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1. 2.

50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50

x
x
x
x
x

10
102
106
10-1
10-2

2. 106
3.0 x 10-12
3. kg, m, s

2.5

Mass of a page in kg = 500


Mass of a page in mg =

= 0.005 kg

5.0 mg

4. (a) Volume of the tank in liters = 0.2 x 1000 = 200 l


(b) Volume of the tank in cm3 = 200 x 1000 =2.0 x 105 cm3
5. Relative Density of a substance is the ratio between the density of that
substance to the density of water.
Density of Lead = 11.3 x 1000 kgm-3 = 11300 kgm-3
6. The upward buoyant force that is exerted on a body immersed in a fluid,
whether fully or partially submerged, is equal to the weight of the fluid that
the body displaces.
Ships, Submarines, Hot air balloons use this principle.
7. A force can be defined as a push or a pull that is acts on an object which is
created by another object. The SI unit of force is newton (N). Some types of
forces are as follows.
Gravitational forces
Electrostatic forces
Magnetic forces
Frictional forces
Nuclear forces
Buoyant forces
8. Speed is the distance travelled in a unit time.
Velocity (in a particular direction) is the distance travelled in a unit time in
that particular direction. Also velocity can be defined as the rate of change of
displacement in a particular direction.
Acceleration (in a particular direction) is the rate of change of velocity in a
particular direction.

Equations of motion in a particular direction are as follows.

v u+ at
s=

(v +u)t
2

v 2=u 2+ 2as
1 2
s=ut + a t
2

Average speed of the motion =

600
= 20 ms-1
30

Acceleration of the particular motion depends on the direction of the motion.


9. Acceleration of free fall is gravitational acceleration. It is often taken to be
9.81 ms-2.
If the experiment is conducted in free environment the rock will reach the
ground first and the feather next. This is because the motion of the feather is
slowed down by the air resistance due to its spread shape. But if the
experiment is done in a vacuum both will reach the ground at the same time.
10.Newtons laws of motion are as follows.
Newtons first law states that an object at rest will remain at rest
unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in motion continues
in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted
upon by an unbalanced force.
Newtons second law states that the rate of change of momentum of
an object in a particular direction is directly proportional to the external
unbalanced force acts on the object which is applied in that particular
direction.
Newtons third law states that every action has an equal and opposite
reaction.
All changes in the environment can be considered as forces of nature.
Therefore rain, wind, earthquakes, hurricanes are natures forces which affect
the human life. For example rain has a great impact on the quality of human
life on earth. Scarcity of rain causes droughts and excessive rain causes
floods.