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When sequencing the activities in a task, there are a number of considerations to

bear in mind. We suggest three phases for sequencing activities within a task:40
Awareness-raising Introduce a task by first raising learners awareness of what
they might need to learn to accomplish that task. Introduce initial language skills,
forms, functions, vocabulary, concepts (etc.) to provide a supporting framework
for learners to build their receptive skills (i.e., listening and reading).
Appropriation Tasks provide learners with opportunities to actively build
productive skills (i.e., speaking, writing) through practiced control that involves
demonstrating progressive control of a skill where the possibility of making
mistakes is ever present, but where support is always at hand. 41 Practiced
control requires the support of the instructor and may also include peer
support.42 Autonomy Tasks are sequenced in a way that gradually moves
learners from practice with the target language forms, functions and discrete
skills to freer practice. In this phase, learners use their newly acquired skills
independently, in other words, without instructor or other supports.

Greet customers, take their orders, and suggest drinks Introduce the task; raise
awareness Describe the task. Ask learners what a server would need to do to
greet customers, take their orders, and suggest drinks successfully. Elicit
items such as using appropriate expressions for greeting, small talk, offering to
take an order, giving suggestions, showing listenership, and checking
comprehension. These items can form a peer-feedback rubric to be used during
the final role-play. Brainstorm for expressions In groups, have learners
brainstorm for common expressions used in restaurants/bars in each of the
following categories: initial greetings and comments (Hi. How are you? Follow me.
Not bad. Great!); offers (Can/could I get you anything to drink? Have you decided
on a drink? Can/could I take your order?); and suggestions (How about a? You
could try You might want to try Maybe a... I really like the). Have groups
take turns presenting their expressions. Record the expressions on the board.
Note: If there is room, these expressions can be left on the board until the roleplays are done. Grammar lesson Present a brief grammar lesson or worksheet
on the use of modals to make polite offers, and the use of modals and other
expressions to make suggestions. Review the verb forms which follow the
modals and other expressions. (e.g., Can/could I +base verb; You could + base
verb; You might want +infinitive; How about +noun phrase/ gerund).
Pronunciation Model the linking and stress of the various expressions and
grammatical constructions. Students practice saying the expressions and
sentences fluently with correct stress and linking

Examples of Tasks

For Listening Skill

1. Listen to a story and answer questions
2. Listen to the descriptions of people in a
picture and point out who is who
3. Listen to the description of a person
and try to draw a picture of him(her)
4. Listen to the description of a room
and try to draw a picture of it
5. Listen to the recording of an argument
and try to write a report of it and give your
own idea about the matter
6. Listen to the tape of a short story and
make an oral report to the class about the
content and give your ideas

For Speaking skill

1. Describe one of the students in the
2. Teacher sets a question for a debate
and lets two students prepare for it (by

themselves separately) and debate before

the class the next day
2. Describe a job in an ad and offer
interviews to applicants
3. Teacher provides the student with a
map of the city and has him/her tell about
the route to a certain destination and how
to get there
4. Have a group of students act as
members of a family and discuss about a
family matter
5. Give a student a cartoon picture and
have him/her describe it
6. A mock conference over a certain
7. A mock court trial

For Reading Skill

1. Have a student read the captions of
pictures and tell the class what they are

2. Have a student read a short story, a

newspaper dispatch, an ad, etc. and
report to the class
3. Make a student read the manual of an
electrical or electronic apparatus and tell
the class how to operate it
4. Read the biography or autobiography
of a person and write a chronological table
of his/her life
5. Put the scrambled paragraphs of a
story in order
6. Fill in the blanks with the right words

For Writing Skill

1. Show the students the pictures of two
persons and have them write about their
2. Read to students a story and have
them write it out
3. Have students write out something
after all the previously mentioned

activities for listening, speaking and

4. Provide a situation and have students
write out their ideas
5. Write a report of a book or story
6. Provide part of a story and have the
students complete it
7. Have students write about topical
matters they read in the web

Remember: It is always
ideal to combine the
practice of two or more
skills in one task-based
Procedure of fulfilling a
Pre-Task :

1. The teacher sets the task

2. The teacher defines the aim of the task
3. The teacher provides necessary
information about the task
4. The teacher provides or reminds
students of necessary language
(vocabulary and/or grammar)
5. The teacher allows students time to
prepare for the execution of the task

During task:
1. Students fulfill the task by
conscientiously making use of their
language knowledge and skills, the
information in their command and their
creative ability.
2. Students bring to best play their
independent working ability and group
3. Students make use of various
resources, such as websites, libraries,
newspapers, as well as human resources.

4. Students prepare for their report back.

5. Students report back orally and/or in

Post Task:
1. Students make their own evaluation of
their work
2. Classmates appraise the performance,
pointing out achievements and
3. Teacher gives all-round appraisal of
the work, from point of view of both task
fulfillment and language use.
4. Teacher and students together set
follow-up work to consolidate what has
been learnt and to make up for what has
not been achieved.