1/Topic: Improving soil management practices at field and landscape in northern upland of Vietnam by means of participatory research, monitoring

and evaluation. 2/Objectives: -To contribute to extension approach -To improve soil management technologies for more effective 3/Research question: How can improved soil management technologies contribute to sustainable soil fertility at field and landcape level in northern upland of Vietnam? 4/Research insights: - Farmers’ecological knowledge in participatory approaches such as: FFS, monitoring and evaluation. - To find appropriate participatory approach, the motivation for local participation and flexibility of approach to be adapted to the local context and community input. 5/Linkages: Old thesis version: Chapter1: country background, discription of approaches Chapter 2: research methodology, conceptual framework Chapter 3(should be 4): this chapter present the FFS approach which researchers provide basic knowledge and leave it up to the farmer to apply it to their specific conditions. Chapter4(shouldbe 3): this chapter to investigate the arguement of farmers’knowledge in agroecological principle and using farming. Chapter5(should be 6): to understand the household economic issues affecting farmers Chapter 6(should be 5): this chapter present the experiments which were carried out by farmers and researchers Chapter 7: analyse experience from adapting PME at FFS( in order to buiding strategy for PME). Chapter 8: main findings to answer research question. New thesis structure: Chapter1: country background, discription of approaches Chapter 2: research methodology, conceptual framework Chapter 3: life history, this chapter present about culture, custom and farming activities of people at the study sites Chapter 4: this chapter to investigate the arguement of farmers’knowledge in agroecological principle and using farming. Chapter 5: this chapter present the FFS approach which researchers provide basic knowledge and leave it up to the farmer to apply it to their specific conditions. Chapter 6: this chapter present the experiments which were carried out by farmers and researchers Chapter 7: to understand the household economic issues affecting farmers Chapter 8: analyse experience from adapting PME at FFS( in order to buiding strategy for PME). Chapter 9: general discussion, main findings to answer research question.

In which I adding a new chapter(chapter3) and improving chapter 5. By the end of April, I will finish the draft of chapter 3. Chapters to submit for publishing: Chapter 3 : Submit to Human Ecology Journal Chapter 4: Submit to Agriculture and Human values Journal Chapter 5, 6 and 7: Submit to Agronomy and Soil Science Journal