You are on page 1of 64

Fat

GraL|j

PROCESS PIPING
ASME Code for Process Piping, B31 .3

Muhammad Bilal
1

June 01, 201 3

Contents
Objective
History & Scope
Code

Development History
Organization of Code
Scope
Exclusions

Design
Design Conditions
Design Criteria
Design for Internal Pressure (Para 304)

Fabrication, Assembly & Erection


Inspection, Examination & Testing

Objective
To provide the participant with a good basic understanding
of the design, fabrication, erection and inspection rules and
requirements of the ASME B31 .3 Code. At the conclusion
of the session, the participant will understand:
'/Development history of the Code
/How the ASME B31 .3 is Organized
'/Design Conditions & Criteria
'/Fabrication, Assembly & Erection
'/Inspection, Examination & Testing

HISTORY & SCOPE


Code Development History
Organization of Code
Scope
Exclusions

History & Scope

Fat Ima GrciLia

1926 the American Standards Association (ASA) initiated the B31 Project at the request of

the American Society for Mechanical Engineers (ASME).

Members were required to be selected from engineering societies, industry, government


bureaus, institutions and trade associations.

Initial publication in 1935 was entitled the "American Tentative standard Code for Pressure
Piping . This edition was directed toward power plant and industrial installations.

1942 Edition of "Code for Pressure Piping" added a new section for refrigeration piping &
contained the following sections:

Power Piping Systems


Gas & Air Piping
Oil Piping Systems
District Heating Piping Systems
Refrigeration Piping Systems
Fabrication Details
Materials - Their Specifications and Identification

The "combined" edition of the code was published until 1955

History & Scope

Due to the size and complexity of trying to cover growing number of industrial
applications in one book, the Code was broken into separate documents.

History & Scope


1984 contained the integration of the B31 .10 cryogenic requirements, a new
stand alone chapter on high pressure piping was added to the code.

The

1990 and 1993 Editions added requirements for bellows expansion joints and
aluminum flanges.

The

1996 Edition contained significant changes to the introduction and scope


statements to clarify the application of all B31 sections, which alsq revised their
scope sections. The title of the code was changed to Process Piping. The 1996
Edition also contains metric units and are designated as standard. Instructions
for conversion are given where metric data are not available or it was not possible
to complete all the metric conversions to date. By agreement, either system may
be used.

The

Organization of B31.3 CODE


FOREWORD
INTRODUCTION
CHAPTE R 1
CHAPTER II
PART 1
PART 2
PART 3
PART 4
PART 5
PART 6

CHAPTER III
CHAPTER IV
CHAPTER V
CHAPTER VI
CHAPTER VII
PARTS 1-6
PART 7
PART 8
PART 9
PART 10

Chapter VIII
PARTS 1-10
PART 11-20

SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS


DESIGN
CONDITIONS AND CRITERIA
PRESSURE DESIGN OF PIPING COMPONENTS
FLUID SERVICE REQUIREMENTS FOR PIPING COMPONENTS
FLUID SERVICE REQUIREMENTS FOR PIPING JOINTS
FLEXIBILITY AND SUPPORT
SYSTEMS

MATERIALS
STANDARDS FOR PIPING COMPONENTS
FABRICATION, ASSEMBLY AND ERECTION
INSPECTION, EXAMINATION AND TESTING
NONMETALLIC PIPING &: PIPING LINED WITH NONMETALS(Prefix-A)
Topics same as parts for Chapter
II MATERIALS
PIPING COMPONENTS STANDARDS
FABRICATION, ASSEMBLY AND ERECTION
INSPECTION, EXAMINATION AND TESTING

PIPING FOR CATEGORY M FLUID SERVICE (Prefix-M)


Topics same as parts for Chapter
VII Corresponding to Chapter VII

CHAPTER IX

HIGH PRESSURE PIPING (Prefix-K)

PARTS 1-10

Topics same as parts for Chapter VII

Fluid Service Categories

Category D
All discussions B31 .3 is based on this category
Non toxic, non hazardous, non corrosive fluid below 150 psig
pressure and at a temperature between -20 ~ 300 deg F

Category M

Special requirements of chapter 8 to be fulfilled


Hazardous, harmful in small dozes to human beings, pressure and
temperature non falling in category

Normal

Fluid not falling in above two categories


High Pressure piping
The pressure exceeds the limits of B16.5 class 2500 flange at
temperature
B31.3 Chapter 9 details additional requirements

Scope of B31.3 (Para 300.1)

This Code prescribes requirements for the materials, design, fabrication, assembly, erection,
examination, inspection, and testing of piping.

This Code applies to piping for all fluids:

Raw, intermediate, and finished chemicals;

Petroleum products;

Gas, steam, air, and water;

Fluidized solids; and

Refrigerants

This Code covers all piping within the property limits of facilities engaged in the processing or
handling of chemical petroleum, or related products. Examples are a chemical plant (including
non-radioactive fluids in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant), petroleum refinery, loading terminal,
natural gas processing plant (including liquefied natural gas facilities), bulk plant, compounding
plant, and tank farm.
Packaged Equipment Piping - Piping which interconnects individual pieces or stages of
equipment within a packaged equipment assembly shall be in accordance with B31 .3, except
that packaged refrigeration piping may conform to either B31 .3 or B31 .5.

Exclusions (Para 300.1.3)

ESS"

The B31 .3 Code excludes the following (Para. 300.1 .3)

Piping systems designed for internal pressures 0 to 15 psi with design temperatures 20 F to 366 F. (- 6.6 c to 185C)
Power Boilers in accordance with ASME BPV Section I and boiler external piping
which is required to conform to B31 .1 ;
tubes, tube headers, crossovers, and manifolds of fired heaters, which are internal to
the heater enclosure;
pressure vessels, heat exchangers etc., pumps, compressors, and other fluid handling
or processing equipment, including internal piping and connections for external piping;
piping located on company property which has been set aside for pipelines conforming
to B31 .4, B31 .8, or B31 .11 , or applicable governmental regulations;
plumbing, sanitary sewers, and storm sewers; and
fire protection systems constructed in compliance with insurance underwriters' or other
recognized fire protection engineering standards. (Requirements in NFPA Codes)

Exclusions (Para 300.1.3)

ESS"

The B31 .3 Code excludes the following (Para. 300.1 .3)


a) Piping systems designed for internal gage pressures at or above zero but less than
105 kPa (15 psi), provided the fluid handled is nonflammable, nontoxic, and not
damaging to human tissues as defined in 300.2, and its design temperature is from
-29 c (-20 F) through 186c (366 F)
b) Power boilers in accordance with BPV Code2 Section I and boiler external piping which
is required to conform to B31 .1
c) Tubes, tube headers, crossovers, and manifolds of fired heaters, which are internal to
the heater enclosure
d) Pressure vessels, heat exchangers, pumps, compressors, and other fluid handling or
processing equipment, including internal piping and connections for external piping

DESIGN

Design Conditions
Design Criteria

Design Conditions
Design Pressure (Para 301 .2)
Design Temperature (Para 301.3)
Ambient Effects (Para 301.4)
Dynamic Effects (Para 301 .5)
Weight Effects (Para 301 .6)
Thermal Expansion & Contraction Effects (Para 301.7)
Effects of Support, Anchor and Terminal Movements
(Para 301 .8)
Reduced Ductility Effects (Para 301.9)
Cyclic Effects (Para 301.10)
Air Condensation Effects (Para 301.11)

Design Pressure (Para 301.2)

"

The pressure design of a piping system is based on determining the


thickness of each piping component considering the following:
Design pressure of each component in the piping system shall not be
less than the pressure at the most severe condition of coincident
internal or external pressure and temperature expected during
service.
Design to achieve the greatest component thickness or highest flange
rating required
Consider

Consider

all pressure-temperature conditions and variations

any exceptions to the Code requirements by particular


attention to all statements in the subject paragraph. Para. 302.2.4
specifies the allowances for Pressure and Temperature Variations.

Design Pressure (Para 301.2)

"

be made to safely contain or relieve any


pressure to which the piping system may be subjected
(Para. 301 .22).

Provisions must

relief valving
Provide ability for isolation or
Design the system to withstand the highest pressure that
can be developed.
Consider oscillations, surges, control failures and
improper operation effects the piping system.
Provide

Design Pressure (Para 301.2)

sag

that the allowances of Para. 302.2.4(f) are permitted


provided the other requirements of Para. 302.2.4 are also met.
Para.302.2.4 addresses allowances for Pressure and
Temperature Variations, it is a very detailed paragraph and
should be studied carefully before applying.

Consider

subject to owner's approval


operation in excess of pressure rating or the allowable stress
for pressure design at the temperature
33 / for no more than 10 hours at anyone time and no more
than 100 hours/year or
20 / for no more than 50 hours/year at anyone time and no
more than 500 hours/year
evaluation by the designer over the service life of the piping
system variations which are self-limiting

Design Temperature (301.3)

design temperature of each component in a piping system


is the temperature at which, under the coincident pressure, the
greatest thickness or highest component rating is required.

The

Coincidental

considered!

Consider

with pressure, the most severe condition is to be

the fluid temperature, solar radiation, heating or


cooling temperatures.
Consider the material requirements and the minimum
temperature expected in service.
Consider insulated and uninsulated piping requirements.
For insulated piping, consider the effects of external insulation
versus internal insulation.
Consider effects of heat tracing piping components.

Ambient Effects (Para 301.4)

Ffltima Grgup

Cooling
Effects on pressure
Cooling effects of gas or vapor may reduce pressure to cause a vacuum.
Consider external pressure caused by cooling effects
Provide a vacuum break or design piping to withstand external pressure.

Expansion
Fluid expansion effects
Make provisions to withstand or to relieve increased pressure effects due to heating of static
fluid. (Thermal relieving)
Icing
Atmospheric icing effects
Systems operating below 32 of may result in moisture condensation
Make provisions to avoid buildup of ice
Consider this condition applying to shut off, control, relief valves.

Low Ambient Temperature


Consider for displacement stress analysis

Dynamic Effects (Para 301.5)


Impact
External - jet

impingement
Internal - water hammer (any liquid), liquid or solid
slugging, flashing

Wind
design loads for buildings and structures
Building Code, ASCE 7 (ANSI 58.1)

Minimum
Uniform

Earthquake
ASCE 7
Uniform Building Code

SS

Dynamic Effects (Para 301.5)

Ftimg Croup

Vibration
Design to reduce excessive vibration

consider implementing studies to determine if resonance will occur in some part of the system.
Consider use of pulsation-reducing devices (accumulators, surge drums etc.)

Supports

Adequate foundations, especially at pumps and compressors


strategic location of guides and supports
avoidance of small branch connections

Impact, pressure pulsation, resonance wind loads

Discharge Reactions
design" arranged and supported
let down loads
relief valve discharge loads

Weight Effect (Para 301.6)


Live Loads
Medium weight - service or test
Environmental - ice & snow
Dead Loads
Piping component weight
Piping insulation
Other superimposed permanent loads

Fatiffla Group

Thermal Expansion and Contraction Effects SvZ


(301.7)
Fatime Grgup

Thermal Loads Due to Restraints


Thermal expansion thrust and moments
Restraints and anchors
Equipment connections - pump, tank connections
Loads Due to Temperature Gradients
Unequal temperature distribution (dead leg)
High heat flux
Two phase flow (condensate line)
Loads Due to Differences in Expansion Characteristics
Bimetallic piping (differences in thermal expansion)
Lined piping
Jacketed
Metallic-non

metallic piping

other Conditions
EFFECTS OF SUPPORT, ANCHOR AND TERMINAL MOVEMENT (Para. 301.8)
Piping flexibility
Settlement
Wind sway
REDUCED DUCTILITY EFFECTS (Para. 301.9)
Welding
Heat treating
Forming, bending or low temperature operation
Chilling effect (evaporation of volatile liquid)
CYCLIC EFFECTS (Para. 301.10) (Thermal or Pressure)
Fatigue effects
Cyclic loadings
AIR CONDENSATION EFFECTS (Para. 301.11)
At operating temperature below -3 12 F (-191 C) in ambient air, condensation and oxygen
enrichment occur.
Materials selection
Include insulation and adequate shielding and/or disposal

Design Conditions

(- tima

Appendix F
Good reference in the form of precautionary considerations relating to particular
fluid services and piping applications
The designer is referred to Appendix F of ASME B31 .3 for guidance in the form of
precautionary considerations relating \0 particular fluid services and piping
applications. These are not Code requirements but should be taken into account
as applicable in the engineering design. Appendix F provides further information
and references in the following areas:
Design Conditions
Ambient Effect (fluid entrapment)
Dynamic Effects
Thermal Expansion and Contraction Effects (bowing during cool down)

Pressure Design
Pressure Design of other Metallic Components (Expansion Joints)
Valves
extended bonnets are recommended to establish a temperature difference
between valve packing and fluid.

Group

Design Conditions
APPENDIX F (Cont'd)
Flanges and Gaskets
Specific Flanges (raised face flanges)
Gaskets (full face type)

Bolting - use of controlled bolting procedures. The most widely


used bolting materials in process plant design are ASTM A193
Grade B7 stud bolts with ASTM A194 Grade 2H heavy hex nuts.
These materials are acceptable from - 50 F to 1ooo F.

Flanged Joints - selection/design, installation


Design Considerations for Specific Systems
Stop Valves in Pressure Relief Piping! Safeguarding

Design Conditions
APPENDIX F (Cont'd)

Materials
General Considerations - such as

exposure to fire and melting points

susceptibility to brittle fracture

insulation protection of piping material under fire exposure


susceptibility to corrosion
adverse electrolytic effects
compatibility of lubricants or sealants for threads
compatibility of packing seals, O-rings

Specific Material Considerations (Metals)

cast iron/lack of ductility, sensitive to thermal and mechanical shocks . conversion of carbides to graphite during long-term exposure above

800F for carbon steels


hydrogen exposure

possibility of stress corrosion cracking

susceptibility of high alloy (stainless steels) in inter-granular corrosion comments and considerations in the use of:

Nickel and Nickel Based Alloys

Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

Copper and Copper Alloys

Titanium and Titanium Alloys

Zirconium Alloys

Tantalum

DESIGN CRITERIA
General
Pressure Temperature Design Criteria
Allowable Stresses and Other Stress Limits (Para
302.3)

Design Criteria
General
Pressure-Temperature ratings can be used for piping components listed in
Table- 326-1"
The standards list the dimensional requirements for piping components
Appendix-A of the Code is a requirement also
"

1.

Allowances for Pressure & Temperature variations


Variations occur on occasions
Use these variations to determine the design conditions
Rating at Junctions of Different Services
Separating valve rated at highest service (most severe service condition)
Design each side to service condition applicable

Design Criteria
Allowable Stresses and other Stress Limits
Determine stresses in accordance with Code Rules unless modified by other
provisions of this Code
Tension - The basic allowable stress in tension is listed in Table A-l of this
code.
Table A-l is used to determine the allowable stress in tension for a number of
metallic components at various temperatures. When using Table A-l take care to
read any notes which may apply to the specific material.
When the term SE appears in an equation, the stress value is multiplied by a
manufacturing quality factor E. The term E will have a subscript c or j. Subscript c
means that the component has a casting quality and subscript j relates to weld
quality. The values of Ec and Ej are found in Code Tables A1 -A and A1-B
respectively.
Shear and Bending - The allowable stress in shear shall be 0.80 of the basic
allowable stress in tension from Table A-l or A-2.
Blearing - The allowable stress in bearing shall be 1.6 times the basic allowable
stress in tension
Compression -The allowable stress in compression shall be no greater than the
basic allowable stress in tension. Structural stability shall be considered.

Design Criteria
Basic Allowable Stresses used for Internal & External Pressure
=basic allowable stress from Table A-1at minimum metal temperature considered safe when wall
thickness meets the requirement of para. 304 (for internal pressure) and ASME BPV Code, Section VIII,
Div. 1 (for external pressure)
Basic Allowable Stresses used for Fatigue or Cyclic Loads
Sc =basic allowable stress at minimum metal temperature expected during the displacement cycle under
analysis
Sh = basic allowable stress at maximum metal temperature expected during the displacement cycle under
analysis
The above basic stresses are used to calculate the allowable displacement stress range, SA, which is used
for fatigue analysis
Bases for Allowable Stresses(other than Bolting, Cast & Malleable Iron)
Allowable stress for a pipe or_component is based on a function of the yield or tensile strength of the
material, or the creep rate at temperature or stress for rupture at elevated temperature. Reference Para.
302.3.2.
Allowable stress for material at ambient or cold condition is given the term Sc.
Allowable stress for material at the design temperature is given the term Sh.
Sc and Sh values are tabulated in Table A-l. The basis of Sc and Sh values at temperatures below the
creep range are the lowest of

1/3 of the specified minimum tensile strength at room temperature.


1/3 tensile strength at temperature.
2/3 minimum yield strength at room temperature.
2/3 yield at temperature.

Design Criteria
Who Can Establish Allowable Stresses
The user can not establish or calculate the allowable
stresses.
Only the ASME Code Committees can establish
allowable stresses.
For a user to use a new material, he/she needs to
provide to ASME the necessary material data, i.e. tensile
strength and yield strength at various temperatures, creep
data and stress-strain curves. Appendix 3 of Section-ll
Part describes the complete information that ASME
requires.

PRESSURE DESIGN (PARA


304)

Straight Pipe (Para 304.1)


Branch Connection (Para 304.3) Calculation

Thickness for Internal Pressure

_ (Para 304.1)_
For (t < /)
t =

PDr
2 (SEW + PY)

c = Corrosion Allowance
p = Internal design pressure
= Outside diameter of pipe
= Stress Value from Table A-1
Y = Stress Temp compensation factor from Table 304.1 .1
E = quality factor from Table A-1 A or A-1 B
Mill tolerance 12.5%
T = t + c + mill tolerance

For t > Di6 or for P/SE > 0.385


calculation of pressure design thickness for straight pipe requires special consideration of
factors such as theory of failure,
effects of fatigue, and thermal stress.

Fatima Group

Branch Connection (Para 304.3)


Reinforcements to be added based on geometry of area.
Not required when connections are taken using listed/listed unrated
components

Conditions
1. Centre line of branch pipe intersects that of run
2. Angle of intersection is between 45 and 90 deg
3. For run pipe y < 100
4. Branch to run dia ratio y < - 1
1 1.-

HbjaUVF"

",l'

ML*

__

Branch Connection (Para 304.3)

--'"/1

i!rxwi L
Jl

unc

Tfll

11-4

Tt 'tl
T ; AJ
i Ar

|I

D,

Noll
till
T

lt-_ iliiutqiin- n

Zan+Ltfiili

'
71 J8
Ky

if

i
!
f'_ I

i~~

T Vj

Mom
Ttt

MI

K y

f1 .

.*

-J-I

A*

s6"

-- r

Fatima Grgup

a.

ll.
*1'

PZnHTfpriTfiFWTl

,*/
V

(*1

J
L,.

"

a'

7"

-*l
-

1*.

\j

|J

Pipei

reinforced branch fittings which abut the run pipe above 4 inch dia
are not permitted if d/D exceeds 0.8 or run pipe is less than sch 40 or run
pipe thickness is less than 0.74 where pipe
exceeds 36 inch
Pad reinforced braches where temp exceeds 800 F are not permitted
Branch connections 1.5 inch or lesser can be made using half coupling or
pipe nipple 160 sch.
Integrally

size

Branch Connection Calculations


Db-2(Tb-c)
removed
run
pipe
length
1
=
=
Effective
from
inp
Requiredreinfor cement area = A 1 = tfrdSinp)

Greater[d2 ( Tb c) + ( Tb C) H

1]

Excess area available in header = A 2 = (22

Length of branch =

1) (7ft th C)

I4 = Greaer[2. 5( Th - C) or 2. 5(r6 - c) + Tr]

Excess area available in branch =

A33

Other excess area available = A 4=


4

Dp' Db

Sinp

Sinp
X

Trr

AT = A 2+ A3 + A 4
If At < A 1then reinforcement pad is needed

Total available area =

A$

Pad Diameter = Dn
=
y

Tr

where Tr =
37

Db

+ -
Sinp

Thx 0. 875

Fatima Group

Sample Problem - Branch Reinforcement SmSS

fatima Graup

Pipe Material: Seamless, A106 Gr. B for branch and


header
= 16,500psi
Design Conditions : 550 psig @ 700 F
c = 0.0625
Mill Tolerance = 12.5%

NPS
Header
Branch

: 0.562in
: 0.375in

Required Pipe thicknesses


Header
Branch

: 0.395in
: 0.263in

Branch Angle = 90

Sample Problem - Branch Reinforcement


Calculate Required Reinforcement Area
Effective length removed from run pipe

= d1=

- 2(Tb - )

Sin/3

16 - 2(0. 375 X 0. 875 - 0. 0625)


11 =
= 15.469in

...

Sin90

thd1(2 Sin/?)
15. 469(2 - 5in90) = 6. llin2

Required reinforcement area = A 1=

Ax

39

= 0. 395 X

F
at.n a Grgup
Fatifn

Sample Problem - Branch Reinforcement

Calculate Excess Area Available Header


Excess area available in header A2 (22 !) (I'll
I'll o
~

Greater[d2 = (Tb -O + Oft-O+y.di]


2 = ! = 15.469

<

=A2(2 X 15.469 -- 15. 469)(0. 562

j42 = 0. 53 in2

40

in

D11 24
X

0. 875 - 0. 395 - 0.0625)

fatima Graup

Sample Problem - Branch Reinforcement


Calculate Excess Area Available

Branch

2L(Tb tb c)
Excess area available in branch = A_33 = -:-Sinp

Length of branch =

L4 = Greater[2. 5( Th - C) or 2. 5 (Tb c) + Tr]

i4 = [2. 5( 0. 375 X 0. 875 - 0. 0625) ] = 0. 664in2


0. 875 - 0. 263 - 0. 0625)

= 0. 003in2
43 = - 2 x0. 664(0. 375

41

F
at.n a Grgup
Fatifn

Sample Problem - Branch Reinforcement SmSS

fatima Graup

Calculate other Excess Areas Available


Other excess area available = A A4 =

Dp Dfj

- X Trr 0
Sinp

AT = A2 + A3 + A4
Aj = 0. 53 + 0. 003 + 0 = 0. 553in2
Total available area =

Aj

42

< A1 therefore reinforcement pad is needed

Sample Problem - Branch Reinforcement SmSS

fatima Graup

Reinforcement pad: A106, Gr. B, 0.562 in. thick


Recalculate Available Reinforcement

="2. 5 (0.875

0.562 - 0.0625)= 1.073 in

=422.5(0.875 X

0.375 - 0.0625)+ 0.562 (0.875)= 1.16 in

Therefore 4=

1. 073in

2 x 1. 073(0. 375

0. 875 - 0. 263 - 0. 0625)

Total new available area = Aj = A2


Aj = 0. 53 + 0. 005 + 0 = 0. 535in2

43

+ A3 + A4

Sample Problem - Branch Reinforcement 5?

Fatnn
Fat Ima GrciLia

Calculate additional reinforcement required and pad


dimensions:
A4 =

6.11 - 0.535 = 5.575

in2

Pad diameter, Dpis\


Tr = 0.562 (0.875)' = 0.492 in

5.575
As
Db
Pad Diameter = Dlp =
16 = 27.3
=
+
+
0.492
7V SinfS
Since

44

2d2 > Dp,pad diameter is acceptable

FABRICATION, ASSEMBLY &


ERECTION

45

Fabrication
Welding/ Requirements
Preheating/ Heat Treatment
Bending and Forming

Assembly & Erection


Alignment
Flanged Joints
Threaded Joints
Tubing Joints
Cleaning of Piping

FABRICATION, ASSEMBLY & ERECTIONgas


WELDING
Welding procedure & Performance qualification as per
Sec. IX with some exceptions as defined in para. 328.2.1
(b)to(f)
Welding Procedure Qualification by others (other than
owner) maybe used provided that the conditions of para
328.2.2 (a) are met.
Performance Qualification by others maybe acceptable
as per para 328.2.3

Welding joints & alignment of joints

FABRICATION, ASSEMBLY & ERECTION "ELDING REQUIREMENT


Welding shall be made by qualified welders by qualified
procedure
Tack welds at the root shall be made with filler metal
equivalent to that used in the root pass
Peening is prohibited
Welding shall not be performed if there is impingement
on the weld area of rain, snow, sleet or excessive wind or
if the weld area is frosted or met.

FILLET WELDS

Branch Connection
FtgSn 32B5-AA. 8,

Typical Welded Branch Go nations

Vcfif

{il IiHchj t Addtd

lb| With AddKl

Tel AnffuUf *;h ftlihout

RlnilDwiMi

HtlnhytMitHH

Addd mtjntQrfWMtit

Fig. 37&.5.4D Acopt,iblc Debits for Branch Attachment wk-cts

Fatinna Group

FABRICATION, ASSEMBLY & ERECTION "


7

PRE-HEATING
Pre-heating is used to minimize the detrimental effects of high temperature &
severe thermal gradients inherent welding
Required & recommended minimum heat temperatures are given in Table 330.1 .1
If the ambient is below 0c, the recommendations become requirements

HEAT TREATMENT
Heat Treatment is used to avert pr relieve the detrimental effects of high
temperature & severe gradients inherent in welding & to relieve residual stresses
created by bending & forming
Heat treatment shall be in accordance with the material grouping & thickness
ranges as defined in Table 331 .1.1
Governing thickness criteria is defined in para. 331 .1 .3
Fillet welds also required heat treatment as per para. 331 .1 .3 (b). Heat treatment
is required when the thickness through the weld in any plane is more than twice
the min. material thickness requiring heat treatment
Hardness tests of production welds & of hot formed piping are intended to verify
satisfactory heat treatment

Group

FABRICATION, ASSEMBLY & ERECTION

BENDING & FORMING


Pipe maybe bent & components maybe formed by any
hot or cold method suitable for the service.
The finished surface shall be free of cracks & buckling.
Thickness after bending shall be not less than that
required by the design.
Both hot & cold bending is allowed provided that the heat
treatment is carried out as per para. 332.4

FABRICATION, ASSEMBLY & ERECTIONgas


ASSEMBLY & ERECTION

Alignment
Piping Distortion - Any distortion of piping to bring it into alignment for joint assembly which introduces a
detrimental strain in equipment or piping components is prohibited
Cold Spring - To be discussed during PEP session on Flexibility Analysis
Flanged Joints - Before bolting up, flange faces shall be aligned to the design plane within 1mm in 200mm
measured across any diameter; flange bolt holes shall be aligned within 3mm maximum offset.

Flanged Joints
Tightening of bolts to a predetermined torque is recommended
Bolts should extend completely through their nuts. Any which fails to do so are considered acceptably
engaged if the lack of complete engagement is not more that one thread
No more that one gasket shall be used between contact faces in assembling a flanged joint

Threaded Joints
Sealing compound used on threads shall be suitable for the service conditions & pipe material
Joints to be seal welded shall be made up without sealing compound
A leaking threaded joint maybe seal welded provided all compound is removed from exposed threads

FABRICATION, ASSEMBLY & ERECTIONgas


ASSEMBLY & ERECTION (Cont'd)

Tubing Joints
Both flared & flareless (compression type) tubing joints
are permitted

Cleaning of Piping
Refers appendix-F, para. F335.9 (Appendix-F is for
guidance)

INSPECTION, EXAMINATION &


TEST!NG

55

INSPECTION, EXAMINATION & TESTING

Eg

B 31.3 distinguish between Examination & Inspection

Examination
Applies to quality control functions performed by the manufacturer (for components only), fabricator or

erector.
Responsibility for Examination

Providing materials, components, and workmanship in accordance with this code


Performing all required examinations
Preparing suitable records of examinations & tests for the Inspector's use

Inspection

Applies to functions performed for the owner by the owner's Inspector or the Inspector's delegates.
Responsibility for Inspection

It is the owner's responsibility, exercised through the owner's Inspector


Verify that all required examinations & testing have been completed
Inspect the piping to the extend necessary to be satisfied that it conforms to all applicable examination requirements of the
Code and OT the engineering design

Qualification of Owner's Inspectors


Defined in para. 340.4

INSPECTION, EXAMINATION & TESTING

gg

INSPECTION & EXAMINATION (Cont'd)

Examination Requirements
Prior to initial operation each piping installation, including components & workmanship shall be examined
(in accordance with para 341 J
Extent of Required Examination
Visual Examinations
Sufficient materials & components, selected at random, to satisfy the examiner that they conform to
specifications and are free from defects
At least 5% of fabrication for welds, each welder's work shall be represented
100% of fabrication for longitudinal welds except those in components made in accordance with a listed
specification
Random examination during erection of piping including checking of alignment,
supports & cold spring
Examination of erected piping for evidence of defects that would require repair or replacement and for
other evident deviations from the intent of the design

Other Examinations
Not less than 5% of circumferential butt & miter groove welds shall be examined fully by random
radiography or ultrasound
The welds to be examined shall be selected to ensure that the work product of
each welder doing the production welding is included

INSPECTION,' EXAMINATION & TESTING


INSPECTION

& EXAMINATION (Cont'd)

Examination

- Severe Cyclic Conditions

More stringent inspection requirement (refer para.

341 .4.3)

Acceptance Criteria
For welding, refer Table 341 .3.2.
For others, as per engineering design

7SS
Fjtifna Group

Testing
Requirements for Leak Test
Preparation of Leak Test
Test Fluid
Test Pressure
Hydrostatic Testing of Piping with Vessel as a System
Pneumatic Leak Test

INSPECTION,' EXAMINATION & TESTING

TESTING

Required Leak Test


Prior to initial operation, each piping system shall be tested to ensure tightness. The test shall be
hydrostatic leak test in accordance with para. 345.4.
Where the owner considers a hydrostatic leak test impracticable, either a pneumatic test or a combined
hydrostatic-pneumatic test maybe substituted.
Where the owner considers both hydrostatic & pneumatic leak testing impracticable, the alternative
specified in para. 345.9 maybe used
Para. 345.9 - Alternate Leak Test
100% Examination of longitudinal, circumferential & spiral groove welds by radiography
100% Examination of structural attachment welds by PT or MP
Carry out formal flexibility analysis
General Requirement for Leak Test
Test pressure should not exceed beyond Yield Strength
Precaution should be taken for over pressurization due to fluid thermal expansion
Test shall be maintained for atleast 10min. for leak detection
Piping sub-assemblies may be tested either separately or as assembled piping
A flanged joint at which a blank is inserted to isolate other equipment during a test need not be tested
Piping subject to external pressure shall be tested at an internal gage pressure 1.5 times the external
differential pressure, but not not less than 15 psi.

Graup

INSPECTION, EXAMINATION & TESTING

Eg

TESTING (Cont'd)

General Requirement for Leak Test (Cont'd)


Jacketed Lines - The internal line shall be leak tested on the basis of the internal or external design pressure, whichever is
critical. The jacket shall be leak tested separately.
If repair or additions are made following the leak test, the affected piping shall be
retested, except that for minor repairs or additions the owner may waive retest requirements when precautionary measures are
taken to assure sound construction

Preparation for Leak Test


All joints to be leak tested are to be left un-insulated & exposed for examination during the leak test
Piping designed for vapor or gas shall be provided with additional temporary
supports, if necessary, to support the weight of test liquid
Equipment which is not to be tested shall'be either disconnected from the piping or isolated by blinds or other means during the
test. A valve maybe used provided the valve (including its closure mechanism) IS suitable for the test pressure

Test Fluid
The fluid shall be water unless there is the possibility of
damage due to freezing or
to adverse effects of water on the piping or
the process (see para. F345.4.1).
that case another suitable nontoxic liquid may be used. If the liquid is flammable, its flash point shall be at least 49c
(120F), and consideration shall be given to the test environment.

INSPECTION, EXAMINATION & TESTING

Eg

TESTING (Cont'd)

Test Pressure
Shall not be less than 1 .5 times the test pressure at any point in the system
For design temperature above the test temperature, the minimum test pressure
shall be calculated by eqn-24, page-83.
Test pressure should not exceed beyond Yield strength

Hydrostatic Test of Piping with Vessels as a System


Where the test pressure of piping attached to a vessel is the same as or less than
the test pressure for the vessel, the piping maybe tested with the vessel at the
piping test pressure
Where the test pressure of the piping exceeds the vessel test pressure, and it is not
considered practicable to isolate the piping from the vessel, the piping and the
vessel maybe tested together at the vessel test pressure, provided the owner
approves and the vessel test pressure is not less than 77% of the piping test pressure
calculated in by eqn-24, page-83.

INSPECTION, EXAMINATION & TESTING


7

=5
Fatifna Grgup

TESTING (Cont'd)

Pneumatic Leak Test


Pneumatic testing involves the hazard of released
energy stored in compressed gas.
A pressure relief device shall be provided, having a
set pressure not higher than the test pressure plus the
lesser of 50psi or 1 0% of the test pressure
Test Fluid - The gas, if not air, shall be nonflammable
and nontoxic
Test Pressure - 1 10% of the design pressure

QUESTION
Why is "B31.3" called B31.3?

1926 the American Standards Association (ASA) initiated the


B31 Project at the request of the American Society for
Mechanical Engineers (ASME). At that time, there were 31
known formulae for the calculation of pipe thicknesses.

One of the prime task of B31 project team was to analyze/ test
these formulae to establish the most appropriate/ acceptable
formula for the pipe thickness calculation