& KAVAZANIIAN,
E. (1985). Giotechnique
A constitutive
I. BORJA*
and
A constitutive
model is developed
to describe
the
stresstraintime
behaviour of wet clays subjected to
threedimensional
states of stress and strain.
The
model is based on Bjerrums
concept of total strain
decomposition
into an immediate
(timeindependent)
part and a delayed (timedependent)
part generalized
to threedimensional
situations. The classical theory of
plasticity
is employed
to characterize
the timeindependent
stresstrain
behaviour
of cohesive soils
using the ellipsoidal yield surface of the modified Cam
Clay model presented
by Roscoe and Burland.
The
timeindependent
strain is divided into an elastic part
and a plastic part. The plastic part is evaluated
using
the normality
condition
and the consistency
requirement on the yield surface. The timedependent
(creep)
component
of the total strain is evaluated by employing the normality rule on the same yield surface as in
the timeindependent
model and the consistency
requirement
which requires
that the creep strain rate
reduces to phenomenological
creep rate expressions
for isotropic
or undrained
triaxial stress conditions.
The mathematical
characterization
of the constitutive
model is given by the constitutive
equation expressed
in a form suitable for direct numerical implementation
(i.e. finite element
formulation).
The required
soil
parameters
are easily obtainable
from conventional
laboratory
tests. The constitutive
equation is shown to
predict accurately
the stresstraintime
behaviour
of
an undisturbed
wet clay in triaxial and plane strain
stress conditions.
Un modele constitutif
a CtC dtveloppt
pour dtcrire le
comportement
contraintedtformation
dans le temps
des argiles humides soumises a des Ctats tridimensionnels de contraintes
et de deformations.
Le modtle
est base
sur une generalisation
aux conditions
tridimensionnelles
du concept
de Bjerrum
de la
decomposition
de la deformation
en une partie
immediate
(indtpendante
du temps) et une partie
retardee
(dependante
du temps). On utilise la thtorie
classique de la plasticite pour caracteriser
le comportement contraintedtformation
indtpendant
du temps
des sols cohtrents,
en se servant
de la surface
decoulement
ellipsoidale
du modele modifie de largile de Cam present& par Roscoe
et Burland.
La
deformation
independante
du temps est subdivisee en
Discussion
on this Paper closes on 1 January
1986.
For further details see inside back cover.
* Department
of Civil Engineering,
Stanford University.
283
E.
KAVAZANJIAN,
behaviour
of
JR*
KEYWORDS:
clays; constitutive
relations;
deformation; finite elements; plasticity; time dependence.
INTRODUCTION
Consideration
of the time dependence
of the
stressstrain
behaviour
of cohesive
soils is important
in the
evaluation
of longterm
performance
of geotechnical
structures
such as
embankments,
tunnels
and excavations.
The
deformations
and pressures
that develop with
time are due to both hydrodynamic
lag and
creep effects.
Numerous
constitutive
models
have been
proposed
(Bonaparte,
1981; Kavazanjian
&
Mitchell, 1980; Pender, 1977; Roscoe, Schofield
& Thurairajah,
1963; Roscoe & Burland, 1968;
Tavenas & Leroueil, 1977) and numerically implemented
(Bonaparte,
198 1; Johnston,
198 1)
to characterize
yielding
of wet clays using
effective stress quantities and the classical theory
of plasticity.
The deformations
predicted
by
these models are analogous to those corresponding to initial undrained
loading and primary
consolidation
or to those which would immediately
develop at the instant the imposed
284
BOFUA
AND KAVAZANJIAN
NOTATION
hyperbolic stressstrain
parameter
SinghMitchell
creep parameter
hyperbolic stressstrain
parameter
stressstrain
tensor
virgin compression
index, log,,, scale
swellingrecompression
index, log,, scale
secondary
compression
coefficient,
log,,
scale
deviator stress level
void ratio, natural number 2.71828..
e I_= 1on the isotropic consolidation
curve
e\,=, on the critical state line
initial tangent modulus
elliptical yield surface
first invariant of ( 1
second invariant of ( )
(i, j) component
of k
permeability
tensor
bulk modulus
SinghMitchell
creep parameter
slope of the critical state line
volumetric stress, $akk
preconsolidation
pressure
equivalent preconsolidation
pressure, poG
ZLiatoric
stress, (3/v5)7,,,
undrained shear strength
Duncan and Chang corrector parameter
time
deviatoric age
instant deviatoric time, usually set to unity
time for 100% consolidation
volumetric age
instant
volumetric
time, usually set to
unity
ith (Cartesian) component
of u
loading
is applied,
in the absence
of hydrodynamic
lag. No deformation
is predicted
by
these models under constant effective stress conditions.
Soil materials,
however,
also exhibit timedependent
or creep deformations
under a state
of constant effective stress. Volumetric compression at a constant effective stress, for example,
may persist
indefinitely
beyond
the primary
phase in a typical isotropic or onedimensional
consolidation
test. Plastic axial deformation
at a
constant deviator stress level may also develop
indefinitely
with time in a conventional
undrained triaxial creep test.
These
creep
deformations
can become
a
major contributor
to the total deformation
for
young clays (Bjerrum, 1967; Borja, 1984). De
displacement
field vector
SinghMitchell
creep parameter
deviatoric strain
unit weight of water
octahedral
deviatoric strain
Kronecker
delta
strain, compression
positive
major principal strain
intermediate
principal strain
minor principal strain
axial strain
axial creep strain rate
volumetric strain
octahedral
normal strain, ~~~~
strain tensor
creep strain rate tensor
stress ratio q/p
recompression
index, In scale
virgin compression
index, In scale
elastic shear modulus
pore pressure field function
stress, compression
positive
major principal stress
intermediate
principal stress
minor principal stress
vertical stress
octahedral
normal strain
(i, j) component
of the (Cauchy) stress
tensor
stress relaxation rate
octahedral
shear stress
associative flow rule proportionality
factor
effective friction angle
factor
secondary
compression
coefficient,
In
scale
STRESSSTRAINTIME
BEHAVIOUR
BASES
Separation of immediate
and delayed
strains
The concept of total strain decomposition
into
an immediate
(timeindependent)
part and a
delayed
(timedependent)
part proposed
by
Bjerrum
(1967) for onedimensional
compression is illustrated
schematically
in Fig. 1. The
plots of void ratio e and effective vertical stress*
u, versus time t show an immediate component,
occurring at the same instant that the external
load is applied, and a delayed component
that
persists indefinitely
with time. This decomposition scheme does not consider the influence of
hydrodynamic
lag.
Superimposed
in Fig. 1 is Taylors (1948)
description
of consolidation
using a curve consisting of two phases: a primary consolidation
phase for tst,
in which excess pore pressures
dissipate
and a secondary
compression
phase,
OF WET CLAYS
285
governed
by the secondary
compression
coefficient C, (=$ In 10, where $ is the secondary
compression
coefficient in the In t scale) for t 2
t,. The time t, corresponds
to end of pore
pressure dissipation,
or to 100% primary consolidation.
During secondary
compression,
the
soil continues to deform at a constant effective
stress.
Bjerrums
graphical
representation
of the
effect of delayed compression
on the void ratiolog vertical effective stress diagram for a onedimensional
consolidation
test is shown in Fig.
2. The diagram consists of contours of constant
time, each contour
representing
compression
after an equal duration of sustained loading. By
assuming a constant C,, the constant time lines
in Fig. 2 become equally spaced.
The effect of continued
volumetric
compression at a constant vertical effective stress for a
typical soil element portrayed in Fig. 2 is for the
soil to exhibit apparent stiffening and to develop
a quasipreconsolidation
pressure (T, during subsequent loading.
Modified
Cam
Clay as a timeindependent
plas
ticity model
The Cam Clay theory postulates the existence
of a unique state boundary surface, XXYY in
Fig. 3, representing
the limit of all possible
states of a wet clay in the void ratio evolumetric stress pdeviatoric
stress 4 space, in
which the stress parameters
p and q are defined
Instant
compresslot
IConsohdatmn;P
t
(b)
Fig. 1. Definitions of primary and secondary consolidation and immediate and delayed compression
* All stress quantities used in this Paper are effective
stress quantities.
To simplify notation, the prime symbol commonly
used to differentiate
effective stresses
from total stresses will be omitted.
Fig. 2. Bjerrums
pression
model
for onedimensional
com
286
consolidation
line
e
q = MP
line
/
/
Undrained
recompresslon
line
Gr~nn;sotroplc
consolidation
line
line
(1)
q =u1r73
(2)
(4)
e=e,Alnp
state
point
on
the
critical
state
line
is
characterized
by plastic shear deformation
instability without volume change.
The modified Cam Clay model uses an ellipsoidal yield surface of the form
F = F(Uii, p,) = $+
p(p  p,) = 0
(6)
(7)
STRESSSTRAINTIME
BEHAVIOUR
The deformations
predicted by this model are
analogous to those corresponding
to undrained
loading and primary consolidation,
or to those
which would immediately
develop at the instant
that the imposed load is applied, in the absence
of hydrodynamic
lag.
Inclusion
of creep deformations
Kavazanjian
& Mitchell
(1980) postulated
that timedependent
soil deformations
can be
divided into distinct, but interdependent,
volumetric and deviatoric
contributions.
They considered
these
creep
deformations
using the
following phenomenological
volumetric and deviatoric expressions
for creep.
Volumetric creep. Volumetric
creep deformations were based on Taylors (1948) secondary
compression
equation.
The accumulated
volumetric creep E, in time period At in a typical
isotropic (or onedimensional)
consolidation
test
is the integral (consult Fig. 2)
f+At
t
E 
I
t
ICI
(l+e)t
dt
dt
(9)
OF WET CLAYS
287
E,fl,
a+be,
(10)
OF THE
CONSTITUTIVE
Definitions
= +I,
(11)
(13)
r%&(GJkJ
= (411EdY
(14)
288
BORJA
AND
KAVAZANJIAN
from
geometrical
con
(19a)
f...
(19b)
of quasipreconsolidatioion
for y
Growth of preconsolidation
pressure
Assume that the size pF of the yield surface
given by the function
Pc = Pc(.%> tv)
is
(15)
Equation
(15) states that the preconsolidation
pressure pc does not only grow because of timeindependent
strain hardening
but also expands
with time, resulting
in the development
of a
state of quasipreconsolidation.
Consider
the consolidation
curve of Fig. 4.
Along any line of constant t,, say at tV= (tJi, the
timeindependent
plastic volumetric strain increment is given by
(20)
in which equation
(16b) is the Taylor series
expansion of equation (16a). Taking the limit of
Ap,/h~, as As.,+ 0,
aPC
a&,
where 4 is a proportionality
factor.
Setting
aF
FkkD= 4 ~
P=
(17)
I= k
GW
aakk
l+e
AK
(22)
or
,,%,~
Rewriting
equation
& = (c;J1&,j
(23b)
(21) explicitly
aF
i4 +
afl,,
EL,l
(24)
or
cri, = CRk,
(25)
STRESSSTRAINTIME
BEHAVIOUR
289
OF WET CLAYS
by defining
riately.
the
tensors
ciikl and
Evaluation
of derivatives
The following are the derivatives
to eauation (6))
aF
(26)
of F (refer
(36)
=2pp,
ap
where
ai, approp
(274
aF
=2
aq
2q
(27b)
Gc=p
(37)
aF
au,,
aF
=
auzi
where
1
aF
Substituting
simplifying
aF
&Tkt
aa,,
in
(Tii= cy&
and
(T,, = c%,&lf+x
&,
(39)
(40)
aF ap
+ap au,,
aF aq
aq au,,
(414
aFaFl+e
aPc aP A 
PC
(29)
(25)
and
equation
(41b)
. t
 Ufj
(30)
where
cT[ is the fourthrank
elastoplastic
stressstrain
tensor and I?,, is the stress relaxation rate given respectively
by
c~,=c~klx
8P
_=1
aui,
1
a4
3
=ui,   a!&sii
3
)
aa,
2q (
(28)
=_~k,____
aFPc 4
apt t, h  K 1
&,(&&y+
By definitions
spectively
(38)
aF
aF
C:pq~gCrskl
e
(31)
p4 IS
@P,
9
~
ap, t, A 
Gkl g
(32)
(424
It can be seen that c$ has the major symmetry
if and only if czkl has the major symmetry.
When creep is ignored,
&t= 0, Ic,= 0 and
hence, ai, = 0. If the response
of the soil is
perfectly elastic
uij = cp&&  &
where
c
a:, = Ciik,Eklf
(33)
(34)
Thus, whatever
the behaviour
of the material,
the creepinclusive
constitutive
equation
for
wet clay can always be written in the rate form
or
(42b)
Thus the bulk modulus increases linearly with
the volumetric
stress p, necessitating
that p be
always positive (i.e. always compressive).
Assuming that the trace of the modified Cam
Clay yield surface on the qy plane (or the
deviator stressaxial
strain plane in triaxial stress
condition) is a hyperbola of the form (cf. equation (10))
YPC R
(43)
q=f
afby
BOWA
290
AND
KAVAZANJIAN
where cp is a proportionality
factor and F is the
equivalent
yield surface evaluated
using equation (6), whose size p0 is the equivalent preconsolidation pressure given by
lsotrop~cconsolidatw
4 = MP
(4
Volumetric scaling
The magnitude
of the trace of Etlf along the
volumetric axis p is a measure of the volumetric
creep rate for the soil. The volumetric
part of
&, is
1
aF
(E,f)k, = f&Q Id=(P&d
(47)
3 aa,,
hyperbola
y from hyperbola
Ibl
Fig. 5. Evafuation
ages
of (a) volumetric
or
t $E=
JI
aa,, (1t e)t,
(48)
(49)
the elastic shear modulus is back calculated from
the initial tangent modulus of the hyperbolic
curve as follows
dq
G
or
I =P&
a
v=
_ 3 _=33CLe
dr,,t
2d Yoct
P&
P 3a
e
(44a)
(44b)
Eklf=qE
dukl
(45)
On substitution
of cp in equation
strain tensor is obtained as
1 + 1
ik'= (l+e)(2pp,)t,
dF
aok,
(50)
This expression
for ik, is singular when p =
p,/2 (i.e. when the point is on the critical state
line) because the normal to F at this point is
vertical and cannot be scaled in the (horizontal)
p direction. If 4 is assumed constant, equation
(50) will predict higher deviatoric
creep strain
rates at higher deviatoric stress levels as p approaches p,/2.
Volumetric age. The volumetric age of the soil
is obtained
by examining
its location
in the
epq
space relative to the position it would
occupy if it were normally consolidated.
The
volumetric
age is back calculated
on the basis
of the secondary
compression
coefficient
C,
and the void ratio distance of the state point
from the state boundary surface.
Figure 5 shows an overconsolidated
soil element A with coordinates
(e,, p, q) beneath the
STRESSSTRAINTIME
BEHAVIOUR
state boundary
surface. This soil element
developed a preconsolidation
pressure pc, either by
unloading or by natural ageing. In this situation,
the quantities e,, p, q and pc are not all independent but satisfy the relationship
el=ea(hK)hp,K
hp
(51)
hp
(52)
ezel
J/
e2e1
= (t,), antilog ( C, >
where (tJi is the reference
(often taken as 1.0) associated
consolidation
curve.
Deviatoric
scaling
Consider
given bv
the
deviatoric
291
ing for cp
(58)
Substituting
cp in equation
volumetric
time
with the virigin
component
of
Et,
4H aa,,(59)
1 aF 2 r* dF
3 an
The magnitude
evaluated as
of this
aF
deviatoric
aF
creep
tensor
ap
(31
1 a
=q [ aa,,aa,,3
In undrained
triaxial
Eklf would simplify to
(45)
A on the void
e2=e,(AK)hpcjK
t, = (tJ, exp
OF WET CLAYS
tests,
li2
is
(55)
the tensor
(60)
(61)
292
creep parameters
are usually obtained from undrained triaxial creep tests, equation (62) will be
used to define the ultimate strength.
To be compatible
with equation
(62), the
hyperbolic
curve (43) should yield the same
failure strength at an infinite deviatoric
strain,
This requisite condition can be
i.e. qUlt= q/,.
used to back calculate the relationship
between
the stressstrain
parameters
b and R, as follows
21
_
R,
(63)
PS
(64
qb
(y,Y&m)
t,j
Ae(t&
( td),exp
from equa
1(bmJif
mf
Remarks
This numerical approach of expressing creep
contributions
as artificial forces allows stationary
creep problems
(e.g. isotropic undrained
stress
relaxation
experiments
and undrained
triaxial
creep tests) to be numerically
simulated.
The
treatment
of hydrodynamic
lag also allows the
separation
of timedependent
deformations
into
components
due to pore pressure
dissipation
and due to creep.
(654
if m=l
(65b)
Numerical implementation
The development
of equation (35) allows the
resulting effective stressbased
constitutive
equation to be incorporated
into Biots (1941) general threedimensional
hydrodynamic
theory of
consolidation.
This consolidation
theory uses
Darcys law to characterize
the transient
pore
pressure dissipation
condition, i.e.
(66)
where
vector
work or a variational
formulation.
Such a
mixed type of formulation
has been numerically implemented
by Borja (1984) for solution
of twodimensional
boundary value problems of
axisymmetric
(torsionless)
and plane strain configurations
using the above constitutive
equation. The program,
called SPIN 2D, incorporates creep contributions
by explicitly evaluating
the stress relaxation term hilt in equation (35) at
the start of each time increment.
These contributions
can be treated in a manner similar
to or along with temperature
stresses in the
finite element matrix equations,
giving rise to a
pseudoforce
term F which can be explicitly
evaluated and added to the applied nodal force
arrays (Borja, 1984).
Example
The following example is based on the result
of a drained triaxial compression
test on Weald
Clay reported by Bishop & Henkel (1962). The
test consisted of consolidating
a cylindrical soil
sample to an isotropic stress of p= = 207 kN/m*
and then shearing the sample very slowly while
maintaining
the radial stress constant. The test
results, shown in Fig. 6, are duplicated by SPIN
2D by suppressing the effects of creep and using
the following
material
properties:
K = 0.031,
A = 0.088,
M = 0.882, a = 0.023, Rf = 1.00 and
ea= 1.31.
To illustrate the influence of creep, the volumetric scaling option on creep strain was employed (4 = 0.22 artificially selected) using a fournode axisymmetric
finite element. The bold lines
in Fig. 6 illustrate what the deviator stressaxial
strain and the volumetric strainaxial
strain behaviour would have been if the soil specimen
had been allowed to undergo stress relaxation
increment bc and loaded to failure (cd). During
the stress relaxation
increment
bc, the yield
surface continually expands with time owing to
creep, resulting in the development
of a quasipreconsolidation
pressure p=. Concurrently,
the
*The same test results have been duplicated
by the
program
PEPCO developed
by Johnston
(1981) for
the case when creep is ignored.
STRESSSTRAINTIME
BEHAVIOUR
OF WET CLAYS
.
200 
150.
E
t
y iooti

/
APPLICATION
BEHAVIOUR
OF THE MODEL
OF UNDISTURBED
Whop
8. Henkel
(1962),
and SPIN 2D (no creep)
PEPCO.
SPIN
creep
2D with
volumetric
TO THE
BAY MUD
In this section
the constitutive
model
is
evaluated
on the basis of its ability to predict
accurately
the results of simple triaxial and
plane strain laboratory tests on undisturbed
San
Francisco Bay Mud (UBM). Both drained (freeflow) and undrained
(noflow)
problems
are
numerically analysed using single finite elements
whose convergence
characteristics
have been
previously established.*
The soil parameters
used to model UBM are
summarized
in Table 1. These soil properties
were taken from a comprehensive
summary of
Bay Mud properties
presented
by Bonaparte
&
Mitchell (1979). Except for e, (the void ratio at
p = 1 on the isotropic consolidation
line) which
locates the immediate consolidation
line on the
eln p plane, all the soil properties were directly
obtained
from
the results
of conventional
laboratory
tests.
The value of e, can be obtained indirectly by
extrapolating
the primary consolidation
line to
p = 1 and moving up along the void ratio axis, to
the immediate
line, according to the secondary
compression
coefficient 4 (see also Kavazanjian
& Mitchell,
1980). However,
Borja
(1984)
showed that the stressstrain
and pore pressurestrain curves do not show appreciable
sensitivity
to the value of e,. Hence, the primary consolidation curve may also be taken as the immediate
line without introducing serious numerical inaccuracies.
Drained ttiaxial tests
The response
of the soil is said to be fully
drained when the rate of loading is much smaller
than the pore fluid diffusion rate. In this case,
the pore pressure
degree of freedom
can be
suppressed,
allowing the problem to be solved
using a singlephase
continuum formulation.
To demonstrate
the predictive
capability of
the constitutive
model in drained triaxial situations, four drained triaxial compression
tests on
*See
293
8
w
9 =
MP
Yield
Surtace
p kNlm
Fig. 6. Drained
UBM performed
by Lacerda (1976) were simulated. In his tests, the specimens were initially
isotropically
consolidated
to confining pressures
(T, of 53.9 kN/m,
102.9 kN/m*, 156.8 kN/m
and 313.6 kN/m and sheared at a strain rate of
E, = 3.2 x lo% per minute.
Lacerda showed that the deviator stress versus
axial strain diagram can be normalized by dividing the deviator stress by the initial consolidation pressure.
A plot of this normalized
curve
and the volumetric
strainaxial
strain curve are
shown in Fig. 7.
Numerical
tests were run with and without
creep effects using a single axisymmetric
finite
element.
This element
represents
the upper
quadrant
of a triaxial specimen
and approximates the displacement
field using a bilinear
interpolation.
The results of numerical
analyses with and
without creep effects are shown by the full and
open circles in Fig. 7, respectively.
The creepinclusive
analysis,
performed
using the deviatoric scaling option, significantly improves the
prediction for volumetric strain E, particularly at
larger values of E,.
Undrained
Lacerda
undrained
294
BORJA
for undisturbed
AND
Bay Mud
Symbol
Parameter
Virgin
compression
KAVAZANJIAN
index*
Value
A
0.37
0.85
C,=log,,h
Recompression
index*
c, = log:,
Secondary
compression
coefficient*
ICI
c, = log,, IL
Hyperbolic
stressstrain
parameters?
a
b
SinghMitchell
creep
parametersl
Permeability*
Angle
of internal
Void ratio*
0.054
0.124
0.0065
0.0150
0.0062
1.36 (=1.23
0.95
A
cu
m
friction?
34.5
(5)
1.40
ea
2.52
at p,= 1 kPa
time
O,)i
1.00 min
&Ii
1.00 min
Instant
volumetric
Instant
deviatoric
* From
t From
$ From
triaxial isotropically
consolidated
or conventional
consolidation
test.
isotrooicallv
consolidated
undrained
test with pore pressure measurement.
isotropically
consolidated
undrained
creep test.
time
rates,
ranging
from
1.1%
per minute to
7.3~ 10m4% per minute. He observed that both
the initial tangent modulus Ei and the ultimate
strength quit of the deviator stressaxial strain
curves varied linearly with the logarithm of the
axial strain rate E,. Similar observations have
been reported by Kondner (1963). Hence, it
may be inferred that the hyperbolic curves given
by equation (lo), obtained from conventional
undrained triaxial tests, do not exactly represent
the timeindependent behaviour because they
also contain creep components.
Interpolating E, and quit from Lacerdas plots
for & values of 1.0% per minute, 0.1% per
minute, 0.01% per minute and 0.001%
per
minute, the corresponding transformed hyperbolic curves are plotted in Fig. 8. Also plotted in
Fig. 8 is the hyperbolic curve obtained by
Bonaparte
(1981) from conventional stresscontrolled undrained triaxial compression tests.
Bonapartes
tests were completed in about
250300 min to allow pore pressure equalization, compressing the samples to about 10%
axial strain during this period. This is roughly
equivalent to compressing the samples at a strain
from equation
(63))
Variable
h, k
M from equation
strain
2.57
2.0
1.5bU
B
l.O
SPIN 20
No creep
Creep Included
r:;~
.
Fig. 7. Drained
test on UBM
STRESSSTRAINTIME
BEHAVIOUR
rate of about 0.01% per minute. This is confirmed by the observation that Bonapartes results
plot very closely to the hyperbola corresponding
to this strain rate.
Numerical
analyses using the properties
in
Table 1 were performed
with a single finite
element
that uses a biquadratic
displacement
interpolation
and a linear pore pressure interpolation.* Excellent
agreement
was achieved between Lacerdas results and the numerical experiments,
as shown in Fig. 8. It can be verified
from Fig. 8 that the trace of the Cam Clay
yield surface on the deviator stressaxial
strain
plane under undrained
triaxial compression
is,
approximately,
a hyperbola whose strength and
stiffness are a function of the imposed strain
rate.
When creep is ignored, the data points define
a unique hyperbola
regardless
of whether
the
numerical
tests are stress controlled
or strain
controlled.
It can also be observed
that the
hyperbola
obtained
from conventional
stresscontrolled
triaxial compression
tests does not
generally
represent
the immediate
soil be
Lacerda
(1976)
(strain controlled)
Bonaparte
(1981)
controlled)
duratfon
f
240300
ml
OF WET CLAYS
295
a
significant
a
6
Stress
controlled,
no creep
Straw
controlled,
no creep
Strain
rate
0 1% per mn
A Stress controlled,
duratfon
= 300
Q6
mn
lo
at
Fig. 9. Stressstrain
URM
296
BORTA
AND
KAVAZANJIAN
9
200
itjo
Points
z
5 120
2
~

on TSP
sinram(1985)
SPIN
2D
I
k
6
SKiIn
10
12
e22 %
diagram
for a plane
r
CRl2
SR12
SRl3
Lacerda
D = 0.8
0, Icreaslng,o,
Consranl
D = 0 7
m, constanlp,
decreasing
u = 05
v, constant,o,
decreasmg
(19761
STRESSSTRAINTIME
BEHAVIOUR
REMARKS
297
OF WET CLAYS
60
E
t
Y
640
20

 SPIN
OL
6
,
Lacerda
(1976)
20
3
Am
Lacerda
(1976)
SPIN 2D
strain
72 %
The timedependent
part is evaluated
on the
basis of the phenomenological
creep rate expressions
for isotropic
or undrained
triaxial
stress conditions (volumetric and deviatoric scaling respectively).
If the secondary
compression
coefficient
4
is constant,
the volumetric
and the deviatoric
scaling procedures
cannot give identical results
because
rC, cannot be made to vary with the
deviator stress level. An approach presented
by
Borja (1984) for the plane strain case forces the
tensor Eer to satisfy both the volumetric and the
deviatoric creep requirements
without applying
the normality rule.
The above constitutive
equation
has been
numerically
implemented
into a consolidationcreep finite element program capable of solving
twodimensional
boundary
value problems
in
plane strain and axisymmetric
(torsionless) stress
conditions. The tensor of moduli c,~~,contributes
to the global stiffness matrix, while the stress
relaxation
rate term &<iifis treated as or along
with temperature
stresses which can be superimposed in the vector of applied nodal forces using
the virtual work or variational formulation.
The consolidation
creep program
has been
used to predict
results of triaxial and plane
strain laboratory
tests, with and without creep
298
BOFIJA AND
effects, demonstrating
that creep deformations
can become a major contributor
to the total
deformations
for young clays or in conditions
under which the time of sustained
loading is
comparable
with the geologic age of the soil. By
imposing the condition
of incompressibility,
it
has likewise been shown that undrained
creep
can be of major importance
in the prediction of
excess pore pressures
as a result of either the
arresting of secondary compression
or shearing.
While the examples
discussed
in this Paper
showed simple boundary
conditions
simulating
triaxial or plane strain laboratory
stress conditions, the validity of the above model has also
been investigated
and has been shown to work
in more complicated
axisymmetric
applications
(Borja, 1984) and in an actual plane strain field
situation (Kavazanjian
et al., 1984).
Further
research
is currently
under way as
part of a Stanford
UniversityUniversity
of
California,
Berkeley,
collaborative
research
project on the stressstraintime
behaviour
of
cohesive soils, funded by the National Science
Foundation.
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General
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Arnold.
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R. (1981). A timedependent
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R. I. (1984). Finite element analysis of the
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J. T. (1977). Two and threedimensional
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