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INTRODUCTION Communication constitutes a very important function of management. It is said to be the number one problem of management until communication take place. Without communication we cannot live or work together in an organized way. Effective communication is flash or lighting and even more illuminating. It enables us to understand others and make ourselves understood. It is an establish fact that managers spend 75 to 90 per cent of their working time in communicating with others. We can safely say that good managers are good communicators and poor communicators. MEANING AND DEFINITION The word communication has been derived from the Latin word ‘communis’ which means ‘common’. Thus, communication means sharing of ideas in common. “When we communicate.” Says Wibur Schramn, “we trying to establish a ‘commonness” with someone. That is we are trying to share information, an idea or attitude. The essence of communication is getting the receiver and sender ‘turned’ together for a particular message.” According to shorter Oxford English Dictionary, communication means “the imparting, conveying or exchange of ideas, knowledge, etc, whether by speech, writing or signs.” Communication takes place when one person transfers information and understanding to another person. It refers to exchange of ideas, feelings, emotions, knowledge and information between two or more persons. There is a communication when you talk or listen to someone. For instance, a teacher while delivering his lecture communicates to his students. But if he speaks or writes in a language which is not understandable to his students, there is no communication. When you read a book, its author communicates to you. But communication does not mean merely written or oral messages. It
includes everything that may be used to convey meanings from one person to another, e.g., movement of lips or the the wink of an eye or the waves of hands may convey more meaning than even written or spoken words. In fact, communication is the process of conveying message from one person to another so that they are understood. In business management, ideas, objectives, observations, instructions, suggestions etc. have to be exchanged among the managerial personnel and their subordinates operating at different levels of the organisation for the purpose of planning and executing the business policies. The following standard definitions will further help to understand the meaning and concept of communication in management. Louis A. Allen defines communication as, “Communication is the sum of the entire thing one person dose when he wants to create understanding in the mind of another. It is a bridge of meaning. It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding.”
In the word of Keith Davis, “communication is the process of passing information and understanding between one people to another.”
Koontz and O’ Donnell is of the opinion “communication is way that one organisation member shares meaning and understanding with another.”
We can conclude from the above the definition that in business communication does a merely sending or receiving message. It is much more than that. It includes proper understanding of message, it acceptance and action on it. In the border sense, communication refers to the whole process of man’s life in relation to the group and includes exchange of information, a system of commutating, and the process by which meanings are exchanged among human beings.
CHARACTERISTICS: NATURE OF COMMUNICATION
From the analysis of above-mentioned definitions we get the following essential features of communication:
It involves at least two people. Communication involves at
least two person, a sender and receiver. The sender is called communicator and receiver of the message is known as communicatee. A person who speaks writes or issues some instructions is sender and the person for whom the communication is meant or who receives the message is he receiver or communicatee.
Message is must. A message is the subject matter of
communication, e.g., the contents of the letter or speech, order, instructions or the suggestions. A communication must convey some message. If there is no message there is no communication.
Communication may be written, oral or gestural.
Communication is generally understood as spoken or written words. But reality, it is more than that. It includes everything that may be used to convey meanings from one person to another, e.g., movement of lips, or wink of an eye or the wave of hands may be covey more meaning than written or spoken words.
Communication is a two way process. It involves both
information and understanding. Communication is not complete unless the receiver has understood the message properly and his reaction or response is known as sender. Understanding is the end result of communication but it does not imply agreement.
Its primary purpose is to motivate a response.
The primary purpose of communication is to motivate response or influence human behavior. There is no doubt that motivatation comes from within but communicator can also motivate people by good drafting of message proper timing of communication, etc. to create understanding, communication should be relevant to the situation. It must always be remembered that communication is a means of motivating and not an end itself.
Communication may be formal or informal.
Formal communication follows the formal channels provide in the organisaton structure. For example, the Managing Director communicates with the departmental heads, say Finance Manager, finance manager communicates to deputy finance manager, the deputy finance manager with accounts officer and so on. In simple words, informal communication, there is no direct communication between the managing Director and the accounts clerks. Informal communication flows from informal channels of communication which are not provide in the organization structure. These channels develop among members because of personal contact through working with each other.
It flows up and down and also from side to
side. Communication flows downward from a superior to
subordinates and upward from subordinate to a superior. It also flows two more person operating at the same level of authority of ideas feelings, emotion and knowledge and information between two or more persons.
It is an integral part of the process of exchange. It refers to the ideas, feelings emotion and
knowledge and information between two or persons.
ELEMENT OF COMMINCATION
The basic elements of communication are: Communicator- the sender, speaker, issuer or writer-who intends to convey or transmit a message,. 2. Communicatee- the receiver for whom the communication is meant. He receives the information, order or message. 3. Message- the subject matter of communication i.e., the content of letter, speech, order, information, idea, or suggestion. 4. Communication Channel- the media by which the information and understanding are passed from the sender to the receiver. It serves as link between the communicator and the communicatee, i.e., the levels of organisation or relationships that exist between different individuals or department of an organization. 5. Response or Feedback- the effect, reply or reaction, of the information transmitted, on the communicatee i.e., successful, no communication or miscommunication.
1. Seder/communication /information/idea Feedback follow-up Encoding message selecting media Receiver Decoding Action
Element of communication
THE PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION 1. The communicator first of all formulates the clear idea about facts, opinions or information he wants to convey. 2. The idea translated by him into words (spoken or written) symbols or some other form of message which expects the receiver to understand. This process is known as encoding of message. 3. The communicator selects a suitable media for the transmission of the message, e.g., telephone,, telegraph or television. The message is conveyed with the help of media selected. 4. The message is then received by the communicatee. He tries to understand it by decoding the message. 5. The communicatee acts upon the message as he understood it. 6. Finally, the effectiveness of communication is measured through feedback. If the communication brings in desired changes in the action or behavior of the receiver, it is said to be a successful communication. In case, there is no change in action or behavior, there is no change in communication, and if it leads to undesirable changes it is a case of miscommunication.
The process of communication is illustrated in figures below:
ENCODING OF MESSAGE
DECODING OF MESSAGE/LISTENING, REAADING MEANING/ACTION
NEED OR PURPOSE OF COMMUNICATION The main purpose of communication is to effect change in someone i.e., to influence action or to secure inaction in the overall interest of an enterprise. It enables us to understand others and to make ourselves understood. Without communication we cannot live or work together in an organized way. It is a flux that binds people together in an organization. The basic purpose of communication is to facilitate and lubricate the organization. It helps management of planning effectively and controlling efficiently. John G. Clover has outlined the following important purposes of communication. To keep employee with informed To provide employees with orders and instructions in connection with their duties. To solicit information from employees this may aid management. To make each employee interested in his respective job and in the work of the company as a whole. To express management’s interest in its personnel. To reduce or prevent labour turnover. To instill each employee with personal pride in being a member, of the company.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNCATION
Communication is one of the most important functions of management. The success of an enterprise depends upon the effectiveness of communication. It is said to be the nervous system of enterprise. Nothing happens in management until communication takes place. Every manager must communicate in order to get things done through others. It has been established that managers spend about 75 per cent to 85 per cent of their working time in communicating with others. Communication is indispensable for all managerial activities such as organizing, planning, directing, motivation and controlling. Its important has been highlighted by Alvin Dodd, the then president of American Management Association, when he remarked. “The no.1 management problem today is communication.” In the opinion of Chester Bernard, “The first executive function is to develop and maintain a system of communication.” further he has called communication as the foundation of co-operative group activity. Norbert Wlener has rightly said, that, “communication is the element the binds organization.” “Whether we are considering a church, a family, a scout troop or a business enterprise the transfer of information from one individual to another is absolutely essential. It is means by which behavior is modified, change is effective, information is made productive and goals are achieved” –Koontz and O’Donnell. According to O’Donnell, “the achievement of enterprise goals is of paramount importance and the communication is one of the important tools available to the manager in seeking to attain them.” In the words of George R. Terry, “it serves as a lubricant, fostering for the smooth operations of management process.”
The importance of communication can be judged from the following:-
BASIS OF DECISION:
Making and planning, communication is essential for decision. It enables the management to secure information without which it may not depend upon the quality of communication. Further, the decision and plans of the management need to be communicated to the subordinates. Without effective communication, it may not be possible to issue instructions and orders. Effective communication helps in proper implementations of plans and politics of the management. 2. SMOOTH AND EFFICIENT ORGANIZATION: WORKING OF AN
In the words of George R. Terry, “it serves as a lubricant, fostering for a smooth operations of management process, “communication makes possible the smooth and efficient working of an enterprise. It is only through communication that the management changes and regulates the actions of the subordinates are the desired direction. 3. FACILITIES CO- ORDINATION: Management is the art of getting things done through others and this objective of management cannot be achieved unless there is unity of purpose and harmony of effort. Communication through exchange of ideas and information help to bring about unity of action in the pursuit of common purpose. It binds the people together and facilities co –ordination.
4. INCREASES MANAGERIAL EFFICIENCY: Effective communication increases managerial efficiency. It is rightly said that COMMUNICATION.” In the opinion of the Chester Bernard, “the first executive function is to develop and maintain a system of communication.” nothing happens in management until communication takes place. The efficiency of managerial communicates his ability to depend upon with the members of his organization. 5. PROMOTES CO OPERATION AND INDUSTRIAL PEACE : Effective communication creates mutual understanding and trust among the members of the organization. It promotes co operation between employer and the employees. Without communication, there can’t be sound industrial relations and industrial peace. It’s only through communication that workers can not put their grievances, problems and the suggestions of the management.
6. HELPS IN ESTABLISHING EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP :
Communication is the basis of effective leadership. There can not be any relation ship action without effective communication between the leader and the led. Communication is absolutely necessary for maintain man relationship in leadership. It brings the manager and the subordinates in close contact with each other and helps in establishing the relationship. 7. MOTIVATION AND MORALE: Communication is the morale by which the means of behavior of the subordinates is modified and change its effective in their action workers achieves the goals and the enterprises and their morale is boosted. Although motivation comes from with in yet the manager can also motivate people by effective communication, e.g., proper drafting of message, proper timing of communication and the way of communication.
8. INCRAESES MANAGERIAL CAPACITY: Effective communication increases managerial capacity too. A manager is a human being and having limitations as to time and energy that he can devote to his activities. He has assign duties and responsibilities to his subordinates. Through communication a manager can effectively delegated his authority and responsibilities to others and thus increases his managerial capacity. 9. EFFECTIVE CONTROL: Managerial functions of control implies the measurement of actual performance , comparing it with standard sets by plans and taking corrective action of deviation , if any , to assures attainment of enterprises objective according preconceived and planned acts . Communication acts as a tool of effective control the plan has to be communicated to the subordinates, the actual performance has to be communicated and to the top management and corrective action has to be taken or communicated so as to achieve the desired goals. All this may not be possible without an efficient system of communication. 10. JOB SATISFACTION.
Effective communication creates job satisfaction among employees as it increases mutual trust and confidence between management and the employees. The gap between management and the employee is reduced through the efficient means of communication and sense of belongingness is created among employees. The work with zeal and enthusiasm.
Communication is also essential for democratic management. It helps to achieve workers participation in management by involving workers in the process of decision-making. In the absence of an efficient system of
communication, there cannot be any delegation and decentralization of authority.
12. INCREASE THE PRODUCTIVITY OF COMMUNCATION: Productivity of communication saves time and effort. It increases productivity and reduce cost. Large-scale production involves a large number of people in the organization. Without communication, it may be not be possible to work together in a group and achieve the benefits of large-scale production. PUBLIC RELATIONS. In the present business world, every business enterprise has to create and maintain a good corporate image in the society. It is only through communication that management can present a good corporate image to the outside world. Effective communication helps management in maintaining good relations with workers, customers, suppliers, shareholders, government and community at large.
METHODS (CHANNELS) OR TYPE OF COMMUNICATION.
Communication may be classified into several categories on the following basis: 1. On the basis of organizational structure or relationship: a) Formal communication ; b) Informal communication or grapevine.
on the basis of flow or direction; a) Downward communication; b) Upward communication; c) Horizontal or sideward communication; d) Diagonal communication.
3. on the basis of method or media used or expression; a) Written communication; b) Oral communication;
c) Gestural or non-verbal communication.
(C) On the basis of organizational structure
Formal communication. formal communication is that which takes place through the formal channels of the organization structure deliberately and consciously establish by the management. It implies the flow of the information along the line of authority formally established in the enterprise. Members of enterprise are expected to communicate with one and another strictly as per channels laid down in the structure. For example, when the chief executive issues decisions and instructions to the subordinates, there is a formal communication flows upward when the subordinate reports to the superior. Such communications are generally in writing and may take any of the following forms: i). Policy manuals; ii). Procedural and rule books; iii). Memoranda papers and orders; iv). Official meeting; v).Interview etc.
These categories of communication are illustrated in the following chart:
CLASSIFACTION OF COMMUNICATION
ON THE BASIS OF RELATIONSHIP
ON THE BASIS OF MEDIA
ON THE BASIS OF DIRECTION OR FLOW
The main advantage of the formal communication is that it helps in the fixation of responsibility and maintaining relationship in the organization. However, it has contained limitations also. Formal channels of communication is, generally, time consuming, cumber-some and leads to a good deal of distortion. Formal channels of communication obstruct free and uninterrupted flow of information and are not suitable for upward communication as subordinates will try to present ‘rosy’ information so as to favorably impress the superiors.
Informal communication or grapevine. Communication arising out of all those channels of communication that fall outside formal grapevine. It is built around the social relationship of member of organization. Informal communication does not follow lines of authority as is the case of formal communication. it arises due to the personal needs of the members of an organization and exists in every organization. Such communication is usually oral and may be conveyed even by simple glance, gesture, smile or silence. Informal communication is implicit, spontaneous multidimensional and varied. It operates with much greater speed than formal communication. it oftenly works in clusters of people, i.e. when one person has some information of interest he passes it on to his informal group and some members of the group may pass it on to another informal group and so on. It is why some writers prefer to call it an ‘organization’, ‘bush telegraph’ or ‘jungle telegraph’. An organization can make effective use of informal channel of communication to strengthen the formal channel of communication. It is serve a very useful purpose in conveying certain information which cannot be transmitted through the official channels. It saistisfies the desires of the people, an opportunity to express fear, doubts and grievances. Informal communication also helps to improve managerial decisions as more person are involved in the process of decision- making. In spite of many advantages, informal communication has certain weaknesses. Informal communication consists of facts, half truths, rumors and distorted information. The informal channels of communication may carry completely inaccurate information which may harm rather than helps an organization. Moreover, it is not possible to fix the responsibility for the origin or flow of information. Howere, for the efficient working of an any organization both formal and informal communication are required.
(B). On the basis of flow or direction i). Downward communication. Communication between a superior subordinate is known as vertical communication. Vertical communication may be downward vertical communication which flow fro a superior to subordinate. It follows the line of authority from the top to the bottom of the organization hierarchy. Downward communication is must in any organization. It is needed: To get things done; ii). To prepare for changes; iii). To discourage lack of understanding and suspicion; and iv). To let the members of the organization develop feeling of pried of being well- informed about all organization matters. The important examples of downward communication are: i). Notice; ii). Circulars; iii). Instructions; iv). Orders; v).Letters; vi). Memos; vii). Bulletins; viii). Handbooks; ix). Annual reports; x).Loudspeaker announcements ; and xi). Group meeting, etc. Upward communication. Upward communication means the flow of information from the lower levels of the organization to the higher levels of authority; it passes from subordinate to superior as that from worker to foemen to manager, from manger to general manager and general manager to the chief executive or the board of directors. It includes opinions, ideas, suggestions, complaints, grievances, appeals, reports, etc.
Upward communication is very important as it serves as the feedback on the effectiveness of downward communication. Management is able to know how well its policies, plans objectives are followed by those working at lower levels of the organization. It keeps management informed about the progress of the work and difficulties faced in performance, on the basis of upward communication, the management revises its plan and polices and makes further planning. Upward communication is needed: i). To create receptiveness of communication ; ii). To create a sense of belongingness through active participation ; iii). To evaluate the effectiveness of communication ; iv). To increase morale of employees ; v). To make improvements in managerial decisions ; vi). To co-ordinate efforts ; and vii). To know ideas of each individual in the organization; The important examples of upward communication are; i). Report ; ii). Meetings ; iii). Interviews ; iv). Conferences ; v). Letters ; vi). Complaints ; vii). Suggestions ; viii). Surveys ; ix). Union publication ;
Horizontal, lateral or sideward communication. The transmission of information and understanding between people on the same level of organization hierarchy is called the horizontal communication. This type of communication is known as lateral or sideward or crosswise communication. Usually, it pertains to inter departmental communication, i.e., the communication between two departmental managers working at the same level of organization or among subordinates working under one boss. It enables the managers working at the same level to and promotes mutual
understanding. It unable the managers working at the same level to exchange information and co-ordinate their activities without referring all matters to the higher level of management. As shown in the diagram of flows of communication supervisor A will often is in communication with superior B for co-ordination and integration of various activities. Such communication is essential in all organizations. The horizontal communication is generally of an informal nature. Whenever a departmental head requires some information from another departmental head, he tends to contact him directly. However, this type of communication can be oral or written. Diagonal communication. The transfer of information between people who are neither in the same department nor on the same level of organization hierarchy is called diagonal communication. For example when the assistant marketing manager communities with the accounts clerk directly, it is the case of diagonal communication. This of communication increases the organizational efficiency by spending up information and cutting across departmental barriers.
(C) On The Basis of Media or Expression
The term communication media refers to the medium used in the transmission of message and mutual understanding. Word, pictures and actions are the media used for exchanging information and understanding between different persons. The most important medium through which communication takes place is the words. Pictures in the form of charts, models or blue prints and gestures such as smile, silence twinkling of eyes, etc. are used to make the communication effective. The communication, purpose, audience, qualities of the communicator and the situation must be considered in selecting the media of communication. The various media of communication have been studied as under: 1) Written communication 2) Oral communication 3) Gestural or Non- verbal communication.
1. Written Communication. Communication through words may be in the written or oral. Written communication implies transmission of message in black and white. It includes diagrams, pictures, graphs, etc. reports, policies rules, procedures, instructions, agreements, etc. have to be transmitted in writing for efficient running of the organization. Written communication ensures that everyone concerned has the same information. It provides as permanent record of communication for future reference. Written instruction is essential when the action called for is vital and complicated. To be effective, written communication should be clear, concise, correct and complete. It may take the following forms: Circulars; Memoranda; Magazines; Rule and procedure books; Instructions;
Merits or Advantage of Written Communication
i). It ensures transmission of information in uniform manner, i.e. everyone concerned has the same information. ii). It provides a permanent record of communication for future reference. iii). It is an idea way of transmitting lengthy message. iv). It ensures little risk of unauthorized alteration in the massage. v). It tends to be complete, clear, precise and correct. vi). It can be quoted as a legal evidence in case of any disputes,
Demerits or Disadvantage of Written Communication.
i). It is expensive ii). It time consuming. iii). It becomes difficult to maintain secrecy about a written communication. iv). It is very formal and lack of personal touch. v). It encourages red-tapism and involves so many formalities. vi). It may be interpreted in a different manner by different people.
Oral Communication. Oral or a verbal communication implies the conveying of message through spoken words. It is face to face communication between individuals and includes communication through telephone, intercom and public speech, etc. in every organization, a greater deal of information is exchanged orally and it is generally preferred to written communication. “the human voice can impart the message with meaning and shading which even long pages of written words simply cannot conveyed.” the important feature of oral communication is that real meaning conveyed by manner or tone of the voice or the facial expressions of communicator and communicatee. It may take the following forms depending upon the need and situation: ).i Face to face talks. ).ii Telephonic conversation. ).iii Interviews. ).iv Meetings. ).vLectures. ).vi Conferences. ).vii Symposiums. ).viii Radio talks, TV. and cinema shows.
Merits or Advantage of Oral Communication. i). It is less expensive. ii). It is quicker and saves in time. iii). It is more effective than written communication. iv). It establish a personal touch and leads greater understanding. v). Misunderstanding removed then and there. vi). Immediate reaction. Demerits or disadvantage of oral communication. i). It reliable. ii). It is influenced by self-interest and attitude of the people. iii). Oral communication has the tendency of being distorted. iv). It provides no records for future reference. v). It is not suitable for lengthy message. vi). It is does not provide sufficient time for thinking before conveying the message. Gestural or non- verbal communication. Communication does not mean merely written or oral message. It includes everything that may be used to convey meaning from one person to another, e.g., movement of lips or the wink of an eyes or the way of the hands or finger. Expression through body parts is known as gestural or nonverbal communication.
BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
Communication is the nervous system of an organisation. It is said to be a no.1 problem of today. “It serves as the lubricant, fostering for the smooth operations in many process.” Thus, it is very essential for the management to maintain an efficient flow of communication in all directions. But in practice all messages are not effectively transmitted received. Several obstructions, blockades, hurdles, stoppages or bottlenecks. Called barriers in communication distort the message and make communication ineffective. These communication barriers lead to misunderstanding and conflict between men living in the same communicaty, working on the same job and even persons living in different parts of the world who even do not know each other. A large number of managerial problems are the result of inefficient or faulty communication. Significant improvement in managerial efficiency can be made if communication barriers are toned down or minimized. Some of the important barriers to communication have been discussed below:
Physical barriers. A communication is two way process, distance between the sender and the receiver of message is an important barrier to communication. Noise and environmental factors also block communication. Personal barriers. Personal factors like different in judgment, social value, inferiority complex, bias, attitude, pressure of time, inability to communicate, etc. widen the psychological distance between the communicator and the communcatee. Credibility gap, i.e., inconsistency between what one says and one dose. Also acts as barriers to communication.
Semantic or language barriers. Semantic is science of meaning. The same words and symbols carry different
meanings to different people. Difficulties in communication arise when the sender and the receiver of message use the words or symbols in different senses. The meaning intended by the sender may be quiet different from the meaning followed by the receiver. People interpret the message in term of their own behavior and experience. Sometimes, the language used by the sender may not all be followed by the receiver.
Status barriers. Status or position in the hierarchy of an organisation is one of the fundamental barriers that obstruct free flow of information to his subordinates so as to maintain status differences. Subordinates, usually, tend to convey only those things which the superior would appreciate. This creates distortion in upward communication. Such selective communication is also known as filtering. Sometimes, “the superior feels that he cannot fully admit to his subordinates those problems, conditions or result which may also affect adversely on his ability and judgment. To do so would undermine his position as a superior being in the formal organisation.” The cause’s distortion in downward communication. A subordinate may also feel reluctant to report his shortcomings or may not seek clarification on instructions which are subject to different interpretations for fear of loss of prestige in the eyes of superior. Organization structure barriers. Effective communication largely depends upon sound organisation structure. If the structure is complex involving sevral layers of management, the cuts off a bit of information. In the words of W.C. Bennis,” communication gets distorted particularly as it goes up the hierarchy.” Moreover, information traveling through formal structure introduces rigidity and causes – delay because of long lines of communication, similarly,. Lack of instruction for further conveying information to subordinates heavy pressure of work at certain level of authority also act as barriers to effective communication.
Barriers due to inadequate attention. Inadequate attention to the message makes communication less effective and the message is likely to be misunderstood. In attention may arise because of over business of the communcatee or because of the message being contrary to his expectation and briefs. The simple failure to read notices. Minutes and reports is also a common feature. Whatever is the reason, communication remains only a one way process and there is no understanding of the message, if the receiver pays little attention to the message. In the words of Joseph Dooher, “listening is the most neglected skill of communication.” half listening is like racing your engine with gear in neutral. You use gasoline but you get nowhere. Premature Evaluation. Some people have the tendency to form a judgment before listening to the entire message. This is known as premature evaluation. As discussed in the previous point, “half-listening is like racing your engine with the gear in neutral. You use gasoline but you get nowhere.” premature evolution distorts understandings and acts as a barrier to effective communication. Emotion Attitude. Barriers may also arise due to emotional attitude because when emotion is strong, it is difficult to know the frame of mind of other person or group. Emotional attitude of both, the communicator as well as the communcatee, obstruct free flow of transmission and understanding of messages. Resistance to change. It is a general tendency of human beings to stick to old and customary patterns of life. They may resist change to maintain status quo. Thus, when new idea is being communicated to introduce a change, it is likely to be overlooked or even opposed. This resistance to change creates an important obstacle to effective communication. Barriers due to Lack of mutual trust. Communication means sharing of ideas in common. “when we communicate, we are trying to establish a commonness.” Thus, one will freely transfer information and understanding with another
only when there is mutual trust between the two. When there is a lack of mutual trust between the communicator and the communicatee, the message is not followed. Credibility gap, i.e., inconsistency in saying and doing, also causes lack of mutual trust which acts as a basis obstacle to effective communication.
Other Barriers. There may be many other barriers, such as unqualified assumptions, lack of ability to communicate, mirage of too much knowledge or closed minds, communication overload, shortage of time, etc., which cause distortion or obstruction in the free flow of communication and thus makes it ineffective. Failure to retain or store information for future use becomes a barrier to communication when the information is needed in future.