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How are potentials localized

on a bipolar montage?

Phase reversal.

How are potentials localized

on a referential montage?


What are some disadvantages

of a bipolar montage?

1) Cancellation
2) End of chain

What are some types of bipolar

montages that we use?

1) Longitudinal (anterior to posterior)

2) Transverse (left to right)

What are some types of referential

montages that are used?

1) Common average reference

2) Cz reference
3) Ear reference (contralateral or ipsilateral)

What are the 2 different types

of montages that are used?

1) Monopolar (Referential)
2) Bipolar

What are the 3 good

montage requirements?

1) Left hemisphere derivations over the right.

2) Derivations are organized in an anatomical order (ant to post).
3) Common electrode reference montages should have long
interelectrode distances.

What are the advantages of

a transverse montage?

1) Easy comparison of left and right hemispheres.

2) Easy comparison of amplitude gradient between
anterior and posterior head.

What are the advantages to an

ear reference montage?

1) Little to no cancellation when using a contralateral ear montage

due to long interelectrode distances.
2) Long interelectrode distances allow potentials to appear higher
amplitude than usual, making it easier to read.

What are the disadvantages

to a CAR montage?

1) Contamination
2) Distortion of brain signals - if the CAR becomes part of
the electrical field, the electrodes nearest will cancel out
and those farthest will give false localization.

What are the disadvantages

to an ear reference montage?

1) Contamination with EKG potentials.

2) Cancellation (when ipsilateral) due to reference
becoming a part of the electrical field.

What can prevent contamination in

an average reference montage?

More electrodes contributing

to the reference.

What is a bipolar montage?

A montage that consists of an adjacent

pair of electrodes of the 10-20 system of
electrode placement.

What is a laplacian

This montage is similar to the common average

reference, but instead on refers one electrode to the
nearest neighbouring electrodes. Creates a local
weighted average reference.

What is a longitudinal
bipolar montage?

This montage has derivations

arranged from anterior to posterior.

What is a montage?

Also called arrays, montages are

combinations of multiple derivations
(electrode recording combinations).

What is a referential

A series of derivations in which the same

electrode is used in input 2 of each

What is a transverse bipolar


This montage has derivations going from

left to right across the head. Channels are
usually arranged from front to back.

What is a weighted average


This montage is similar to an average reference montage except the

electrodes in input 2 do not contribute equally to the reference and
input 1 is not included in the reference.
Electrodes closer to input one contribute more the reference than
those further away.

What is an advantage of a
bipolar montage?

Best for analysing low to medium

amplitude waveforms that are highly

What is an average
reference montage?

This montage adds all the activity of all electrodes

together in input 2 at every amplifier to serve as a
reference for each of the individual electrodes in
input 1.

What is cancellation?

Cancellation is when two inputs are of equipotential,

therefore, producing a flat line on the EEG. This
occurs because the differential amplifier filters out
potentials that are common between two inputs.

What is important about the

placement of the reference?

The reference must be placed in an electrically quiet

spot on the patient. If placed in an electrically busy
area, there will be contamination of all the other

What is reference

This occurs when the reference is no longer neutral,

meaning it has been obscured with an overriding
potential, whether mechanical or biological.

What is the advantage of a

CAR montage?

Equal interelectrode distances

between the two hemispheres.

What is the advantage of a

Cz reference montage?

Equal interelectrode

What is the advantage of a

weighted average montage?

It reduces the possibility of a widespread

activity contaminating the reference.

What is the disadvantage of

a Cz reference montage?

Can't be used when the patient is asleep. Sleep

potentials come from the vertex and therefore would
contaminate all other leads with sleep potentials.

What is the disadvantage of

a laplacian montage?

Edge electrodes are not symmetrically surrounded

by other electrodes and therefore, cannot be
uniform for all input 1 electrodes.

What is the disadvantage of an

average reference montage?

If one electrode has a much higher potential than the

rest of the electrodes, it will contribute much more to
the reference causing contamination of the EEG.

What is the end of chain


This occurs when potentials appear with greatest

voltage in the last electrode in the chain of electrodes
producing waveform deflections that are all in the
same direction (no phase reversal).