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# Chapter 7 Gravitation

## Posted on 22/01/2011 by amimo5095

Introduction
All objects with mass attract each other with a gravitational force. The magnitude of the force between any two objects depends
on their masses and the distance between the two objects.
7.1Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation

> Newtons Law of universal gravitation states that the force of attraction between two objects is directly proportional to their
masses and inversely proportional to the square of their distance apart.

## G = 6.67 x 10-11 m3 kg-1 s-2

Note:
1) Gravitational forces are very weak unless it is for objects with enormous mass such as planets and stars.
2) Gravitational force is a mutual attraction. We attract the Earth with the same force that the Earth attracts us.
3) Newtons Law of universal gravitation is an example of an inverse square law. The force decreases in proportional to the
square of the distance.
So when the distance is 2r, the force is

## when the distance is 3r, the force is

Example 1
Why is it that the gravitational force of earth causes the object to be accelerated to earth but not otherwise ?
Solution

Example 2
Two stars of mass 6.0 x 1032 kg and 9.0 x 1030 kg are 1.4 x 1016 m apart. The net gravitational force is zero at a point P between
the two stars and the distance of this point from the bigger star is r. What is the distance r?

Solution

## 7.2 Gravitational Field Strength

A gravitational field represents a region where a body having a mass experiences gravitational force.
> Gravitational field strength is defined as the force of gravity per unit mass.
> Gravitational field strength,

## Unit: N kg-1 and it is a vector quantity.

Example 3
What is the gravitational field strength acting on an object with mass m placed on the surface of the earth? Taking the mass of
earth as M and the radius of earth as R.

Solution

## 7.3 Relationship Between g and G

> A body of mass m at a place on the earths surface where the acceleration of free fall is experiences a force F = mg (i.e. its
weight).
> Assuming the earth has mass M and radius R, we can also calculate the same force using, Newtons law of gravitation.
So,

Therefore,

Then

Variation of acceleration due to gravity g with height and depth on the earth

Example 4
The mass of a star is 2.0 x 1030 kg and its radius is 1.5 x 106 m.Find the gravitational field strength at:
(a) The surface
(b) 1.0 x 106 m above the surface of the star [G = 6.67 x 10-11 N m2 kg-2]
Solution

Example 5
What is the mass of the earth given that its radius is 6400 km and the gravitational field strength at the surface is 9.81 N kg-1. [G
= 6.67 x 10-11 N m2 kg-2]
Solution

## 7.4 Gravitational Potential

> The gravitational potential V at a point in a gravitational field is defined as the work done in bringing a unit mass from infinity
to that point.

## Unit: J kg-1 and it is a scalar quantity.

> The gravitational potential energy U of a mass m at a point in a gravitational field is defined as the work done in bringing the
mass from infinity to that point.

## Unit: J and it is a scalar quantity.

> The relationship of V and U is
> The relationship of F and U is

## > The relationship of g (or E) and V is

Note: Gravitational potential is defined as V= 0 at infinity. Since gravitational potential increases as height increases, V must
have negative values when it is lower than infinity.
Example 6
What is the gravitational potential V at 3.50 x 1010 m from the center of a star of mass 8.45 x 1035 kg.[G = 6.67 x 10-11 N m2 kg-2]
Solution

Example 7
What is the change in potential energy when a rocket of mass 40 000 kg moves from the surface of the earth to a height of 1.80
x 107 m above the earth? Given that the mass of the earth is 6.00 x 1024 kg and its radius is 6.40 x 106 m. [G = 6.67 x 10-11 N
m2 kg-2]
Solution

## 7.5 Satellite Motion in Circular Orbits

Satellite
A satellite is an object orbiting around a larger body by gravitational attraction.
e.g. The moon is a natural satellite of earth.
The earth is a natural satellite of sun.
There are also artificial satellites launched for the purpose of monitoring the weather, space observation and global
communications.

Energy of a satellite
Velocity and period of satellite in a fixed orbit
To keep a satellite in circular orbit, the centripetal force needed is being supplied by the gravitational force.
So

since GM=gR2

## If the satellite is close to earth, then r R

Therefore v2 = gR
Once v is found, the period of satellite T is given by

## Kinetic energy,potential energy and total energy of satellite

Kinetic energy =

Kinetic energy =

Potential energy =

## Total energy = Potential energy + kinetic energy GMm 1 GMm

=
+

Example 8
A satellite orbits the earth with period of rotation 2 hours. Given that the mass of the earth 6.0 x 1024 kg and the radius of the
earth is 6.4 x 106 m. Calculate:
(a) The height where the satellite is orbiting.
(b) The speed of the satellite. [G = 6.67x10-11 N m2 kg-2]
Solution
7.6 Escape velocity
> Escape velocity is the velocity required by an object on the surface of the planet in order to escape from the planet to infinity.
The object will not be pulled back by gravity.
> Take the earth for example, the gravitational potential energy on the surface of the earth is

## potential energy at infinity is 0.

So, the energy required to send an object to infinity is
0(
)=

So,
=

## > Therefore, the escape velocity

Example 9
What is the escape velocity from the surface of the sun?
[Mass of the sun = 2.0 x 1030 kg, radius of the sun = 7.0 x 108 m, G = 6.67 x 10-11 N m2 kg-2]
solution

Example 10
what is the escape velocity from the surface of the earth?
g on the surface of the earth = 9.81 m s-2, radius of the earth = 6400 km]

## 4.0 Circular Motion

Posted on 08/02/2010 by amimo5095
Introduction
In this topic, we will study the angular motion with angular kinematics and rotation dynamics. We will investigate the relationship
between,q the angular displacement, w the angular velocity and a the angular acceleration.
4.1 Angular Velocity (halaju sudut)
>Defination of angular displacement,q
q=
r = radius , s = linear displacement/perimeter

> Definition for angular velocity
The rate of change of angular displacement for a circular motion.

## Unit: Radians per second

> Definition of period, T
The time taken for the particle to complete a circle of the circular motion. For a complete cycle, where q = 2p radians

Other information
360 2p
Example 1
What angle in degree has a car travelled around a circular track if the track has a radius of 100 m and distance by the car is
300 m ?
Solution
Angular displacement,

Example 2
For a point on the circumference (radius = 10 cm) which move through(from beginning to the end) the circle in 60 s. calculate:
(a) angular velocity of the circumference.
(b) linear speed in m/s.

## 4.2 Centripetal Acceleration (pecutan memusat)

> Definition
Centripetal acceleration is the acceleration where the direction of the velocity change Dv is, perpendicular to the direction of v
and is directed towards the centre of the circle.
> Formula
Centripetal Acceleration, a

= vw
= rw2
=

## becouse of Centripetal Acceleration, there will be centripetal force

Fcentripetal = ma = m
= mw2r

Example 3
A 900 g object is whirled in a circle at the end of a string. If the string is 0.3 m long and the force in the string is 6.4 N, what is
the speed of the object?
Solution
The force acting on an object in circular motion is:

so

example 4

A rope is wound automatically by a machine at a constant angular velocity. The radius of the roller increases at a steady rate.
Sketch a graph to show:
(a) The variation of speed v of rope with radius,r.
(b) Centripetal force F on the rope at difference distance r from the centre rotation.
solution

Example 5
What is the maximum speed that a car can cross a humpbacked bridge and just remain in contact with it? The radius of the
bridge is 20 m.
Solution
Push of bridge on car wheels = P
Weight of car = W
The resultant force F = W P
This resultant force is the centripetal force.

## 4.3 Centripetal Force

> Definition

The force on a body moving in a circle and always directed towards the centre O of the circle.

Formula F= ma
F=
= mv w = mrw2

Horizontal circle

Tension, T =

## v = speed of the particle

r = radius of the circle
Other information
-When the speed increases gradually, the tension in the string increases until the braking tension is attained.
- Then the object continues the motion in straight line with uniform speed at the direction tangential to the circle. (First Newtons
Law)

Vertical Circle

Tension, T =

Tension maximum

+ mg cos q

Tension minimum

When q = 0,

When q = p

T is maximum

T is minimum

Tension, T =

+ mg

Tension, T =

-mg

T0
mg

## -The minimum velocity of the object at the highest point.

Other information

The object remains without dropping because the centripetal force on the object is greater than the weight of the object.
W

Example 6
Plane flying in a uniform horizontal circle at constant speed and height,
(A) has no resultant force acting on it.
(B) experiences a resultant force acting away from the centre of the circle.
(C) experiences a resultant force acting towards the centre of the circle.
(D) experiences an increasing force acting towards the centre of the circle.
Solution
Objects moving with uniform circular motion experience a resultant force acting towards the centre of the circle.It is called the
centripetal force.
Example 7
An object is whirled in uniform circular motion in a vertical circle. If the weight of the object is W the tension in the string is T.
what is the centripetal Force. F, at the moment that the object passes through the bottom point of the circle.
Solution
Value of the centripetal force must remain constant at all points in the circle if the motion of the object is uniform circular
motion.
At the bottom of the circle the weight of the object is acting down and the tension in the string I acting up. The resultant of these
two forces must be the centripetal force. Add the two forces (which are vectors, of course) and you get:
Fc= T-W
This means that the tension in the string has to be large enough to overcome the weight of the object and also provide the
centripetal force.
Note that at the top of the circle both the tension and the weight act down. Because the two forces act in the same direction, the
tension must be smaller than it is at the bottom if the resultant they produce (the centripetal force) is to be the same.
Example 8
Which of the following statements is correct for an object moving with uniform horizontal circular motion?
(A) The speed of the object varies but the velocity is constant.
(B) The kinetic energy of the object varies but its momentum is constant. 1

(C) The momentum of the object varies but its speed is constant.

(D) The linear velocity of the object varies but its momentum is constant. I
Solution
The only answer to satisfy these conditions is C.
It an object is travelling in a circle, its direction is always changing, so no vector quantities can remain constant e.g. velocity or
momentum. Scalar quantities can remain constant, however e.g. 1 speed and kinetic energy.
Note that although the value of acceleration remains the same and it is always towards the centre of the circle, the direction of
the acceleration is always changing.
Example 9
An object of mass 2 kg is attached to the end of a string length 1 m and whirled in a vertical
circle at a linear speed of 4 ms-1. Find the tension in the string at the top and the bottom of the circle.
Solution
Example 10
A pilot of mass 60 kg flies in a vertical circle of radius 1 km at a speed of 150 m/s.
What is the push of the seat on the pilot at the top of his flight?

Conical Pendulum

Horizontal component

Vertical component

T sin q =

T cos q = mg
ml w2 cos q = mg

= mrw2

q = cos-1

= m(l) sin q w2
= mlw2
This method can be used to calculate the value of g but is not suitable because:
(i) It is difficult to measure accurately the angle q.
(ii) It is hard to fix q at a constant value when measuring the period T.

## Motion of a motorcyclist round a curved track

F=

The force F produces a moment in the clockwise direction. So, to prevent from toppling over, the person has to bend inwards
so that the weight mg and the reaction R form a couple to balance the moment produced by F.

a = distance
Clockwise moment = anticlockwise moment
F x h = mga
x F = mga

## The angle of q increases if:

(a) The speed v increases.

## (b) The radius, r of the track is small.

The centripetal force is provided by the lateral frictional forces F1and F2 between the inner and outer pair of tyres.
F1 + F2 =

There is no acceleration in vertical direction, the normal reactions at the inner and the outer pairs of tyres
R1 +R2 = mg
The clockwise moments = Total anticlockwise moments
(F1 + F2 )h + R1a = R2a
R2-R1 =

## Solving the equation simultaneously

R1 =

R2 =

For the normal reaction R1 at the inner pair of tyres is less than R2the normal reaction at the outer pair of tyres.
The car over turn when
R1 =
=0

v is the maximum speed of the car to round the curved track without overturning. The speed can be increased when:
(a) The radius r of the circular track is bigger.
(b) The centre of gravity G of the car is lower, h is smaller.
(c) The wheel base is bigger.
Example 11
A bicycle and rider of total mass 120kg are rounding a bend of radius 20m. The maximum sideways frictional force available is
600N. Find the greatest linear speed of the bike before it will skid out of the bend.
Solution
F =ma
Gives : 600N = 120 x

V = 10 ms-1
Example 12
Pendulum moves in a horizontal circle at an angle of 60 to the horizontal

as shown. Calculate the speed at which it must move to maintain this angle.
Solution
T-tension in the rope

## Resolve the tension vertically and horizontally

T sin 60
T cos 60

(i ) Since the pendulum is not moving up or down the vertical forces must be equal.
T cos 60 = mg

(ii)The centripetal force is given by the force acting towards the centre of the circle. 2
T sin 60 =
. 2

## Its all rather neat divide 2 by..1

v=2.94 ms -1
Hence speed of the pendulum is 2.9 ms-1.
Example 13
An aircraft is flying at a constant speed of 100ms-1 in a horizontal circle of radius 25 km. A plumb line, attached to the roof of the
cabin is inclined at an angle q to the vertical while the aircraft is turning.
(a) What is the centripetal acceleration of the aircraft?
(b) Calculate the angle q.

Chapter 6 static
Posted on 02/10/2010 by amimo5095
6.1 Equilibrium of Particles
> Any object is said to be in equilibrium if its acceleration is zero.
> If the velocity is also zero, the object is said to be in static equilibrium.
> Since F = ma, if a = 0, then F = 0. Thus the conditions for a point object (particle) in equilibrium is:
the vector sum of all the external forces acting on the particle must be zero, F = 0
> For forces in a plane, (x-y plane) in order that a particle is in equilibrium, the sums of the resolved parts of the forces in the x
and y directions must be zero. Fx = 0 and Fy= 0. (In general, to prove that a particle is in equilibrium, we must show that the
sums of the resolved parts of the forces on the particle in any two directions are each equal zero.)
6.2 Closed Polygon
> If the forces as mention in 6.1, drawn to scale and in the appropriate directions, a close triangle or a closed polygon is
formed.
For example,(summary)

## (a) Two forces in equilibrium along the xaxis

F = 0
F1 = F2
(b) Three forces in equilibrium in the x-y
plane

## The forces will formed a closed

triangle
F = 0
Fx = 0 and Fy = 0
(c) Four forces in equilibrium in the x-y forces will formed a closed polygon
plane

F = 0
Fx = 0 and Fy = 0
Example 1

Coplanar forces F1,F2 and F3 act on a point mass A. as shown in figure above. State or show on a labeIled diagram, the
condition for the mass to be in equilibrium.
solution
Example 2

a small ball with weight W = 20 N is suspended by a light thread. When strong wind blows horizontally, exerting a instant force
F on the ball, the thread makes an angle 30 to the vertical as shown. What are the values of T and F ?
solution
Example 3

A cable car travels along a fixed support cable and is pulled along this cable by a moving draw cable. For the situation shown,
the cable car and passengers with weight 50 x 104 N is considered to be stationary with forces T, and T, acting on it. Assuming
the draw cable exerts negligible force on the cable car.
(a) sketch and show the forces acting on the cable car.

## (b) find the magnitude of T1 and T2

Solution
Example 4

An object of weight W is placed on a smooth plane inclined at an angle q to the horizontal. A force F is applied in a direction
parallel to the plane so that the body is in equilibrium. Find F and R, the I normal reaction in terms of W and q. ,
Solution
Resolving forces in a direction perpendicular to the plane, R = W cos q
Resolving forces in a direction parallel to the plane, F = W sin q
Example 5

An object of weight W is placed on a smooth plane inclined at an angle 0 to the horizontal. A force F is applied horizontally so
that / the body is in equilibrium. Find F and R, the normal reaction in / terms of W and 0.
Solution
Turning effects of forces
Torque or moment of a force about a point is the product of that force and the perpendicular distance from the line of action of
the force to the point.
(a)Torque/Moment, t = F x d

## (b) Torque/Moment = F d sin q

moment of a force = force x perpendicular distance from pivot to the line of action of force
Unit of moment is Newton metre (N m)
torque is a vector quantity
A torque can turn in a clockwise direction or an anticlockwise direction.
Example 6

The crank of a bicycle pedal is 16 cm long and the downwards push of a leg is 300 N. Calculate the moment due to the force
exerted on the pedal when crack has turned through an angle of 60 below the horizontal.
Solution
Moment of the force = 300 x 0.16 cos 60 = 300 x0.16 x0.5 = 24 Nm

Couple/Gandingan
When two equal forces are acting in opposite direction but not along the same straight line, they form a couple.
A couple has no resultant force.
A couple only produces turning effect (rotation).

## The moment of a couple is given by:

The moment of a couple is the product of one of the forces and the perpendicular distance
between the two forces.
Summary

Torque/Moment*
Turning Effect
t = F x d
F : force
Moment = F d sin q
Equilibrium when moment clockwise = anticlockwise
*in physic moment of force(moment) and Torque, they
have the same meaning

Couple
When two equal forces are
acting in opposite
direction

Example 7

Calculate the moment of the Couple produced by the forces acting on the steering wheel of a car in the diagram given.
Solution
Moment of couple = 25 x 0.30 = 7.5 N m
6.3 Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies
> For a rigid body (a non-point object or extended object) in equilibrium,
(a) there must be zero resultant force. F = 0
(b) there must be zero resultant torque. = 0
Alternatively, we can apply the principle of moments which state that for any body in equilibrium, the sum of the clockwise
moments about any pivot must equal the sum of , the anticlockwise moments about that pivot.
> Forces that act on rigid body may be concurrent forces or non-concurrent forces.
1.concurrent forces(Daya bersetemu)
- Concurrent forces are forces whose lines of action pass through a single common point.
- Concurrent forces will only cause translational motion.
- To determine whether concurrent forces acting on a rigid body are in equilibrium, all that is required is to check whether the
resultant forces is zero.

## 2. Under non concurrent forces

- Non-concurrent forces are forces whose lines of action do not pass through a single common point.
- To determine whether non-concurrent forces acting on a rigid body has translational and rotational equilibrium, it is necessary
to check whether condition F = 0 as well as condition = 0.
Example 8

The seesaw in the diagram is balanced. Use the principle of moments to calculate the weight, W.
Solution
W(15) = 300(1.0) + 450(1.5) = 650N
Example 9

uniform rod XY of weight 20.0 N is freely hinged to a wall at X. It is held horizontal by force F acting from Y at an angle of 60 to
the vertical as shown in the diagram. What is the value of F?
solution

The diagram shows the forces acting on your forearm when you hold a weight of 60 N with your arm horizontally. Your elbow
joint acts as a fulcrum. The weight of the arm is 20 N and its
is considered to act at a distance 14.0 cm from the fulcrum. Use the principle of moments to calculate the force T exerted by
your biseps. What is the reaction force R at the fulcrum?
solution
6.4 Frictional Forces
> Friction acts whenever two surfaces move or try to move relative to one another.
> There are two kinds of frictional forces:
1. Static friction
- It is a force at the contact surfaces which prevents the surfaces from sliding over each other.

-The frictional force always acts in the opposite direction to the pulling force P. It is always self-adjusting, constantly equalising
itself to P, maintaining static equilibriumas long as the limiting friction is not exceeded.
-If the pulling force is greater than the limiting friction, the block moves and anoth frictional force known as kinetic
friction comes into effect.
Limiting friction:
(a) Depands on the nature of the surfaces.
(b) Is independent of the area of contact.
(c) Is proportional to the normal reaction,R.
Thus limiting friction has a value F = mR
2.Kinetic friction
-It is a force between two moving surfaces which opposes the sliding motion.

- When the pulling force P exceeds the limiting friction, the resultant force accelerates the block.
- Once in motion, the frictional force decreases. The frictional force involved now is the kinetic friction.
- To maintain constant velocity, the pulling force P has to be decreased to the same magnitude as the frictional force (kinetic
friction).
- The kinetic friction is independent of the relative velocity of the surfaces.

## Chapter 5 Rotation Of Rigid Body

Posted on 15/04/2010 by amimo5095
Introduction
Particles make a rigid body. The relative positions of a particles remain static when the body moves or acted upon by a force. In
this chapter, no new law is introduced in rotational motion. Newtons laws of motion are adapted to this topic.
5.1 Rotational Kinematics
> It involves the movement of an object during rotating.
> The formulae are listed:
Linear motion

Rotational motion

v = u + at
w = w0 + at
a =

v2 = u2 + 2as

a = w0 t +

at2

w2 =w02 + 2aq
> When doing calculation for rotational kinematics, students are not allowed to write the linear motion formulae.
Example 1

A disc is rotated from rest at vertical axis at the centre O with the angular acceleration of 4.0 rads-1 . The total angular
displacement is 18 rad. Calculate:
(a) The angular velocity.
(b) The duration for the movement.
Solution:
Example 2
A ball with diameter 4 cm rolls down from rest. After 3.0 s the angular velocity of the ball is 1.5 rads -1 1. Calculate:
(a) The angular displacement.
(b) The linear displacement along the plane.
(c) The linear velocity.
Solution
5.2 Rotational Dynamics
> Definition
Moment of inertia is define as the resistance of a body to change to its rotational motion.
> Formulae
I = mr2
I the moment of inertia
m mass of a particle
r perpendicular distance from the axis of rotation.

## The moment of inertia of the rigid body is

I = ( m1r12 + m2r22 + m3r32..miri2)
=
The I, the moment of inertia depends on:
-The mass.
-The distribution of the mass from the axis of rotation (shape of the body).
-The position of the axis of rotation.
> the centre of mass of a rigid body,
The point where the mass of the body is assumed to be concentrated
If a force is applied through [lie Centre of mass
- the motion is a linear motion with no rotational motion.

## - the body accelerates in the direction of the force.

Example 3
Particles with mass 0.30 kg and 0.60 kg are at 30.0 cm and 40.0 cm mark respectively on a uniform metre rule of mass 0.2 kg.
Find the position of the centre of mass of the system.
Solution
Moment of inertia of different shape of body
Shape

Illustration

Uniform rod

(a) Axis through the centre of the mass G and perpendicular to rod

Ring

Disc

Hollow sphere

Solid sphere

Solid cylinder

Formulae

## 5.3 Theorems to Find Moment of Inertia, I of A Rigid Body

> Parallel axis theorem
If the moment of inertia of a rigid body IG about an axis through its centre of mass G is known, the moment of inertia of the body
about an axis which is parallel to the first axis can be obtained by using the parallel axis theorem.
I = IG +Mh2
IG refers to the moment of inertia about the axis through the centre of mass G, and h is the distance between the two axes.
> Perpendicular axis theorem
Suppose IX and IY are the moment of inertia of a body about axis OX and OY respectively, the OX is perpendicular to OY. The
the moment of inertia I about an axis OZ which is perpendicular to both OX and OY is given by
I = IX + IY =
IX = IY =

Example 4
A chlorine molecule consists of two atoms each of mass 3.15 x 10-32 kg. The atoms are separated by a distance of 1.78 x 1011

m. What is the moment of inertia of a chlorine molecule about an axis through its centre of mass and perpendicular to the line

Solution

## Moment of inertia, I = S mr2

= mr2 + mr2
= 2 mr2
5.4 Angular Momentum
> There are three types of momentum
-Linear momentum
p=mv = mrw
-Angular momentum
p=mvr =mrwr = mr2w
Angular momentum of a rigid body
L = (Smr2)w
=Iw
Example 5
Calculate the angular momentum of a bowling ball of mass 5.5 kg which moves in a circle of radius 0.15 m with angular velocity
Solution
Angular momentum, L = (Smr2)w = Iw
5.5 application of Angular Momentum
Conservation of angular momentum, I1w 1 = I2w2,
> Swimmer jumps off from the diving board

## -The swimmer starts to rotate because a torque is produced by his weight.

- During rotation, he pulls himself closer to his axis of rotation. This mechanism reduces his moment of inertia, I. Then,
his angular velocity, w increases and the swimmer is able to make more rotations.
-Before hitting water, the swimmer needs to straighten his body, the moment of inertia, I, increases, and the angular
velocity w decreases.
- When the swimmer falls, the path taken by his centre of mass is a parabolic path (the path of projectile).
> Determining if an egg is hard boiled or half boiled
-When a raw egg is spun, the yolk which is denser moves away from the axis of rotation. Since moment of inertia I = mr 2, when
the distance r from the axis of rotation increases, I increases.
- When I increases, w decreases. It is hard to spin a raw egg.
- When a hard-boiled egg is spun, its yolk does not move away from the axis of rotation.
-The moment of inertia, I remains constant and the egg spins easily.
> A ballet dancer
- When she starts to spin and stretches her arm, the moment of inertia I is large and the angular velocity w is small.
- When she lifts her arms above her head, the moment of inertia decreases and the angular of velocity m increases.

## 5.6 Rotational Kinetic Energy

> Definition Rotational kinetic energy is the total energy of all the particle in the body when a rigid body rotates about a fixed
axis.

## > Application kinetic energy of a rolling body

Velocity v of the centre of mass where
R = radius of rolling body

v = Rw

w= angular velocity
Total kinetic energy
= rotational kinetic energy + translational kinetic energy
Kinetic energy of a hollow sphere

## Acceleration of a hollow sphere

Example 5
the moment of inertia of a ball of mass 30 kg and radius 0.50 m about its axis is 3.2 kg m2. What is its total kinetic energy when
it rolls along a horizontal surface with a speed 3.0 ms-1.
Solution
Example 6
A uniform rod, length 2.40 m is hinged freely at one terminal. The rod wised so that it is 1 horizontal and then released from rest
so that it rotates about an axis in a vertical plan. Calculate by using l(length) and g the angular velocity when the rod is vertical.
[moment inertia of the rod about its axis
]

Solution
Example 7

A cylinder of radius 10 cm and mass 600 g rolls on a floor without slipping with a speed v. The cylinder then rolls up an inclined
plane.
(a) Calculate the speed of v if the maximum height h reached by the cylinder is 3 m.
(b) After 5 second the cylinder rolls down. Calculate the angle of inclination of the inclined plane, q and the deceleration.
(Given that the moment of inertia of a cylinder about its axis is
)

Solution
Torque
Definition Torque or the moment of the force is the turning effect of force.
Formula -Torque,G
Force x Perpendicular distance of the force from the axis of rotation = F x r
Torque is measured in the unit of Nm
G = Fr = la = I
where a =

Example 8
CD player rotates about a vertical axis with uniform angular velocity of 30 revolutions per minute. A CD is placed onto the
recorder. The friction between the CD and the recorder causes the CD to accelerate uniformly until angular velocity of 30 rev
per minute in 5.0 s. The moment (d f inertia of the CD about its axis of rotation is 2.0 x 10 -2 kg m2. Calculate:
(a) The torque on the CD.
(b) Rotational kinetic energy gained by the CD.
(c) The total work done by the torque in 5.0 s.

## From the findings of b and c, what inference can be concluded?

Solution
Example 9

The diagram shows a disc that is attached to an object with the mass of 1.0 kg. When the mass is released from rest to fall
vertically, the disc starts to rotate. The radius of the disc is 12.0 cm and its moment of inertia about the axis of rotation is 0.030
kg m2, calculate the acceleration of the mass.
Solution
Translational motion

Rotational motion
Angular displacement
a =

Displacement,s

Angular velocity w =
Velocity, v
Angular acceleration a =
Acceleration, a
Mass, m

## Moment of inertia, I = Smiri2

Linear momentum, p = mv

Angular momentum L = lw

Impulses; Ft = mv mu

## Angular impulse Gt = Iw Iw0

Work W = Fs
Translational kinetic energy =

Work W = Gq
mv2

Power P = Fv

## Rotational kinetic energy =

Power P = Gw

Chapter 2 Kinematic
Posted on 04/07/2012 by amimo5095

Introduction
Kinematics A study of a motion (gerakan) of an object without
considering the effect that produces motion. Kinematics analyses the
position of an object relation to time.
2.1 Rectilinear Motion (Gerakan Linear)

> Definition
Distance (jarak) and displacement (sesaran) are both ways of measuring
how far an object has moved.
> Distance,l is a measure of how far an object has moved.
> Displacement,s is defined as the distance moved in a
particulardirection. (It is the change in position)
Ex:
To the right = + (+5km)
To the left = (-10 km)
> Speed is defined as the distance moved per second (or the rate of
change of distance)
> Velocity is defined as the rate of change of displacement.
Average velocity =
Instantaneous velocity =

## The instantaneous velocity of an object is its velocity at a particular

instant or time.
> Acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity.
Average acceleration =
Instantaneous acceleration =

## Motion with Constant Acceleration

> From the definition of acceleration, we learn that

v = u + at 1
> Displacement = average velocity x time
. 2
Replace (1) to ( 2)

## From (1), v-u = at and (2) v + u =

v2 = u2 + 2as
Summary of equation: The idea of s u v a t

Formulae

Uses when
absence of
s, displacement
a, acceleration
v, final velocity

v2 = u2 + 2as

t, time

Eq. No
1
2
3
4

Example 1
Starting at time t = 0 seconds, an object accelerates from 12 ms-1 to 27
ms-1in 4 seconds. Find the value of time, t (to the nearest second), when
its total displacement is 110 m.
Example 2
A bus travels at straight road with the speed of 24 m/s decreases
uniformly to 8 m/s by travelling 40 m. Calculate:
(a) The decelerations of the bus.
(b) The time taken for the deceleration.
(c) Total distance travels before the bus stops.
Graphical representation of motion

Example 3
The velocity-time (v-t) graph for a car is as shown in the graph.
Graf halaju-masa (v-t) untuk pergerakan sebuah kereta ditunjukkan di
bawah.

Which of the following is the displacement-time (s-t) graph for the car?
Graf sesaran-masa (s-t) yang manakah yang betul?

Example 4
The following is the velocity-time graph of a car.

## Based on the graph,

(a)
Calculate the acceleration of the car between
(i) JK
(ii) KL
(iii) LM
(iv) MP
(vi) PN
(vii) NO
(b)
State the type of motion of the car between
(i) JK
(ii) KL
(iii) LM
(iv) MP
(vi) PN
(vii) NO
(c) Calculate the total displacement travelled of the car during
(i) the first 10 s of motion
(ii) the car moves with uniform velocity
(iii)the last 10 s of motion
(d) Calculate
(i) the total displacement for the whole journey.
(ii) the total distance for the whole journey.
(e) Calculate
(i)
the average velocity
(ii)
the average speed
Acceleration due to gravity (ignoring friction(geseran))

## Objects in gravitation field experience a downwards force their weight.

If unbalanced, this produces acceleration downwards.
There is an acceleration free fall (jatuh bebas) or acceleration due to
gravity when the object moves at the same acceleration.
Acceleration free fall is represented by the symbol g as assume
constant 9.81m s-2.
The value of g depends on the displacement or location of the object.
Study the following figure:

Case 1

Case 2

Case 3

An object travels
upwards

An object travels
downwards

An object travels
below the level

Displacement = +s
Velocity = +v
Acceleration = -g

Displacement =
Displacement = -s
+s
Velocity = -v
Velocity =-v
Acceleration = +g
Acceleration = -g

## Useful information for calculation:

Information

Analysis

The velocity
1. Calculation of maximum
decreases to zero
displacement:
when the object
reaches the highest
point.
2. Calculate total time for the
objects to travel.
Using the formula:
Time taken for the
object to reach the
highest point is the
same as the time it
takes to drop back
to its initial point.

s is H and a is g

## Total time for traveling is 2 x t.

2. Calculate velocity before
reaching the ground.
v2 = u2 + 2as
v2 = u2 + 2gH
u= 0
v2 = 2gH

Example 5

## Sebiji batu di lontarkan mencancang ke atas dengan laju 30 ms-1. Kirakan

selang masa di antara dua ketika apabila 25 m dari Bumi.
Example 6
A ball falls under gravity from the top of a tall building. Which of the
following is the
graph of the height h of the ball from the ground against time t?
Sebiji bola jatuh dari atas sebuah bangunan dengan pengaruh graviti. Graf
yang manakah menunjukkan hubungan di antara ketinggian h dan masa t?

Example 7
Satu jasad diluncurkan tegak ke atas dengan laju 20 ms-2 dari satu titik P,
25 m di atas Bumi. Lakarkan graf.
(a) sesaran-masa
(b) halaju-masa
(c) laju-masa
2.2 Projectile

> The motion equations can be used with object projected or thrown
through the air at an angle. Examples of projectiles : motion of missiles,
throwing basketball and long jump
> Consider the ball thrown at a velocity at an angle to the ground.
Ignoring air resistance, the only force acting on the ball during its flight
is the gravity. Analysis shown
-A downward acceleration that only affects the vertical component
of the velocity.
-The horizontal velocity remains constant.
-The ball follows a parabolic path through the air.
-The time of flight depends on the vertical velocity.
The horizontal distance travelled depends on the horizontal velocity and
the time of flight.
> The horizontal and vertical motions of a projectile are independent and
can be treated separately in calculations.

## The table below shows the horizontal and vertical components

of projectile motion.

Initial
velocity
Acceleration
Time taken
Using
formula:
v = u + at

## Horizontal component (x axis)

Vertical component (y
axis)

u cos

u sin

0
To reach R
Total time to R is twice the
time
to reach H.
So,

-g
To reach H, v = 0
0 = usin gtH
tH=

tR=2tH

R = (u cos ) 2 tH
Height H /
Range R
travelled

= 2 (u cos )
R=

Displacemen
t
at any
instant t

Using formula
V2 = u2 + 2 as
0 = (u sin )2 2gH
H=

x = (u cos )t
y = (u sin )t-

gt2

## Maximum R occurs when =

45
Extra
The range of projection is the
information
same for and (90 ).
Example, 0 = 15 and 75
Example 8
Satu jasad diluncurkan ke atas dengan laju 30 ms-1 pada sudut dongakan
60. Kirakan :
(a) masa yang di ambil oleh jasad untukmencapai tinggi maksimum
(b) tinggi maksimum yang dicapai
(c) Julat(Range)
(d) Masa yang diambil untuk mencapai ketinggian 30m
(e) Halaju seketika jasad di ketinggian 30 m

## 3.0 Work,Energy And Power

Posted on 08/02/2010 by amimo5095
Introduction
we apply work in our daily life. In this chapter, we will study work, different types of energy ,such as kinetic energy, potential
energy, conservation of energy and power.
3.1 Work
> Definition
Work is something done whenever it transfer energy from one form to another. It also can be defined as force acting on a body
moves the body.
> Formulae of work in different situation
(a)

W = Fs

(b)

W = F cos q s

(c) Work can be calculated by getting the area under the force displacement graph.

(d)
W=

## Work due to spring extension (pemanjangan)

Fe; F = force; e = spring extension

extension , e = y-x
(e) The work of gas inside the container

DW
= FDx
so pressure,

then F = PA

=PV
3.2 Energy
Kinetic energy, K

Potential energy, U

motion.
K.E=
mv2

## Potential energy is the energy of an object due

to its relative position or physical state.
P.E = mgh

## Kinetic energy stored in an object that is

moving equals to the amount of work done
accelerating it to that speed.
Work done=
mv2

## Potential energy stored in objects equals the

work done to lift the object against a
gravitational field.
Work done = m x g x Dh

- According to principle of conservation energy, energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be converted to other form of
energy.
K + U = constant
DK = -DU
For example when a ball falls from a building and the ball rebounds, the energy conservation is shown in the diagram below.

## Forces can be calculated by differentiating the potential energy.

Force =

Example 1
A car is pushed 31 m along a horizontal surface. It the total frictional force is a constant 300N and the work done by the person
pushing the car is 14 kJ, how much energy is transform to the kinetic and heat energies ?
solution
the work done against friction is 300 N x 31 m = 9 300 J
this become heat energy.
If total work done is 14 000 J, then 14 000 J 9300 J = 4700 J must have become kinetic energy.

Example 2
Calculate the retarded force on the object that is shown in the figure below.

Solution
The force is obtained by calculating the slope/gradient (kecerunan) of the graph
F=
=250N

Example 3
A force of 10 kN is used to push a body weighing 30 kN up a slope. The distance moved up the
is 40 m. The total height gained is 10 m. If you assume that there is no friction between the slope and the body, how much of
the work done ends up as kinetic energy of the body?
Solution
The, total work done by the force pushing the body up the slope is:
Work = force x distance
=10 x 103 x 40m = 400 kJ
The gain in potential energy due to it going up the slope is:
Ep = weight x height
= 30 x 103 x 10m = 300 kJ
Total work done that become kinetic energy = 400 kJ 300 kJ = 100 kJ
Example 4
An object is thrown vertically upwards, what graph will describe its variation of Ep and Ek with height?

Example 5
If an object of mass 40 kg is falling at its terminal velocity of 100 ms t through air, what is the energy lost to heat each second
as it falls? (g = 9.81 ms-2)
Solution
The object is losing EP as it falls. When it is at its terminal velocity, the lost EP is all becoming heat. None of it is becoming Ek as
the object is not gaining Ek because it is not speeding up.
Each second the object loses 100 m of height. Hence, EP lost each second is:
EP = mgh
= 40x 9.81 x 100
= 39 240 J
= 39 kJ
Example 6
If an object of mass m is thrown vertically upwards with velocity v and reaches height h, what height would a second object
with mass 2 m reach if it is thrown with velocity 4v ?
Solution
The Ek becomes EP so: mgh =

mv2

## Thats for the first object.

For the second object: h =

h=

z
=

= 16 h

In this case, the change in the mass of the object does not matter because the object will have twice the mass but also twice
the Ekinitially as it is going at twice the speed.
Example 7

The graph shows a movement of object 2 kg after it is applied with a force F which changes with displacements. Calculate:
(a) work done by the force.

## (b) The height the object could travel.

Solution
Work done by the force = Area under (F-x) graph
= 6 x 20+
(2) x 20 +
x2(-10) = 130 J

## (b) mgh = work done

2 x 9.81 x h = 130 J
h = 6.625 m
3.3 Power
> Definition
Power is the rate of doing work and time taken
Power =

## Unit: watt (W), joule per second (Js-1)

Example 8

A wheel is connected to a motor and turned clockwise at a constant speed of 10 revolutions per second. Two weights are hung
from a string passing over the wheel as shown. With the wheel turning, the system is in equilibrium. The length of string in
contact with the wheel is 0.5 m. What power must the motor produce to turn the wheel?
Solution
Use the equation Power = Force x Velocity.
Here, the resultant force due to the weights would be 20 N down on the left hand side, but the friction between the wheel and
the I string must provide enough force to balance the system. i.e. I friction must be 20 N.
If 0.5 m of string is in contact with the wheel and the wheel rotates at 10 revolutions per second, then the wheel rubs on
the string for a total distance of 10 s-1 x 0.5 m = 5 ms-1 .
So, Power = Force x velocity = 20N x 5ms-1 =100 W
Example 9
What is the maximum power that you could achieve from a wind turbine that has a blade radius of 14 m in a wind of velocity 2
ms-1? (Take the density of air as 1 kgm-3)
Solution

The energy for the turbine comes from the kinetic energy of the air. The maximum power achievable is if the blade removes
100% of the kinetic energy of the air each second.
Energy in the air =
mv2

In one second, the mass of air passing the blade (which is the air that can give its energy to the blade) is found by calculating
the volume of air that passes the blade and multiplying it by the density of the air.
Mass of air = volume of air x density of air
= (pr2 x velocity) x density
where r is the radius of the blades.
Substitute in the numbers and get:
Mass of air = 1232 kg per second.
Hence, Ek available per second =

(1232 kgs-1) x 22

= 2464 W
And finally the power is the energy per second which is 2464 W.
Example 10
Calculate the work done within 20 seconds.

Solution
To find the area under the graph you need to multiply Power x Time (thats the quantity on one axis times the quantity on the
other axis).
you need to recognize that
Work = Power x Time
Hence the units of the quantity that you calculate must be the units of work, i.e. joules.
Work=
(5+10)x20

= 150 J

## 3.4 Efficiency (kecekapan)

Definition
The efficiency of a machine is the ratio of the useful work done to the energy input.
> Formulae
Work done

x 100%

Energy input
Work done per second x 100%
Energy input per second
Output power x 100%

Input power
Useful energy out x 100%
Total energy in
When work done = energy input

\ 100% efficiency.

However, most machines do not achieve 100% efficiency because heat is produced and energy is needed to overcome friction.
Example 11
A motor of efficiency 80% is used to haul a lift up its shaft in 10 seconds. It the total length of the shaft is 50 m and the mass of
the lift is 1000 kg, what will the electrical power supplied the motor be?
Solution
The weight of the lift is ,W = mg = 1000 kg x 10 N kg-1 = 10 kN
The power needed to raise the lift is
= 50 kW

But that is the output power of the motor. We need to put in more than that as it is only 80% efficient. So the electrical input
power is:

Example 12
A machine is used to transport goods at Port Klang. The machine is equipped with 15 A and 30 V. The machine uses 10 s to
move goods of 10 kg from ground to the stage which is 40 m above the ground.

Calculate:
(a) Work done by machine.
(b) Potential energy at goods.
(c) Efficiency of machine.
If the goods are transported to cargo at ground with a slop, calculate the velocity before reaching the ground. [g = 10 ms -2]
Solution
(a) P

= VI
= 30V x 15A
= 450 W

W=Pxt
W = 450W x 10s
= 4500 J = 4.5 kJ
(b) Potential energy

= mgh
=10kg x10ms-2 x 40m = 4000 J

(c) effiency =

= 89%

Example 13
The graph shows the work done by a machine and the input when lifting a cargo in Port Klang

Calculate:
(a) the efficiency of the machine.
(b) Discuss the efficiency of the machine.
solution

## Chapter 16 Thermal Conduction

Posted on 28/03/2011 by amimo5095
16.1 Mechanism of Thermal Conduction through Solids
> For non-metals heat is conducted by vibration of atoms or molecules. When one end of a solid is heated, the molecules at the
hot end receive thermal energy and vibrate more vigorously. These, in turn, cause the neighboring molecules to vibrate more.
Eventually the molecules at the other end of the solid vibrate more vigorously and the increased vibration represents transfer of
energy and an increase in temperature.
> For metals, besides the above mechanism, thermal conduction also occurs through the collisions of free electrons with the
lattice atoms. Metals contain many free electrons. When one end of metal is heated, the electrons at the hot end receive
thermal energy and diffuse to the other parts of the metal. Energy is transferred through the collisions of the free electrons with
the lattice atoms.
Note: A good electrical conductor is also a good thermal conductor because a good electrical conductor has a large number of
free electrons in it.
16.2 Thermal Conductivity
> Thermal conductivity (k) of a material is the rate of heat flow per unit cross-sectional area per unit temperature gradient, in
(Steady state is a condition when all temperatures have become constant)
= -kA
(negative sign shows that the temperature q decreases as distance x increases)

## The unit for k is given by W m-1 K-1.

16.3Temperature Distribution Along Uniform Rod
Rod insulated
Figure below shows a rod of length l and cross-sectional area A is perfectly insulated. Heat flows along the rod and none
escapes from the sides.
When steady state is attained,
(i)the rate of heat flow dQ is the same at all points along the rod.
(ii)the temperature decreases uniformly with distance x along the rod.
(iii) the temperature gradient
is uniform along the rod.

## Rate of heat flow

= -kA

Example 1
Window glass has a thermal conductivity of 0.80 Wm-1 K-1. Calculate the rate at which heat is conducted through a window of
area 2.0 m2 and thickness 3.0 mm if the temperature in at air-conditioned room is 20C and the outdoors temperature is 32C.
Solution
Example 2
An Eskimo igloo is made of blocks of compressed snow, 0.50 m thick. What thickness of expanded polystyrene would be
required to give the same thermal insulation (i.e. the same rate I of loss of heat for the same temperature difference across the
walls)?
Thermal conductivity of compressed snow = 0.20 Wm-1 K-1
Thermal conductivity of expanded polystyrene = 0.012 Wm-1 K-1
Solution
Example 3

A saucepan has a flat steel base with an area of 0.032 m2 and thickness 0.0040 m. It is in direct thermal contact with a hotplate.
The two surfaces in contact are at the same temperature. The rate of heat flow through the base of the saucepan is 1500 W
when water is boiling steadily at 1100C in the saucepan. Calculate the surface temperature of the hotplate.
[Thermal conductivity of steel is 46 Wm-1 K-1]
Solution
Rod not insulated
Figure below shows a rod of length l and cross-sectional area A is not insulated. As the heat flows along the rod, some heat
escapes from the sides.
When steady state is attained,
(i) the rate of heat flow dQ decreases with distance x along the rod.
(ii)the temperature decreases with distance x along the rod.
(iii) the temperature gradient d0 decreases with distance x along the rod.

## 16.5 Heat Conduction through Composite Rods of Different Materials

Introduction

Example 1
A container with total surface area 40 m2 is used for keeping objects cool. The walls of the container consist of wood and a poor
conducting material. The thickness of wood and the poor conducting material is 5.0 mm and 60.0 mm respectively. If the
outside and inside surfaces are at temperatures 35C and 15C respectively, what is the rate of heat flow through the walls of
the container with and without the poor conducting material.
Thermal conductivity of wood = 0.24 Wm-1 K-1
Thermal conductivity of poor conducting material = 0.04 Wm-1 K-1

Solution
16.4 thermal resistance
> The above example can be solved by using the concept of thermal resistance. From the equation of rate of heat flow

kA

## can be determined and

Example 2
Three different materials X, Y and Z with length l, 3l and 2l are joined in series to formed a rod.The thermal conductivity of the
materials are 2k, k and 4k respectively. The free ends of the rod is kept at 100C and 0C as shown in the diagram. Find the
equilibrium temperature at the X-Y and Y-Z interface.

Solution
16.6 Determination of thermal conductivity
Determination of thermal conductivity of good conductors Searles method

## The sample is in the form of a thick, long insulated rod.

Rod is insulated so that very little heat is lost from the sides of the rod. This will ensure that the rate of heat flow and the
temperature gradient are constant along the rod.

Rod is of large cross sectional area so that the rate of heat lost from the sides is negligible compared to the rate of heat flow
along the rod.
Rod is long so that the temperature difference across the long length of the rod is measurable. A bigger temperature
differences reduces the percentage error in the measurement of the temperature difference.
One end of the rod is heated by a steam chest X to maintain the temperature at about 100C. At the other end of the rod, the
heat is carried away by a slow, steady stream of cold water flowing through the pipe Y maintained by a constant pressure
apparatus.
When the steady state (when all temperatures are steady) is attained, the temperature q 1, q2, q3 and q4 are recorded.
In the steady state
= kA
where A = cross sectional area of the rod

## The rate of heat flow is equal to

where m is the mass of cold water passing through the pipe in t sec c is the specific heat capacity of water
q3 and q4 are the steady temperatures of the water entering and leaving the constant pressure apparatus

= kA
=

k=
Determination of thermal conductivity of poor conductors Lees method

## The sample is in the form of a thin disc.

Sample is thin so that steady state can be achieved in a short time.
Sample is of large cross sectional area so that the rate of heat flow is adequate.
Sample is not lagged because the heat loss from the sides of the disc is negligible.
The sample is sandwiched between two thick conducting discs P and Q (e.g. brass). Q is part of a steam chest R.
The apparatus is suspended in mid air and Q is heated by passing steam through the steam chest.
When the steady state is attained, the temperature q1 and q2 are recorded.
In the steady state
= kA
where A = cross sectional area of the disc

## (D is the diameter of the disc)

l = thickness of the disc and the thickness is measured by using micrometer screw gauge.
The rate of heat flow
is also the rate of loss of heat from the exposed surface of P.

To measure

The steam chest is removed, leaving only the sample resting on the disc P, suspended as before.

P is gently heated by a Bunsen until its temperature is several degree above its previous temperature q1.
The disc P is then allowed to cool under the previous external conditions and a cooling curve q against t is plotted.
The rate of fall of temperature
at temperature q1 is obtained from the graph. The rate of heat flow is equal to mc

where m is the mass of disc P and c is the specific heat capacity of disc P

= kA

= mc

= mc

k=
Analogy between thermal and electrical conduction
Thermal conduction

Electrical conduction

or

= -kA
=

Heat Q

Electric charge Q

Temperature q

Electric potential V

Electrical conductivity
Thermal conductivity k

## Chapter 15 Thermodynamics of gases

Posted on 27/03/2011 by amimo5095
Introduction
Thermodynamic is the study of the laws that govern the conversion of energy from one form to another, the direction in which
heat will flow and the availability of internal energy to do work.
15.1 Heat Capacity
> Heat capacity, C of an object is the heat required to raise the temperature of the object by 1 K (or 1C).

## Unit for C is J K-1 or J C-1

The heat, Q required to raise the temperature of a body by DT is given by: Q =CDT
> Specific heat capacity, c of a material is the heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of the material by 1 K (or
1C).
where m = mass of body

## Unit for c is J kg-1 K-1 or J kg-1 C-1

Note that

The heat, Q required to raise the temperature of m kilogram of a material by DT is given by:Q = mcDT
>Molar heat capacity, Cm of a material is the heat required to raise the temperature of 1 mole of the material by 1 K (or 1C).
where n = number of mole

## Unit for Cm is J mol-1 K-1 or J mol-1 C-1

Note that

The heat, Q required to raise the temperature of n mole of a material by DT is given by, Q = nC m DT
For gases
Gas has two heat capacities, one at constant volume and another at constant pressure.
Molar heat capacity at constant volume, Cv,m of a gas is the heat required to raise the temperature of 1 mole of the gas by 1
K (or 1 C) at constant volume.
The heat, Q required to raise the temperature of n mole of a gas by DT at constant volume is given by
Q = n CV,m DT.
Molar heat capacity at constant pressure, Cp,m of a gas is the heat required to raise the temperature of 1 mole of the gas by
1 K (or 1 C) at constant pressure.
The heat, Q required to raise the temperature of n mole of a gas by AT at constant pressure is given by Q = n C P.m DT.
Cv,m and Cp,m depend on the degree of freedom.
CV,m =
and Cp,m =
where f is the degree of freedom. (To be derived later)

Example 1
A kettle made of aluminium has a mass of 2.0 kg and the heat capacity of the kettle 1.8 x103JK-1.
(a) What is the heat required to increase the temperature of the kettle by 40C?
(b) What is the specific heat capacity of aluminium?
Solution
Example 2
How much heat is released when 2.5 kg of water is cooled from 90C to 30C?
[specific heat capacity of water is 4.2 x 103 J kg-1 K-1]
Solution
Example 3
The specific heat capacity of copper is 385 J kg-1 K-1. The molar mass of copper is 63.5 g. What is the molar heat capacity of
copper?
Solution
15.2 Work
> When a gas expands, work is done by the gas.
When a gas is compressed, work is done on the gas.

> When the gas at constant pressure expends by pushing a light frictionless piston as shown in Figure above the work done by
the gas is:
dW = F dx = pA dx = p dV
> Hence, the work done by a gas when its volume increase from V1 to V2 is given by
= = area under the p-V graph

> The work done by gas for various types of changes will be discussed in the subsequent section. The changes involved are:
- Isobaric change (constant pressure)
- Isometric change (constant volume)
- Isothermal change (constant temperature)
- Adiabatic change (no heat flow in or flow out from the system)
Example 4

A gas undergoes the cycle of pressure and volume changes W X Y Z W as shown in the diagram. What is the net work
done by the gas?
Solution
15.3 First Law of Thermodynamics
> The first law of thermodynamics is a law of conservation of energy.
> The first law of thermodynamics states that the heat supplied to a system equals to the sum of increase in internal energy of
the system and the work done by the system. Q= DU+W
> The sign convention for Q, DU and W used in the formula above is shown below:
Q is positive when heat is supplied to the system.
Q is negative when heat is released from the system.
DU is positive when the internal energy (temperature) increases.
DU is negative when the internal energy (temperature) decreases.
W is positive when work is done by the system.
W is negative when work is done on the system.
15.4 Internal Energy
> The internal energy, U of a system is the total potential and kinetic energy of the molecules.
> For an ideal gas, because the force between the molecules is negligible, the potential energy equal zero. The internal energy
is the total kinetic energy of the molecules only.
> From chapter 14, for gas with f degree of freedom,
kinetic energy (internal energy) for one mole of gas =

## > The internal energy of the ideal gas depends on:

(a)Amount of gas (number of moles)
(b)Absolute temperature
(c) Degree of freedom
> When temperature of gas increases, internal energy increases and DU is positive. When temperature of gas decreases,
internal energy decreases and DU is negative.
Example 5

A fixed mass of gas undergoes changes in pressure and volume as shown in Figure above. When the gas is taken from state P
to state R by the stages PQ and QR, 16 J of heat are absorbed by it and 6 J of work are done by it. When the same resultant
change is achieved by stages PS and SR, 2 J of work is done by the gas.
(a) What is the change in internal energy from state P to state R?
(b) What is the heat absorbed by the gas when the gas undergoes the changes by stages PS and I SR?
Solution
15.5 Isometric Change
> An isometric process (short term for isovolumetric) is a constant-volume process.
> Since volume is constant,
DV = 0 and W=p DV=0
> Q =DU+W = DU+0 thus Q = DU
> To raise the temperature of n mole of gas by DT at constant volume, the heat required Q = nCv,m DT = DU

## 15.6 Isobaric Change

> An isobaric process is a constant-pressure process.
> Since there is a change in volume and pressure is constant at p,
W=pDV=p(V2-V1)
> Q = DU+W = DU+p (V2-V1)
>To raise the temperature of n mole of gas by DT at constant pressure, the heat required
Q = nCP,M DT= DU + p(V2-V1)

## 15.7 relation between Cv,m and Cp,m

> n Cp,m DT=DU+p(V2-VI)
n Cv,m DT = DU

## n Cp,m DT n Cv,m DT = p(V2 V1 )

> From the ideal gas equation pV = nRT
pV2 = nRT2
pV1 = nRT1
pV2-pV1 = nRT2 nRT1
p(V2 V1) = nR(T2 T1) = nR DT
n Cp,m DT n Cv,m DT = p(V2 V1 ) and CP,m Cvm = R
= nR DT
Example 6
The molar heat capacity at constant volume of an ideal gas is 20.8 J mol-1 K-1.
(a) How much heat is required to raise the temperature of 3.0 mole of the gas from 300 K to 450 K at constant volume?
(b) How much heat is required to raise the temperature of 3.0 mole of the gas from 300 K to 450 K at constant pressure?
(c) What is the internal energy of the gas at 300 K?
(d) What is the increase in internal energy when the temperature changes from 300K to 450K?
[R = 8.31 J K-1 mol-1]
Solution
The ratio of

## Internal energy for n mole of gas at temperature T = (n)

Change in internal energy for n mole of gas when there is a temperature change of
DT = (n)
R DT

so DU = nCv,m DT
= (n)
R DT

and CV,m =

Cp,m = CV,m + R
=
R+ R

g=

CV,m =

## Monoatomic Diatomic Polyatomic

Degree of freedom at room
temperature
CV,m =

Cp,m = CV,m + R =
g =

=1.67

R
4R

=1.40

=1.33

## 15.8 Isothermal Change

> An isothermal process is a constant-temperature process.
>Since temperature is constant, DT = 0 and DU = 0
> Q= DU + W =0 + W thus Q=W
> An isothermal change obeys Boyles law.
pV constant
> For an isothermal change, the gas must be held in a thin-walled, highly conducting vessel, surrounded by a constant
temperature bath. The change must take place slowly so that heat can flow into the gas or flow out from the gas to maintain its
temperature at every instant during the change.

## Work done in an isothermal change

Work done by gas in an isothermal change is given by W =

## Using the ideal gas equation pV = nRT

p=

so W =

=
=
=

Example 7
One mole of an ideal gas undergoes an isothermal change at a temperature T so that its volume V is doubled. What is the work
done by the gas during this change?
Solution
Example 8
A given mass of air contracts isothermally from a volume of 2.0 x 10-4 m3 and pressure of 1.0 x 105 Pa to a volume of 1.5 x 104

m3 at a temperature 300K.

## (a) How many moles of gas are there?

(b) What is the new pressure?
(c) What is the work done on the gas?
[R = 8.31 J K-1 mol-1]
Solution

> An adiabatic process is a process where no heat is transferred into or out of the system. i.e. Q = 0
>Q = DU+W thus 0 = DU + W and W = -DU
> During an adiabatic expansion, W is positive and DU is negative. i.e. during adiabatic expansion, internal energy decreases
and temperature decreases.
>During an adiabatic compression, W is negative and DU is positive. i.e. during adiabatic compression, internal energy
increases and temperature increases.
> An adiabatic change observes the following equations:
pVg = constant TVg-1 = constant
> For an adiabatic change, the gas must be held in a thick-walled, badly conducting vessel. The change must take place rapidly
so that there is little time for the heat to escape.
> The magnitude of gradient of the adiabatic curve is greater than that of the isothermal.
Ideal gas equation pV = nRT
First law of thermodynamics Q = DU + W
Adiabatic change Q= 0 and W = -DU
Change in internal energy DU = nCv,m DT
Work done W = pDV
Relation between Cp,m = CV,m + R
From W = -DU pDV = nCv,m DT
DV = nCv,m DT

DV = Cv,m

(Cp,m CV,m)

= Cv,m

=-

=-

(g-1)

(g-1)

=-

=-

## (g-1) ln V = -ln T + constant

ln T + (g-1) ln V = constant
ln TVg-1 = constant
TVg-1 = constant
From pV = nRT, substitute

## into the above equation

TVg-1 = contant
Vg-1 = contant

pVg = constant
Work done in an adiabatic change
Work done by gas in an adiabatic change is given by: W =

p=

so W =

where

[p2V2 p1V1]

## [T2 T1] where p1V1 = nRT1 and p2V2 = nRT2

Note: Work done for adiabatic change may also be obtained directly from change in internal energy if the temperatures are
known.
W = -DU
= -n CVm DT
= -(n)
R DT

= -(n)

R [T2 T1]

Example 9
Some gas, assumed to behave ideally, is contained within a cylinder which is surrounded by insulation to prevent loss of heat.
Initially the volume of gas is 2.9 x 10-4 m3, its pressure is 1.04 x 105 Pa and its temperature is 314 K. The gas undergoes
adiabatic compression until the volume becomes 2.9 x 10-5 m3 and the temperature becomes 790 K.
(a) Calculate g, the ratio of

## (b) Calculate the pressure of the gas after the compression.

(c) What is the work done to compress the gas?
Solution
Example 10
The gas in a heat pump can be considered to undergo a cycle of changes of pressure, volume and temperature. One such
cycle, for an ideal gas, is shown on the graph.

The table below shows the changes in internal energy in section A to B, B to C and C to D. 1 also shows that in sections A to B
and C to D, no heat is supplied to the gas.

Increase in
Section of
internal
cycle
energy of gas/J
A to B
1200
B to C
-1350
C to D
-600
D to A

## Heat supplied Work done

to gas/J
by gas/J
0
0

Using the first law of thermodynamics and the data from the graph, determine:
(i)Work done by gas for A to B.
(ii)Work done by gas for C to D.
(iii) Work done by gas for B to C.
(iv) Heat supplied to gas for B to C.
(v)Work done by gas for D to A.
(vi) Increase in internal energy for D to A.
(vii) Heat supplied to gas for D to A.
Solution
Example 11

The gas in the cylinder of a diesel engine can be considered to undergo a cycle of changes of pressure, volume and
temperature. One such cycle, for an ideal gas, is shown on the graph.
(a) The temperature of the gas at P and Q are 300 K and 660 K respectively. Use the data from the graph to find the
temperatures at R and S.
(b) During each of the four sections of the cycle, changes are being made to the internal energy of the gas. Some of the factors
affecting these changes are given in the table below.

cycle
to gas/J

Work done
by gas/J

P
Q
R
S

-300
740
440

to
to
to
to

Q
R
S
P

0
2580
0
-1700

Increase in
internal
energy of gas/J

## Deduce the increase in internal energy of gas for section:

(i) From P to Q.
(ii) From Q to R.
(iii) From R to S.
(iv) From S to P.
(c) What is the net work output during a complete cycle?
Solution

## Chapter 14 kinetic theory of gases

Posted on 25/03/2011 by amimo5095
Introduction
Ideal gas will obey all the gas laws (Boyles Law, Pressure Law, Charles Law and Ideal gas equation) exactly. Real gas at
high pressure and low temperature will behave differently.
14.1 Ideal Gas Equation
Boyles law
For a fixed mass of gas, pressure is inversely proportional to volume if the temperature is constant. Boyles law can be written
as:
p a V or pV = constant or p1 V1 = p2 V2

Pressure law
For a fixed mass of gas, pressure is proportional to the absolute temperature if the volume is constant. Pressure law can be
written as:

p a T or

= constant or

Charless law
For a fixed mass of gas, volume is proportional to the absolute temperature if the pressure is constant. Charles law can be
written as:
V a T or

= constant or

## Ideal gas equation

For a fixed mass of gas, when all three variables present (pressure, volume and temperature), we need to use ideal gas
equation
PV = nRT or

= constant or

## where R = molar gas constant = 8.31 J K-1 mol-1

n = number of moles of the gas
The number of moles of the gas can also be expressed as:
or

where
m = mass of gas
M = molar mass of gas
N = number of gas molecules
NA = Avogadro number (number of molecules in 1 mole of gas) = 6.02 x 1023 mol-1
At s.t.p. (standard temperature and pressure) i.e at 273 K and 101 kPa, the volume of one mole of any gas = 22.4 x 10 -3m3.
Relationship between Boltzmann constant and molar gas constant

## Boltzmann constant k = gas constant for 1 molecule of gas

Molar gas constant R = gas constant for 1 mole of gas or
= gas constant for NA molecules of gas
Example 1
An ideal gas has been placed in a tank at 30C. The gas pressure is initially 450 kPa. What will I 1 be the pressure if the
temperature is 60C?
Solution 1
Example 1
A faulty barometer has some air at the top above the mercury. When the length of the air column is 250 mm, the reading of the
mercury above the outside level is 740 mm. When the length of the air column is decreased to 200 mm, by depressing the
barometer tube further into the mercury, the reading of the mercury above the outside level is 735 mm. Calculate the
atmospheric pressure.
Solution
Example 3
What is the pressure of 8.0 mole of a gas at temperature 77C occupying a volume of 0.20 m 3?
[R = 8.31 J mol-1 ]
Solution
Example 3
A vessel with volume 2.0 litre contains an ideal gaq at temperature 300 K and the pressure of the gas is 110 kPa.
(a) How many moles of gas are there in the vessel?

(b) How many molecules of gas are there in the vessel? Solution
Example 4
Two gases occupy two containers, A and B. The gas in A, of volume 0.12 m3, exerts a pressure of 450 kPa. The gas in B, of
volume 0.16 m3, exerts a pressure of 150 kPa. The two containers are united by a tube of negligible volume and the gases are
allowed to intermingle. What is the final pressure in the container if the temperature remains constant?
Solution
14.2 kinetic Theory of Gases
Kinetic theory of matter
all matter is made up of small particles.
these particles are in a state of continuous motion.
Brownian movement and diffusion provide the most direct evidence for the kinetic theory.
Kinetic theory of gases
Particles in gases are relatively far apart and their interactions are consequently simplest. However certain assumptions have
to be made to simplify the mathematical theory.
The gas molecules are in continuous, free and random motion.
The gas molecules collide with one another and the walls of the containing vessel elastically.
Forces between molecules are negligible except during collision.
The volume of the gas molecules is negligible compared with the volume of the gas.
The time of collision between molecules is negligible compared with the time between collision.
14.3 Pressure of A Gas

> Consider a gas molecule of mass m moving with velocity c. The components of the velocity c along x, y and z directions are
u, v and w respectively.
> Consider the component of the velocity u in the x-direction.
Change of momentum on striking surface X, DP = mu (-mu)
= 2mu
> Assuming there is no collision between molecules as the molecule travels between two opposite surfaces, the time taken for
the molecule to collide with the surface X again is
t=

But <u2> =

Therefore p =

## Since N is large and the molecules have random m

then <u2> = <v2> = <w2>
and <c2> = <u2> + <v2> + <w2> = 3<u2>

Therefore <u2> =

<c2>

Hence p =

p=

<c2>

nm<c2> n =

## mn = mass of molecules per unit volume = r

p=
<c2>

Example 6
Calculate the rms speed of the atoms in a sample of argon which has a density of 1.6 kg m-3
and a pressure of 100 kPa.
Solution
Root mean square (rms) speed and mean speed
Root mean square seed,

## Mean speed, <c> =

Example 7
The speed of 10 particles are distributed as follows:

Speed / ms-1
No. of
particles

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

## where k = Boltzmann constant

Mean translational kinetic energy of a molecule =

<c2> =

## Using the data in the table, find:

(a) The root mean square speed.
(b) The mean speed of the particles. Solution
14.4 Molecular Kinetic Energy
> From p =
r<c2> and r =

where
M = mass of 1 mole of gas
Vm = volume of 1 mole of gas
NA = Avogadro number
m = mass of 1 molecule
p=
<c2>

## From ideal gas equation: p Vm = RT

Hence
<c2> = RT

<c2> =

<c2>) = RT

Mean molecular kinetic energy a T where T is the thermodynamic temperature of the gas.

At T = 0 K,

From
<c2> =

## Rms speed of gas molecules =

In terms of the molar mass of the gas, the rms speed of the molecules is given by:

Example 8
In a mixture of two monoatomic gases P and Q in thermal equilibrium, the molecules of Q I have twice the mass of those of P.
The mean translational kinetic energy of the molecules of Q is 6.2 x 10-21 J.
(a) What is the equilibrium temperature? I
(b) What is the mean translational kinetic energy of the molecules of P? I
(c) What is the ratio of rms speed of P to rms speed of Q?
[k=1.38x10-23J K-1]
Solution I
Example 9
Free neutrons in the core of a fission reactor are sometimes referred to as a `neutron gas. These free neutrons may be
assumed to behave as molecules of an ideal gas at a temperature of 37C.
(a) For a free neutron of mass 1.67 x 10-27 kg, calculate:
(i) Its mean kinetic energy.
(ii) Its rms speed.
(b) Determine the temperature of helium gas, assumed to be an ideal gas, whose molecules have the same rms speed as the
free neutrons. The mass of He atom is 4 times the mass of neutron.
Solution
Example 10
At what temperature is the rms speed of gaseous hydrogen molecules (molecular weight = 2) 1 1 equals to that of oxygen
molecules (molecular weight = 32) at 27C? 1
Solution
14.6 A degree of Freedom
> The degree of freedom of a gas molecule is the number of independent ways by which energy is absorbed by the gas
molecule.
translational energy
A gas molecule of mass m has mean translational kinetic energy. The 3 independent components of its translational motion
gives it three degrees of freedom.
<c2> =
<u2> +
<v2> +

<w2>

Rotational energy
In rotational motion, there are maximum three degrees of freedom.
I <w2> =
Ix <wx2> +
Iy <wy2> +
Iz <wz2>

Monoatomic
Molecules of a monoatomic gas is regarded as a point. Its moment of inertia is very small. Therefore rotational kinetic energy is
negligible.

Diatomic
Molecules of a diatomic gas is regarded as a dumb-bell. There are 2 degrees of freedom of rotational motion.

Polyatomic
Molecules of polyatomic gas have 3 degrees of freedom of rotational motion.

Vibrational energy
The energy of vibration = kinetic energy + potential energy
Vibrational motion has 2 degrees of freedom.
Number of degrees of freedom, f and atomicity of gases

Number of degrees
Atomicity of freedom at
of
very
gases
low temperature,
Monoatomic
3 translational
gas
Diatomic
gas

Number of degrees
Number of degrees
freedom at very
of freedom at room
high
temperature,
temperature,
3 translational

3 translational
3 translational +
2 rotational +
2 rotational =
2 vibrational =
5 degrees of
7 degrees of
freedom
freedom
3 translational +
3 rotational +
3 translational +
(n x 2)
3 rotational =
vibrational
6 degrees of
where n depends on
freedom
the type of
molecules

3 translational

Polyatomic
3 translational
gas

## 14.7 Maxwells Law of Equipartition of Energy

> From kinetic theory for gases,
Mean translational kinetic energy of a molecule =

Or

<c2> =

<u2> +

<v2> +

3 translational

<c2> =

<w2> =

## Therefore, energy associated with 1 degree of freedom =

> The law of equipartition of energy states that the energy supplied to a system is distributed equally among all the effective
degrees of freedom and the energy associated with each degree of freedom is
.

## > In general, for a gas with f degrees of freedom:

The mean energy per molecule of the gas = f (

)=

)=

## 14.8 Internal Energy of An Ideal Gas

> For real gas, the internal energy of the gas is the total kinetic energy and potential energy of the molecules of the gas.
> For an ideal gas, there is no intermolecular forces between the molecules of the gas, the potential energy of the molecules =
0.
> So, the internal energy of an ideal gas = kinetic energy of the molecules of the gas. > The mean internal energy of an ideal
gas,
U = total kinetic energies of the molecules in the gas
= (No. of molecules) x (No. of degrees of freedom per molecule) x

=Nf

## > For n moles of gas, U-= n

Example 11
Assuming oxygen behaves as an ideal gas,
calculate:
(a) The root-mean-square speed of its molecules.
(b) The average kinetic energy of a molecule at 273 K.
[1 mole of oxygen has a mass of 32 g]
Solution
Example 12
The total translational kinetic energy for a monoatomic gas at a certain temperature is K T. What is the total translational kinetic
energy for a diatomic and polyatomic gas at the same temperature? 1
Solution:
14.9 distribution of Molecular Speeds
Maxwellian distribution

Figure above
The graph is not symmetrical.
The lowest possible speed is zero and the highest is infinity.
The speed for which the number of molecules is a maximum is called the most probable speed, vp,

## The mean speed is

Vrms >

> vp

The area under the graph = total number of molecules in the sample.
Distribution of molecular speeds at different temperatures
When the temperature of the gas increases, the speeds of its molecules increases. The speed distribution graph will thus be
shifted towards higher speeds.
Since the total number of molecules in the gas remains constant, the area under the graph remains the same.

## Chapter 13 Deformation of solid

Posted on 24/03/2011 by amimo5095

Introduction
An elastic material returns to its original shape when deforming forces on it are removed. However if the material is stretched
past its elastic limit, it will be permanently deformed. Materials that permanently deform are plastic material.
Materials that undergo plastic deformation before breaking are ductile(mulur). Materials, like glass, which do not undergo
plastic deformation before breaking arebrittle(rapuh).
13.1 Stress and Strain
> Stress =
F, force and A, cross sectional area

## Cross sectional area, A Unit of stress is Pa or N m-2.

> Strain =
e, extension and l, original length

## Strain = Strain has no dimension nor unit.

> Youngs modulus, E =
=

## Unit of Young modulus is Pa or Nm-2.

13.2 Force-extension Graphs and Stress-strain Graphs
> Force-extension graph
- When weight is added to a spring, the spring extended and the force-extension graph is shown in Figure below

- The graph force is a straight line until point X called the proportional limit
-Between OX, the force is directly proportional to the extension and is said to obey Hookes Law
- Hookes law states that the force is directly proportional to the extension in a spring or wire if the limit of proportionality is not
exceeded.
Fae
F=ke
where k = force constant (force needed to produce unit extension in the wire)
Note: Elastic limit is slightly above proportional limit. If Hookes law is stated as elastic limit not exceeded, then the proportional
limit and the elastic limit is the same point
- From Young modulus, E =

F=

## Comparing with F = ke, the force constant, k =

- Area under force-extension graph = energy stored in the wire = work done to extend the wire.
- For the straight line portion, area under force-extension graph =
Fe.

To extend a wire from e1 to e2, the work done is given by the shaded area shown in Figure above.
Work done =
(F1 + F2)( e2 e1)

## When the elastic limit is not exceeded,

the area under stress-strain graph =

## = energy per unit volume

Example 1
A spring is 0.18 m long. When it is pulled by a force of 2.0 N, it stretches to 0.22 m. What is the force constant of the spring?
How much energy is stored in the stretched spring? Assume that the spring behaves elastically.
Solution:
Example 2
Force constant for spring P is 12.0 N m-1 and force constant for spring Q is 6.0 N m-1. Springs P and Q are connected in series
and pulled by a force of 1.2 N.
(a) What is the extension for each spring?
(b) What is the force constant for the combination of springs?
Solution
Example 3
When a load of 100 N is hung at the end of a long thin wire of diameter 0.8 mm and of length 50.0 cm, the extension produced
is 2.0 cm.
(a) What is the stress on the wire?
(b) What is the strain in the wire?
(c) What is the Young modulus?
Solution
Example 4

A support cable on a bridge has an area of cross-section of 0.0085 m2 and a length 40 m. It is made of high tensile steel whose
Young modulus is 2.8 x 1011 Pa. The tension in the cable is 750 kN.
(a) Calculate the extension of the cable.
(b) Calculate the strain energy stored in the cable.
Solution
13.3 Young Modulus
> Experiment to determine the Young modulus (Searles Method)

(a) Two long thin wires of the same materials are suspended beside each other from a rigid support.
- Long thin wire is used so that the extension produced would be longer and can be measured more accurately.
-Two wires are used to eliminate errors due to (a) changes of temperature and (b) yielding of support under heavy load.
(b) The reference wire is kept straight by a weight attached to its end and carries a scale S.
(c) The test wire carries a vernier scale V which is alongside the scale M.
(d) With loads added, the extension produced is noted. To check whether the elastic limit has been exceeded, the extension is
also measured when the loads are removed.
(e) A graph of extension e against mass of the load m is plotted.

## (f) Using Youngs modulus E =

(g) The length l of the wire is measured using a metre rule and the diameter of the wire is measured using a micrometer screw
gauge.
13.4 Strain Energy
> Behaviour of a wire

## -Figure above shows the force-extension graph of a wire until it breaks.

-From O to A, extension is directly proportional to force. Hookes Law is obeyed.
-Until point L, the wire is elastic. Wire able to return to its original length when load is removed.
-From L to B, wire does not recover to its original length when load is removed. Plastic deformation occurred.
-The point B is known as the yield point. Beyond point B, plastic deformation due to atomic planes sliding over each other
occurred.
-At C, the force is maximum. The wire thins non uniformly and breaks at D. Efforts to save the wire from breaking by reducing
the force will not work.
> Graphs for ductile, brittle and polymeric materials

- Materials like copper and steel show a large amount of plastic deformation before breaking. They are called ductile materials.
- Materials such as glass and ceramics breaks after the elastic limit without any plastic deformation. They are called brittle
materials.
- Material like rubber produces a large extension with a small force. It is a polymeric material. When a stretching force is
applied, the coiled rubber molecules straighten and giving rise to a large extension (800%). After all the chains of molecules
have straighten out, very large force is required to increase the separation of the atoms.
Example 8
A specimen fibre of glass and a specimen of copper wire has, the same dimensions. The length of each specimen is 1.60 m
and the radius of each is 0.18 mm. Force-extension graphs for both specimens are shown in figure below.

## (a) (i) Which of the two materials is brittle?

(ii) Explain using the feature of the graph that leads you to the answer in (i).
(b) Using the graphs and the data given, determine: I
(i) The area of the cross-section of the specimens.
(ii)The Young modulus of the glass. I
(iii) The ultimate tensile stress for copper. I
(iv) The approximate value for the work done to stretch the copper wire till its breaking point.
Solution

## Chapter 12 State of Matter

Posted on 23/03/2011 by amimo5095

## 12.1 Solid, Liquid and Gas

> Solid
- has definite volume and shape
- atoms are arranged closely in a fixed pattern
- atoms vibrate about their mean position
- strong attractive forces between atoms
- the atoms possess potential energy and kinetic energy
> Liquid
- has definite volume but assumes the shape of the vessel into which it is poured molecules are arranged closely but not in
fixed pattern
- molecules vibrate as well as moving freely in the liquid
- attractive forces between molecules but the forces are weaker than that in solid the molecules possess potential energy and
kinetic energy
> Gas
- has no definite volume and shape, it expands to fill any container into which it is placed
- molecules are separated far apart (size of molecule is negligible compared to the distance between molecules)
- molecules move freely in random motion
- forces between molecules are negligible
- the molecules possess kinetic energy only
12.2 Crystalline Solids
> The essence of the structure of a crystalline solid is that the arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules repeats itself regularly
over a long distance. Examples are sodium chloride crystals, copper, aluminium, diamond and silicon. In every crystal structure
there is a typical cell called the unit cell, which is repeated throughout the crystal.

> Solids where the particles are assembled in a disordered way but only show order over short distances is said to have the
structure of an amorphous solid. Glass is an example of amorphous (meaning shapeless) solid.
12.3 intermolecular force curve
> Force-separation graph (F-r graph)

- Force is required to extend a wire. This suggests that there are strong attractive force between atoms in solids.
- It is very difficult to compress solid or liquid. This suggests that there are strong repulsive forces between atoms.
- The attractive and repulsive forces between atoms are electrostatic in nature.
- In general the resultant force is given by equation
F = Frepulsive + Fattractive
- The resultant force between two atoms is shown in Figure above. Notice that the resultant force is repulsive (positive force)
when r < r0 and the resultant force is attractive (negative force) when r > ro.
- When r = ro, repulsive force = attractive force or the resultant force = 0. to is known as the equilibrium separation of the atoms.

- At r = ro Dr
The graph F-r is a straight line.
The straight line equation can be written as F =-k(r ro)
= -kDr
This shows that force is directly proportional to extension which is Hookes Law.
- The breaking force is the force that is able to overcome the maximum attraction. The separation that corresponds to the
breaking force is r1.
12.4 Potential Energy Curve
> Potential energy graph (U-r graph)

## - The force F between molecules is given by

- When the potential energy U is minimum, it corresponds to the equilibrium spacing between the molecules r o. The
temperature is at absolute zero and the matter is in solid state.
- When the solid is heated, the molecules have some energy, E, above the minimum value. The molecules oscillate between
points X and Y. Since the U-r curve is not symmetrical, the mean position G of the oscillation is greater than ro. Thus, the solid,
expands when its thermal energy is increased.
- When the energy equals E (Latent heat), the molecules are completely free and form gas.
Example 1

Figure above shows how the potential energy U changes with separation between atoms r for two types of solid A and B.
Discuss what is the difference between solid A with solid B in terms of:
(a) Arrangement of atoms.
(b) Elasticity.
(c) Molar latent heat of fusion.
Solution
(a) The minimum U for solid A occurs at a bigger value of r, this means that atoms in solid A is
further apart.

(b) The gradient of graph at ro for solid B is steeper, this means that solid B is more elastic (bigger spring constant k).
(c) Graph B has a greater minimum value, this means that the molar latent heat of fusion is greater.
Example 2
The potential energy U between two molecules at the distance r apart is given by the equation
where a and b are constants.

(a) Write down the expression for the force F between the two molecules.
(b) Determine the equilibrium separation ro between the molecules in terms of a and b.
Solution
Example 3
The force F between two molecules at a distance r apart is given by the equation

## where a and b are

constants.
(a) Determine the equilibrium separation ro between the molecules in terms of a and b.
(b) Write down the expression for the potential energy U between the two molecules.
(c) What is the minimum potential energy Umin in terms of a and b? State the physical significance of Umin.
Solution

## 4.3 Latent Heat

Posted on 26/02/2010 by amimo5095
What does the word latent heat mean?
Latent heat means hidden heat. This heat energy changes the state of a substance (phase change). The heat cannot be seen
because there is no rise in temperature of the substance.
Phase Change
When a phase change has occurred , latent heat is absorbed or released.

## Latent heat and kinetic theory

In a solid,the molecules are linked to the neighbours by forces of attraction. As the solid is heated , the molecules vibrate more
strongly. When the solid reaches its melting point, the vibrations have become so strong that the links begin to give way. Extra
energy is needed to overcome these forces and separate the molecules. This is called the latent heat of fusion. No
temperature rise occurs during this process, because the latent heat of fusion is used to overcome the intermolecular binding
forces. The average translational kinetic energy does not change, so the temperature remains constant.
In a liquid, the molecules are free enough to slide around and change neighbours, but they are still almost as close to each
other as in a solid. The links are weaker but still effective. As the liquid is heated further, the kinetic energy of the molecules
increases more. At the boiling point, the molecules break free from each other and become a gas. Energy is needed to
overcome the remaining links. This is called the latent heat of vaporisation.
No temperature rise occurs during this process, because the latent heat of vaporisation is used to overcome the intermolecular
binding forces. The average translational kinetic energy does not change, so the temperature remains constant.
The Heating and Cooling Curve (Naphthalene)
Heating curve

## AB= Solid , BC = solid + liquid CD = liquid

DE = liquid + gas

EF = gas

At AB,CD and EF :
The heat supplied increases the kinetic energy of naphthalene.So the temperature rises because the temperature is a measure
of the average kinetic energy of molecules in a substance
At BC,DE :

## At t1 and t2 phase change has occurred.

The latent heat is absorbed to provide the energy to overcome the binding forces between the molecules. The energy absorbed
does not increase the kinetic energy of the molecules, so the temperature remains constant.
Cooling curve

## Freezing point = 80o C

Condensation point = 218o C
AB= Gas BC = Gas + Liquid CD = Liquid
DE = Liquid + Solid

EF = Solid

At AB,CD and EF :
Heat is released to the surroundings and the kinetic energy of the molecules decreases, resulting in a fall in the temperature of
the naphthalene because the temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of molecules in a substance
At BC,DE :
At t1 and t2 phase change has occurred.
The latent heat is released to the surroundings as the molecules become more closely pack.. The energy released does
not decrease the kinetic energy of the molecules, so the temperature remains constant
Definition and the S.I unit of Specific Latent Heat ,l
The specific latent heat of fusion , lf :
Is the quantity heat of energy required to change 1 kg of a substance from the solid state to the liquid state , without a change
in temperature.
The specific latent heat of Vaporisation , lv :
Is the quantity heat of energy required to change 1 kg of a substance from the liquid state to the gaseous state , without a
change in temperature.
The S.I. unit of lf and lv is J kg-1
The relationship between m,l and Q

Where,
Q = the heat energy transferred to the substance
m = the mass of the substance
l = the specific latent heat of the substance
Example 1
What is the quantity of heat required to melt 2.0 kg ice at 0 o C.
(The specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 3.34 x 105 J kg-1)
Solution

Example 2

How much energy has to be removed from 4.0 kg of water at 20o C to produce a block of ice at 0 o C. (The specific heat
capacity of water =4.2 x 103 J kg-1 o C-1 . specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 3.34 x 105 J kg-1)
Solution

Example 3
Calculate the heat required to convert 4 kg of ice at - 15o C into steam at 100o C.
( Specific heat capacity of ice = 2.1 x 103J kg-1oC-1,
Specific heat capacity of ice = 4.2 x 103J kg-1oC-1,
Latent heat of fusion of ice = 3.34 x 105 J kg-1 and
Latent heat of vaporisation of water =

Solution

## The electrical power of the heater is recorded = P

The mass of each the two empty beakers is determined using the weighing balance.
Mass of empty beaker A = m1
Mass of empty beaker B = m2
When water starts to drip from the filter funnels at a steady rate, the heater in Set A is switched on.
The stopwatch is started and the empty beakers A and B are placed beneath the filter funnels.
After a period of t , the heater in Set A is switched off.
The masses of both beakers of water , A and B are determined using the weighing balance.
Mass of beaker A + water = m3
Mass of beaker B + water = m4

Calculate mass of ice melted by the electric immersion heater, m = (m3 - m1) - (m4 - m2)
Calculate the heat supplied by the heater = Pt
Calculate the heat absorbed by the ice during melting = mlf
On the assumption that there is no heat loss to surroundings;,
Pt = mlf
lf = Pt
m
Precautions
(1)

The immersion heater must be fully immersed in the ice cubes to avoid or reduce heat loss

Discussions
The value of the specific latent heat of fusion of ice ,lf determined in the experiment is larger than the standard value of lf.
This is because the experimental value of the mass of ice melted ,m less than the expected m due to some heat loss to the
surroundings.
The smaller the mass m, the greater the
specific latent heat of fusion of ice,lf,
lf = Pt
m

## The electrical power of the heater is recorded = P

The electric heater is switched on the heat the water to its boiling point.
When the water starts to boil at a steady rate , the stopwatch is started and the reading on the balance is recorded = m1
After a time ,t the reading on the electronic balance is recorded again = m2
Calculate the mass of water evaporated, m = m1 - m2
Calculate the heat supplied by the heater = Pt
Calculate the heat absorbed by the water during vaporisation = mlv
On the assumption that there is no heat loss to surroundings;,
Pt = mlv
lv = Pt
m
Precautions
(1)

The immersion heater must be fully immersed in the water to avoid or reduce direct heat loss to the surroundings.

Discussions
The value of the specific latent heat of vaporization of water ,lvdetermined in the experiment is larger than the standard value
of lv.
This is because the experimental value of the mass of water evaporated ,m less than the expected m due to some heat loss to
the surroundings.
The smaller the mass m, the greater the

## specific latent heat of fusion of ice,lv,

lv = Pt
m

Example 4
A 800 W electric heater is used to boil water. What is the time required to reduce the mass of water by 4 kg after the water has
reached its boiling point?
[ Specific latent heat of vaporization of water = 2.26 x 106 J kg -1 ]
Solution

Example 5
0.5 kg of a solid is heated by a 100 W heater. The graph shows how the temperature substance varies with time.

Solution

## Applications of Specific Latent Heat in Everyday Life

(1)

When we are engaged in strenuous activities , sweating cools our bodies. The sweat evaporates and the bodies heat is

## removed as the latent heat of vaporisation.thus our bodies temperature is decreased.

(2) Drinks can be cooled by adding in several cubes of ice. When the ice is melting , the latent heat of fusion is absorbed from
the drinks. The temperature of the drinks is lowered.
(3) Food can be cooked by using steam. Food such as cakes, eggs, fish, buns and others receive a large amount of energy
when the latent heat of vaporization of steam released from condensing steam.

Forces in Physics

Gravity Forces

## Weight of a mass m near an object of gravity g

The value of g at a distance r from the centre of a planet of mass M (the minus is the magnitude)

Gravitational PE

## The potential energy of a mass m lifted a height h above the earth

The value of gravitational potential energy at a distance r from the centre of mass M