
the operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair procedures that you intend to use.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before you
start any job. Caterpillar dealers have the most current information available.

When replacement parts are required for this


product Caterpillar recommends using Caterpillar replacement parts or parts with equivalent
specifications including, but not limited to, physical dimensions, type, strength and material.
Failure to heed this warning can lead to premature failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.
In the United States, the maintenance, replacement, or repair of the emission control devices and
systems may be performed by any repair establishment or individual of the owner's choosing.

KENR8370

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Systems Operation Section
Graphic Color Codes ............................................
Power Train System ..............................................
Power Train Electrical System .............................
Transmission Electronic Control Module (ECM) ...
Transmission Control ...........................................
Electronic Control (Transmission Gear Indicator) ..
Speed Sensor (Torque Converter Output) ............
Speed Sensor (Transmission Output) ...................
Torque Converter and Transmission Hydraulic
System ................................................................
Gear Pump (Torque Converter Charging and
Transmission Lubrication) ...................................
Gear Pump (Transmission Charging and
Scavenge) ...........................................................
Oil Filter (Torque Converter) .................................
Oil Cooler (Power Train) .......................................
Torque Converter Inlet and Outlet Relief Valves ..
Modulating Valve (Torque Converter Lockup
Clutch) .................................................................
Torque Converter Case Reservoir ........................
Torque Converter .................................................
Transmission ........................................................
Oil Filter (Transmission) ........................................
Magnetic Screen (Transmission) ..........................
Relief Valve (Transmission Lubrication) ................
Relief Valve (Transmission Main) .........................
Modulating Valve (Transmission Clutch
Engaging) ............................................................
Transmission Planetary (Front Module) ................
Transmission Planetary (Rear Module) ................
Transmission Hydraulic Control ...........................
Rear Axle and Final Drive Hydraulic System ........
Pump Drive ..........................................................
Gear Pump (Brake, Rear Axle Lubrication) ..........
Gear Motor (Rear Axle Lubrication) ......................
Gear Pump (Rear Axle Oil) ...................................
Gear Motor (Rear Axle Oil Cooler Fan) ................
Oil Filter (Differential) ............................................
Oil Filter (Final Drive) ............................................
Control Valve (Final Drive Diverter) ......................
Differential and Bevel Gear ..................................
Final Drive ............................................................

4
4
8
10
16
18
19
19
21
26
26
27
29
29
31
34
34
40
43
45
46
48
49
52
53
54
55
57
58
59
60
62
63
64
65
66
69

Index Section
Index ..................................................................... 71

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Systems Operation Section

KENR8370

Systems Operation Section

(N) Red and Pink Stripes .... Second pump pressure


(O) Orange ......... Pilot, signal or torque converter oil

i01852294

Graphic Color Codes

(P) Orange Stripes and White Stripes ........ Reduced


pilot, signal or torque converter oil

SMCS Code: 3000; 3100; 4000

(Q) Orange Crosshatch ............ Second reduction in


pilot, signal or torque converter oil
(R) Blue .................................................. Trapped oil
i03671414

Power Train System


SMCS Code: 3000; 3100; 4000

Operation
The power train is made up of four basic systems.
The following systems are the four systems:

Transmission Electronic Control Module


Torque Converter
Transmission
Rear Axle
The four basic systems have a hydraulic connection,
an electrical connection, a magnetic connection, or a
mechanical connection.
Illustration 1

g00943660

(A) Black ..................... Mechanical connection, seal

Transmission Electronic Control


Module

(B) Dark Gray ................................. Cutaway section


(C) Light Gray ..................................... Surface color
(D) White ............... Atmosphere or air (no pressure)
(E) Purple ................................. Pnuematic pressure
(F) Yellow .... Moving parts or activated components
(H) Green .................................................... Tank oil,
suction oil, return oil, and case drain oil
(I) Brown ............................................ Lubricating oil
(J) Red ............. High pressure oil (pump discharge)
(K) Red Stripes and White
Stripes .......................... First pressure reduction
(L) Red Crosshatch ....... Second pressure reduction
(M) Pink ............................. Third pressure reduction

Illustration 2
(1) Chassis ECM
(2) Transmission ECM

g01998636

KENR8370

The operation of the power train begins at


the Transmission Electronic Control Module
(Transmission ECM) (2). The Transmission ECM
(2) receives information of the selected speed of
operation through the Chassis Electronic Control
Module (Chassis ECM) (1). The Chassis ECM
(1) receives an electrical signal from the shift
lever switch. The Transmission ECM (2) uses the
information from several switches and sensors in the
electrical system to control the power train hydraulic
system. This is done by energizing the appropriate
solenoids.
There are seven solenoids that are used to control
the seven transmission clutches. The Transmission
ECM (2) activates the correct supply solenoids.
The supply solenoids modulate the oil pressure in
order to engage the correct transmission clutches.
This mechanically connects the transmission input
shaft to the output shaft and to the differential. The
transmission will not drive the output shaft unless
power is flowing through the torque converter. The
power that is flowing through the torque converter
can be hydraulic or mechanical.
The Transmission ECM (2) will activate the lockup
clutch solenoid when direct drive is necessary.
When the lockup clutch solenoid is activated,
the lockup clutch is hydraulically engaged. The
rotating housing of the torque converter becomes
mechanically connected to the output shaft of
the torque converter through the lockup clutch.
The drive shaft mechanically connects the torque
converter to the transmission. When the lockup
clutch is not activated, the torque converter drives
the transmission hydraulically.
Note: For more information on the Transmission
ECM, refer to a separate story in this Power Train
Systems Operation, Transmission Electronic Control
Module (ECM).

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Systems Operation Section

Torque Converter

Illustration 3

g01992976

(3) Torque converter outlet relief valve


(4) Modulating valve (torque converter lockup clutch)
(5) Torque converter inlet relief valve
(6) Torque converter outlet screen
(7),(8) Gear pump (transmission charging and scavenge)
(9),(10) Gear pump (torque converter charging and transmission
lubrication)
(11) Torque converter magnetic screen
(12) Torque converter charging oil filter

The first component in the power train is the torque


converter. The torque converter is driven by the
engine flywheel. The torque converter provides a fluid
coupling that permits the engine to continue running
when the truck is stopped. The torque converter
consists of an impeller, a turbine, a lockup clutch,
and a stator with a one-way clutch. The lockup clutch
permits the machine to operate in direct drive in order
to keep the power loss at a minimum. The one-way
clutch holds the stator when the torque converter
drive is used. The one-way clutch allows the stator
to turn freely when the torque converter drive is not
used.
In the converter drive, the torque converter multiplies
engine torque to the transmission. At higher ground
speeds, a lockup clutch engages in order to provide
direct drive. NEUTRAL position and REVERSE
gear position are only converter drive. FIRST gear
is converter drive at low ground speed and direct
drive at high ground speed. SECOND gear through
SEVENTH gear are only direct drive. When the
transmission changes gears, the torque converter
will be in converter drive in order to provide a smooth
shift.
The following major power train components are
mounted on the torque converter housing:

Torque converter outlet relief valve (3)

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Systems Operation Section

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Modulating valve (torque converter lockup clutch)

The following major power train components are


mounted on the transmission:

Torque converter inlet relief valve (5)

Transmission charging oil filter (1)

Torque converter outlet screen (6)

Transmission lubrication valve (2)

Gear pump (transmission charging and scavenge)

Magnetic screen (transmission) (3)

(4)

(7)(8)

Torque converter magnetic screen (11)

Note: For more information on the Transmission,


refer to this Power Train Systems Operation, Oil
Filter (Transmission), Systems Operation, Relief
Valve (Transmission Lubrication), and Systems
Operation, Magnetic Screen (Transmission).

Torque converter charging oil filter (12)

Rear Axle

Gear pump (torque converter charging and


transmission lubrication) (9)(10)

Transmission

Illustration 5
Illustration 4

g01962026

View of the transmission


(1) Transmission charging oil filter
(2) Transmission lubrication valve
(3) Magnetic screen (transmission)

The transmission has seven forward speeds and one


reverse speed. The selection of reverse, neutral,
or first speed is done manually. The selection of
second speed through the highest speed is done
automatically.
Reverse uses only the torque converter drive mode.
First speed has both a torque converter drive and
a direct drive. All speeds above first speed use the
direct drive. The torque converter will be in torque
converter drive for a short time during transmission
shifts. This provides smoother engagement of the
transmission clutch. The transmission output shaft
is fastened directly to the differential and the bevel
gear. The differential and the bevel gear are fastened
directly to the rear axle housing.
Power is supplied from the engine to the torque
converter. Power goes from the torque converter to
the transmission. If the transmission is in gear, power
flows from the transmission to the differential. The
rear axles mechanically connect the differential to the
final drives. The final drives are connected to the rear
wheels. Power is then sent to the tires.

g01962032

Rear axle arrangement


(1) Rear axle housing
(2) Differential and bevel gear
(3) Rear wheel stations

The rear axle arrangement is made up of the


following components:

Rear axle housing (1)


Differential and bevel gear (2)
Rear wheel stations (3)
Lubrication components for the rear axle

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Systems Operation Section

Rear Axle Housing

Illustration 6

The differential and bevel gear is installed from the


rear of the rear axle housing. On all other truck
models, the differential and bevel gear is installed
from the front. Power flows from the transmission to
the differential and bevel gear. The differential divides
the power to the right and to the left axle shafts.
Torque is transmitted equally from the differential
through the two axle shafts and to the final drives.
The differential adjusts the speed of the axle shafts
when the vehicle turns corners. The power that is
delivered to the axle shafts is unequal when the
vehicle turns corners. The differential and bevel gear
is pressure lubricated.

g01962034

Note: For more information on the differential


and bevel gear, refer to this Power Train Systems
Operation, Differential and Bevel Gear.

(1) Rear axle housing

Rear Wheel Stations

Differential and Bevel Gear

Illustration 7
(2)
(4)
(5)
(6)

Final Drives

g01962035

Differential and bevel gear


Distribution manifold
Speed sensors for the axle
Pan

Oil from the differential and bevel gear (2) is


scavenged through a screen that is located in pan
(6). Lubrication oil and cooling oil flows from the
pump to the differential bearings through distribution
manifold (4). Distribution manifold (4) also contains a
lubrication relief valve that will send oil to the sump
if a preset pressure is exceeded.
The Traction Control System uses speed sensors
for the axle (5) that are located on the differential.
Speed sensors for the axle (5) are located on both
sides of the differential. These sensors provide input
to the Brake/Cooling ECM. The Brake/Cooling ECM
uses these sensors in order to determine if one of the
rear wheels is spinning. If one of the rear wheels is
spinning, the Brake/Cooling ECM sends a signal to
engage the brake on the spinning wheel. Engaging
the brake on the spinning wheel will generate a
higher level of torque across the differential, which
will send more torque to the rear wheel that has
greater traction.

Illustration 8

g02022413

(7) Final drive

Note: The colors that are used above for the


components of the final drive are not standard colors.
The colors that are shown are used in order to
differentiate the components of the final drive.
During normal operation, final drive (7) receives
lubrication oil from the rear axle oil gear pump. Final
drive (7) is also splash lubricated by the rotation of the
gears in the lubrication oil. The differential and bevel
gear and the final drives use the same lubricant.

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Systems Operation Section

KENR8370

Lubrication Components for the Rear


Axle

g02022419

Illustration 9
Lubrication schematic for the rear axle
(8) Brake/Cooling ECM
(9) Diverter valve (final drive oil)
(10) Gear motor (rear axle pump drive)
(11) Relief valve and unloader valve
(12) Final drive oil filter
(13) Gear pump (rear axle motor drive)

(14) Differential oil filter


(15) Oil suction screen for the rear axle
(16) Rear axle oil temperature sensor
(17) Gear pump (final drive lubrication)
(18) Gear pump (differential lubrication)
(19) Gear pump (differential sump scavenge)

The following components are for lubrication of the


rear axle arrangement:

Rear axle oil temperature sensor (16)


Gear pump (rear axle motor drive) (13)
Gear motor (rear axle pump drive) (10)
Gear pump (final drive lubrication) (17)

(20)
(21)
(22)
(23)

Final drive oil level


Relief valve
Differential oil level for hot oil
Differential oil level for cold oil

Diverter valve (final drive oil) (9)


The amount of oil that flows to the differential
and bevel gear and final drives is controlled by
the Brake/Cooling ECM. The Brake/Cooling ECM
controls the solenoid for the diverter valve for the
final drive oil. The diverter valve will direct oil to the
differential and the diverter valve will direct oil to
the final drives. The amount of oil that is delivered
depends on the temperature of the rear axle oil.

Gear pump (differential lubrication) (18)

i03671374

Gear pump (differential sump scavenge) (19)

Power Train Electrical System

Differential oil filter (14)

SMCS Code: 1400; 3168; 4020; 4808

Final drive oil filter (12)

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Systems Operation Section

Illustration 10

g02000376

Electrical system
(1) Transmission ECM
(2) Requested gear command
(3) Engine speed sensor
(4) Transmission input speed sensor
(5) Transmission intermediate speed sensor
(6) Transmission output speed sensor 1
(7) Transmission output speed sensor 2
(8) Torque converter charge filter bypass
switch
(9) Torque converter screen bypass switch
(10) Bypass switch for the transmission
charge filter
(11) Transmission oil level sensor and torque
converter sump sensor

(12) ECM location 0 (ground)


(13) ECM location 1 (ground)
(14) ECM location 2 (open)
(15) ECM enable (ground)
(16) Transmission control inlet temperature
sensor
(17) Torque converter outlet oil temperature
sensor
(18) Start switch
(19) Oil pressure sensor for the transmission
lubrication
(20) Solenoid proportional return feedback
for clutch 1, 4, and torque converter

Note: Refer to the Service Manual Systems


Operation/Testing and Adjusting, Power Train
Electronic Control System for more detailed
information on the electrical system and on
the Transmission Electronic Control Module
(Transmission ECM).

(21) Solenoid proportional return feedback


for clutch 2, 5, and 7
(22) Solenoid proportional return feedback
for clutch 3 and 6
(23) Operating state of the machine
(24) Modulating valve solenoid 1
(25) Modulating valve solenoid 2
(26) Modulating valve solenoid 3
(27) Modulating valve solenoid 4
(28) Modulating valve solenoid 5
(29) Modulating valve solenoid 6
(30) Modulating valve solenoid 7
(31) Torque converter lockup clutch solenoid

The Transmission ECM directs the electrical system


for the power train. The Transmission ECM receives
information from the switches, sensors, and the
Chassis Electronic Control Module (Chassis ECM).
The Transmission ECM uses this information in order
to activate the solenoids. The solenoids work with the
hydraulic systems.

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Systems Operation Section

KENR8370

i03671572

Transmission Electronic
Control Module (ECM)
SMCS Code: 3168; 4020; 4800

Illustration 11

g00929564

Location of the transmission electronic control module

The Transmission Electronic Control Module


(Transmission ECM) is the main component in the
power train electrical system. The Transmission ECM
is located at the rear of the cab. The Transmission
ECM is ABL2C. The Transmission ECM has two
70-pin connectors that are capable of receiving
and sending many signals. The diagnostic and
programming functions must be performed with a
laptop computer that is equipped with Electronic
Technician (ET) software. The Transmission ECM
can be reprogrammed with a flash file by using the
WinFlash application of the ET service tool.
The Transmission ECM receives current through a
fuse on the fuse block. This current is used to activate
outputs such as the torque converter lockup clutch
solenoid. This solenoid controls the option of torque
converter drive or the option of direct drive. This
current is also used to control the supply solenoids
that engage the clutches in the transmission. The
supply solenoids control the direction and speed of
the truck.
The Transmission ECM will determine the desired
transmission gear and the Transmission ECM will
energize solenoids in order to shift the transmission.
This is based on information from both the operator
and the machine.

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Systems Operation Section

Input Components

g00925851

Illustration 12

The Transmission ECM receives information


(electrical signals) from various input components.
Based on input information, the Transmission
ECM determines if the transmission should upshift,
downshift, engage the lockup clutch, or limit the
transmission gear. Refer to Illustration 12 for the
following list of inputs:

Customer transmission lockout

Engine speed sensor

Customer Transmission Lockout

Torque converter output speed sensor

The Customer Transmission Lockout provides a


secure method of locking out the transmission during
service work.

Transmission output speed sensors


Transmission intermediate speed sensor
Transmission oil temperature sensor
Pressure sensor for transmission clutch latching
Pressure sensor for transmission lubrication
Bypass switch for transmission charge filter
Oil level switch for torque converter
Bypass switch for torque converter charging filter
Bypass switch for torque converter outlet screen
Bypass switch for torque converter oil temperature
sensor

Chassis ECM inputs used by the Transmission


ECM

Miscellaneous Input

The Customer Transmission Lockout is an option


that is installed by the customer. The user interface
is a single switch to ground that goes directly
to the Transmission Electronic Control Module
(Transmission ECM) on Pin J1-31. The Transmission
ECM reads this input. The Transmission ECM then
determines whether the transmission should be
locked out.
The Transmission ECM looks for the following
conditions before allowing the transmission lockout
status to change.

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Systems Operation Section

KENR8370

Transmission Lockout Status OFF

Electronic control (transmission gear indicator)

The transmission will shift normally when the


Transmission Lockout Status is OFF. The
Transmission Lockout Status will go ON if the
following conditions are met:

Systems Controlled by the


Transmission ECM

The shift lever is in the Neutral position.

The following systems are controlled by the


Transmission ECM:

Ground speed is 0.0 km/h (0.0 mph).

Transmission Shifting

The transmission lockout switch is set to ON

Torque Converter Lockup

(switch open).

Note: The Customer Transmission Lockout feature


will not cause a shift to the Neutral position. The
actual gear of the transmission must always be the
Neutral position before the Transmission Lockout
Status can go from the OFF position to the ON
position.

Engine Overspeed Protection


Control Throttle Shifting
Directional Shift Management
Top Gear Limit

Transmission Lockout Status ON

Neutral Coast Inhibiting

The transmission will remain in the NEUTRAL


position when the Transmission Lockout Status is set
to ON. The Transmission Lockout Status will go OFF
if the following conditions are met:

Torque Limiting

The shift lever is in the Neutral position.


The transmission lockout switch is set to OFF
(switch grounded).

The Customer Transmission Lockout feature will not


cause a shift out of the Neutral position. After the
Transmission Lockout Status goes from OFF to ON,
the requested gear will always be the Neutral position
of the transmission.
Note: If the Transmission Lockout Status is set to
ON, the Transmission ECM will also send a Machine
Lockout Status ON signal to the Brake/Cooling ECM.
This function is referred to as the Customer Parking
Brake Lockout, and will cause the Brake/Cooling
ECM to hold the parking brakes in the ENGAGED
position. The Customer Parking Brake Lockout
feature can only be released if the parking brakes are
ENGAGED and ground speed is 0.0 km/h (0 mph).

Output Components
The following components are output components of
the Transmission ECM:

Modulating valves for transmission clutch


engagement (seven)

Modulating valves for the torque converter lockup


clutch

Solenoid valve for transmission clutch latching

Speed Limiting
Fail In Gear Protection
Transmission Shifting
Table 1

Operation of the Torque Converter For


Transmission Speed
Transmission
Speed

Torque
Converter Drive

Reverse

Neutral

First

Direct Drive
with an
Engaged
Lockup Clutch

Second

Third

Fourth

Fifth

Sixth

Seventh

KENR8370

Neutral (Torque Converter Drive)


With the shift lever switch in the NEUTRAL position,
current flows from the Chassis ECM through the
shift lever switch to machine ground. The Chassis
ECM then sends a signal to the Transmission
ECM. The Transmission ECM uses this signal in
order to deactivate the supply solenoids for the
transmission clutches. This keeps the transmission in
the NEUTRAL position.
Note: The second transmission clutch remains
engaged while the transmission is in the NEUTRAL
position.
NOTICE
The transmission can be damaged within 20 seconds
if the engine is run and no clutches are engaged in the
transmission. Be sure to stop the engine immediately
if there is ever a No Clutch Neutral warning.
First Gear (Torque Converter or Direct Drive)
When the transmission control is moved to the
FIRST position, the rotor for the shift lever switch
moves to the FIRST position. Current then flows
from the Chassis ECM through the shift lever switch
to machine ground. The Chassis ECM analyzes
this signal in order to understand that the shift
lever switch is in FIRST position. The Chassis
ECM sends a command for the position of the shift
lever to the Transmission ECM. The Transmission
ECM then sends a calibrated current to the correct
supply solenoids for the transmission clutches.
The transmission clutches for FIRST gear are now
engaged. The machine is now in FIRST gear and the
machine is in torque converter drive.
FIRST gear is converter drive at lower ground
speeds. First gear is direct drive at higher ground
speeds. There are two transmission speed sensors
that transmit a signal to the Transmission ECM.
There is also a torque converter output speed
sensor that transmits a signal to the Transmission
ECM. When the Transmission ECM is receiving a
valid signal from two of these three sensors, the
Transmission ECM will allow the transmission to
shift. These signals tell the Transmission ECM the
ground speed of the machine. When the ground
speed reaches approximately 6 km/h (4 mph), the
Transmission ECM sends a calibrated current to
the lockup clutch solenoid. When the lockup clutch
solenoid activates, hydraulic oil pressure goes to the
lockup clutch. The machine is in FIRST gear and the
machine is in direct drive.

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Systems Operation Section

The lockup clutch will stay activated until there is an


upshift, a downshift, or a decrease in ground speed.
If there is a sufficient decrease in ground speed and
the machine is still in FIRST, the Transmission ECM
will stop current to the lockup solenoid. The lockup
solenoid will deactivate. Hydraulic oil pressure to the
lockup clutch will stop and the machine will return
to torque converter drive.
Second through Seventh (Direct Drive)
Note: FOURTH position will be used as an example.
When the transmission control is moved to the
FOURTH position, the rotor for the shift lever switch
is moved to the FOURTH position. With the shift lever
switch in this position, current flows from the Chassis
ECM through the shift lever switch to machine
ground. The Chassis ECM analyzes this signal in
order to understand that the shift lever switch is in
the FOURTH position. The Chassis ECM sends a
command for the position of the shift lever to the
Transmission ECM.
The Transmission ECM receives the command for
the position of the shift lever, and the Transmission
ECM determines that FOURTH gear is needed.
When the speed sensors on the transmission and
on the torque converter indicate the correct ground
speed, the Transmission ECM sends a calibrated
current to the correct supply solenoids in order to
engage the correct clutches. The machine is now in
FOURTH gear and the machine is in direct drive.

Shifting Procedures
The following sections will explain the operations
of automatic upshifts and downshifts. Except for
different electrical wires that must be grounded or
activated, the shifting sequence is basically identical
for all speeds.
Typical Automatic Upshift (SECOND to THIRD)
When the transmission control is put in THIRD speed
position, the rotor for the shift lever switch is turned
to the THIRD speed position. Current goes from
the Chassis ECM through the shift lever switch to
machine ground. The Chassis ECM analyzes this
signal in order to understand that the shift lever
switch is in the THIRD speed position. The Chassis
ECM sends a command for the position of the shift
lever to the Transmission ECM. The command for the
shift lever switch and a signal from the speed sensors
for the torque converter and for the transmission
will inform the Transmission ECM that an upshift is
needed. The upshift to THIRD speed position from
SECOND speed position is automatic when the
correct ground speed signal from the speed sensors
for the torque converter and for the transmission is
sent to the Transmission ECM. Also, the transmission
control must be in THIRD speed position or above
THIRD speed position.

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Systems Operation Section

KENR8370

The Transmission ECM stops current flow to the


lockup clutch solenoid when a shift is necessary. The
lockup clutch solenoid deactivates. Hydraulic oil to
the lockup clutch stops and the machine is in torque
converter drive for a moment. Also, the Transmission
ECM stops current flow to the two supply solenoids
for the transmission clutches that are engaged.
Hydraulic oil to the transmission clutches stops and
the clutches are now disengaged. At the same time,
the Transmission ECM sends a signal to the Engine
ECM. The Engine ECM will decrease the engine
speed during the upshift.

The transmission ECM stops the current flow to the


lockup clutch solenoid when a shift is necessary.
The lockup clutch solenoid deactivates. Hydraulic
oil to the lockup clutch stops and the machine is
in torque converter drive for a moment. Also, the
Transmission ECM stops the current flow to the
two supply solenoids for the transmission clutches
that are engaged. Hydraulic oil to the transmission
clutches stops and the clutches are now disengaged.
At the same time, the Transmission ECM sends a
signal to the Engine ECM. The Engine ECM will
decrease the engine speed during the downshift.

The Transmission ECM sends a calibrated current to


the first transmission clutch. Then, the Transmission
ECM sends a calibrated current to the sixth
transmission clutch. The sixth clutch is a larger clutch
than the first clutch. During an upshift, the larger
clutch is always engaged after the smaller clutch. The
calibrated current that is sent to the supply solenoids
allows oil pressure to move the clutch piston quickly
until the clutch piston touches the clutch. Then, the oil
pressure slowly engages the clutch. This procedure
allows smooth shifts to be made. The transmission is
now in THIRD gear.

The Transmission ECM sends a calibrated current to


the first transmission clutch. Then, the Transmission
ECM sends a calibrated current to the sixth
transmission clutch. The sixth clutch is a larger clutch
than the first clutch. During a downshift, the larger
clutch is engaged last in order to absorb the inertia
of the shift. The calibrated current that is sent to the
supply solenoids allows the oil pressure to move the
clutch piston quickly until the clutch piston touches
the clutch. Then, the oil pressure slowly engages the
clutch. This procedure allows smooth shifts to be
made. The transmission is now in THIRD gear.

The Transmission ECM sends a calibrated current


to the lockup clutch solenoid when the transmission
gear switch and the ground speed is in the operating
range for THIRD speed. The machine is now in direct
drive THIRD speed.

The Transmission ECM sends a calibrated current


to the lockup clutch solenoid when the transmission
gear switch and the ground speed is in the operating
range for THIRD speed. The machine is now in direct
drive THIRD speed.

Special Upshifts

Special Downshifts

During an upshift from NEUTRAL to REVERSE


or from NEUTRAL to FIRST, no signal is sent to
the lockup clutch solenoid. Both speeds are torque
converter drive and the lockup clutch is not used.

During a downshift from REVERSE to NEUTRAL


or from FIRST to NEUTRAL, no signal is sent to
the lockup clutch solenoid. Both speeds are torque
converter drive and the lockup clutch is not used.

An upshift from FIRST to SECOND is a typical


automatic upshift.

A downshift from SECOND to FIRST is a typical


automatic downshift.

Typical Automatic Downshift (FOURTH to THIRD)

Torque Converter Lockup

When the transmission control is put in the THIRD


speed position, the rotor for the shift lever switch is
turned to the THIRD speed position. Current goes
from the Chassis ECM through the shift lever switch
to machine ground. The Chassis ECM analyzes
this signal in order to understand that the shift lever
switch is in the THIRD speed position. The Chassis
ECM sends a command for the position of the shift
lever to the Transmission ECM. The command for
the shift lever and a signal from the speed sensors
for the torque converter and for the transmission
will inform the Transmission ECM that a downshift
is needed. The downshift to THIRD speed position
from FOURTH speed position is automatic when the
correct ground speed signal from the speed sensors
for the torque converter and the transmission is sent
to the Transmission ECM. Also, the transmission
control must be in the THIRD speed position or below
the THIRD speed position.

Refer to this Systems Operation module Modulating


Valve for the Torque Converter Lockup Clutch.

Engine Overspeed Protection


The Transmission ECM calculates the engine
speed from the ground speed and from the
transmission gear. If the engine speed increases to
a predetermined level, the Transmission ECM will
upshift the transmission to one position higher than
the position of the transmission gear switch. This
will protect the engine from an overspeed condition.
If the transmission is already in the top gear, the
Transmission ECM will deactivate the lockup clutch
solenoid in order to allow the machine to go into
torque converter drive.

KENR8370

15
Systems Operation Section

Control Throttle Shifting

Top Gear Limit

Control Throttle Shifting (CTS) is used in order to


smooth shifting and reduce driveline stress during
all automatic transmission shifts. During each
transmission shift, the Transmission ECM sends a
signal to the Engine ECM through the Cat Data Link.
This will reduce or increase the fuel flow rate, which
reduces torque during shifting. During automatic
upshifts, if the throttle position is at 100 percent the
Transmission ECM sends a signal to the Engine ECM
in order to momentarily reduce the Desired Engine
Speed. During automatic downshifts, if the throttle
position is at 0 percent the Transmission ECM sends
a signal to the Engine ECM in order to momentarily
increase the Desired Engine Speed.

The top gear limit can be programmed in the field


by using ET service tool. The top gear limit of the
transmission can be programmed from FIRST gear to
SEVENTH gear. The Transmission ECM comes from
the factory set to the maximum gear that is available
(SEVENTH gear). The transmission will not shift to a
gear that is above the programmed top gear limit.

Directional Shift Management


Directional shift management reduces torque
spikes in the transmission driveline. Directional
shift management reduces the energy spikes of
the transmission clutch. The transmission driveline
is not designed to withstand the torque converter
stall. Therefore, the Transmission ECM limits the
torque that is created by the engine during a torque
converter stall condition. If the transmission is in
REVERSE or FIRST gear, the Transmission ECM will
limit the engine speed to 1600 65 rpm. The torque
converter stall is the maximum amount of torque that
is sent to the transmission by the torque converter.

Neutral Coast Inhibiting


This function restricts the ability to coast into
NEUTRAL from high speeds. This restriction extends
the transmission life. The transmission speed sensor
measures the rotation of the gear teeth on a gear that
is fastened to the output shaft of the transmission.
The Transmission ECM uses this measured speed
in order to determine the ground speed. If the
measured speed is greater than 8 km/h (5 mph), the
transmission will not shift into NEUTRAL.
The operator can bypass the restriction against
coasting into NEUTRAL. However, if the ground
speed is greater than 19 km/h (12 mph) and the
transmission is in NEUTRAL, the event will be
recorded in the Transmission ECM as Coasting In
Neutral. This information can be reviewed by using
ET service tool. Also, the Transmission ECM will
increase the engine speed to 1300 rpm. This will
increase the flow of lubrication oil to the transmission.

Directional shift management can occur in two ways.


First, if the engine speed is above 1500 rpm and
the operator shifts through the NEUTRAL position,
spikes will be generated in the torque converter.
Second, if the engine speed is above 1800 rpm and
the operator shifts from the NEUTRAL position into
FIRST gear position, or if the operator shifts from
the NEUTRAL position into the REVERSE position,
spikes will be generated in the torque converter.

Shift Inhibiting

After the directional shift management occurs, the


Transmission ECM stops the pressure spikes by
delaying the shift. The Transmission ECM then
signals the Engine Electronic Control Module (Engine
ECM) for a reduction of fuel and for a lowering of
the engine speed. The Transmission ECM then
shifts to the requested gear. This reduces the stress
on the driveline. This also prevents wear on the
transmission and premature failures of the final drive
or of the differential.

Torque Limiting

The event will be recorded in the Transmission ECM


as Transmission Abuse.

If the transmission is in any forward speed and the


transmission control is moved to REVERSE, the
transmission will downshift to NEUTRAL as the
ground speed decreases. When the ground speed
decreases to approximately 5 km/h (3 mph), the
transmission will make a shift into REVERSE from
the NEUTRAL position.

The torque limiting feature protects the power train


from excessive torque loads during stall conditions
in FIRST gear and in REVERSE gear. When the
vehicle is operated in FIRST gear or in REVERSE
gear, the Transmission ECM orders the Engine ECM
to limit engine speed to 1600 65 RPM. The torque
converter output speed is directly proportional to
the torque that is transmitted through the torque
converter. Therefore, as torque converter output
speed increases, desired engine speed is reduced.
Limiting the actual engine speed has the effect of
reducing torque that is being developed by the engine
and transmitted through the torque converter.

16
Systems Operation Section

KENR8370

Speed Limiting
Cold Mode for the Transmission
Refer to Service Manual , Temperature Sensor
(Transmission Oil).
Cold Mode for the Differential
Until the differential oil temperature is warm enough to
allow proper lubrication of the rear axle components,
the Transmission ECM will limit the top speed of the
transmission. When the temperature of the differential
oil is below 4 C (25 F), the Transmission ECM will
limit the speed to FIFTH gear. When the temperature
of the differential oil is between 4 C (25 F) and
24 C (75 F) the Transmission ECM will limit the
speed to SIXTH gear.

i03671567

Transmission Control
SMCS Code: 3065

Inputs for the Chassis ECM that are


Used by the Transmission ECM
The following inputs to the Chassis ECM are also
used by the Transmission ECM:

Shift Lever

Fail In Gear Protection


When there is a loss of electrical power to the
Transmission ECM or to the supply solenoids for the
transmission, the engaged clutches will latch in gear.
When a clutch latches in gear, the control valve for
latching the clutch allows full pump pressure to flow
to the clutch. The full pump pressure will keep the
clutch engaged. Latching the clutches allows the
truck to be driven when there is a loss of electrical
power for the transmission. Latching the clutches
also prevents a shift into a wrong gear when the
ground speed is too high.

Transmission ECM Logged Events


The following events are logged by the Transmission
ECM:

Coasting In Neutral
Transmission Abuse
Illustration 13

g02000334

Coasting In Neutral

(1) Shift lever

If the operator coasts in NEUTRAL gear at speeds


above 19.3 km/h (12 mph), engine speed will
increase to 1300 RPM and an event will be logged
by the Transmission ECM as a Coasting In Neutral
Event. Refer to this Systems Operation module
Neutral Coast Inhibiting.

The shift lever (1) is mechanically positioned. The


shift lever (1) provides the Chassis Electronic Control
Module (Chassis ECM) with information about the
position of the shift lever (1). The Chassis ECM
then sends this information to the Transmission
Electronic Control Module (Transmission ECM). The
Transmission ECM uses this information in order to
determine the correct speed for the transmission.

Transmission Abuse
If the operator shifts from NEUTRAL gear to FIRST
gear or to REVERSE gear with the engine speed
above 1500 RPM, the Desired Engine Speed will be
momentarily reduced to low idle and an event will be
logged by the Transmission ECM as a Transmission
Abuse Event. Refer to this Systems Operation
module Directional Shift Management.

Manual Shifting
In the manual shifting mode, the Transmission
Electronic Control Module keeps the transmission
in the same gear that has been selected. Manual
operation includes REVERSE, NEUTRAL, and
FIRST gears. The maximum forward gear is also the
minimum automatic gear.

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17
Systems Operation Section

Automatic Shifting
The Transmission ECM provides fully automatic
shifting from the minimum automatic gear to the top
gear limit.
In the automatic shifting mode, the operator sets
shift lever (1) to the maximum gear range that
is desired. All of the automatic upshifts and the
automatic downshifts are dependent on the speed of
the machine. The automatic upshifts and automatic
downshifts are preprogrammed in the Transmission
ECM for each gear. The shift points are raised slightly
by the use of the retarder or by the service brakes.
During normal shifting, the Transmission ECM does
not allow a turnaround shift until approximately
4.5 seconds after a shift occurs. This delay allows
mechanical conditions to stabilize before an opposite
shift occurs. This delay also allows hydraulic
conditions to stabilize before an opposite shift occurs.
Inputs from the service/retarder brake and from the
parking and secondary brake eliminate this feature.

When the hoist control is released a spring will move


the hoist control from the RAISE position to the
HOLD position or from the LOWER position to the
FLOAT position.

Hoist Position Sensor

Illustration 15

g01928655

Location of the hoist control position sensor

Hoist Control

The position sensor for the hoist control is located


in the center operator's console. The hoist control
position sensor is a Pulse Width Modulation position
sensor. The hoist control postion sensor sends duty
cycle signals to the Power Train Electronic Control
Module (Power Train ECM).
The Power Train ECM uses these signals to energize
the appropriate hoist proportioning solenoid on
the hoist control valve. These hoist propertioning
solenoids will move the spool in the hoist control
valve. This will cause oil to be sent to the hoist
cylinders in order to move the dump body.

Illustration 14
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

g01950618

LOWER position
FLOAT position
HOLD position
RAISE position

The hoist control is located to the right of the


operator's seat. The hoist control has four positions:
RAISE, HOLD, FLOAT, and LOWER. The machine
should normally be operated with the hoist control in
the FLOAT position.
The hoist control is connected to the hoist control
position sensor. The hoist control position sensor
sends electrical signals to the Chassis Electronic
Control Module. See the hydraulic system System
Operation, Position Sensor (Hoist Control) for
additional information.

The signal from the hoist control position sensor is


also used to neutralize the transmission. The Power
Train ECM will allow only a forward speed position
or the NEUTRAL position when the hoist control
position sensor is in the RAISE position. The Power
Train ECM will not allow a shift to the REVERSE
position until the hoist control position sensor has
been moved from the RAISE position and the
transmission shift lever is in the NEUTRAL position.
Note: If the machine is in REVERSE and the hoist
position sensor is in the RAISE position the Power
Train ECM will shift the transmission to NEUTRAL.
The machine will remain in NEUTRAL until the
hoist control is moved into the HOLD or the FLOAT
position and the transmission control has been cycled
through NEUTRAL.

18
Systems Operation Section

KENR8370

Dump Body Position Sensor

The signal from dump body position sensor (2) is also


used to control the SNUB position of the hoist control
valve. The Power Train ECM will signal the hoist
proportioning solenoids to move the hoist control
valve to the SNUB position when the dump body
that is being lowered nears the frame. The speed in
FLOAT is reduced in the SNUB position in order to
prevent the dump body from contacting the frame
too hard.
The signal from the dump body position sensor (2) is
used to provide warnings to the operator when the
truck is moving with the dump body UP.
i03671398

Illustration 16

g00498361

(1) Rod
(2) Dump body position sensor

Dump body position sensor (2) is located on the left


rear frame near the pivot pin for the dump body.
The rod (1) is connected between the dump body
position sensor (2) and the dump body. When the
dump body is raised, the rod (1) rotates the dump
body position sensor (2), which changes the Pulse
Width Modulated signal that is sent to the Power
Train Electronic Control Module (Power Train ECM).
The adjustment of the rod between the sensor and
the dump body is very important. The length of the
rod should be 360.0 3.0 mm (14.17 0.12 inch)
from the center of both rod ends.

Electronic Control
(Transmission Gear Indicator)
SMCS Code: 7459

After rod (1) has been adjusted, the Power Train


ECM will perform a calibration. The dump body
position sensor (2) is calibrated by the Power Train
ECM when all of the following conditions exist:

The engine is running for one minute with no


ground speed.

The hoist control is in the FLOAT position.


The signal from the dump body position sensor is 6
degrees different from the previous calibration.
The duty cycle output must be less than 20 percent.
Dump body position sensor (2) is used to limit the top
gear while the dump body is up. The Power Train
ECM comes from the factory with the top gear value
that is set to FIRST gear. The transmission will not
shift past FIRST gear until the dump body is down.
The top gear value is programmable by utilizing the
Electronic Control Analyzer Programmer (ECAP) or
the Electronic Technician (ET). The top gear value
can be changed to SECOND gear, THIRD gear, or
FOURTH gear.

Illustration 17

g02000314

(1) Location of the transmission gear indicator

Regardless of the position of the transmission


control, the transmission gear indicator will display
the current operating gear of the transmission. The
indicator is located in the front instrument panel
under the tachometer.

KENR8370

19
Systems Operation Section

i03671375

i03671377

Speed Sensor (Torque


Converter Output)

Speed Sensor (Transmission


Output)

SMCS Code: 3141-OJ

SMCS Code: 3175

Illustration 18

g01905654

Illustration 19

g01902547

(1) Torque converter output speed sensor

(1) Transmission output speed sensors

The torque converter output speed sensor (1) is


a passive magnetic speed sensor. The torque
converter output speed sensor (1) generates an AC
current from the teeth on the torque converter output
shaft. The Transmission ECM recalculates this signal
in order to correspond to the ground speed of the
machine. This information and the information from
the shift lever switch allows the transmission to
automatically shift when the ground speed changes.

The two transmission output speed sensors (1) are


located behind a cover plate on the front side of the
differential housing. The transmission output speed
sensors (1) are passive magnetic sensors. Two
transmission output speed sensors (1) are used in
order to provide a redundant signal. The sensors are
also used in order to improve the reliability of the
signals from the transmission output speed sensors
(1). The Transmission ECM compares the two signals
and diagnoses if one of the signals is invalid. An
invalid signal can result from a signal that is out of
the range or from noise that is in the signal. If the
transmission ECM determines that the signal from
the transmission output speed sensor (1) is invalid,
the last valid speed value is used. The transmission
output speed sensors (1) generate an AC current
from the teeth on the shaft of the differential. The
Transmission ECM recalculates this signal in order to
correspond to the ground speed of the machine. This
information and the information from the shift lever
switch allows the transmission to automatically shift
when the ground speed changes.

Also, there are two transmission output speed


sensors that send a similar signal to the Transmission
ECM. The Transmission ECM uses these signals to
determine when the transmission should be shifted.
The Transmission ECM analyzes these signals in
order to determine if one signal contains electrical
noise or if one signal is invalid. The Transmission
ECM requires two of the signals to be valid before a
transmission shift can be made.
Usually, the transmission will not shift into a higher
speed than the speed that is selected on the
transmission control. During overspeed conditions,
the transmission will upshift by one gear or the
Transmission ECM will unlock the torque converter.
When the signals from the torque converter output
speed sensor (1) and from the transmission output
speed sensors indicate a downshift, the Transmission
ECM will automatically downshift.

Also, the torque converter output speed sensor


sends a similar signal to the Transmission ECM. The
Transmission ECM uses these signals to determine
when the transmission should be shifted. The
Transmission ECM analyzes these three signals in
order to determine if one signal contains electrical
noise or if one signal is invalid. The Transmission
ECM requires two of the signals to be valid before a
transmission shift can be made.
Usually, the transmission will not shift into a higher
speed than the speed that is selected on the
transmission control. During overspeed conditions,
the transmission will upshift by one gear or the
Transmission ECM will unlock the torque converter.

20
Systems Operation Section

KENR8370

When the signals from the speed sensors for the


torque converter and the transmission indicate a
downshift, the Transmission ECM will automatically
downshift.

Transmission Intermediate Speed


Sensor

Illustration 20

g01902548

The transmission intermediate speed sensor is applicable to (S/N:


JSM1-197).
(2) Transmission intermediate speed sensor

The transmission intermediate speed sensor (2) is


not used at this time. The transmission intermediate
speed sensor (2) is used only for purposes of product
support development.
i03671741

Torque Converter and


Transmission Hydraulic
System
SMCS Code: 3000; 3100; 3101; 4000

KENR8370

21
Systems Operation Section

Schematic

g01998833

Illustration 21
Power train hydraulic schematic
(1) Pump drive
(2) Modulating valve (torque converter
lockup clutch)
(3) Torque converter inlet relief valve
(4) Torque converter outlet relief valve
(5) Breather
(6) Transmission charging filter
(7) Transmission hydraulic control
(8) Torque converter lockup clutch

(9) Torque converter


(10) Transmission rear module
(11) Diffuser
(12) Filter for the charge oil for the torque
converter
(13) Torque converter outlet screen
(14) Screen
(15) Lubrication relief valve
(16) Magnetic screen

(17) Transmission magnetic screen


(18) Power train oil cooler
(19) Transmission front module
(20) Suction log
(21) Torque converter charge pump section
(22) Transmission lubrication pump section
(23) Transmission charge pump section
(24) Transmission scavenge pump section

22
Systems Operation Section

KENR8370

Location Of Components

g01998834

Illustration 22
Left side view of the torque converter lines
(1) Pump drive

(9) Torque converter

(14) Screen

KENR8370

23
Systems Operation Section

Illustration 23

g01998836

View A-A
(2) Modulating valve (torque converter
lockup clutch)
(3) Torque converter inlet relief valve
(4) Torque converter outlet relief valve
(12) Filter for the charge oil for the torque
converter

(13) Torque converter outlet screen


(16) Magnetic screen
(21) Torque converter charge pump section
(22) Transmission lubrication pump section
(23) Transmission charge pump section
(24) Transmission scavenge pump section

(25) Bypass switch for torque converter


outlet screen
(26) Bypass switch for filter for the charge
oil for the torque converter

24
Systems Operation Section

KENR8370

g01998837

Illustration 24
Left side of power train oil lines
(6) Transmission charging filter
(9) Torque converter
(10) Transmission rear module

(12) Filter for the charge oil for the torque


converter
(15) Lubrication relief valve

(17) Transmission magnetic screen


(19) Transmission front module

KENR8370

25
Systems Operation Section

Illustration 25

g01998838

View B-B (Top view of power train oil lines)


(6) Transmission charging filter

(7) Transmission hydraulic control

(15) Lubrication relief valve

26
Systems Operation Section

KENR8370

i03671407

Gear Pump (Torque Converter


Charging and Transmission
Lubrication)

i03671409

Gear Pump (Transmission


Charging and Scavenge)
SMCS Code: 5073

SMCS Code: 5073

Illustration 27
Illustration 26

g01983136

Rear of the torque converter


(1) Charging section for the torque converter
(2) Transmission lubrication section

The oil pump for the torque converter charging circuit


and the transmission lubrication circuit is located
on the right side of the rear of the torque converter.
The following sections are the two sections of the
oil pump:

Torque converter charging section (1)


Transmission lubrication section (2)
Torque converter charging section (1) is the front
section of the oil pump and transmission lubrication
section (2) is the rear section of the oil pump. The
pump is driven by a gear on the torque converter.
The two pump sections draw oil from the magnetic
scavenge screen in the torque converter case
reservoir.
Charging section (1) for the torque converter sends
the oil to the torque converter oil filter. The oil then
flows to the inlet relief valve. The oil then flows to the
torque converter. A small amount of this oil lubricates
the oil pump drive.
Transmission lubrication section (2) sends oil for the
lubrication of the transfer gears and the transmission.
The excess oil leaks to the bottom of the transmission
case.

g02000113

Rear of the torque converter


(1) Charging section for the transmission
(2) Scavenge section

The oil pump for the transmission charging system


and scavenge lines is located on the left side of the
rear of the torque converter. The following sections
are the two sections of the oil pump:

Transmission charging section (1)


Scavenge section (2)
Transmission charging section (1) is the front section
of the oil pump and scavenge section (2) is the rear
section of the oil pump. The pump is driven by a gear
on the torque converter.
Scavenge section (2) draws oil from the magnetic
screen that is located at the bottom of the
transmission case. This pump section returns the
oil to the torque converter through a diffuser that is
located behind the inlet cover.
Transmission charging section (1) draws oil from
the magnetic scavenge screen in the torque
converter case reservoir. Charging section (1) for
the transmission sends oil to the transmission oil
filter. Some of the oil from the transmission oil filter
will flow to the modulating valve for the torque
converter lockup clutch. The rest of the oil flows to
the transmission hydraulic control. The oil is used to
activate the transmission clutches.

KENR8370

27
Systems Operation Section

i03671417

Oil Filter (Torque Converter)


SMCS Code: 5068-VC

Illustration 28
Location of the torque converter oil filter
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

Torque converter oil filter


Auxiliary port
Pressure port for sensor
Oil sample port
Inlet

g01999898

28
Systems Operation Section

KENR8370

g01999594

Illustration 29
Components of the torque converter oil filter
(2) Auxiliary port
(3) Pressure port for sensor
(4) Oil sampling port

(5) Inlet
(6) Outlet
(7) Housing

Torque converter oil filter (1) is fastened to the right


side of the rear of the torque converter. Oil from the
hydraulic tank goes to the pump section for the torque
converter. The pump section for the torque converter
sends oil to the torque converter oil filter (1).

(8) Elements

There are three ports that are located on the torque


converter oil filter. The first port (4) is used to take oil
samples. The left port (2) is an auxiliary port. The
right port (3) is used for a pressure sensor.

KENR8370

29
Systems Operation Section

Oil flows through inlet (5). The oil fills the space
between the inside of housing (7), and elements
(8). During normal operation, the oil goes through
elements (8) and through outlet (6). The oil then goes
to the torque converter.

i03671413

Torque Converter Inlet and


Outlet Relief Valves
SMCS Code: 3133; 3182

Elements (8) stop any debris that is in the oil.


Correct maintenance must be used to be certain that
elements (8) do not become full of debris. Debris
in elements (8) will stop the flow of clean oil to the
hydraulic system.
i03671379

Oil Cooler (Power Train)


SMCS Code: 1374-PWT

Illustration 31

g01982974

Location of the torque converter relief valves


(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)

Illustration 30

g02000084

Location of power train oil coolers


(1) Power train oil cooler

Power train oil coolers (1) are located on the right


side of each frame rail. One power train oil cooler is
mounted on the inside of the frame while the other
power train oil cooler is mounted on the outside of
the frame.
On each power train oil cooler, jacket water coolant
flows through the oil coolers (1). Then, the coolant
will enter the engine block at the right rear of the
engine module.
Oil flows from the outlet relief valve to the torque
converter screen to power train oil coolers (1). Then,
the oil flows from the oil coolers back to the suction
log for the torque converter.

Torque converter outlet relief valve


Torque converter inlet relief valve
Pressure tap for the drain
Pressure tap (oil inlet)
Pressure tap (oil outlet)
Pressure tap for the oil cooler
Adjustment screw cover

Oil flows from the torque converter pump and


the transmission pump and the oil enters torque
converter inlet relief valve (2). The inlet relief valve
limits the maximum pressure of the supply oil to the
torque converter. The pressure at torque converter
inlet relief valve (2) can be measured at pressure tap
(4). Normally, the pressure at the inlet relief valve will
be slightly greater than the pressure at the outlet
relief valve. Pressure tap (3) will show pressure of
the drain oil. This tap will not normally be used.
Oil flows through torque converter inlet relief valve (2)
and the oil then enters the torque converter. Some
of the oil will leak through the torque converter. This
oil will fall to the bottom of the housing. Most of the
oil in the torque converter is used to provide a fluid
coupling and flows through torque converter outlet
relief valve (1). The outlet relief valve will maintain the
minimum pressure inside the torque converter. The
torque converter outlet relief valve (1) maintains the
oil level that is in the torque converter. This prevents
cavitation.

30
Systems Operation Section

KENR8370

The pressure for torque converter outlet relief


valve (1) can be measured at pressure tap (5). The
pressure of the outlet relief valve will vary significantly
with the oil temperature.
Pressure tap (6) will show outlet pressure of the oil
that is going to the cooler. This tap will not normally
be used.
The inlet relief valve and the outlet relief valve
can be adjusted with adjustment screws that are
located behind adjustment screw covers (7). These
adjustment screw covers (7) are located on the ends
of the valves.

g02022440

Illustration 32
Inlet relief valve and outlet relief valve
(3) Pressure tap for the drain
(4) Pressure tap (oil inlet)
(6) Pressure tap for the oil cooler

(5) Pressure tap (oil outlet)


(8) Check valve
(9) Adjustment screw

Inlet relief valve (2) and outlet relief valve (1) are
identical. The valves are adjusted to a different
pressure setting. The pressure setting depends on
the function of the valve.

(10) Slug
(11) Orifice
(12) Spool

The supply oil to the relief valve flows through orifice


(11) in spool (12). The oil then goes past check valve
(8) and the oil enters the slug chamber. Check valve
(8) will dampen the movement of spool (12). This will
reduce the possibility that the valve will rattle and
the pressure will flutter. Oil pressure moves slug
(10) in the left end of spool (12) to the left and spool
(12) moves to the right against the spring force. Slug
(10) reduces the effective area of spool (12) that is
contacted by the oil pressure. Because of the reduced
effective area, a smaller, more sensitive spring can
be used. Relief pressure will be equal to the force of
the spring on the right end of spool (12). The spring
force can be adjusted with adjustment screw (9).

KENR8370

31
Systems Operation Section

i03671565

Modulating Valve (Torque


Converter Lockup Clutch)
SMCS Code: 3139-VC

Illustration 33

g02000094

(1) Modulating valve for the torque converter lockup clutch

The Transmission ECM provides a Pulse Width


Modulated signal (PWM signal) to the solenoid of
the modulating valve for the torque converter lockup
clutch (1). The PWM signal allows the lockup clutch
pressure to be modulated.

32
Systems Operation Section

KENR8370

Deactivated

g02016655

Illustration 34
Modulating valve torque converter lockup clutch
(2) Solenoid
(3) Pin
(4) Ball

(5) Passage
(6) Spool
(7) Spring

When solenoid (2) of the modulating valve for the


torque converter lockup clutch is deactivated, pump
pressure from the pump section for the transmission
of the transmission charging and scavenge gear
pump flows into passage (10). Spool (6) blocks
passage (9) to the lockup clutch. Pressure oil flows
through passage (5) to ball (4). The oil flows past ball
(4) to the torque converter sump through passage
(8). The machine is in torque converter drive.

(8) Passage to tank


(9) Passage to the transmission clutch
(10) Passage from the pump

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33
Systems Operation Section

Activated

g02016774

Illustration 35
Modulating valve torque converter lockup clutch
(2) Solenoid
(3) Pin
(4) Ball

(5) Passage
(6) Spool
(7) Spring

When solenoid (2) of the modulating valve for the


torque converter lockup clutch is activated, pin (3)
moves to the right. Pin (3) pushes ball (4) to close
passage (8) to the torque converter sump. Pump
pressure flows into passage (5). The pressure
increases since passage (8) is closed. Spool (6)
moves to the right against spring (7). Pump oil
pressure is allowed to flow to passage (9) to the
lockup clutch. The Transmission ECM opens the
passage and the Transmission ECM closes the
passage at ball (4) in order to maintain the correct
lockup clutch pressure. The machine is in direct drive.

(8) Passage to tank


(9) Passage to the transmission clutch
(10) Passage from the pump

34
Systems Operation Section

KENR8370

i03671382

Torque Converter Case


Reservoir

i03671384

Torque Converter
SMCS Code: 3101; 3102; 3129; 3130; 3131; 3134;
3135; 3136

SMCS Code: 3101

The torque converter is driven by the engine flywheel.


The torque converter provides a fluid coupling that
permits the engine to run when the truck is stopped.
In the drive, the torque converter multiplies engine
torque to the transmission. At higher ground speeds,
the lockup clutch engages in order to provide direct
drive.
The following major power train components are
mounted on the torque converter housing:

Torque converter inlet relief valve


Torque converter outlet relief valve
Modulating valve (torque converter lockup clutch)
Gear pump (transmission charging and scavenge)
Gear pump (torque converter charging and
Illustration 36

g01998797

transmission lubrication)

Torque converter case reservoir

Oil filter (torque converter charging)

The torque converter sump is located behind the


engine. Oil for the torque converter system and for
the transmission hydraulic system is supplied by the
torque converter sump.

Torque converter outlet screen

The torque converter sump has two sight gauges.


When the oil is cold, use the bottom sight gauge to
check the oil level.
NOTICE
The oil level when cold should only be checked with
the engine stopped.
When the oil is at operating temperature, use the top
sight gauge to check the oil level.
NOTICE
The oil level at operating temperature should only be
checked with the engine running.
See the Operation and Maintenance Manual for
lubricant viscosities and for refill capacities.
The torque converter sump, the transmission case
reservoir, and the pump drive are vented to an air
breather. The air breather is located on the vertical
frame member on the right side of the truck.

Torque converter magnetic screen


Note: For more information on the major power
train components that are mounted on the torque
converter housing, refer to this Power Train Systems
Operation, Power Train System.
The torque converter consists of an impeller, a
turbine, a lockup clutch, and a stator with a one-way
clutch. The lockup clutch permits the machine to
operate in direct drive in order to keep the power
loss at a minimum. The one-way clutch holds the
stator when the torque converter drive is used. The
one-way clutch allows the stator to turn freely when
the torque converter drive is not used.
The torque converter housing is fastened to the
flywheel housing. The flange of the output shaft of
the torque converter is connected to the drive shaft.

KENR8370

35
Systems Operation Section

The transmission is driven by the torque converter in


NEUTRAL and in REVERSE. In FIRST speed, torque
converter drive is used at lower ground speeds. In
FIRST speed, direct drive is used at higher ground
speeds. The lockup clutch is activated in FIRST
speed by the Transmission Electronic Control Module
(Transmission ECM) according to the ground speed
or according to the engine speed. During shifts from
FIRST speed through SIXTH speed, torque converter
drive is momentarily activated in order to allow
smoother shifts. When the transmission clutches
are engaged, the lockup clutch engages and the
transmission is in direct drive.

Inside of the Torque Converter

Table 2

Operation of the Torque Converter For


Transmission Speed
Transmission
Speed

Torque
Converter Drive

Reverse

Neutral

First

Direct Drive
with an
Engaged
Lockup Clutch
Illustration 37

g00932464

View of rear housing for torque converter

Second

Third

Fourth

Fifth

Sixth

Seventh

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

Oil passage for torque converter lockup clutch


Oil passage for torque converter outlet screen
Oil passage for torque converter inlet
Driven gears for transmission oil pumps
Oil passage for torque converter magnetic screen

Illustration 38
View of torque converter in the front housing
(6) Oil passage for torque converter inlet
(7) Oil passage for torque converter lockup clutch
(8) Drive gear for transmission oil pumps

g00932468

36
Systems Operation Section

Illustration 39

KENR8370

g01998813

(9) Transmission oil return port


(10) Suction tubes

Torque converter charging oil enters the torque


converter through passage (3) and through passage
(6) before exiting through torque converter outlet
screen (2). Oil for the torque converter lockup clutch
enters the torque converter through passage (1)
and through passage (7). Oil for the transmission
oil pumps is pulled through the torque converter
magnetic screen and through passage (5) from the
three suction tubes (10), which are at the bottom of
the rear housing for the torque converter. Drive gear
(8) turns driven gears (4), which are connected to the
transmission oil pumps.
Oil that is scavenged from the bottom of the
transmission case is returned to the torque converter
through transmission oil return port (9). After traveling
through transmission oil return port (9), the oil goes
through a diffuser that is located behind the rear
housing of the torque converter.

KENR8370

37
Systems Operation Section

Torque Converter Drive

g01998816

Illustration 40
(11) Rotating housing
(12) Turbine
(13) Impeller
(14) Drive gear for the torque converter
charging and transmission lubrication
gear pump and for the transmission
charging and scavenge gear pump

(15)
(16)
(17)
(18)
(19)
(20)
(21)

Outlet passage
Carrier
Output yoke
Output shaft
Hub
Lockup clutch
Stator

(22) Hub
(23) Inlet passage

38
Systems Operation Section

KENR8370

The engine flywheel turns rotating housing (11) which


turns impeller (13). The impeller directs the oil to the
blades of turbine (12). This will cause the turbine
to turn. The turbine directs the oil to stator (21).
This causes the stator to try to turn in the opposite
direction of the turbine. The movement of the stator
causes the rollers of one-way clutch (22) to move
between stator (21) and the carrier for the stator. The
action of the one-way clutch keeps the stator from
rotation in the opposite direction of the turbine (12).
The stator now directs most of the oil back to impeller
(13). The remainder of the oil goes out of the torque
converter through outlet passage (15). The oil, that
goes back to impeller (13) from stator (21), moves
in the same direction as the rotation of the impeller.
Since this oil is moving in the same direction as the
impeller, the torque output from the torque converter
is multiplied.
Turbine (12) turns hub (19). Hub (19) turns output
shaft (18). Power is sent through the output yoke (17)
to the drive shaft and to the transmission.

One-Way Clutch

Illustration 41
(21)
(24)
(25)
(26)
(27)
(28)
(29)

g01998819

Stator
Race
Cam for the one-way clutch
Rollers
Cage
Spring
Slot

The one-way clutch functions in order to keep the


stator stationary up to higher torque converter output
speeds. Stator (21) is connected to cam (25) through
splines. As a result, stator (21) rotates with cam
(25), and race (24) is stationary. Roller cage (27)
is located between cam (25) and race (24). Spring
(28) is partially inserted in a tab at the top and at the
bottom of cage (27). At lower turbine speeds, spring
(28) forces the tab of cage (27) to the right in slot
(29). This forces roller cage (27) to rotate clockwise.
Then, rollers (26) move against the surfaces of cam
(25). The rollers will wedge between cam (25) and
race (24). This action locks stator (21) to race (24)
which is stationary. The stator then returns oil to the
impeller which multiplies the torque output of the
torque converter.

As the speed of turbine (12) approaches the speed


of impeller (13), the force of hydraulic oil overcomes
the force of the rollers (26) that are wedged. The
hydraulic oil acts in a clockwise direction on stator
(21). Stator (21) then free wheels in the same
direction as impeller (13) and turbine (12). Stator
(21) also free wheels when the speed of turbine
(12) exceeds the speed of impeller (13). This occurs
during downhill coasting when the transmission is
engaged.

KENR8370

39
Systems Operation Section

Direct Drive

g01998822

Illustration 42
(11) Rotating housing
(12) Turbine
(13) Impeller
(14) Drive gear for the torque converter
charging and transmission lubrication
gear pump and for the transmission
charging and scavenge gear pump

(15)
(16)
(17)
(18)
(19)
(20)
(21)

Outlet passage
Carrier
Output yoke
Output shaft
Hub
Lockup clutch
Stator

(22) Hub
(23) Inlet passage
(31) Inlet passage for lockup clutch oil
(32) Piston
(33) Disc
(34) Plate

40
Systems Operation Section

KENR8370

Lockup Clutch
Lockup clutch (20) is part of the torque converter.
Lockup clutch (20) is located between the engine
flywheel and turbine (12). Lockup clutch (20) is
engaged when the transmission is in SECOND
through SEVENTH speeds. Lockup clutch (20) will
engage in FIRST speed as the output speed of the
transmission increases. When lockup clutch (20)
is engaged, impeller (13) and turbine (12) turn at
the same speed as the engine and there is no loss
of power in the torque converter. The connection
between the engine and the transmission is now
direct.

i03671385

Transmission
SMCS Code: 3030

The main components of lockup clutch (20) are


piston (32), plates (34), and discs (33).

Operation
Rotating housing (11) is connected to the engine
flywheel by splines. Rotating housing (11) is fastened
to impeller (13) by bolts. Piston (32) and plates
(34) are also connected to rotating housing (11)
by splines. Discs (33) and output shaft (18) are
connected to hub (19) by splines. Turbine (12) is
fastened to hub (19).

Illustration 43

g00934651

View of transmission

The Transmission Electronic Control Module


activates the lockup clutch solenoid. The modulating
valve for the lockup clutch sends pressure oil through
inlet passage (21). The oil goes through a passage
in the center of output shaft (8). The oil then goes
through a passage in rotating housing (1) to piston
(22). The pressure of the oil causes piston (32) to
move toward disc (33). This causes plates (34)
and discs (33) to be held together. Plates (34) and
discs (33) will now turn at the same speed. The
clutch becomes a direct connection between rotating
housing (11) through hub (19) to output shaft (18).
This causes turbine (12) and impeller (13) to turn
at the same speed. Stator (21) turns freely. At this
time, the torque converter is not in operation and the
machine is in direct drive.
The flow of power is from rotating housing (11),
through lockup clutch (20), hub (19), output shaft
(18), and output yoke (17). The power goes directly
through the torque converter to the drive shaft. The
drive shaft sends the power to the transmission.
When the lockup clutch (20) is not engaged, the
operation of the torque converter is in torque
converter drive.

(1) Transmission lubrication valve


(2) Transmission filter

Power flows from the torque converter to the


transmission through a drive shaft. The transmission
is mounted to the rear axle housing. The output
shaft of the transmission engages the pinion gear of
the differential. Power from the transmission flows
through the differential. The power divides equally to
the final drives that are in the rear wheels.
The transmission is electronically controlled and
hydraulically operated. The Transmission ECM and
the Chassis ECM analyze inputs that are received
from various sensors and switches. The Transmission
ECM will then energize the solenoids that control the
flow of oil to the transmission clutches.
The power shift transmission is a planetary design
that contains seven hydraulically engaged clutches.
The transmission provides seven forward speeds
and one reverse speed.
Transmission filter (2) is mounted on the front
transmission case. Transmission lubrication valve (1)
is mounted on the rear transmission case.

KENR8370

41
Systems Operation Section

Transmission Planetary Groups

Illustration 44

g00934664

Front and rear transmission planetary groups


(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

Input shaft
Front transmission planetary group
Rear transmission planetary group
Output shaft

The transmission contains two planetary groups.


Power flows from the torque converter through input
shaft (3) to front transmission planetary group (4).
Clutches one, two, and three are in front transmission
planetary group (4).
Rear transmission planetary group (5) sits behind
front transmission planetary group (4). Clutches four,
five, six, and seven are in rear transmission planetary
group (5). Power flows from front transmission
planetary group (4) to rear transmission planetary
group (5) and to output shaft (6). Output shaft (6)
drives the pinion gear of the differential.

Transmission Operation

Illustration 45
View of transmission
(1) Transmission lubrication valve
(2) Transmission filter
(7) Port
(8) Port
(9) Port
(10) Housing

g01962166

Oil from the transmission section of the pump flows


through port (7) to the transmission filter (2). Oil flows
through the transmission filter (2) to the transmission
control valves. When the solenoids for the control
valves are energized by the Transmission ECM, oil
flows to the transmission clutches. Oil also flows from
the transmission filter (2) to the modulating valve
for the torque converter lockup clutch. Oil from the
transmission charging section of the pump is used
in order to engage the lockup clutch which provides
direct drive.
After the lockup clutches are engaged, most of the
transmission charging oil flows out of a port on
the right front side of the transmission case and to
the torque converter inlet relief valve. Oil from the
transmission section of the pump joins with oil from
the torque converter section of the pump. This oil is
used by the torque converter in order to provide a
fluid coupling.
Oil from the transmission lubrication section of the
pump flows through port (8) to the transmission
lubrication valve (1). Oil flows through transmission
lubrication valve (1) to the rear transmission planetary
group and through port (9) to the front transmission
planetary group. Lubrication oil is used in order to
cool and lubrication oil is used to lubricate the gears,
bearings, and clutches in the transmission planetary
groups. Oil from the transmission section of the
pump and transmission lubrication oil that falls to the
bottom of the transmission case is scavenged from
the case through two magnetic screens located in
housing (10). The scavenge oil returns to the torque
converter housing through a diffuser.

42
Systems Operation Section

KENR8370

Transmission Clutch Engagement

g01998794

Illustration 46
(11) Clutch modulating valves

(12) Transmission main relief valve

When the solenoid for clutch modulating valve (11)


is energized, transmission charging oil flows to the
clutch.

KENR8370

43
Systems Operation Section

i03671418

Oil Filter (Transmission)


SMCS Code: 3067

Illustration 47
Location of the transmission oil filter
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

Transmission oil filter


Auxiliary port
Pressure port for sensor
Oil sample port
Inlet

g01999457

44
Systems Operation Section

KENR8370

g01999594

Illustration 48
Components of the transmission oil filter
(2) Auxiliary port
(3) Pressure port for sensor
(4) Oil sampling port

(5) Inlet
(6) Outlet
(7) Housing

Transmission oil filter (1) is fastened to the front left


side of the transmission. Oil from the torque converter
goes to the pump section for the transmission. The
pump section for the transmission sends oil to the
transmission oil filter (1).

(8) Elements

There are three ports that are located on the


transmission oil filter. The first port (4) is used to take
oil samples. The left port (2) is an auxiliary port. The
right port (3) is used for a pressure sensor.

KENR8370

45
Systems Operation Section

Oil flows through inlet (5). The oil fills the space
between the inside of housing (7), and elements
(8). During normal operation, the oil goes through
elements (8) and through outlet (6). The oil then goes
to the transmission controls.
Elements (8) stop any debris that is in the oil.
Correct maintenance must be used to be certain that
elements (8) do not become full of debris. Debris
in elements (8) will stop the flow of clean oil to the
hydraulic system.
i03671411

Magnetic Screen
(Transmission)
SMCS Code: 3067; 5068
Illustration 50

g01904935

Construction of the magnetic screen


(3) O-ring seal
(4) Cover
(5) Housing
(6) Magnets
(7) Tube assembly
(8) O-ring seal
(9) Inlet
(10) Screen
(11) Wave washer

Illustration 49
Location of the magnetic screens
(1) Magnetic screen (transmission)
(2) Outlet

g01904934

Oil is pulled from the transmission through a magnetic


screen that is inside housing (5). Housing (5) is
fastened to the transmission case reservoir. Housing
(5) is also sealed with O-ring seal (8). Oil from the
bottom of the transmission case goes through inlet
(9). As the oil flows through tube assembly (7) toward
the top, the oil flows through the openings that are
between magnets (6). The magnets are installed on
the tube assembly so that the same magnetic ends
are next to each other.
As the oil flows over the magnets, metal particles
are stopped by the magnets. The oil then flows
through screen (10) to outlet (2). Other foreign
particles are stopped as the oil flows through the
screen. The particles are not allowed to go into the
transmission system. The oil flows from outlet (2) to
the transmission scavenge pump section. The oil is
then sent back to the torque converter housing.
Cover (4) can be removed in order to clean out the
magnetic screens. Cover (4) is sealed with O-ring
seal (3).

46
Systems Operation Section

KENR8370

i03671640

Relief Valve (Transmission


Lubrication)
SMCS Code: 3182

Illustration 51

g01904433

View of transmission lubrication valve (1)


(2) Temperature sensor
(3) Pressure tap
(4) Pressure sensor

Transmission lubrication valve (1) is located on the


left side of the transmission.

KENR8370

47
Systems Operation Section

Illustration 52

g02022475

View of transmission lubrication valve (1)


(2) Temperature sensor for transmission
lubrication
(5) Port to front module for the transmission
(6) Transmission lubrication relief valve

(7) Lube relief valve to drain port


(8) Orifice plug
(9) Lubrication pressure tap for clutch six
and seven

(10) Port to clutch four and five, port to gear


trains four, five, and six
(11) Supply port for the lubrication from
pump

Oil from the transmission lubrication pump section of


the gear pump flows to transmission lubrication valve
(1) through supply port (11). Some of the oil flows to
the front transmission planetary group through the
outlet hose, and the remaining lube oil enters the rear
transmission planetary group.

Illustration 53
Transmission lubrication relief valve
(12) Spring
(13) Inlet port
(14) Outlet ports

g01905293

48
Systems Operation Section

KENR8370

Transmission lubrication relief valve (6) is located


inside transmission lubrication valve (1). Oil flows
into transmission lubrication relief valve (6) through
inlet port (13) and presses against spring (12).
Spring (12) controls the maximum pressure in the
lubrication circuit. When enough pressure exists in
the lubrication circuit to overcome spring (12), the oil
is diverted through outlet ports (14) and drain port (7)
to the transmission sump.
Pressure sensor (4) for transmission lubrication
oil and temperature sensor (2) for transmission
lubrication oil are located on transmission lubrication
valve (1). These sensors provide input signals to
the Transmission ECM. Transmission lubrication
pressure can be measured at pressure tap (3).
Normally, the transmission lubrication pressure that
is measured will be less than the relief valve setting.
Transmission lubrication pressure is equal to the
back pressure that is caused by the transmission
components that are being lubricated.
i03671393

Relief Valve (Transmission


Main)
SMCS Code: 5069-T3

g02022479

Illustration 54
(1) Check ball
(2) Pressure tap (transmission relief)
(3) Transmission main relief valve

(4) Pressure tap (drain)


(5) Adjustment screw
(6) Spool

(7) Orifice
(8) Slug

KENR8370

49
Systems Operation Section

Supply oil to transmission main relief valve (3) flows


through orifice (7) in spool (6) and past check ball
(1) to the slug chamber. Check ball (1) dampens the
movements of spool (6). This action reduces the
possibility of valve chatter and pressure fluttering. Oil
pressure moves slug (8) in the left end of spool (6)
to the left, and spool (6) moves to the right against
the spring force. Slug (8) reduces the effective area
that can be pushed by the oil pressure. Because of
this reduced effective area, a smaller, more sensitive
spring can be used. Relief pressure will be equal to
the force of the spring that is on the right end of spool
(6). The spring force can be adjusted with adjustment
screw (5).
i03671564

Modulating Valve
(Transmission Clutch
Engaging)
SMCS Code: 3139

Illustration 55

g01999993

(1) Modulating valves for engaging the large transmission clutches


(2) Modulating valves for engaging the small transmission clutches

Modulating valves (1) control the pressure for the


transmission clutches.
The Transmission ECM provides a Pulse Width
Modulated signal (PWM signal) to the modulating
valves (1). The PWM signal allows the transmission
clutch pressure to be modulated.

50
Systems Operation Section

KENR8370

Deactivated

g02022481

Illustration 56
(3) Solenoid
(4) Pin
(5) Ball

(6) Passage
(7) Spool
(8) Spring

When solenoid (3) on the modulating valve is


deactivated, pump pressure from the transmission
charging and scavenge gear pump flows into
passage (11). Spool (7) blocks passage (10) to
the transmission clutch. Pressure oil flows through
passage (6) to ball (5). The oil flows past ball (5) to
the transmission sump through passage (9). The
transmission clutch is disengaged.

(9) Passage to tank


(10) Passage to the transmission clutch
(11) Passage from the pump

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51
Systems Operation Section

Activated

g02022482

Illustration 57
(3) Solenoid
(4) Pin
(5) Ball

(6) Passage
(7) Spool
(8) Spring

When solenoid (3) for the modulating valve is


activated, pin (4) moves to the right. Pin (4) pushes
ball (5) to close passage (9) to the transmission
sump. Pump pressure flows into passage (6). The
pressure increases since passage (9) is closed.
Spool (7) moves to the right against spring (8). Pump
oil pressure is allowed to flow to passage (10) to the
transmission clutch. The Transmission ECM opens
the passage and the Transmission ECM closes the
passage at ball (5) in order to maintain the correct
transmission clutch pressure. The transmission
clutch is engaged.

(9) Passage to tank


(10) Passage to the transmission clutch
(11) Passage from the pump

52
Systems Operation Section

KENR8370

i03671390

Front Transmission planetary group

Transmission Planetary (Front


Module)
SMCS Code: 3160-FR

Transmission Planetary Groups

Illustration 58

g01903693

Front and rear transmission planetary groups


(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

Output shaft
Rear transmission planetary group
Front transmission planetary group
Input shaft

The transmission contains two planetary groups.


Power flows from the torque converter through input
shaft (4) to front transmission planetary group (3).
Clutches one, two, and three are in front transmission
planetary group (3).
Rear transmission planetary group (2) sits behind
front transmission planetary group (3). Clutches four,
five, six, and seven are in rear transmission planetary
group (2). Power flows from front transmission
planetary group (3) to rear transmission planetary
group (2) and to output shaft (1). Output shaft (1)
drives the pinion gear of the differential.

Illustration 59

g01903834

Front transmission planetary group (3)


(5) Port
(6) Port
(7) Port
(8) Transmission intermediate speed sensor
(9) Port
(10) Third speed clutch
(11) Second speed clutch
(12) First speed clutch

First speed clutch (12) is a rotating clutch. Second


speed clutch (11) and third speed clutch (10) are
located behind first speed clutch (12). Supply oil
from the electronically controlled clutch valves flows
through port (6) to first speed clutch (12). Port (5)
flows to second speed clutch (11). Port (7) flows to
third speed clutch (10).
Lubrication oil flows from the transmission lubrication
valve, through an orifice, and then through port (9) to
front transmission planetary group (3). Lubrication oil
is used in order to cool all the gears, bearings, and
clutches in front transmission planetary group (3).
Lubrication oil is also used in order to lubricate all the
gears, bearings, and clutches in front transmission
planetary group (3).
Note: Transmission intermediate speed sensor (8)
is not used at this time.

KENR8370

53
Systems Operation Section

i03671388

Rear Transmission planetary group

Transmission Planetary (Rear


Module)
SMCS Code: 3160-RE

Transmission Planetary Groups

Illustration 61
Illustration 60

g01903693

Front and rear transmission planetary groups


(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

Output shaft
Rear transmission planetary group
Front transmission planetary group
Input shaft

The transmission contains two planetary groups.


Power flows from the torque converter through input
shaft (4) to front transmission planetary group (3).
Clutches one, two, and three are in front transmission
planetary group (3).
Rear transmission planetary group (2) sits behind
front transmission planetary group (3). Clutches four,
five, six, and seven are in rear transmission planetary
group (2). Power flows from front transmission
planetary group (3) to rear transmission planetary
group (2) and to output shaft (1). Output shaft (1)
drives the pinion gear of the differential.

g01903694

Rear transmission planetary group (2)


(5) Manifold
(6) Fourth speed clutch
(7) Fifth speed clutch
(8) Sixth speed clutch
(9) Seventh speed clutch
(10) Port
(11) Port

Fourth speed clutch (6) is a rotating clutch. Fifth


speed clutch (7), sixth speed clutch (8), and seventh
speed clutch (9) are located behind fourth speed
clutch (6). Supply oil from the electronically controlled
clutch valves flows through manifold (5) to the four
clutches of the rear transmission planetary group (2).
Lubrication oil flows from the transmission lubrication
valve through port (11) to the REVERSE drive train
bearings. The oil also flows to the following locations:

Fourth speed clutch (6)


Fifth speed clutch (7)
The bearings of clutch (6) and clutch (7)
Lubrication oil flows from the transmission lubrication
valve through port (10) to sixth speed clutch (8) and
seventh speed clutch (9).

54
Systems Operation Section

KENR8370

i03671391

Transmission Hydraulic
Control

Seventh speed clutch


Fourth speed clutch
Fifth speed clutch

SMCS Code: 3073

Sixth speed clutch


The left hand row of clutch modulating valves (4) that
are shown in Illustration 62 provide oil to the following
clutches (top to bottom):

First speed clutch


Third speed clutch
Second speed clutch
There are two sizes of clutch modulating valves (4).
The first speed clutch and the second speed clutch
have smaller clutch modulating valves (4), since
these clutches require less oil. Clutch modulating
valves (4) for the first speed clutch and for the second
speed clutch operate the same way as the larger
clutch modulating valves.

Illustration 62

g01998720

View of transmission hydraulic control


(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

Outlet tube
Transmission main relief valve
Clutch modulating valves
Tubes
Solenoids
Inlet tube

Transmission charging oil from the transmission


charging section of the pump flows through inlet tube
(6) to the transmission main relief valve (2). The
transmission main relief valve (2) may be adjusted
with a screw that is located behind the cover for the
transmission control valves.
Transmission charging oil is used in order to fill the
clutches. Transmission charging oil is also used
in order to shift the transmission. Some of this oil
drops to the bottom of the housing in order to be
scavenged, but most of the charging oil flows to the
torque converter through outlet tube (1) in order to
provide charging oil for the torque converter.
Oil flows through tubes (4) to the clutches in the rear
transmission planetary group. From the top to bottom
in Illustration 62, the tubes supply oil to clutches
seven, four, five, and six.
The Transmission ECM energizes solenoids (3) for
the seven clutch modulating valves (5) in order to
control the clutch engagement of the transmission.
The right hand row of clutch modulating valves (4)
that are shown in Illustration 62 provide oil to the
following clutches (top to bottom):

i03671394

Rear Axle and Final Drive


Hydraulic System
SMCS Code: 3260; 4050

KENR8370

55
Systems Operation Section

Schematic

g02000355

Illustration 63
Schematic of rear axle and final drive
(1) Brake/Cooling ECM
(2) Diverter valve for the final drive oil
(3) Relief diverter solenoid valve
(4) Gear motor for the rear axle oil gear
pump
(5) Piston pump for the motor drive for brake
cooling

(6) Screens
(7) Gear pumps
(8) Level of rear axle oil when temperature
is below 60 C (140 F).
(9) Level of rear axle oil when temperature
is above 60 C (140 F).
(10) Final drive oil level

(11) Pressure switch


(12) Final drive oil filter
(13) Pressure sensor
(14) Differential oil filter
(15) Temperature sensor
(16) Differential relief valve

56
Systems Operation Section

KENR8370

Flow Of The Lubrication Oil For The


Final Drive At Normal Operating
Temperature

Flow Of The Lubrication Oil For The


Final Drive When The Rear Axle Oil
Temperature Is Below 60 C (140 F)

Normal operating temperature for the rear axle oil


is 60 C (140 F). The primary lubrication for final
drives and for the rear wheel bearings is by splash
lubrication. At any instant, half of the components
in final drives are rotating under oil level (10). The
gears, bearings, and thrust washers receive the
required lubrication by rotating through the oil. The
final drive components are also lubricated by splash
lubrication from the rotating components in the final
drive. Secondary lubrication of final drives and of
the rear wheel bearings is by pumping oil to the
bearings. Gear pump (7) pumps oil from the sump
for the rear axle through final drive oil filter (12) to
the rear wheel bearings. This oil lubricates the rear
wheel bearings, and this oil cools the rear wheel
bearings. This oil flows from the rear wheel bearings
into the compartments of the final drives. Oil in
the compartments for the final drives returns to the
sump for the rear axle by gravity. Before the oil in
the compartment of the final drives can return to
the sump for the rear axle, the oil must flow through
the holes in the retainer plates for the rear wheel
bearings.

When the rear axle oil temperature is below 60 C


(140 F), Brake/Cooling ECM (1) activates the
solenoid for diverter valve (2). When the solenoid is
activated, oil from gear pump (7) is diverted to the
sump for differential oil. If the cold oil was pumped
to final drives, the compartments for the final drives
would fill with oil. When the oil is cold, the oil has a
high viscosity. The high viscosity of the oil will cause
the oil to flow too slowly out of the compartments for
the final drives. The sump for the rear axle and the
differential oil sump would run dry. When the oil is
diverted to the sump for the differential, the oil level
for the differential rises to level (8). Diverting the oil
has two purposes. First, the compartments for the
final drives will not be overfilled with oil that is cold.
Next, the oil in the differential oil sump will rise to
level (8). This allows the bevel gear to agitate the oil.
When the oil is agitated, the oil temperature will rise
quickly. Therefore, the oil temperature will be heated
to 60 C (140 F) quickly. Now, normal filtering and
normal circulation of the oil can occur.

The oil that flows from gear pump (7) must pass
through final drive oil filter (12) for the final drive
before the oil flows to final drives. When the filter
becomes plugged, unfiltered oil bypasses the filter.
This unfiltered oil is dumped into the sump for the
rear axle. This prevents contaminated oil from flowing
through the rear wheel bearings and through the final
drive components. When the oil bypasses the filter,
the bypass switch will be activated. An alarm will be
registered in the cab.

Flow Of The Lubrication Oil For The


Differential At Normal Operating
Temperature
Normal operating temperature for the rear axle oil is
60 C (140 F). Primary lubrication of the differential
components is by oil flow that is directed to the gears
and to the bearings. Oil is pumped from the sump for
the rear axle by gear pump (7) for differential oil. The
oil flows from the gear pump to differential oil filter
(14). The oil then flows past differential relief valve
(16) to the differential and bevel gear.
During normal operation, the oil in the differential
oil sump will be at oil level (9). Gear pump (7) pulls
oil from the differential oil sump through screen (6).
This oil is then dumped into the sump for the rear
axle. When the differential oil level is at level (9), the
components of the differential and bevel gear do not
dip into the oil. This allows less agitating of the oil to
occur, and the oil will remain cooler.

KENR8370

Flow Of The Lubrication Oil For The


Differential When The Rear Axle Oil
Temperature Is Below 4 C (25 F)

57
Systems Operation Section

i03671395

Pump Drive
SMCS Code: 3108

When the rear axle oil temperature decreases below


4 C (25 F), the oil will have a high viscosity.
The high viscosity of the oil will not allow the rear
axle oil pump to pump the oil efficiently. When the
temperature of the oil is below 4 C (25 F), the
Brake/Cooling ECM activates solenoid (3) for relief
diverter solenoid valve (3). When solenoid (3) is
activated, oil from gear pump (7) is diverted back
to the hydraulic tank. The relief diverter solenoid
valve (3) allows a small amount of oil to flow in order
to slowly operate gear motor (7). This allows some
lubrication to occur in addition to splash lubrication.

Flow Of The Lubrication Oil For The


Differential When The Rear Axle
Oil Temperature Is Between 4 C
(25 F) and 60 C (140 F)
When the rear axle oil temperature reaches 4 C
(25 F) and the machine is moving, solenoid (3) is
deactivated. Gear motor (7) turns the rear axle oil
gear pump. However, if the rear axle oil temperature
is less than 60 C (140 F), the viscosity of the
oil will cause differential relief valve (16) to open.
This allows oil from gear pump (7) to dump into
the differential oil sump. This allows less oil to flow
in order to lubricate the gears and bearings in the
differential and bevel gear. Oil flow from gear pump
(7) is diverted to the differential oil sump in order to
allow splash lubrication for the differential.

Illustration 64

g00890729

(1) Yoke
(2) Pump drive
(3) Gear pumps for hoist and brake cooling
(4) Fan drive pump
(5) Steering pump
(6) Brake cooling drive pump
(7) Brake actuation pump
(8) Gear pump for the motor drive for the rear axle oil pump

58
Systems Operation Section

KENR8370

Six pumps are driven by the pump drive. The gear


pumps for the hoist and the gear pumps for the brake
cooling (3) are fastened to bearing cage (13). The
pump is driven by drive gear (12). The brake cooling
drive pump (6), brake actuation pump (7), and the
gear pump for the motor drive for the rear axle oil
pump (8) are fastened to bearing cage (19). The
steering pump (5) and the fan drive pump (4) are
fastened directly to case (9). The steering pump (5)
and fan drive pump (4) are located across from the
brake cooling drive pump (6), the brake actuation
pump (7), and the gear pump for the motor drive for
the rear axle oil pump (8). Driven gear (18) drives
steering pump (5), fan drive pump (4), brake cooling
drive pump (6), brake actuation pump (7), and the
gear pump for the motor drive for the rear axle oil
pump (8).
Lubrication of the pump drive is provided by oil from
the charging section of the torque converter pump.
The oil is sprayed on drive gear (12). Holes in case
(9) will send oil to each bearing. An oil level is kept in
case (9) so that the teeth on driven gear (18) are in
oil. The gears will throw oil in the housing. Extra oil in
case (9) goes through a screen to the transmission
case reservoir.
i03675620

Gear Pump (Brake, Rear Axle


Lubrication)
SMCS Code: 5073
Illustration 65

g01998839

(1) Yoke
(9) Case
(10) Bearings
(11) Shims
(12) Drive gear
(13) Bearing cage
(14) Idler gear
(15) Shims
(16) Shaft
(17) Bearings
(18) Driven gear
(19) Bearing cage
(20) Shims
(21) Bearings

Pump drive (2) is fastened to the inner right side of


the main frame directly behind the flywheel housing
of the engine. The accessory drive gear in the
flywheel housing drives the pump drive shaft. The
pump drive shaft is connected to yoke assembly (1).
Splines connect yoke assembly (1) to drive gear
(12). Drive gear (12) turns idler gear (14) which turns
driven gear (18).
Shims (11) are used to adjust the end play of drive
gear (12). Shims (15) are used to adjust the end play
of idler gear (14). Shims (20) are used to adjust the
end play of driven gear (18).

Illustration 66
(1) Gear pump for the shallow retarding arrangement
(2) Pump drive

g01974093

KENR8370

59
Systems Operation Section

Illustration 69

g01974158

(1) Gear pump for the steep retarding arrangement (extra


retarding)
(2) Pump drive
(A) Outlet to the brake oil filter
(B) Outlet to the gear motor for the rear axle lubrication
Illustration 67

g01974095

(1) Gear pump for the steep retarding arrangement (extra


retarding)
(2) Pump drive

Gear pump (1) for the brake and rear axle lubrication
is located between the transmission and the frame on
the right side of the truck. Gear pump (1) is powered
by pump drive (2).

Hydraulic oil flows directly into gear pump (1) from the
hydraulic tank. Gear pump (1) has two outlets. Outlet
(A) sends oil to the brake oil filter. Outlet (B) sends oil
to the gear motor for the rear axle lubrication.
i03671400

Gear Motor (Rear Axle


Lubrication)
SMCS Code: 5061

Illustration 68
(1) Gear pump for the shallow retarding arrangement
(2) Pump drive
(A) Outlet to the brake oil filter
(B) Outlet to the gear motor for the rear axle lubrication

g01974155

Illustration 70
(1) Pump drive
(2) Gear pump for the rear axle motor drive
(3) Relief valve and unloader valve

g01902837

60
Systems Operation Section

KENR8370

i03671403

Gear Pump (Rear Axle Oil)


SMCS Code: 4060; 5073

Illustration 71
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)

g01902844

Gear pump for the differential sump scavenge


Gear pump for lubrication for the differential
Gear pump for the final drive lubrication
Gear motor for the rear axle pump drive

Gear motor (7) for the rear axle pump drive drives
the following three pump sections:

Gear pump (4) for the differential sump scavenge


Gear pump (5) for the lubrication of the differential
Gear pump (6) for the final drive lubrication
Gear motor (7) for the rear axle pump drive is located
on the front of the rear axle housing. Gear motor
(7) for the rear axle pump drive is driven by gear
pump(2). Gear pump (2) is shown in Illustration 70.
Gear pump (2) is on the end of the brake actuation
pump section, which is driven by pump drive (1).
Gear motor (7) for the rear axle pump drive drives
gear pump sections (6), (5), and (4). These three
pump sections pump oil to the final drives and to the
differential.
Gear motor (7) for the rear axle pump drive is
controlled by the relief valve and unloader valve (3),
shown in Illustration 70. Unloader valve (3) will divert
the oil that turns gear motor (7) for the rear axle
pump drive when the temperature of the oil in the
rear axle is below 57 C (135 F). Also, oil will be
diverted if the machine has been stationary for more
than five minutes with the engine running. If the truck
begins to move and the temperature of the rear axle
oil is above 4 C (25 F), unloader valve (3) will be
deactivated. Oil will then drive gear motor (7) for the
rear axle pump drive. If the temperature of the rear
axle oil is below 4 C (25 F), unloader valve (3) will
be activated. Oil will then stop flowing to gear motor
(7) for the rear axle pump drive, and pump sections
(6), (5), and (4) will not pump oil to the final drives
and to the differential.
Pressure relief valve (3) is shown in Illustration 70.
Pressure relief valve (3) limits pressure to 13800 kPa
(2000 psi). Drive pump pressure for the gear motor
can be measured at a pressure tap (not shown) that
is located on gear pump (2).

Illustration 72
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

g01902319

Suction screen for the rear axle oil


Gear pump (final drive lubrication)
Gear pump (lubrication for the differential)
Gear pump (differential sump scavenge)
Gear motor (rear axle pump drive)

The gear pumps for rear axle lubrication are made up


of the following three sections:
(2) Gear pump (final drive lubrication)
(3) Gear pump (lubrication for the differential)
(4) Gear pump (differential sump scavenge)
Gear motor (5) drives gear pump (2), gear pump (3),
and gear pump (4).

KENR8370

61
Systems Operation Section

Pump section (3) takes oil from the sump for the rear
axle. This oil flows through inlet line (11) to suction
screen (1). Oil from suction screen (95) flows to inlet
(6) into pump section (3) for lubrication oil for the
differential. During normal operation, the oil flows
through the differential oil filter. This oil then flows in
order to lubricate the components in the differential.
Pump section (2) is located on the drive end. Pump
section (2) also takes oil from the sump for the rear
axle. This oil flows through inlet line (11) to suction
screen (1). Oil from suction screen (1) flows to inlet
(6) into pump section (2) for lubrication oil for the final
drive. The oil flows to the diverter valve for the final
drive oil. During normal operation, the diverter valve
sends this oil through the final drive oil filter. This oil
then flows in order to lubricate the components in
the final drives.

Illustration 73

g01902538

View of gear pumps


(6) Inlet for the charge pumps for the differential and for the final
drive
(7) Inlet for pump section (4) for differential sump scavenge
(8) Outlet for pump section (4) for differential sump scavenge
(9) Outlet of pump section (3) for lubrication of the differential
(10) Outlet of pump section (2) for lubrication of the final drive

Illustration 74

g01902543

(7) Inlet for pump section (4) for differential sump scavenge
(8) Outlet for pump section (4) for differential sump scavenge
(9) Outlet of pump section (3) for lubrication of the differential
(10) Outlet of pump section (2) for lubrication of the final drive
(11) Inlet line from the sump

Pump section (4) for the differential sump scavenge


takes oil from the sump for the differential. The oil
flows through inlet (7) to pump section (4). This oil
then flows to the sump for the rear axle.
The other two pump sections get oil from inlet (6).

62
Systems Operation Section

KENR8370

i03714081

Gear Motor (Rear Axle Oil


Cooler Fan)
SMCS Code: 5061-FM; 5061-AOC

Schematic

g02000656

Illustration 75
(1) Oil from the brake valve
(2) Directional valve

(3) Bypass valve for the fan for the rear axle
(4) Oil from service brake accumulators

System Operation
Oil from the brake valve (1) flows to the directional
valve (2) in the manifold for the fan for the rear axle.
When the bypass valve for the fan for the rear axle
(3) is de-energized by the brake electronic control
module, the valve blocks oil from the service brake
accumulators (4) from flowing to the right side of
the directional valve (2). Spring force moves the
directional valve (2) to the right and the oil from the
brake valve (1) flows to the fan motor for the rear axle
(5) in order to drive the motor.

(5) Fan motor for the rear axle


(6) Relief valve

When the bypass valve for the fan for the rear axle
(3) is energized by the brake electronic control
module, the valve directs oil from the service brake
accumulators (4) to the right end of the direction
valve (2). Oil pressure moves the directional valve to
the left and the oil from the brake valve (1) flows to
the tank. The fan motor (5) stops rotating.
The relief valve (6) limits the oil pressure in the fan
system for the rear axle lubrication.

KENR8370

63
Systems Operation Section

i03671404

Oil Filter (Differential)


SMCS Code: 5068

Differential oil filter (1) is an in-line bypass type of


filter. When the oil is cold or when the filter element is
plugged, the oil will bypass the filter element. This will
cause the bevel gear bearings to receive unfiltered
oil.
Oil pressure sensor (3) is located on the filter
housing. The pressure sensor also provides an input
signal to the Brake/Cooling ECM. The Brake/Cooling
ECM sends a signal to the VIMS, which informs the
operator if the differential oil pressure is low.
Note: Oil samples can be taken at the Scheduled
Oil Sampling tap on the final drive oil filter, as the
differential oil filter and the final drive oil filter share a
common sump.

Illustration 76

g01902654

(1) Differential oil filter

Illustration 77

g01902656

Differential oil filter (1)


(2) Filter bypass switch
(3) Oil pressure sensor

Differential oil filter (1) is mounted on the right side on


the back of the rear axle housing. Oil from the center
section of the rear axle cooling pump flows through
the inlet line to differential oil filter (1). Oil then
flows through the outlet line back to the differential
bearings.
Filter bypass switch (2) sends input signals to the
Brake/Cooling ECM. The Brake/Cooling ECM sends
the signal to the Vital Information Management
System (VIMS), which informs the operator if the
filter is restricted.
Proper oil flow to the bevel gear bearings must be
maintained at all times. When the vehicle operates
at high speed, the oil flow to the bearings may be
diminished. This will cause the bearings to rapidly
overheat.

Illustration 78

g01902695

Section view of differential oil filter


(7)
(8)
(9)
(6)
(5)
(4)

Bypass spool
Spring
Outlet
Inlet
Element
Housing

Oil from the inlet line flows into inlet (6). This oil fills
the space that is between element (5) and the inside
of housing (4). During normal operation, the oil flows
through element (5). The oil then flows through outlet
passage (9). Element (5) stops any debris that is in
the oil.

64
Systems Operation Section

KENR8370

If the filter element becomes full of debris, the


restriction to the flow of oil causes a pressure
increase inside the filter. If the pressure of the
oil achieves the bypass pressure, the pressure
oil causes bypass spool (7) to move against the
force of spring (8). The oil then goes through open
bypass spool (7). Filter bypass switch (2) notifies the
Brake/Cooling ECM of this occurrence. When the oil
does not go through element (5), the debris that is in
the oil may cause damage to the other components
in the system.
Correct maintenance must be used to ensure that
element (5) does not become full of debris and that
the flow of clean oil is not stopped.
i03671405

Oil Filter (Final Drive)


SMCS Code: 5068

Final drive oil filter (1) is mounted on the left side


on the back of the rear axle housing. Oil from the
front section of the rear axle cooling pump flows to
diverter valve (4). The oil then flows to final drive
oil filter (1). From final drive oil filter (1), oil flows to
the final drives that are on both sides of the truck.
Oil also flows to the wheel bearings on both sides of
the truck. The diverter valve (4) is controlled by the
Brake/Cooling ECM.
Filter bypass switch (2) is located on the filter
housing. The bypass switch provides an input signal
to the Brake/Cooling ECM. The Brake/Cooling ECM
sends a signal to the VIMS, which informs the
operator if the differential oil pressure is low.
If the filter element plugs, the unfiltered oil is bypassed
back to the axle housing (sump) rather than being
bypassed in-line. This could allow contaminated oil to
flow through the wheel bearings. The final drives can
operate for an extended period of time with the filter
in a bypass mode. The primary source of lubrication
for the final drives is by the splash lubrication.
Oil pressure switch (5) is located on the filter housing.
The pressure switch also provides an input signal
to the Brake/Cooling ECM. The Brake/Cooling ECM
sends a signal to the VIMS. The VIMS will then inform
the operator if the oil pressure for the final drive is low.
Oil samples can be taken at the Scheduled Oil
Sampling tap (3).

Illustration 79

g01902733

(1) Final drive oil filter

Illustration 80
Final drive oil filter (1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

Filter bypass switch


Tap for the Scheduled Oil Sampling
Diverter valve
Oil pressure switch

g01902735

KENR8370

65
Systems Operation Section

i03671366

Control Valve (Final Drive


Diverter)
SMCS Code: 5051

Illustration 82

g01902818

(1) Diverter valve


(2) Solenoid valve
(3) Pressure tap for pump oil

Illustration 81

g01902753

Diverter valve (1) for the final drive oil is located on


the top of the rear axle housing.

Section view of the final drive oil filter


(6) Housing
(7) Element
(8) Inlet passage
(9) Bypass spool
(10) Bypass passage
(11) Spring
(12) Outlet passage

Oil from the inlet line flows into inlet passage (8). This
oil fills the space that is between element (7) and the
inside of housing (6). During normal operation, the oil
flows through element (7). The oil then flows through
outlet passage (12). Element (7) stops any debris
that is in the oil.
If the filter element becomes full of debris, the
restriction to the flow of oil causes a pressure
increase inside the filter. If the pressure of the oil
achieves the bypass pressure, the pressure oil
causes bypass spool (9) to move against the force
of spring (11). The oil then goes through the open
bypass spool (9). This oil flows through bypass
passage (10) to the rear axle housing and the bypass
line to the rear axle housing (sump). Filter bypass
switch (2) notifies the VIMS of this occurrence. When
the oil does not go through the filter element, the
debris that is in the oil may cause damage to the
other components in the system.
Correct maintenance must be used to ensure that
element (7) does not become full of debris and that
the flow of clean oil is not stopped.

Illustration 83
Bottom view of diverter valve (1)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

Pressure tap for pump oil


Outlet port to the final drive oil filter
Outlet port to the differential
Inlet port from the gear pump for the rear axle oil

g01902820

66
Systems Operation Section

KENR8370

i03671396

Differential and Bevel Gear


SMCS Code: 3256; 3258; 3270

Illustration 84

g01902823

ISO schematic for diverter valve (deactivated solenoid valve)


(1) Diverter valve
(2) Solenoid valve
(3) Pressure tap for pump oil
(4) Outlet port to the final drive oil filter
(5) Outlet port to the differential
(6) Inlet port from the gear pump for the rear axle oil
(7) Poppet valve

Oil from the gear pump for the rear axle oil flows
to inlet port (6) on diverter valve (1). When the
temperature of the differential oil is above 60 C
(140 F), solenoid valve (2) is deactivated. Pump
pressure will flow to both ends of poppet valve (7).
Since the surface area on the back side of poppet
valve (7) is greater than the surface area on the front
side of poppet valve (7), poppet valve (7) will be
closed. The outlet port to the differential (5) will be
blocked. Pump oil will flow past poppet valve (7) to
the outlet port to the final drive oil filter (4).
When the temperature of the differential oil is below
60 C (140 F), the Brake/Cooling ECM will activate
solenoid valve (2). The pump pressure that was
flowing behind poppet valve (7) will now dump to the
sump for the differential through outlet port (5) to the
differential. The pressure that is required for the oil to
flow through the filter for the final drive is greater than
the pressure that is required to move poppet valve
(7). Poppet valve (7) now opens outlet port (5) to the
differential. The outlet port to the final drive oil filter
(4) is never blocked. However, the oil will flow more
easily to the sump for the differential.
There are two advantages to diverting the oil away
from the final drives:

The final drives will not be overfilled with cold oil.


The high oil level in the sump for the differential
will cause the bevel gear to agitate the oil. This
will cause rapid heating of the oil to the normal
operating temperature of the system. Normal
filtering of the oil and circulation of the oil to the
final drives can then occur.

KENR8370

67
Systems Operation Section

Illustration 85

g02000354

(1) Bearing
(2) Differential housing (plain half)
(3) Spider
(4) Thrust washer
(5) Differential bevel pinions (four)
(6) Shims

(7) Side gears


(8) Bevel gear
(9) Shims
(10) Bearings
(11) Differential housing (flanged half)
(12) Bearing cage

The power that is sent to the wheels is divided by the


differential. The amount of power that is sent to each
wheel is balanced by the differential. During a turn,
the differential allows the inner wheel to rotate at a
slower rate than the outer wheel. The differential still
sends the same amount of torque to each wheel.

(13)
(14)
(15)
(16)

Shims
Shims
Bearing
Bevel pinion

68
Systems Operation Section

The differential and bevel gear is fastened to the rear


axle housing. The differential and bevel gear connect
the output shaft of the transmission to the drive axles.
The output shaft of the transmission is connected
to bevel pinion (16) by splines. Bevel pinion (16)
turns bevel gear (8). Bevel gear (8) is fastened to
differential housing (11). There are four differential
bevel pinions (5). Differential bevel pinions (5) turn
freely on spider (3). Each differential bevel pinion (5)
has a double bearing assembly in order to carry the
drive load of the differential bevel pinion. The two
halves of the differential housing (2) and (11) are
bolted together in order to hold spider (3). The two
halves of the differential housing (2) and (11) rotate
together with bevel gear (8). The housings are driven
by bevel gear (8). The housings are supported by
bearings.
Differential bevel pinions (5) are engaged at a 90
degree angle with two straight side gears (7). The
side gears are connected to the drive axles by
splines.
When the machine is moving in a straight direction
and each drive wheel has the same amount of
traction, both wheels receive the same amount of
load. The same amount of torque is felt on each axle.
This torque holds differential bevel pinions (5) so that
the differential bevel pinions do not turn on spider
(3). This will provide the same effect as if both drive
wheels are fastened to the same drive axle.
When different loads are put on the drive wheels,
differential bevel pinions (5) will turn because
the forces are different on the opposite sides of
the differential. During a turn, the rotation of the
differential bevel pinions will allow a slower rotation of
the inside wheel and a faster rotation of the outside
wheel. The machine is driven with full power in a turn.
Side gears (7) turn against thrust washers (4). The
end thrust of the differential bevel pinions (5) against
the differential case is taken by a double bearing
assembly. The bearing assemblies must be changed
in sets of two.
Shims (9) and shims (13) are located under bearing
cage (12). When bearing cage (12) is installed, the
shims determine the end play of bearings (10) for
bevel pinion (16).
Shims (6) and shims (14) are used to make an
adjustment between bevel pinion (16) and bevel gear
(8). The shims are also used to make an adjustment
to the bearing preload of bearing (1) and bearing (15).
The differential receives lubrication from the oil in
the axle housing. The gear pump for the rear axle
oil provides lubrication oil to the components in the
differential. During normal operation, the sump for the
differential is dry. Spiral grooves in thrust washers (4)
allow the lubricant to flow between the thrust washers
and side gears (7).

KENR8370

Note: Correct adjustment of all of the bearings in


the differential is very important. For the correct
adjustment procedures, refer to the Power Train
Disassembly and Assembly, Differential and Bevel
Gear - Assemble.

KENR8370

69
Systems Operation Section

i03671397

Final Drive
SMCS Code: 4003; 4050; 4059; 4084

g02000174

Illustration 86
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

Reaction hub
Second reduction ring gear
Final drive adapter housing
Second reduction carrier
Wheel

(6) Inner thrust washer


(7) Second reduction planetary gear
(8) Spindle
(9) Second reduction sun gear
(10) Axle shaft

Both final drives on the machine have the same


components. The operation of the final drives is
identical. The final drives have a double reduction
in order to reduce the output speed of the axle. The
double reduction also increases the torque to the
wheels.
Spindle (8) is fastened to the rear axle housing. The
rear axle housing is stationary. Reaction hub (1)
is splined to spindle (8) and to first reduction ring
gear (14). First reduction ring gear (14) is splined
to second reduction ring gear (2). These ring gears
are attached to spindle (8) through reaction hub (1).
Spindle (8) is held stationary by the rear axle housing.

(11) Outer thrust washer


(12) First reduction sun gear
(13) First reduction carrier
(14) First reduction ring gear
(15) First reduction planetary gear

70
Systems Operation Section

Power from the differential is mechanically


transmitted through axle shaft (10). Axle shaft (10)
is splined to first reduction sun gear (12). Since
first reduction ring gear (14) does not move, first
reduction planetary gears (15) and first reduction
carrier (13) rotate. This causes the power from axle
shaft (10) to be output at a reduced speed and at
an increased torque. First reduction carrier (13) is
splined directly to first reduction sun gear (12). Since
second reduction ring gear (2) does not move, first
reduction sun gear (12) causes second reduction
planetary gears (7) and second reduction carrier (4)
to rotate. This causes the power from first reduction
carrier (13) to be output at a reduced speed and at an
increased torque. This power is transferred through
final drive adapter housing (3) and through the split
ring adapter. This will rotate wheel (5). The power
from axle shaft (10) has been reduced in speed twice
by the final drive. The final drive has also increased
torque twice. Therefore, the power that flows through
the final drive remains constant.
During normal operation, the final drives receive
lubrication oil from the rear axle oil gear pump. The
final drive is also lubricated by the rotation of the
gears in the oil. The differential and the final drives
use the same lubricant.
Note: For information on final drive bearing
adjustment, refer to the Power Train Disassembly
and Assembly, Final Drive - Assemble.

KENR8370

KENR8370

71
Index Section

Index
C

Control Valve (Final Drive Diverter) ....................... 65

Power Train Electrical System...............................


Power Train System ..............................................
Operation ...........................................................
Rear Axle ...........................................................
Torque Converter ...............................................
Transmission......................................................
Transmission Electronic Control Module ...........
Pump Drive............................................................

D
Differential and Bevel Gear ................................... 66
E
Electronic Control (Transmission Gear Indicator).. 18
F
Final Drive ............................................................. 69
G
Gear Motor (Rear Axle Lubrication).......................
Gear Motor (Rear Axle Oil Cooler Fan) .................
Schematic ..........................................................
Gear Pump (Brake, Rear Axle Lubrication) ...........
Gear Pump (Rear Axle Oil)....................................
Gear Pump (Torque Converter Charging and
Transmission Lubrication)....................................
Gear Pump (Transmission Charging and
Scavenge)............................................................
Graphic Color Codes .............................................

59
62
62
58
60
26
26
4

Important Safety Information ................................. 2


M

Rear Axle and Final Drive Hydraulic System......... 55


Flow Of The Lubrication Oil For The Differential At
Normal Operating Temperature........................ 56
Flow Of The Lubrication Oil For The Differential
When The Rear Axle Oil Temperature Is Below
4 C (25 F) .................................................... 57
Flow Of The Lubrication Oil For The Differential
When The Rear Axle Oil Temperature Is Between
4 C (25 F) and 60 C (140 F) ..................... 57
Flow Of The Lubrication Oil For The Final Drive At
Normal Operating Temperature........................ 56
Flow Of The Lubrication Oil For The Final Drive
When The Rear Axle Oil Temperature Is Below
60 C (140 F) .................................................. 56
Schematic .......................................................... 55
Relief Valve (Transmission Lubrication) ................ 46
Relief Valve (Transmission Main) .......................... 48

Speed Sensor (Torque Converter Output).............


Speed Sensor (Transmission Output) ...................
Transmission Intermediate Speed Sensor .........
Systems Operation Section ...................................

45

31
33
32

Table of Contents...................................................
Torque Converter...................................................
Direct Drive ........................................................
Inside of the Torque Converter...........................
Torque Converter Drive......................................
Torque Converter and Transmission Hydraulic
System.................................................................
Location Of Components ...................................
Schematic ..........................................................
Torque Converter Case Reservoir .........................
Torque Converter Inlet and Outlet Relief Valves....
Transmission .........................................................
Transmission Clutch Engagement .....................
Transmission Operation .....................................
Transmission Planetary Groups.........................

49
51
50

O
Oil Cooler (Power Train) ........................................
Oil Filter (Differential).............................................
Oil Filter (Final Drive).............................................
Oil Filter (Torque Converter) ..................................
Oil Filter (Transmission) ........................................

Magnetic Screen (Transmission) ...........................


Modulating Valve (Torque Converter Lockup
Clutch) .................................................................
Activated ............................................................
Deactivated ........................................................
Modulating Valve (Transmission Clutch
Engaging) ............................................................
Activated ............................................................
Deactivated ........................................................

8
4
4
6
5
6
4
57

29
63
64
27
43

19
19
20
4

3
34
39
35
37
21
22
21
34
29
40
42
41
41

Transmission Control............................................. 16
Inputs for the Chassis ECM that are Used by the
Transmission ECM........................................... 16
Transmission Electronic Control Module (ECM).... 10
Input Components.............................................. 11
Miscellaneous Input ........................................... 11
Output Components........................................... 12
Systems Controlled by the Transmission ECM.. 12
Transmission ECM Logged Events.................... 16
Transmission Hydraulic Control............................. 54
Transmission Planetary (Front Module) ................ 52
Transmission Planetary Groups......................... 52
Transmission Planetary (Rear Module) ................. 53
Transmission Planetary Groups......................... 53

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