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CHAPTER-IV

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION


Data analysis is the process of systematically applying statistical and logical
technique to describe and illustrate, condense and evaluate data and hypothesis (The
office of research integrity, 2010). Interpretation is the process of making sense of the
result and examining their implication. (Polit and Beck, 2008)
This chapter explores the analysis of collected data and interpretation of the
results regarding effectiveness of video assisted teaching on exclusive breast feeding
techniques and identifying the difficulties in practicing exclusive breastfeeding among
working lactating mothers.
This chapter is organized under the following sections;

Demographic variables of the working lactating mothers.


Baseline data regarding infant breast feeding.
Knowledge, attitude and skill level of working lactating mothers in pre- test
and post test.
Comparison of knowledge, attitude and skill level of working lactating
mothers in pre test and post test.
Association of demographic variables on knowledge, attitude and skill level
of working lactating mothers.
Identification of infant feeding practices among the working lactating
mothers and their difficulties in practicing exclusive breast feeding.

33

TABLE 4.1: Frequency and percentage distribution of demographic variables of


working lactating mothers.
n=30

Sl.

Demographic variables

Number of samples

Percentage (%)

21-25 years

20

26-30 years

19

63

31-35 years

17

0-2 months

15

50

2-4 months

11

36.7

4-6 months

13.3

Secondary

3.3

Diploma

6.7

Graduate

13

43.3

Post graduate

14

46.7

<Rs.10,000

10

Rs.10,000 Rs.40,000

17

56.7

Rs. 40,000- Rs.80,000

30

>Rs. 80,000

3.3

One

22

73.33

Two

23.33

Three

3.3

First

24

80

Second

20

No
1

Age of the mothers

Age of infant

Mothers education

Family income

Parity

Birth order

34

Table 4.1 shows, among 30 working lactating mothers, majority of the mothers
63% (19) aged between 26-30 years and 20% (6) mothers belongs to 21-25 years and
17% (5) mothers aged above 30 years.
Regarding infant age, about 50% (15) of infants belongs to 0-2 months and
36.7 % (11) infants belong to 2-4 months and only 4 infants were aged between 4-6
months.
Majority of the working lactating mothers, 46.7% (14) were post graduates,
43.3 % ( 13) were graduates and 6.7 % ( 2) had diploma degree and only one 3.3%
had secondary education.
Among 30 working lactating mothers, 56.7% (17) mothers earned family
income between Rs.10,000 - Rs.4 0,000 and 30% (9) earned income ranging from
Rs.40,000- Rs.80.000. About 10 % (3) had income less than 10,000. Only one mother
(3.3%) earned more than Rs. 80,000.
Among 30 lactating mothers, majority 73.3% (22) mothers were primi mothers
and 23.33% (7) mothers had history of two pregnancy. Only 3.3%, one mother had
history of four pregnancies
In this study, 80% (24) mothers had their infants as first born child and 20%
(6) mothers had their infants as second child

35

TABLE 4.2: Frequency and percentage distribution of work profile of the


working lactating mothers
n=30

Sl.

Work Profile

Number of

No
1

Percentage (%)

Samples
Nature of work
Professional

17

56.7

Non Professional

13

43.3

Government

6.7

Private

28

93.3

1-6 hours

13.3

6-8 hours

11

36.7

8-10 hours

14

46.7

>10 hours

3.3

15 minutes-30 minutes

10

33.3

30 minutes- 1 hour

16

53.3

1 hour-1 hours

13.3

1 hours- 2 hours

<3months

12

40

3-4 months

15

50

pto 6months

10

Above 6 months

No leave

Type of work firm

Duration of work

Duration of break hours

Maternity leave

36

Table 4.2 reveals, among 30 working lactating mothers, 56.7% (17) mothers
were professional workers and 43.3% (13) were non professionals.
Majority of mothers 93.3% (28) were working in private firm except 6.7% (2)
mothers were government employees.
With regard to duration of work, almost 46.7 % (14) mothers worked for
8-10 hours and another 36.7 % (11) worked for 6-8 hours of work and 13.3% (4)
had1-6 hours of work. Only 3.3 % (1) mothers had working time more than 10 hours.
Majority of mothers, 53.5% (16) mothers had 30 minutes -1 hour of break and
33.3% (10) had only 15- 30 minutes break. Only 13.3 % (4) of mothers reported
break hour for more than up 1 hour.
Out of 30 mothers, half 50% (15) mothers had maternity leave for 3-4 months
and 40% (12) reported maternity leave less than 3 months. Only 10 % (3) mothers
informed that the maternity leave might be extended up to 6 months.

37

Percentage

46.7%
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

36.7%

13.3%
3.3%

1-6 hours

6-8 hours

8-10 hours

>10 hours

Working hours

FIGURE 4.3: Bar diagram showing percentage distribution of working hours of


the working lactating mothers

0%

Break hours

18 minutes-30 minutes

13.3%

17 minutes-30 minutes

53.3%

16 minutes-30 minutes

33.3%

15 minutes-30 minutes

10

20

30

40

50

60

Percentage

FIGURE 4.4: Bar diagram percentage distribution of break hours allotted for
the working lactating mothers

38

TABLE 4.3: Frequency and percentage distribution of previous education


regarding breast feeding
n=30

Sl.No

Previous education

Number of

Percentage

samples

(%)

Yes

13.3

No

26

86.7

Benefits of breast feeding

100

Breast feeding techniques

100

Exclusive breast feeding

100

Factors influencing breast milk

100

Mass media /public teaching

Individual counseling

Class room teaching

100

Previous education

1.1

Topics

secretion
1.2

Through

Table 4.3 shows, only 13.3% (4) working mothers with medical field
experience and class room teaching had previous knowledge regarding benefits of
breast feeding, breast feeding techniques, exclusive breast feeding and factors
influencing breast milk secretion. 86.7% (26) mothers had no previous education
sessions.

39

TABLE

4.4: Frequency and percentage distribution of baseline data regarding

infant feeding
n=30
Sl.

Baseline data

Number of

Percentage

samples

(%)

Only breast milk

25

83.3

Breast milk with formula feed

13.3

Breast milk with cows milk

3.3

Only formula feed or cows milk

Yes

23.3

No

23

26.7

Occasionally

42.9

Once daily

28.5

Twice daily

28.5

Room temperature

23.3

Refrigerator

Husband

26.67

Family members

20

66.67

Friends

Colleagues

None

6.66

No
1

Type or infant feeding practice

Practice

of

expressing

and

collecting breast milk

2.1

Frequency

of

expression

of

breast milk

2.2

Storage of expressed breast milk

Support for exclusive breast


feeding for six months

40

Table 4.4 shows, among 30 lactating mothers, at the time of data collection,
83.3% (25) mothers were practicing breast milk feeding and 16.7% (4) were
practicing breast milk and formula feeding at one month and three months of infant
life. One mother (3.3%) started to practice cows milk feeding at three months of
infant life.
Out of 30 mothers, only 23.3% (7) mothers practiced expression of breast milk
for infant feeding, using hand expression technique. 42.9% (3) mothers had collected
breast milk once or occassionly.28.5% (2) mothers collected once daily and one
mother (11.28%) collected twice daily. One more mother (11.8%) collects thrice daily.
All the 7 mothers used to store the expressed breast milk in room temperature.
Among 30 mothers, 40% (20) mothers got support from all the family
members for exclusive breast feeding and 26.7% (7) mothers got support from their
husbands. About 6.7% (2) mothers reported no support from their husband, family
members, friends and colleagues.

41

66.67%

70

Percentage

60
50
40

26.67%

30
20

6.66%

10

0%

0%

0
Husband

Family
members

Friends

Colleagues

None

Support for exclusive breast feeding

FIGURE 4.5: Bar diagram showing percentage distribution of support for


exclusive breastfeeding

42

TABLE 4.5: Frequency and percentage distribution of occupation factors


influencing feeding pattern
n=30

Sl.No Occupation factors

Number of

Percentage (%)

samples
1

Going home for feeding during


break hours

Yes

3.3

No

29

96.7

<10kms

19

63

11-20kms

26.7

21-30kms

3.3

>30kms

6.7

Two wheeler

30

Four wheeler

6.7

Walking

6.7

Public vehicle

17

56.66

Yes

3.3

No

29

96.7

Yes

3.3

No

29

96.7

Distance between work place


and home

Mode of transport

Crche facility

Facilities

for

collection

and

storage of breast milk

43

Table 4.5 reveals, majority 96.7% (29) mothers reported that there might be
inconvenience to go home for feeding due to time constrains, distance and transport
facility. Only one mother (3.3%) was able to go home for feeding purpose at the time
of data collection
About 63% (19) working mothers had less than 10 kilo meters distance and
26.7% (8) had less than 20 kilo meters of distance. One mother (3.3%) had less than
30 kilo meters and 6.7% (2) mothers had to travel more than 60 kilometers.
Almost more than half of the mothers 56.66% (17), travel by public transport
to their working area and home. 30% (9) mothers had their own two-wheeler vehicle.
About 6.7% (2) mothers had own four wheeler vehicle and another 6.6% (2) mothers
reported walk able distance to their working area.
Almost 96.7% (29) reported no crche facilities for their infants near to their
working area. Only one mother (3.3%) had crche facility near working area.
None of the 30 mothers had facilities for collecting and storing breast milk in
their working area.

44

TABLE 4.6: Knowledge level of working lactating mothers on exclusive breast


feeding in pre test and post test-II
Sl No

n= 30

Level of knowledge

Pre test

Post test-II

Adequate

11

36.7

Moderately adequate

11

36.7

18

60

Inadequate

19

63.3

3.3

Table 4.6 depicts among 30 working lactating mothers, more than half of the
mothers 63.3% (19) had inadequate knowledge and 36.7% (11) had moderately
adequate knowledge and none of the mothers had adequate knowledge. After the
video assisted teaching, 36.7% (11) had adequate knowledge and 60% (18) had
moderately adequate knowledge. Only one mother 3.3% (1) had inadequate
knowledge.

45

60%

70

63.3%

Percentage

60
50
36.7%

40

36.7%

30

Pre test

20

Post test-II

10

3.3%
0%

Adequate

Moderately
adequate

Inadequate

Knowledge level

FIGURE 4.6: Bar diagram showing knowledge on exclusive breast feeding among
working lactating mothers in pre test and post test-II

46

TABLE 4.7: Section wise knowledge level of working lactating mothers on


exclusive breast feeding in pre- test and post test-II

n=30

Sections

Knowledge

Knowledge

Knowledge

Knowledge

Knowledge

Knowledge

on basics of

on

on

on storing

on thawing

breast

exclusive

collection

of

technique

feeding

breast

of breast

expressed

feeding

milk

breast milk

level

Adequate

3.3

17

56.7

6.6

3.3

16.6

16.6

26.7

30

12

40

13.7

24

80

16.6

19

63

17

56.7

21

70

16.6

18

60

17

56.7

23.3

20

10

33.3

10

33.3

12

23.3

15

50%

14

46.7

15

50

6.6

20

26.7

10

33.3

knowledge
Pre- Moderate
test

adequate
knowledge
Inadequate
knowledge
Adequate
knowledge
Moderate

Post
test
-II

adequate
knowledge
Inadequate
knowledge

47

Table 4.7 depicts, section wise knowledge level of working lactating mothers
Knowledge on basics of breast feeding:
Among 30 working lactating mothers, majority of 80% (24) mothers had
inadequate knowledge and 16.6% (5) had moderately adequate knowledge and 3.3% (1)
mother had inadequate knowledge. After video assisted teaching, 16.6% (5) gain
adequate knowledge, 33.3% (10) had moderately adequate knowledge and 50% (15)
had inadequate knowledge
Knowledge on exclusive breast feeding:
More than half of the mothers, 56.7% (17) had adequate knowledge, 26.7% (8)
had moderately adequate knowledge and 16.6% (5) had inadequate knowledge
regarding exclusive breast feeding. On post test, 60% (18) had adequate knowledge,
33.3% (10) mothers had moderately adequate knowledge. Only 6.6% (2) had
inadequate knowledge.
Knowledge on collection of breast milk:
Almost 63% (19) mothers had inadequate knowledge, 30% (9) had moderately
adequate knowledge and 6.6% (2) had adequate knowledge. After the intervention,
56.7% (17) had adequate knowledge, 40% (12) had moderately adequate knowledge
and only 3.3% (1) had inadequate knowledge.
Knowledge on storing of breast milk:
During pre-test, more than half of the mothers 56.7% (17) had inadequate
knowledge, 40% (12) had moderately adequate knowledge. 3.3% (1) had adequate
knowledge. After the intervention, 50% (15) had moderately adequate knowledge,
23.3% (7) had adequate knowledge and 26.7% (8) had inadequate knowledge.
Knowledge on thawing technique:
Majority, 70% (21) had inadequate knowledge, 16.6% (5) had adequate
knowledge and 13.7% (4) had moderately adequate knowledge. On post test, 20% (6)
mothers had adequate knowledge, 46.7% (14) had moderately adequate knowledge, and
about 33.3% (10) had inadequate knowledge.

48

TABLE 4.8: Attitude level of working lactating mothers on exclusive breast


feeding during pre test and post test-II

n= 30
Pre-test

Sl. No

Levels of attitude

Post test -II

Favorable

16.7

17

56.7

Moderately favorable

25

83.3

13

43.3

Un favorable

Table 4.8 shows, about 16.7% (5) had favorable attitude towards exclusive
breast feeding and 83.3% (25) had moderately favorable attitude. During post test,
56.7% (17) has favorable attitude and 43.3% (13) had moderately favorable attitude.
None of them had unfavorable attitude in pre test and post test.
TABLE 4.9: Skill level on expressing breast milk among working lactating
mothers during pre test and post test-I

Sl.

n=30

Skill level

Pre test

Post test- I

No
f

Adequate

13

43.3

29

96.7

Fair

15

50

3.3

Inadequate

6.7

Table 4.9 shows, with regard to skill in expressing breast milk, 43.3% (13) had
adequate skill and 50% (15) had fair skill. Only 6.7% (2) had inadequate skill. On post
test, majority of the mothers, 96.7% (29) had adequate skill, 3.3% (1) had fair skill and
none of them had inadequate skill.

49

90

83.3%

80

Percentage

70
56.7%

60
50

43.3%

40

Pre test

30

Post test-II
16.7%

20
10

0%

Favorable

Moderately
favorable

0%

Un favorable

Attitude level

FIGURE 4.7: Bar diagram showing attitude level of working lactating mothers on
exclusive breast feeding during pre test and post test-II.

96.7%
100
90

Percentage

80
70
50%

60
50

43.3%
pre test

40

post test-I

30
20

3.3%

10

6.7%
0%

0
Adequate

Fair

Inadequate

Skill level

FIGURE 4.8 Bar diagram showing skill level on expressing breast milk among
working lactating mothers during pre test and post test-I

50

TABLE 4.10 Comparison of pre test and post test knowledge, attitude and skill level
of working lactating mother through student t test.
n= 30
Sl.

Test

Pre test

Post test

no

Table

value value

95%

CI

value

Mean

SD

Mean

SD

12.63

4.36

21.4

3.092

3.65

(-10.95, -6.84)

51.63

7.004

55.46 5..507 3.186 2.75

(-6.25,-1.41)

Knowledge
on
exclusive

9.31

breast
feeding
2

Attitude on
exclusive
breast
feeding

Skill level
on
expression

36.033 7.073

45.36

2.774

of breast
milk
Statistically Significant **p<0.001; *p<0.01.

51

8.294 3.65

(-11.48,-7.11)

Null hypothesis H01: There will be no significant improvement in the knowledge and
attitude on exclusive breast feeding and skill performance in expressing breast milk
among lactating working mothers.
Table 4.10 depicts, the mean post test knowledge score (21.4) with SD 3.092
was greater when compared with mean pre test knowledge score (12.63) with SD 4.36.
The paired t test was computed. The calculated t value was 9.31 at df (29) was higher
than the table value (3.59) which is significant at p< 0.001. Hence research hypothesis H1
(Page No: 7) is accepted and null hypothesis (H01) is rejected.
The mean post test attitude score (55.46) was greater with SD 9.433 when
compared with mean pre test knowledge score (51.63) with SD 7.004. The calculated
t value was 2.75 at df (29) was higher than the table value (2.75) which is significant at
p<0.01. Hence research hypothesis H1 (Page No: 7) is accepted null hypothesis (H01) is
rejected.
The mean post test skill score (45.366) with SD 2.77 was greater when
compared with mean pre test skill score (36.033) with SD 7.073. The calculated t
value was 8.294 at df (29) was higher than the table value (3.65) which is significant at
p<0.001. Hence research hypothesis H1 (Page No: 7) is accepted and null hypothesis
(H01) is rejected.
Hence the video assisted teaching was found to be effective for improving the
knowledge, attitude and skill of working lactating mothers.

52

TABLE 4.11 Association of demographic variables and knowledge level of working


lactating mothers
n=30
Sl.No

Variables

Knowledge score
0-13

14-40

21-25 years

26-30years

10

31-35years

Graduates

Post graduates

10

Professional

11

Non professional

11

Primi

10

Multi

Yes

11

No

11

Chi square

Table

P value

value

Age of the
mother

47.433

13.82

0.001**

3.59

3.84

0.5

0.314

3.84

NS

8.99

6.63

0.01*

1.138

3.84

0.5

Education status
of the mother

Nature of work

Parity

Previous
education

Statistically Significant **p<0.001; *p<0.01; NS- Not Significant at any level


Table 4.11 shows, there is an association between age of the mother, parity and
knowledge
(

level

of

pre

test

at

p<0.001

47.433)

and

p=0.01

respectively. This depicts the mothers with 31 -35 years and 26 -30years had

more association with knowledge level. Among 13 multi parity mothers, 9 had good
knowledge level and it also shows an association. Thus, as the age and parity increases
the knowledge level also increases. There is no association between other demographic
variables and knowledge level. Hence research hypothesis
parity of the mother. (Page No 7).
53

is accepted for age and

TABLE 4.12 Association of demographic variables and attitude of working


lactating mothers
n=30
Sl.

Variables

No

Attitude score

Chi

Table

P value

0-55

56-75

square

value

21-25 years

55.113

13.82

0.001**

26-30years

16

31-35years

Graduates

14

0.033

3.84

NS

Post graduates

10

Primi

19

0.638

3.84

0.5

Multi

Yes

0.883

3.84

0.5

No

21

Age of the
mother

Education status
of the mother

Parity

Previous
education

Statistically Significant-**p<0.001; NS- Not Significant at any level


Table 4.12 depicts, there was an association between age and attitude level of
pre test at p< 0.001 (

. This shows, among 5 mothers of 31-35 years, 2 had

good knowledge and proves as the age increases, the mothers develops desirable
attitude. There is no association between any other variables and attitude level. Hence
research hypothesis

is accepted for age of the mother. (Page No 7).

54

TABLE 4.13 Association of demographic variables and skill of working lactating


mothers
n=30
Sl.

Variables

Skill competency

Chi

Table

score

square

value

42.08

13.82

0.001**

0.222

3.84

NS

3.415

3.84

0.10

3.091

3.84

0.10

No

0-35

36-75

21-25 years

26-30years

10

31-35years

Graduates

Post graduates

First

10

12

Second

Yes

no

15

11

P value

Age of the
mother

Education status
of the mother

Infant birth
order

Previous
education

Statistically Significant- -**p<0.001; NS- Not Significant at any level


Table 4.13 shows there was an association between age and skill level of pre test
at p< 0.001 (

, the skill in performing expression of breast milk improves

with advancing age (26-30years). There is no association between any other variables
and attitude level. Hence research hypothesis
(PageNo7).

55

is accepted for age of the mother.

TABLE 4.14: Frequency and percentage distribution of working lactating


mothers during phone follow up in post test- III
n=30
Sl.

Participants

Follow up-I

Follow up-II

Follow up-III

no

Nature

One week before

One week after

Two weeks

rejoining for

rejoining for

after rejoining

work

work

for work

Phone attended

29

96.7

29

96.7

29

96.7

Indented to

23

77

0 .7

24

82.75

25

86.2

3.3

13.33

13.33

13.33

3.3

3.3

3.3

work
Starts to work
Extended
leave
temporarily
Extended
leave for more
than 6 months
2

Phone not attended

Table 4.14 shows, Among 30 working lactating mothers, 29 participated in the


three phone follow ups.
During the first follow up, 2 (.7%) mothers were started to work and 77 % (23)
mothers planed to rejoin work within a week. 13.33% (4) mothers planned to extent
their maternity leave upto 6 months.
During the second phone follow up, among 29 mothers, 82.75% (24) mothers
started to work. 1 (3.3%) mother extended the leave temporarily. 4 (13.33%) mothers
continued their maternity leave.
At the time of third follow up, all the mothers 86.2 % (25) mothers started to
work except the (13.3%) mothers who extended their maternity leave for 6 months.

56

TABLE 4.15: Frequency and percentage distribution of base line information


regarding infant care during phone follow up in post test- III
n=29
No

Base line

Follow up-I

Follow up-II

Follow up-III

information

One week before

One week after

Two weeks

rejoining for work

rejoining for

after rejoining

work

for work

1 month

2 months

31.03

17.24

6.89

3 months

13

44.82

13

44.82

17.24

4months

20.68

31.03

15

51.72

5months

3.44

6.89

24.13

6months

Grand mother

21

72.41

21

72.41

21

2.41

Other relatives

13.8

13.8

13.8

Home maid

13.8

13.8

13.8

Yes

17

58.62

23

79.31

28

96.55

No

12

41.37

20.68

3.44

Age of the infants

Caretaker of
infant in mothers
absence

Conveys video
information to
the caretaker

57

Table 4.15, shows, Among 29 mothers, 72.41% (21) mothers responded that the
grandmothers take care of the child in their absence. 13.8% (4) reported other family
members like sister or aunt

takes care of the child. Another 13.8% (4) mothers had

home maid for taking care of the infant. These rates were constant for all the follow
ups.
At the time of first follow up only 58.62% (17) mothers conveyed the video
information to the care takers. The rate increased to 79.31% (28) during second follow
up. Almost 96.55% (28) mothers conveyed information to the care take by third follow
ups.
Regarding percentage distribution of infant age, during the first follow up, majority of
infants 44.82% (13) were aged 3 months.31.03% (9) infants aged 2 months, 20.68% (6)
infants grouped in 4 months. Only 3.44% (1) infant were in 5 months. None of them
were in one month and 6 months of age
During the second follow up, 44.82% (13) infants were aged 3 months.31.03%
(9) infants were aged 4 months. 17.24% (5) infants were aged 2months. Only 6.89% (2)
infants aged 5 months.
At the time of third follow up, 51.72% (15) infants were 4 months.24.13% (7)
infants were aged 5 months. Only 17.24% (5) were aged 3months and 6.89% (2) infants
were 2months.

58

TABLE 4.16: Frequency and percentage distribution of mothers going home for
break hours during phone follow up in post test- III
Sl.

Base line

Follow up-I

Follow up-II

Follow up-III

No

information

One week before

One week

Two weeks

rejoining for

after rejoining after rejoining

work

for work

for work

n=29

n= 24

n= 24

Yes

37.5

10

41.6

No

29

100

15

62.5

14

58.33

Going home in
break hours for
feeding

Table 4.16 shows, during the first follow up, only 2 mothers start to work and
none of the mothers were going home for feeding.
During the second follow up, 37.5% (9) mothers were able to go home during
break hours for infant feeding and 41.4% (10) mothers responded that they were able to
go home during the break hours.

59

TABLE 4.17: Frequency and percentage distribution of infant feeding practices


and method of administration during phone follow up in post test- III
n=29

Sl.

Base line information

Follow up-I

Follow up-II

Follow up-III

One week

One week after

Two weeks

before

rejoining for

after

rejoining for

work

rejoining for

No

work

work

Breast milk only

20

68.96

13

44.82

13

44.82

Formula feed only

3.44

Cows milk only

3.44

3.44

3.44

Breast milk and formula feed

20.68

13

44.82

11

37.93

Breast milk and cows milk

6.89

6.89

6.89

Formula feed and cows milk

3.44

Sangu feeding

17.24

3.44

6.89

Cup and spoon feeding

3.44

13.49

13.79

Bottle feeding

13.49

14

48.27

16

55.17

Sangu + bottle feeding

3.44

3.44

Type of infant feed

Method of administering
expressed breast milk /
formula feed

60

Table 4.17 reveals, during first follow up about 68.96% (20) of infants received
exclusive breast feeding. 20.68% (6) of infants received breast milk and formula feed.
Almost 6.89% (2) infants received breast milk and cows milk. 3.44% (1) infant was
started feeding with cows milk. None of them depended on formula feed alone.
At the time of second follow up, the breast milk only rate decreased to 44, 82%
(13). About 37.93% (11) infants were introduced to formula feed along with breast milk.
Two mothers introduced cows milk along with breast milk. One infant on cows milk
were continuing same in this follow up.
In the third follow up, the infants continuing breast milk only and cows milk
with breast milk remains same. The rate of infants feeding with breast milk and formula
feed became 37.93%. (11) The infants on formula feed only and cows milk only was
3.44% (1) in each.
Table 4.17 shows, for administering the expressed breast milk or formula feed.
17.24% (5) care takers used sangu and 13.49% (4) used bottle for feeding, during the
first follow up. The use of bottles were increased to 48.27% (16) in the second follow up
and further increased to 55% in the third follow up. The use of cup and spoon 13.49%
(4) for feeding remains same during second and third follow up.

61

68.96%
70
60

Percentage

50

44.82%
44.82%

44.82%
37.93%

40
30

Follow up-I

20.68%
20

Follow up-II

10
0

3.44%

3.44%
3.44%

3.44%

6.89%

6.89% 6.89%

Follow up-III
0

3.44%

Type of feed

Figure 4.9: Bar diagram showing percentage distribution of type of infant feed practiced by working lactating mothers during
post test- III
62

TABLE 4.18: Frequency and percentage distribution of feeding frequency during


phone follow up in post test- III

Sl.

Base line information

n=29
Follow up-I

Follow up-II

Follow up-

One week

One week after

III

before

rejoining for

Two weeks

rejoining for

work

after

No

work

rejoining for
work

Often (more than 10 times)

22

75.86

21

72.41

17.24

Less often (8-10 times)

3.44

10.34

10

34.48

Very few (4-8 times)

13.79

10.34

10

34.48

Occasionally (less than 4

3.44

3.44

3.44

3.44

3.44

10.34

Often (more than 10 times)

6.89

3.44

Less often (8-10 times)

6.89

3.44

Very few (4-8 times)

10.34

20.68

27.5

Occasionally (less than 4

3.44

17.24

3.44

23

79.3

16

55.17

18

62.06

Often (more than 10 times)

3.44

3.44

3.44

Less often (8-10 times)

3.44

Very few (4-8 times)

3.44

Occasionally (less than 4

3.44

6.89

3.44

27

93.10

26

89.65

25

86.20

Frequency of feedings
Breast milk

times)
None
Formula feed

times)
None
Cows milk

times)
None

63

Table 4.18 shows; the frequency of breast milk feeding in the first follow up was
more than 10 times among 75.86% (22) of mothers. During the third follow up it is
reduced to 17.24% (5). Thirty four percent of mothers were use to feed 8-10 times in the
third follow up.
The use of formula feed in the first follow up was none among. Seventy nine
percent (23) mothers and 10.34% (3) mothers used 4-8 times, 2(6.89%) used often. In the
second follow up, the number of mothers not using formula feeds were reduced to 16
(55.17%) but it was raised to 62% (18) during third follow up. About 27.5% (8) of
mothers were practicing formula feeding for their infants in the third follow up.
One mother, (3.4%) were feeding her infant with cows milk from the first follow
up. Only one mother was feeding occasionally. In the third follow up, a total of 4
mothers practiced cows milk for their infant feeding and majority 86% (25) were not
used cows milk.

64

TABLE 4.19 Frequency and percentage distribution of lactating mothers regarding


collection of expressed breast milk during phone follow up in post test- III
n=29

Sl.

Base line information

Follow up-I

Follow up-II

Follow up-

One week

One week

III

before

after rejoining

Two weeks

rejoining

for work

after

No

for work

rejoining
for work

Yes

10

34.48

18

62.06

16

55.17

No

19

65.51

11

37.93

13

44.82

Hand expression

80

13

72.2

10

62.5

Pump expression

20

16.6

25

Both hand and pump

11.11

12.5

More than thrice a day

5.55

6.25

Twice a day

10

50

56.25

Once a day

22.2

18.75

Occasionally

90

22.2

18.75

Steel containers

10

100

14

77.77

67.25

Feeding / pump bottle

22.22

43.75

Expresses breast milk for


infant feeding

1.1

Method

of

expressing

breast milk

1.2

Frequency

of

expressing

breast milk

1.3

Container

used

for

collecting expressed breast


milk

65

Regarding expression of breast milk Table 4.19 shows, in the first follow up, only
10 (34.48%) mother were expressing. Most of them 90% (9) express occasionally.
Majority 80% (8) were using hand technique for expression of breast milk.
During second follow up, the number of mothers practicing expression of breast
milk was increased to 62% (18). Among 18 mothers, 13(72.2%) were using hand
expression, 3 (16.6%) were using pump and 11.11% (2) were using both hand and pump.
Half of the mothers 50% (9) expresses twice a day.
During third follow up, 55.17 % (16) mothers were expressing breast milk for
infant feeding. Out of them, 6% of mother expresses more than thrice a day. Majority
56.25% (9) mothers were expressing twice a day. Sixty two percent (10) of mothers were
expressing with hand expression.
Regarding containers used, all the 10 mothers were used steel containers during
first follow up. In the third follow up, 67.25% (9) were using steel containers and the
remaining were using feeding or pump bottle.

66

TABLE 4.20 Frequency and percentage distribution of lactating mothers regarding


storing of expressed breast milk during phone follow up in post test- III

Sl.

Base line information

Follow up-I

Follow up-II

Follow up-III

One week

One week after

Two weeks

before

rejoining for

after rejoining

rejoining

work

for work

for work

n=18

n=16

No

n=10

Steel containers

10

100

14

77.77

56.25

Feeding / pump bottle

22.22

43.75

Room temperature

10

100

14

77.77

11

68.75

Refrigerator

5.55

6.25

Both

16.6

25

More than 6 hours

16.6

22.22

Within 4-6 hours

11.11

22.22

Within 2-4 hours

33.33

22.22

Within 1-2 hours

16.6

11.11

Within 1 hour

10

100

22.22

11.11

Container used for storing


expressed breast milk

Place of storing expressed


breast milk

Duration

of

storing

expressed breast milk

67

Table 4.20 shows, all the mothers who used to express milk during first follow
up, were storing the milk in steel containers in room temperature for less than 1 hour.
Among 18 mothers who express breast milk during second follow up, 77.77%
(14) stored the expressed breast milk in steel container, in room temperature. 22% (4)
mothers were storing in feeding or pump bottle. 16.6% (3) of mother used to store
expressed milk in both room temperature and refrigerator. Majority 33.33% (6) of the
mothers utilized the expressed milk within 2-4 hours.
During the third follow up, 56.25% (9) of mothers stored expressed breast milk
in steel container.43.75% (7) of mothers stored in feeding or pump bottle and majority of
mothers 68.75% (11) stored the expressed breast milk in room temperature. The majority
of mothers 66.66% (12) fed the child within 6 hours only 22.22% (4) mothers stored the
expressed breast milk for more than six hours.

68

TABLE 4.21 Frequency and percentage distribution of difficulties faced by


mothers in practicing exclusive breast feeding during phone follow up in post
test- III
n=29

Sl.
No

Difficulties faced

Follow up-I
One week
before
rejoining for
work

Follow up-II
One week
after
rejoining for
work

Follow upIII
Two weeks
after
rejoining
for work
f
%

Working hours are more.

3.44

24.13

24.13

No facilities for collection

3.44

20.6

20.6

and storage of expressed


breast milk
3

Milk secretion is less

27.55

12

41.37

12

41.37

Unsatisfied mother and child

3.44

10.34

10.34

Difficulty in expressing milk

6.89

17.24

17.24

Poor family support

3.44

3.44

6.89

Medical complaints

3.44

3.44

3.44

6.89

10.34

(Mastitis)
8

Others ( own convenience)

Table 4.21 depicts, during the first follow up, the major problem faced by the
mother in practicing exclusive breast feeding were poor secretion (28%).
In the second follow up, the 41.37%(12) mothers responded poor milk
secretion and 24.13%(7) responded more working hours as major problem and around
20.6%(6) of mothers perceived lack of facilities for collection and storage of breast
milk. Seventeen percent (5) mothers reported difficulty in expressing breast milk.
During the third follow up, poor milk secretion 41.37% (12) continues as the
major problem in the working mothers. The percentage of other perceived problems like
more working hours and lack of facilities for collection and storage and difficulty in
expression of breast milk remain same.

69

45
40

Percentage

35

30
25

Follow up-I

20

Follow up-II

15

Follow up-III

10
5

0
Working hours No facilities for
are more.
collection and
storage of
expressed breast
milk

Milk secretion Unsatisfied


Difficulty in
is less
mother and child expressing milk

Poor family
support

Medical
complaints
(Mastitis)

Others ( own
convenience)

Difficulties faced by working lactating mothers

Figure 4.10 Line graph showing percentage distribution of difficulties faced by mothers in practicing exclusive breast feeding during
post test- III

70

TABLE 4.22 Assessment of infant feeding pattern and practice of exclusive breast feeding in first phone follow up during post test- III
n=29
Sl.
No

Age of the Number of


infants

infants

Breast

Expressed

Formula

Breast

Cows

Breast

Bottle

Mothers

feeding

breast milk

feed only

feeding

milk

feeding

feeding

going

only

feeding

+formula

only

+cows

home

milk

for

feed

break
1

1 month

2 months

3 months

13

4 months

5 months

6 month

29

20

10

(68.96%)

(34.48%)

(0%)

(20.68%)

(3.44%)

(0%)

(0%)

(0%)

TOTAL

71

Table 4.22 reveals the number of infants in each month of age and their feeding
pattern during first follow up. Here majority of infants belongs to second and third month
of age.
Total of 68.96% (20) mothers were feeding their infants with breast milk only.
34.48% (10) mothers were feeding the infants with expressed breast milk, and 20.68%
(6) infants were fed with both breast feeding and formula feed. Only 3.44% (1) mother
started to feed cows milk. None were using bottle for feeding. Among 29 mothers, only
2 mothers started to work in the first follow up and none of the mothers were going home
for feeding during break hours.
The mean exclusive breast feeding duration in the first follow up was 3.05
months.

72

TABLE 4.23 Assessment of infant feeding pattern and practice of exclusive breast feeding in the second phone follow up during post
test- III

n=29

Sl.

Age of

Number

Breast

Expressed

Formula

Breast

Cows

Breast

Bottle

Mothers

No

the

of

feeding

breast

feed only

feeding +

milk only

feeding +

feeding

going

infants

infants

only

milk

cows milk

formula feed

home for

feeding

break

1 month

2 months

3 months

13

4 months

5 months

6 months

29

14

18

12

10

(48.27%)

(62.06%)

(0%)

(41.37%)

(3.44%)

(6.89%)

(34.48%)

(31.03%)

TOTAL

73

Table 4.23 shows, the number of infants in each month of age and their feeding
pattern during first follow up. Here majority of infants belongs to third and fourth month
of life.
Over all 48.27% (14) mothers were feeding their child with breast milk only.
Among the working lactating mothers 62.08% (18) mothers were expressing breast milk
for their infants. 41.37% (12) mothers introduced formula feed along with breast milk
and 6.89% (2) mothers were feeding the child with cows milk and breast milk. Only one
mother withheld breast feeding to the infant. Almost 34.48% (10) mothers were using
bottle for feeding the infants. Among the 24 mothers, who started to work, 31.03% (9)
mothers reported going home during break for infant feeding.
The mean exclusive breast feeding duration in the second follow up was 3.42
months.

74

TABLE 4.24 Assessment of infant feeding pattern and practice of exclusive breast feeding in the third follow up during post test- III
n=29
Sl.
No

Breast

Expressed

Formula

Breast

Cows

Breast

Bottle

Mothers

of

feeding

breast milk

feed only

feeding

milk only

feeding

feeding

going

infants

only

feeding

Age of the Number


infants

+formula

+cows

home for

feed

milk

break

1 month

2 months

3 months

4 months

15

10

10

5 months

6 months

29

14

16

11

16

11

(48.27 %)

(55.17%)

(3.44%)

(37.93%)

(3.44%)

(6.89%)

(55.17%)

(37.93%)

TOTAL

75

Table 4.24 shows, the number of infants in each month of age and their feeding
pattern during first follow up. Here majority of infants belongs to four months of age.
Nearly half mothers 48.27% (14) continued practicing exclusive breast milk
feeding and 55.17% (16) mothers were practicing expression of breast milk for infant
feeding. 37.93% (11) mothers were feeding the infant with both breast milk and formula
feed. Two (6.88%) mothers withheld breastfeeding for their infant. The usages of feeding
bottle were further increased to55.16%. Among the 25 mothers, who started to work,
37.93% (11) mothers responded that they were able to go home for feeding during break
hours.
The mean exclusive breast feeding duration in the third follow up was 4.2
months. This shows that continuous reinforcement and education can improve the rate of
exclusive breast feeding.

76