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# Chapter 12: Inference for Proportion

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## 1. In statistics, what is meant by a sample proportion? The statistic that estimates

countof successesinthesample
p
countof observationsinthesample
the parameter p is the sample proportion
2. Give the mean and standard deviation for the sampling distribution of p ?
p (1 p )
n
The mean is p and the standard deviation is
3. How do you calculate the standard error of p ? The standard error of p is
p (1 p )
n
4. What assumptions must be met in order to use z procedures for inference about a
proportion?
SRS
n 10% of population
For a hypothesis test of H0 : p = p0, the sample size n is so large that
both np0 10 and n(1 - p0) 10
For a confidence interval, the sample size n is so large that
10 and n(1 p ) 10
both np
5. Describe how to construct a level C confidence interval for a population
proportion. Draw a SRS of size n from a large population with unknown proportion
p of successes. An approximate level C confidence interval for p is
p (1 p )
1C
p z
n
where z* is the upper 2 standard normal critical value.
6. For a one-sample hypothesis test where H 0 : p p0 , what is the z test statistic?
p p0
z
p0 (1 p0 )
n
7. What formula is used to determine the sample size necessary for a given margin
of error?
p *(1 p*)
( z*) 2 p *(1 p*)
m z
n
n
m2
Solving the formula
for n, yields
, where p*

p
is a guessed value for the sample proportion
and z* is the standard normal critical
point for the level of confidence you want. If you use p* = 0.5 in this formula, the

margin of error of the interval will be less than or equal to m no matter what the value
of p is.
12.2 Comparing Two Proportions (pp. 702-719)
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1. Give the mean and standard deviation for the sampling model of p1 p2 .

p1 p 2 p1 p2

The mean of p1 p2 is p1 p 2
The standard deviation is

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4.

p1 p 2 p21 p2 2

p1 (1 p1 ) p2 (1 p2 )

n1
n2

2. How do you calculate the standard error of p1 p2 ?
p (1 p1 ) p 2 (1 p 2 )
SE 1

n1
n2
3. What assumptions must be met in order to use z procedures for inference about
two proportions?
You need a SRS of size n1 from a population having proportion p1 of successes and an
independent SRS of size n2 from a population having proportion p2 of successes.
The population must be at least 10 times as large as the sample and
n1 p1 ,n1 (1 p1 ),n2 p 2 ,and n2 (1 p 2 )areall
4. Describe how to construct a level C confidence interval for the difference
between two proportions, p1 p2 . An approximate level C confidence interval for
p1 p2 is

SE

( p1 p 2 ) z * SE where
standard normal critical value.
5.

p1 (1 p1 ) p 2 (1 p 2 )

n1
n2

1C
and z* is the upper 2

## 5. For a two-sample hypothesis test where H 0 : p1 p2 , what is the z test statistic?

What are the conditions for using this statistic?

The zstatisticisz

p1 p 2
1 1

n1 n2

p (1 p )

Conditions: SRS
n 10% of population
independently chosen samples
n1 p 5and n1q5and n2 p 5and n2 q5