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# ERASMUS MUNDUS MASTER COURSE IN SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION

## AND ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS (EMMC STEPS)

ELECTRICAL MACHINES
2012/2013

SIMULATION WORKSHEET
EXERCISES
DRAFT VERSION

## PROFESSORS PAULO PEREIRINHA & FERNANDO FERREIRA

ppereiri@isec.pt; fernando@isec.pt

ERASMUS MUNDUS MASTER COURSE IN SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION AND ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS (EMMC STEPS)

## EXERCISE N. 1 (PROF. PAULO PEREIRINHA)

Consider the electromagnet in Fig.1, existent at Electrical Machines Lab. of EED of ISEC. The
core and the armature material is referred to as "FeConelme50PP", which shows the
magnetization curve of Fig.2 (consider = 100 m/H for B <1.2 T). The dimensions of the device
are shown in Fig.3. The armature weighs 1 kg. The coil number of turns is 1798 and the wire
diameter is 0.6 mm. The coil plastic housing has a1=41 mm, a2=43 mm and b1=13 mm.
2

B (T)

1.5

0.5

1.E+07

1.E+06

1.E+05

1.E+04

1.E+03

1.E+02

1.E+01

H (A/m)

gap.

## Fig.2 Magnetization curve of the

ferromagnetic sheet used.

a2

a1

b1

lms 2(a1 a2 ) b1

## Fig.3 Dimensions of the core and armature in mm (depth=38 mm)

and coil housing dimensions.
Using the analogy between electrical circuits and magnetic circuits, calculate:
a) The DC current required to attract the armature at a distance of 10 mm.
b) The inductance, neglecting fringing effect.
c) If a 50 Hz AC current is supplied, what is the emf induced in the coil? And
the voltage required?
d) Using Matlab (or Excel), calculate the static force for different air gaps,
from 10 mm to 0 mm, for i=0,78 A. Comment on the validity of the results.
e) (check the results using the finite element method)

FECONELME50PP
B
H
0.00
0.0
0.10
17.5
0.15
20.0
0.20
23.2
0.25
26.2
0.30
29.5
0.35
32.5
0.40
36.0
0.50
42.2
0.60
48.5
0.70
52.5
0.80
61.3
0.90
71
1.00
82
1.10
100
1.20
125
1.25
142
1.30
165
1.35
200
1.40
250
1.45
335
1.50
500
1.55
900
1.60
1500
1.65
2500
1.70
3700
1.75
5000
1.80
7000
1.85
11750
1.90
25000
1.925 50000
1.950 100000
1.975 200000
2.000 400000
2.025 800000
2.050 1580000

ERASMUS MUNDUS MASTER COURSE IN SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION AND ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS (EMMC STEPS)

## EXERCISE NO. 2 (PROF. FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA)

In-class work:
Simulate in MATLAB/Simulink software package (the SimPowerSystems toolbox is necessary)
the open circuit, short circuit and full-load tests of a single-phase transformer with the
parameters shown Fig. 1. In Fig. 2, the Simulink block diagram can be seen.

Fig. 1
Additional experiment: Visualize the hysteresis cycle in the oscilloscope.

ERASMUS MUNDUS MASTER COURSE IN SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION AND ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS (EMMC STEPS)

## ELECTRICAL MACHINES -2012/2013

Fig. 2
In the Electrical Machines Lab., perform the open circuit, short circuit and full-load experimental
tests of a real single-phase transformer.
Off-class work, to be included in the report:
On the basis of the open-circuit and short-circuit tests, determine the equivalent circuit
parameters of the tested and simulated transformers. Adjust the simulation parameters in order
to match the experimental and simulated results, including for the full-load test. Compare the
simulated and experimentally obtained losses and efficiency at full-load. Discuss the influence
of the saturation in the results. Simulate in MATLAB the equivalent circuit from no-load to fullload. Explain the shape of the experimental hysteresis cycle.
References:
- Electric Machinery, A. E. Fitzgerald, 6th Ed., McGraw-Hill. pp.77-80.
- Help of Simulink, Multi-Winding Transformer.

ERASMUS MUNDUS MASTER COURSE IN SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION AND ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS (EMMC STEPS)

## EXERCISE No. 3 (PROF. FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA)

In-class work:
Simulate in MATLAB/Simulink software package (the SimPowerSystems toolbox is necessary)
the open circuit, short circuit and full-load tests of a three-phase Yy, 400/200 V transformer with
the parameters shown Fig. 1. In Fig. 2, the Simulink block diagram can be seen. For the same
parameters, simulate the open circuit test for the Yd connection.

Fig. 1

ERASMUS MUNDUS MASTER COURSE IN SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION AND ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS (EMMC STEPS)

## ELECTRICAL MACHINES -2012/2013

Fig. 2
In the Electrical Machines Lab., perform the open circuit, short circuit and full-load experimental
tests of a real three-phase transformer (400/200 V, Yy). For the same number of turns in the
primary and secondary windings, perform the open circuit test for the Yd connection.
Off-class work, to be included in the report:
On the basis of the open-circuit and short-circuit tests, determine the per-phase equivalent
circuit parameters of the tested and simulated transformers. Adjust the simulation parameters in
order to match the experimental and simulated results, including for the full-load test. Explain
the different obtained between Yy and Yd connection modes. Compare the simulated and
experimentally obtained losses and efficiency at full-load. Discuss the influence of the saturation
in the results. Simulate in MATLAB the per-phase equivalent circuit from no-load to full-load
operation.
References:
- Electric Machinery, A. E. Fitzgerald, 6th Ed., McGraw-Hill. pp.85-90.
- Help of Simulink, Three-Phase Transformer (Two Windings).

ERASMUS MUNDUS MASTER COURSE IN SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION AND ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS (EMMC STEPS)

## EXERCISE No. 4 (PROF. FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA)

In-class work:
Simulate in MATLAB/Simulink software package (the SimPowerSystems toolbox is necessary)
the no-load and blocked-rotor tests of a 4-kW, 400-V, 50-Hz, 4-pole, three-phase squirrel-cage
induction motor with the parameters shown Fig. 1. The no-load test is performed at nominal
voltage (400 V) and the blocked-rotor test is performed at nominal current (7.86 A). However, in
order to segregate friction&windage and core losses, the no-load test should be performed at
different voltages, starting at 125% of nominal voltage and decreasing down to 10-15% of
nominal voltage, in 20/40-V steps. In Fig. 2, the Simulink block diagram can be seen. For the
same parameters, simulate the no-load test for a 231-V supply voltage.

Fig. 1

ERASMUS MUNDUS MASTER COURSE IN SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION AND ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS (EMMC STEPS)

## ELECTRICAL MACHINES -2012/2013

Fig. 2
In the Electrical Machines Lab., perform the no-load and blocked-rotor experimental tests of a
real 400-V three-phase squirrel-cage induction motor (to be selected) at 400 V in star
connection (nominal) and at 231 V in star and delta connections.
Off-class work, to be included in the report:
On the basis of the no-load and blocked-rotor tests, determine the per-phase equivalent circuit
parameters of the tested and simulated motors. Adjust the simulation parameters in order to
match the experimental and simulated results. Explain the different obtained between star and
delta connection modes. Compare the simulated and experimentally obtained core/iron,
friction&windage and Joule losses. Discuss the influence of the core-loss resistance (in the
equivalent circuit) and saturation in the results. Simulate in MATLAB the per-phase equivalent
circuit from no-load to full-load operation. Present a short study on the influence of the rotor
resistance in the torque-speed curve, and comment the effect of the rotor-bar skin effect and
material (copper and aluminum) in that curve.
References:
- Electric Machinery, A. E. Fitzgerald, 6th Ed., McGraw-Hill. pp.313-317.
- Help of Simulink, Asynchronous Machine SI Units.

ERASMUS MUNDUS MASTER COURSE IN SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION AND ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS (EMMC STEPS)

## EXERCISE No. 5 (PROF. FERNANDO J. T. E. FERREIRA)

In-class work:
Simulate in MATLAB/Simulink software package (the SimPowerSystems toolbox is necessary)
the open-circuit and short-circuit tests of a 3-kW, 400-V, 50-Hz, 4-pole, round-rotor synchronous
machine. Both tests are performed at nominal speed (1500 rpm). In the short-circuit test the
current should not exceed the rated value. In Fig. 1, the Simulink block diagram can be seen.

Fig. 1
In the Electrical Machines Lab., perform the open-circuit and the short-circuit experimental tests
of a real 400-V synchronous machine.
Note: Since the synchronous machine is driven by a DC motor, please study the method of
connecting and controlling the speed of a DC motor with shunt excitation.
Off-class work, to be included in the report:
On the basis of the short- and open-circuit tests, determine the per-phase equivalent circuit
parameters of the tested and simulated machines. Adjust the simulation parameters in order to
match the experimental and simulated results. Simulate in MATLAB the per-phase equivalent
circuit from no-load to full-load generator operation. Discuss the saturation and the armature
reaction effects.
References:
- Electric Machinery, A. E. Fitzgerald, 6th Ed., McGraw-Hill. pp.256-262.
- Help of Simulink, Simplified Synchronous Machine SI Units.