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Lecture 6

Thin Film Deposition

Thin Film Deposition

Physical vapor deposition (PVD)


Thermal evaporation
Sputtering
Others

Example

Physical vapor deposition (PVD):


Thermal evaporation

Physical evaporation is one of the oldest methods of


depositing metal films. Aluminum and gold are heated to
the point of vaporization, and then evaporate to form to a
thin film covering the surface of the silicon wafer. All film
deposition takes place under vacuum or very carefully
controlled atmosphere. The degrees of vacuum and
units is shown below:
1 atm = 760 mm = 760 torr = 760,000 m Hg
= 29.92 in Hg = 14.7 lb/in2 = 14.7 p.s.i
= 1,013,250 dynes/cm2
1 torr = 1mm Hg
1 millitorr = 1 m Hg

low vacuum
Rough vacuum
High vacuum
Very high vacuum
Ultra-high vacuum

760 to 25 mm Hg
760 to 1 mm Hg
10-3 to 10-6 mm Hg
10-6 to 10-9 mm Hg
< 10-9 mm Hg = vacuum in space

Thermal evaporation
Heat S ources
Resistance
e-beam
RF
Laser

Advantages
No radiation
Low contamination
No radiation
No radiation, low
contamination

Dis advantages
Contamination
Radiation
Contamination
Expensive

Thermal evaporation

Typical vacuum
system used for
evaporation includes:

vacuum chamber
roughing pump.
high vacuum pump
valves
gauges

Thermal evaporation

Vacuum Processing Equipment


Most thin films are deposited under reduced pressure conditions. Mechanical pumps
and absorption pumps are used in the rough pressure range.

Mechanical Pumps
Rotary piston type - The pump compresses the air and removes it. This type of system
requires oil and oil often times contaminates the chamber.

Getters Pumps
Getters are materials included in a vacuum system or device for removing gas by
sorption. Various metal evaporated - Au, Al, Cr, Ni, Ti, In, Zn, AuGe, SiAl

The Diffusion Pump


A low-boiling point silicone based oil provides a jet of super sonic oil molecules. These
oil molecules capture vapor molecules and condense. The reduces the pressure locally
and we then have a diffusion of molecules from inside the vessel to be evacuated.
Baffles must be added to reduce back streaming of the hot oil molecules. This type of
system is only effective of the original pressure in the vessel is only @ 1 to 50 m.

Thermal evaporation

Filament evaporation
loops of a metal (such as Al) are hung
from a filament (W)
evaporation is accomplished by
increasing the temperature of the
filament until the metal loops are
melted and vaporized.

Electron-beam evaporation
an electron beam instead of filament is
used
The electron beam with energy up to
15keV is focused on the source target
containing the materials to be
evaporated.

Thermal evaporation
N = N o exp- e
kT

Heat S ources
Resistance
e-beam
RF
Laser

Advantages
No radiation
Low contamination
No radiation
No radiation, low
contamination

Dis advantages
Contamination
Radiation
Contamination
Expensive

Thermal evaporation

Kinetic Gas Theory


The ideal gas law can describe the behavior of gases under vacuum. Pressure P,
volume V, and temperature T of one mole of a gas are related by
PV = Nav kT

Nav=Avogadro's #, k=Boltzman constant

The concentration of gas molecules is given by


n = Nav/V = kT/P
The rate of formation of a surface layer is determined by the impinging molecules if
100% stick

= P/(2 mkT)1/2 (molecules/cm2 - sec)

where m is the mass of the molecule.

This can be reduced to

= 2.63 x 1020P/(MT)

P = pressure in Pa, M = molecular weight

The time required to form a monolayer on the surface is given by


T = NS/ = NS(2 mkT)1/2 /P

Ns is the number of molecules/cm2 in the layer.

An important film-deposition parameter-----the mean free path.


= kT/(2)Pd2

d is the diameter of the gas molecule at room temperature

Thermal evaporation

Growth rate

For batch fabrication, a


planetary substrate holder
consisting of rotating sections
of a sphere is used

Independent of substrate position

Thermal evaporation

E-beam evaporation system with a planetary substrate


holder which rotates simultaneously around two axes

Thermal evaporation

Wafers are rotated around source to


ensure uniform coverage
Wafers are also often radiantly heated
to improve adhesion and uniformity
of thin films.
Deposition rate controlled by
changing the current and energy of
electron beam.
Deposition rate monitoring by using a
quartz crystal. The resonant frequency
of the crystal shifts in proportion to
the thickness of the deposited film
Evaporation techniques tend to be
directional---shadowing and poor step
coverage

Thermal
evaporation

Shadowing and poor step


coverage
= (
RT/2M)1/2 /PT

Substrate

Surface feature

t2
t1
cos 1
=
3
t2
cos 2

t1

1 = 0 0

2 = 70 0

Source

t1/t2=cos
1/cos
2

Shadow

Source

Thermal evaporation
Si
Arbitrary
surface element

N (molecules/unit area/unit time) =


3. 513. 10 22 Pv(T)/ (MT) 1/2

Resist

Kn = /D>1
d

The cosine law

1-exp (-d/
)

cos /d
A ~ cos

Evaporant container
D with orifice diameter D

Physical vapor deposition (PVD):

Sputtering

A DC sputtering system: the target material acts as


the cathode of a diode and the wafers are mounted
on the system anode

Sputtering
W= kV i
P Td

Momentum transfer

-V working voltage
- i discharge current
- d, anode-cathode distance
- PT, gas pressure
- k proportionality constant

Sputtering yield vs. ion energy for a dc


sputtering system using Ar

Sputtering

Deposition of conductive materials such as Al, W, Au, Pt,


Ti, and alloys can use a dc power source in which the
target acts as the cathode in the diode system
Sputtering of dielectrics such as SiO2, Al2O3, ZnO, and
PZT, etc. requires an RF power source to supply energy to
the argon atoms
Sputtering results in the incorporation of some Ar into the
film
Sputtering provides excellent coverage

Deposition of metal films:


Thermal Evaporation vs. Sputtering

Evaporation vs. sputtering: comparison


Ev apo ratio n

S putte ring

Rate

Thousand atom ic layers per second


(e.g. 0.5 m/m in for Al)

One atom ic layer per second

Cho ic e o f mate rials


P urity

Lim ited
Alm ost unlim ited
Better (no gas inclusions, very high Possibility of incorporating
vacuum)
impurities (low-medium vacuum
range)
Very low
Unless m agnetron is used substrate
heating can be substantial
Very low, with e-beam x-ray
Ionic bom bardm ent damage
dam age is possible
Not an option
Easily done with a sputter etch

S ubs trate he ating


S urf ac e damag e
In- s itu c le aning
Allo y c o mpo s itio ns ,
s to c hio me try
X - ray damag e
Chang e s in s o urc e
mate rial
De c o mpo s itio n o f
mate rial
S c aling - up
U nif o rmity
Capital Equipme nt
N umbe r o f
de po s itio ns
Thic kne s s c o ntro l
Adhe s io n
S hado w ing e f f e c t
F ilm pro pe rtie s ( e . g .
g rain s iz e and s te p
c o v e rag e )

Little or no control

Easy

Alloy com position can be tightly


controlled
Radiation and particle dam age is
possible
Expensive

High

Low

Difficult
Difficult
Low cost
Only one deposition per charge

Good
Easy over large areas
More expensive
Many depositions can be carried
out per target
Several controls possible
Excellent

Only with e-beam evaporation

Not easy to control


Often poor
Large
Difficult to control

Sm all
Control by bias, pressure,
substrate heat

Physical vapor
deposition (PVD):
MBE

MBE
Epitaxy:

homo-epitaxy
hetero-epitaxy

Very slow: 1m/hr


Very low pressure:
10-11 Torr

Physical vapor
deposition (PVD):
Laser Ablation

Laser sputter deposition


Complex compounds
(e.g.HTSC,
biocompatible
- ceramics)

Physical vapor deposition (PVD):


Ion plating

Ion plating
Combines evaporation
with a plasma
faster than sputtering
complex compositions
good adhesion

Physical vapor deposition (PVD):


Cluster beam

Cluster beam
From 100 mbar (heater cell) to 10-5 to 10-7 mbar (vacuum)--sudden
cooling
Deposits nano-particles

Example
DC reactive magnetron sputtering for onchip AlN thin film resonators

Why thin film bulk acoustic


wave resonator (TFBR)?

Wireless networks are growing rapidly in the spectrum


from 500 MHz to 6 GHz
Applications
Wireless communication devices
Consumer electronics
Specialized scientific and military equipment
Quartz resonators and SAW devices are widely used as Oscillators and
filters for signal processing, RF and microwave frequency control. However,
Higher frequency range
Low insertion low
Good out of band rejection
Higher frequency
Higher performance
On-chip integration

Resonators
Filters

ARE NEEDED !!

Why thin film bulk acoustic


wave resonator (TFBR)?

Thin film Bulk Acoustic Wave


Resonators
PZT, ZnO, AlN thin films

Principle of operation:
A longitudinal standing acoustic
wave is excited electrically in a thin
piezoelectric film.
The layer thickness of the
piezoelectric film and of the
electrodes determines the resonance
frequency of the BAW resonator.
Frequency can be up to 15, even 30 GHz

Why thin film bulk acoustic


wave resonator (TFBR)?

The resonance frequency depends on the


thickness of the thin film.

va
f =
2t

Since the acoustic wave velocity in AlN is about


10400 m/s
For a resonator with f = 1 GHz
AlN film thickness t= 5.20 m
t=2.5 m
t=0.5 m
t=0.2 m

f = 2.1 GHz
f = 10.4 GHz
f = 26 GHz

Resonators for filters

Thin Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators for Filters


Ladder filters: all the resonators in series resonate at the same
frequency, and all the resonators in parallel resonate at a frequency
slightly offset from the series FBAR resonance.

The principle

The series elements are designed to have their


maximum peak in transmission (acoustic series
resonance) at a specified frequency, so that signals are
transmitted through them.

The parallel elements are designed to have their


minimum in transmission (acoustic parallel resonance)
at the same frequency so that signals are not shorted to
ground.

Placing more of these ladder sections in series


improves the out of band rejection, but at the same time
degrades the passband insertion loss.

Thin film resonator design

Thin film bulk acoustic resonators


Air gap resonator: the acoustic wave will
be oscillating within the piezoelectric
layer
Mechanical reliability problem
Low yield, difficult for packaging
Solidly mounted resonators: acoustic
reflector layers are used under the active
layer to substantially reduces energy loss
into the substrate
Difficulty in the thickness control of
the reflector layers
Multiple thin film processing steps
needed,
COST ISSUE is a concern

K.M. Lakin et al.

Air gap and solidly mounted thin film BAW


resonator configurations.

Thin film resonator design

Resonator design
Suspended thin film resonator,
similar to quartz but on-chip
Structural layers SiO2 or Si3N4
will be used
Enhance the mechanical strength
Improve the frequencytemperature stability

SiO2 is positive TC material, an


appropriate AlN/SiO2 thickness ratio will
improve the f-T stability of the resonator

Thin film resonator design

AlN and PZT thin film resonator structures


AlN
resonator

PZT
resonator

AlN

PZT

Thin film resonator fabrication

AlN Thin Film Deposition

DC Reactive magnetron sputtering


High purity Al target
Deposition gases: Ar/N2
Substrate: Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si(100)
Processing parameters:
Temperature: 500-600oC
Pressure: 3-5 mTorr
Gas mixture ratio: N2:Ar = 1:1.2
Target-substrate distance: 30-60mm
Quality of bottom electrode (Pt/Ti):

Pt with (111) orientation

Identify the optimal conditions for AlN


film deposition

Highly c-axis orientation


Thickness uniformity
Precise thickness control

AlN thin film characterization

X-ray diffraction for phase and crystalline


orientation identification
SEM for surface morphology and cross-section
microstructure characterization
SPM for surface roughness characterization
Electromechanical Property measurement

Elastic property
Piezoelectric coefficient
Mechanical quality factor
Effective electromechanical coupling coefficient
The relationship of frequency-film thickness

Materials properties are critical for the


fabrication of thin film resonators

AlN thin film deposition and


characterization

Thin film patterning and etching


Wet chemical etching
Reactive ion etching (RIE)

Suss MA 6
Mask Aligner
The PlasmaTherm 790
RIE Etching System
AlN etching using RIE
Cl2, BCl3, Ar, and O2 gases

Wet Chemical Bench


Etch selectivity:
HF and BHF etching
Si3O4, AlN, SiO2,
photoresist

AlN film/Al top electrode/


photoresist

Deposition Rate
AlN thin film deposition rate is determined by
many factors such as sputtering pressure, power,
target-substrate distance and so on.
1200
1000

thickness (nm)

800
40 W
80 W
120 W

600
400
200
0
0

50

100

150

200

time (min)

Deposition rate vs. power

The orientation dependence of the


deposited AlN thin films on the substrate
6

Si (400)
Pt (111)

Pt (111)
5

4
log (Counts/s)

4
AlN (002)
3

10

10

log (Counts/s)

Si (400)

AlN (100)

AlN (002)
3

AlN (100)
2

1
20

30

40

50

60
2 ( o )

70

80

90

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

2 ( )

A: on commercially purchased Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si(100); B: on in-situ deposited Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) with AlN


The results indicate that the AlN thin film deposited in-situ with Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrates shows high (0001)
orientation.

The orientation dependence of the


deposited AlN thin films on the substrate

C-axis orientation of AlN film

Hyun Ho Kim et al.


in Microelectronics
Reliability

Orientation of the AlN film

AlN

Growth of c-axis oriented AlN films


on Pt(111) electrodes

Side view of a dense and smooth


AlN film

Orientation of the AlN film

The following factor can influence the caxis orientation growth of the AlN film:

Substrate temperature
Ar:N2 ratio
DC power
Sputtering pressure
Sputtering temperature
Target-substrate distance

Thickness Measurement of AlN film by SEM

The thickness measurement along the radial direction of 3 inch wafer

Thickness uniformity of the


AlN film
500

measurement point

thickness (nm)

400

average thickness

300

200

100

0
1

position

The measurement results indicate that the maximum deviation is less than 3.5%

AlN Thin Film Acoustic Wave Resonator

250 m x 250 m suspended AlN thin film membrane (top view)

Characterization of thin film resonator


AlN Film

Thin Film Resonator

AlN and PZT thin film resonator structures


AlN
resonator

PZT
resonator

AlN

PZT