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# TABLE OF CONTENT

NO.

CONTENT

INTRODUCTION

OBJECTIVE

THEORY/BACKGROUND

APPARATUS

PROCEDURES

RESULTS

SAMPLE CALCULATION

DISCUSSION

CONCLUSION

10

REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION
The effect of hydrostatic pressure is of major significance in many areas of engineering, such as
shipbuilding, the construction of dykes, weirs and in sanitary and building services engineering.
With the HM 150.05 hydrostatic pressure Apparatus the following key topics can be investigated
by experimentation :
-

## Pressure distribution in a liquid taking into account gravity.

Lateral Force of the hydrostatic pressure.
Centre of pressure of the lateral force.

The appendix to this test instruction contains prepared worksheets which facilitate methodical
evaluation of the results of the experiments. The apparatus is designed for use in the fields of
education.
Hydrostatic pressure is, the pressure exerted by a fluid at equilibrium due to the force of gravity.
A fluid in this condition is known as a hydrostatic fluid. So our hydrostatic pressure lab was to
determine the hydrostatic pressure of water on a flat surface. Adding weight and the filling the
tank to the point where the apparatus was in equilibrium. So we can calculate the force on the
flat surfaces using the given equantions.

The study of pressure force acting on plane submerged surfaces is a fundamental topic in the
subject of hydrostatic involving assessment of the value of the net thrust and the concept of the
center of pressure, which are so important in the design innumerable item of hydraulic
equipment and civil engineering project.

OBJECTIVE

i.
ii.

## To understand the hydrostatic pressure distribution.

To verify the location of center of pressure.

THEORY/BACKGROUND

The hydrostatic pressure of liquid is the gravitational pressure phyd. It rises due to the intrinsic
weight as depth (t) increases and is calculated from : phyd = .g.t

density of water
g acceleration due to gravity (g=9.81)
t distance from liquid surface

To calculate force acting on masonry dams or ships hulls, for example, from the hydrostatic
pressure, two steps are required:

Reduce the pressure load on an action surface down to a resultant force (Fp), Which is

applied at a point of application of force, the center of pressure vertical to the active surface.

determine the position of the center of pressure by determining a planar center of force

on the active surface. It is first demonstrated how the center of pressure can be determined.
The resultant force (Fp) is then calculated.

APPARATUS

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)

PROCEDURE

Water vessel
Detent
Slinder
Stop pin
Water level scale
Rider
Weights
Handles

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Places the empty tank on the Bench and position the balance arm on the pivot.
Places the balance pan in the groove at the end of the balance arm.
Level the tank
Position the counterbalance weight until the balance arm is horizontal.
Add a known amount of weight to the balance pan. Pour water into the tank until the
balance arm is horizontal again. (Note : it maybe easier to over fill than use the drain to
level it). When the arm is level this means that the force on the vertical faces of the

## quadrant balance out the force due to added weight.

6. Read the depth of immersion from the scale on the faces of the quadrant.
7. Repeat the experiment by adding more weight until you have at least two measurements
in which the vertical faces is complete submerged.
8. Calculate the magnitudes and location of the force for each weight combination.
9. Compare these location with the theoretical positions.

RESULTS
Angle ( )
0
Level arm
L (mm)
150
150
150
150
150
150
150

## LOWEST WATER LEVEL St

HIGHEST WATER LEVEL Sh
(mmWC)
(mmWC)
0
100
Appended
Water level
Calculated lever
Resultant force
Weight FG (N)
Reading s (mm)
Arm lD (mm)
FD (N)
1.0
48
184
0.84
1.5
59
180
1.30
2.0
68
177
1.70
2.5
77
174
2.18
3.0
84
172
2.60
3.5
92
169
3.11
4.0
98
167
3.53

Angle ( )
10
Level arm
L (mm)
150
150
150
150
150
150
150

## LOWEST WATER LEVEL St

HIGHEST WATER LEVEL Sh
(mmWC)
(mmWC)
0
100
Appended
Water level
Calculated lever
Resultant force
Weight FG (N)
Reading s (mm)
Arm lD (mm)
FD (N)
1.0
52
183
0.93
1.5
62
179
1.34
2.0
71
176
1.82
2.5
76
174
2.04
3.0
90
170
2.88
4.0
103
165
3.67
4.5
116
162
4.63

Angle ( )
20
Level arm
L (mm)
150
150
150
150
150
150
150

## LOWEST WATER LEVEL St

HIGHEST WATER LEVEL Sh
(mmWC)
(mmWC)
0
100
Appended
Water level
Calculated lever
Resultant force
Weight FG (N)
Reading s (mm)
Arm lD (mm)
FD (N)
1.0
52
182
0.99
1.5
62
177
1.45
2.0
71
173
1.85
2.5
75
171
2.07
3.0
90
169
2.98
3.5
103
167
3.90
4.0
116
164
4.95

Angle ( )
30
Level arm
L (mm)
150
150
150
150
150
150
150

## LOWEST WATER LEVEL St

HIGHEST WATER LEVEL Sh
(mmWC)
(mmWC)
0
100
Appended
Water level
Calculated lever
Resultant force
Weight FG (N)
Reading s (mm)
Arm lD (mm)
FD (N)
1.0
70
177
1.47
1.5
81
173
2.28
2.0
90
170
2.94
2.5
98
167
3.53
3.0
106
165
4.12
3.5
112
163
4.56
4.0
120
160
5.15

Angle ( )
40
Level arm
L (mm)
150
150
150
150
150
150
150

## LOWEST WATER LEVEL St

HIGHEST WATER LEVEL Sh
(mmWC)
(mmWC)
0
100
Appended
Water level
Calculated lever
Resultant force
Weight FG (N)
Reading s (mm)
Arm lD (mm)
FD (N)
1.0
84
172
2.47
1.5
98
167
3.53
2.0
106
165
4.12
2.5
114
162
4.70
3.0
120
160
5.15
3.5
128
157
5.73
4.0
136
155
6.32

SAMPLE CALCULATION
1. For 0 :
(S <100mm)
I d = 0.2m- 1/3(S)
= 0.2 1/3 ( 0.048 )
= 0.184m @ 184mm

Fp = Pc x Aact
(S < 100mm)
Pc = g x S/2

= 0.84 N

2. For 30
(S >100mm)
I d = 0.15m + e

=0.16m @ 160mm

Fp = Pc x Aact
(S > 100mm)
Pc = g (S 50mm)

## Fp = ((10 x 9.81)x (0.12- 0.05m)) x (0.12m x 0.075m

= 5.15 N

DISCUSSIONS
The comparison had made between the second moment experimental values and
second moment experimental values expressed as a percentage. The result show second
moment experimental value doesnt agree well with the second theory values.

Overall, all

theoretical measurements were consistently slightly higher than the actual moment. This may
due to human error, as in reading the measurements accurately at the correct time, or
apparatus error such as the vertical ruler being slightly off, or the pivot arm or counter weight
being not completely accurate when displaying equilibrium.
In this experiment, only the forces on the plane surface were considered. However, the
hydrostatic forces on the curved surface of the quarter-circle block do happen, but they do not
affect the measurement. This is because no moment is created by forces acting on the curved
surface of the quarter circle block. The line of action of the forces on the curved surface are
perpendicular to the surface, all lines of action that acted on the curved surface will pass
through the center or so called the pivot. Thus, no moments are created and hence no effect on
the results.
Buoyancy force is defined as the net pressure force acting on a submerged body, and
thus in this experiment it should not being neglected in the analysis of the experimental data.
Consider the buoyancy forces acting normal to the surface, then the buoyancy force do not
appear because the normal forces on the curved surface do not contribute a moment about the
pivot of the device. This result is due to the design of the apparatus. In other words, the circular
arc shape was been chosen because it allows the measurement of hydrostatic pressure forces
without accounting for the buoyancy effect.

CONCLUSION

The data collected appears to follow a trend similar to the theoretically derived equation.
However, the actual data appears to be shifted approximately 0.02m above the theoretical
model. This may be partially the result of the friction in the hinges and the pulley, which was not
taken into account. This friction would increase the closing moment, requiring the opening
moment to be larger to open the door. To make the opening moment larger, the depth of water
would have to increase also.
Another contributing factor to the actual depth being higher than the theoretical is that
water was constantly leaking around the seal on the door. This velocity of the water created a
lower pressure around the seal, increasing the closing moment on the door, and again requiring
a greater depth of water to open the door.
The theoretical model showed that the relationship between the mass of the weight and
the depth of the water is a cubic one. This is a logical conclusion, since as the water depth
increases, the volume of water (a cubic value) is increasing, and it is this volume which is
applying the pressure over the area.

REFERENCE
1. Y.A. Cengel & J. M. Cimbala, 2006. Fluid mechanics: fundamental and applications.
1st Ed. Singapore: McGraw-Hill.

## 2. J.F. Claydon, 2010. Centre of pressure. [Online] (Updated 6 May 2010)

Available at: http://www.jfccivilengineer.com/centre_of_pressure.htm
[Accessed 31 July 2010].

## 3. Nurulhadi, n.d. Hydrostatic force on plane surface. [Online]

Available at: http://atapaje.blogspot.com/2008/02/hydrostatic-force-on-plane-surface.html
[Accessed 31 July 2010].