Evolution of Design Methodologies
SLD Methodology: (ft)D + (ft)L ≤ 0.55Fy, or 1.82(ft)D + 1.82(ft)L ≤ Fy LFD Methodology: 1.3[1.0(ft)D + 5/3(ft)L] ≤ φFy, or 1.3(ft)D + 2.17(ft)L ≤ φFy (φ by judgment) LRFD Methodology: 1.25(ft)D + 1.75(ft)L ≤ φFy (φ by calibration)

Introduction to LRFD

1-1

Evolution of Design Methodologies (cont’d)
SLD does not recognize that some types of loads are more variable than others. LFD provides recognition that types of loads are different. LRFD provides a probability-based mechanism to select load & resistance factors.

Evolution of Design Methodologies (cont’d)
As a result, LRFD achieves considerable improvement in the clustering of reliability indices versus the AASHTO Standard Specifications.

RELIABILITY INDEX
5

RELIABILITY INDEX

4

3.5
3

2

1

0 0 30 60 90 120 200

LFD LRFD

SPAN LENGTH (Feet)

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1-2

Basic LRFD Design Equation
Σ ηiγiQi ≤ φRn = Rr Eq. (1.3.2.1-1)
where: ηi = ηD ηR ηI

· ηi ≥ 0.95 for maximum γ’s
· ηi =
γi = φ = Qi = Rn = Rr =
1 < 1.00 for minimum γ’s ηηη
D R I

Load factor Resistance factor Nominal force effect Nominal resistance Factored resistance = φRn

LRFD Limit States
The LRFD Specifications require examination of several load combinations corresponding to the following limit states: SERVICE LIMIT STATE
relating to stress, deformation, and cracking

FATIGUE & FRACTURE LIMIT STATE relating to stress range and crack growth under repetitive loads, and material toughness STRENGTH LIMIT STATE
relating to strength and stability

- (CONSTRUCTIBILITY) EXTREME EVENT LIMIT STATE
relating to events such as earthquakes, ice load, and vehicle and vessel collision

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1-3

STRENGTH I : STRENGTH II : STRENGTH III : STRENGTH IV : STRENGTH V : SERVICE I : without wind. owner design / permit vehicles without wind. wind exceeding 55 mph. very high dead-to-live load ratios. vehicular use with 55 mph wind. normal operational use of the bridge with a 55 mph wind and nominal loads. Also control cracking of reinforced concrete structures. control yielding of steel structures and slip of connections control cracking of prestressed concrete superstructures. control cracking of prestressed concrete substructures. repetitive vehicular live load and dynamic responses under a single truck.

SERVICE II : SERVICE III : SERVICE IV : FATIGUE :

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1-4

Dead Load (Article 3.5.1): DC - Dead load, except wearing surfaces & utilities DC1 - placed prior to deck hardening and acting on
the noncomposite section

DC2 - placed after deck hardening and acting on
the long-term composite section

DW -

Wearing surfaces & utilities acting on the longterm composite section

Load Factors for Permanent Loads, γp Load Factor Type of Load DC: Component and Attachments DD: Downdrag DW: Wearing Surfaces and Utilities EH: Horizontal Earth Pressure • Active • At-Rest EV: Vertical Earth Pressure • Overall Stability • Retaining Structure • Rigid Buried Structure • Rigid Frames Maximum 1.25 1.80 1.50 Minimum 0.90 0.45 0.65

1.50 1.35

0.90 0.90

1.35 1.35 1.30 1.35 1.95

N/A 1.00 0.90 0.90 0.90

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1-5

HL-93 -- (Article 3.6.1.2.1)
Design Truck: ⇒

or Design Tandem:
Pair of 25.0 KIP axles spaced 4.0 FT apart

or

25.0 KIP 25.0 KIP

superimposed on Design Lane Load 0.64 KLF

+
0.64 Kip/ft

(Article 3.6.1.3.1)

0.9 x

> 50’-0”

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1-6

(Article 3.6.1.4.1)
Design Truck only => w/ fixed 30-ft rearaxle spacing Placed in a single lane

1

Load Combination DC DD DW EH EV ES γp γp γp γp 1.5 γp γp γp 1.00 1.00 1.00 LL IM CE BR PL LS 1.75 1.35 1.35 γEQ 0.50 1.00 1.30 0.80 0.75 WA WS WL FR TU CR SH TG SE Use One of These at a Time EQ IC CT CV

Limit State STRENGTH-I STRENGTH-II STRENGTH-III STRENGTH-IV EH, EV, ES, DW DC ONLY STRENGTH-V EXTREME-I EXTREME-II SERVICE-I SERVICE-II SERVICE-III FATIGUE-LL, IM & CE ONLY

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 -

1.40 0.40 0.30 -

1.00 0.30 -

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 -

0.50/1.20 0.50/1.20 0.50/1.20 0.50/1.20 0.50/1.20 1.00/1.20 1.00/1.20 1.00/1.20 -

γTG γTG γTG -

γSE γSE γSE -

-

-

-

-

γTG γTG γTG -

γSE γSE γSE -

1.00 -

1.00 1.00 1.00 -

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1-7

Resistance Factors
(Article 6.5.4.2)
Resistance factors, φ, for the strength limit state shall be taken as follows: • For flexure φf = 1.00 • For shear φv = 1.00 • For axial compression, steel only φc = 0.90 • For axial compression, composite φc = 0.90 • For tension, fracture in net section φu = 0.80 • For tension, yielding in gross section φy = 0.95 • For bolts bearing on material φbb = 0.80 • For shear connectors φsc = 0.85 • For A 325 and A 490 bolts in shear φs = 0.80 • For block shear φbs = 0.80 • For web crippling φw = 0.80 • For weld metal in fillet welds: • tension or compression parallel to axis of the weld same as base metal • shear in throat of weld metal φe2 = 0.80

Resistance Factors
(Article 5.5.4.2)
Resistance factor φ shall be taken as: • • • • For flexure and tension of reinforced concrete……………………………….… 0.90 For flexure and tension of prestressed concrete……………………………….… 1.00 For shear and torsion: normal weight concrete……………… 0.90 lightweight concrete…………………. 0.70 For axial compression with spirals or ties, except as specified in Article 5.10.11.4.1b for Seismic Zones 3 and 4 at the extreme event limit state…………………………….. 0.75 For bearing on concrete…………… 0.70 For compression in strut-and-tie models… 0.70 For compression in anchorage zones: normal weight concrete……………… 0.80 lightweight concrete…………………. 0.65 For tension in steel in anchorage zones….. 1.00 For resistance during pile driving………….. 1.00

• • • •

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1-8

Structural Analysis & Evaluation
(Article 4)
Static Analysis (Article 4.6)
Approximate Methods of Analysis (Article 4.6.2) Beam-Slab Bridges (Article 4.6.2.2)

TABLE 4.6.2.2.1-1 COMMON DECK SUPERSTRUCTURES COVERED IN ARTICLES 4.6.2.2.2 AND 4.6.2.2.3. SUPPORTING COMPONENTS Steel Beam TYPE OF DECK Cast-in-place concrete slab, precast concrete slab, steel grid, glued/spiked panels, stressed wood TYPICAL CROSS-SECTION

Closed Steel or Precast Concrete Boxes

Cast-in-place concrete slab

Open Steel or Precast Concrete Boxes

Cast-in-place concrete slab, precast concrete deck slab

Cast-in-Place Concrete Multicell Box

Monolithic concrete

Cast-in-Place Concrete Tee Beam

Monolithic concrete

Precast Solid, Voided or Cellular Concrete Boxes with Shear Keys

Cast-in-place concrete overlay

Precast Solid, Voided, or Cellular Concrete Box with Shear Keys and with or without Transverse Posttensioning

Integral concrete

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1-9

For Moments – Interior Beams
Table 4.6.2.2.2b-1 Distribution of Live Loads Per Lane for Moment in Interior Beams.

Type of Beams Concrete Deck, Filled Grid, Partially Filled Grid, or Unfilled Grid Deck Composite with Reinforced Concrete Slab on Steel or Concrete Beams; Concrete TBeams, T- and Double TSections

Applicable Cross-Section from Table 4.6.2.2.1-1 a, e, k and also i, j if sufficiently connected to act as a unit

Distribution Factors One Design Lane Loaded:

Range of Applicability 3.5 ≤ S ≤ 16.0

⎛ S ⎞ ⎛ S ⎞ ⎛ Kg ⎞ 0.06 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝ 14 ⎠ ⎝ L ⎠ ⎝ 12.0 Lts ⎠ Two or More Design Lanes Loaded: ⎛ S ⎞ ⎛ S ⎞ ⎛ Kg ⎞ 0.075 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝ 9.5 ⎠ ⎝ L ⎠ ⎝ 12.0 Lts ⎠ use lesser of the values obtained from the equation above with Nb = 3 or the lever rule
0.6 0.2 0.1

0.4

0.3

0.1

20 ≤ L ≤ 240 4.5 ≤ ts ≤ 12.0 Nb ≥ 4 10,000 ≤ Kg ≤ 7,000,000
Nb = 3

Notes:

1) Units are in LANES and not WHEELS! 2) No multiple presence factor

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1-10

For Shear – Interior Beams
Table 4.6.2.2.3a-1 Distribution of Live Load per Lane for Shear in Interior Beams.

Type of Superstructure Concrete Deck, Filled Grid, Partially Filled Grid, or Unfilled Grid Deck Composite with Reinforced Concrete Slab on Steel or Concrete Beams; Concrete T-Beams, T-and Double T-Sections

Applicable Cross-Section from Table 4.6.2.2.1-1 a, e, k and also i, j if sufficiently connected to act as a unit

One Design Lane Loaded S 0.36 + 25.0

Two or More Design Lanes Loaded

0.2 +

S ⎛ S ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ 12 ⎝ 35 ⎠

2.0

Range of Applicability 3.5 ≤ S ≤ 16.0

20 ≤ L ≤ 240 4.5 ≤ ts ≤ 12.0 Nb ≥ 4

Lever Rule

Lever Rule

Nb = 3

Notes:

1) Units are in LANES and not WHEELS! 2) No multiple presence factor

Design Example

Introduction to LRFD

1-11

Example

POSITIVE FLEXURE (END SPAN)

Calculate Kg:
n=8 N.A. is 39.63 in. from the top of the steel.

eg

eg =

9.0 + 3.5 + 39.63 − 1.0 = 46.63 in. 2

Kg = n I + Ae2 = 8 62,658 + 75.25(46.63)2 = 1.81x 106 in.4 g

(

) (

)

Introduction to LRFD

1-12

Live-Load Distribution Factors M+ , Interior Girder
tS

S L

⎛ S⎞ 0.06 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 14 ⎠

0 .4

⎛S⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝L⎠

0 .3

⎛ Kg ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 12 .0Lt 3 ⎟ ⎝ S⎠

0 .1

⎛ S ⎞ 0.075 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 9.5 ⎠

0.6

⎛S⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝L⎠

0.2

⎛ Kg ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 12.0Lt 3 ⎟ ⎝ S⎠

0.1

Live-Load Distribution Factors M+ , Interior Girder - (cont’d)
⎛ 12.0 ⎞ 0.06 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 14 ⎠
0. 4

⎛ 12.0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 140.0 ⎠

0.3

⎛ ⎞ 1.81 x 106 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 12.0(140.0 )(9.0 )3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

0.1

= 0.528 lanes

⎛ 12.0 ⎞ 0.075 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 9 .5 ⎠
0.6

⎛ 12.0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 140.0 ⎠

0 .2

⎛ ⎞ 1.81 x 106 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 12.0(140.0 )(9.0 )3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

0 .1

= 0.807 lanes (governs)

Introduction to LRFD

1-13

Live-Load Distribution Factors V , Interior Girder
S 25.0 12.0 0.36 + = 0.840 lanes 25.0 0.36 +

0 .2 + 0 .2 + S ⎛S⎞ −⎜ ⎟ 12 ⎝ 35 ⎠
2

12.0 ⎛ 12.0 ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ = 1.082 lanes (governs) 12 ⎝ 35 ⎠

2

Live-Load Distribution Factors M- , Interior Girder
L = 0.5(140+175) = 157.5 ft.

⎛ 12.0 ⎞ 0.06 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 14 ⎠
0 .4

⎛ 12.0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 157.5 ⎠

0 .3

⎛ ⎞ 2.65 x 106 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 12.0(157.5)(9.0 )3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

0 .1

= 0.524 lanes

⎛ 12.0 ⎞ 0.075 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 9 .5 ⎠
.
0. 6

⎛ 12.0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 157.5 ⎠

0. 2

⎛ ⎞ 2.65 x 106 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 12.0(157.5)(9.0 )3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

0. 1

= 0.809 lanes (governs)

Introduction to LRFD

1-14

Moments – Exterior Beams
Table 4.6.2.2.2d-1 Distribution of Live Loads Per Lane for Moment in Exterior Longitudinal Beams. Applicable CrossSection from Table 4.6.2.2.1-1 a, e, k and also i, j if sufficiently connected to act as a unit One Design Lane Loaded Lever Rule Two or More Design Lanes Loaded g = e ginterior
e = 0.77 + de 9.1

Type of Superstructure Concrete Deck, Filled Grid, Partially Filled Grid, or Unfilled Grid Deck Composite with Reinforced Concrete Slab on Steel or Concrete Beams; Concrete T-Beams, T- and Double T- Sections

Range of Applicability -1.0 < de < 5.5

use lesser of the values obtained from the equation above with Nb = 3 or the lever rule

Nb = 3

Notes: In beam-slab bridges with diaphragms or cross-frames, the distribution factor for the exterior beam shall not be taken to be less than that which would be obtained by assuming that the cross-section deflects and rotates as a rigid cross-section. NL X ∑ NL e + ext R= Nb ∑ Nb x 2

Shear – Exterior Beams
Table 4.6.2.2.3b-1 Distribution of Live Load per Lane for Shear in Exterior Beams.

Type of Superstructure Concrete Deck, Filled Grid, Partially Filled Grid, or Unfilled Grid Deck Composite with Reinforced Concrete Slab on Steel or Concrete Beams; Concrete T-

Applicable CrossSection from Table 4.6.2.2.1-1 a, e, k and also i, j if sufficiently connected to act as a unit

One Design Lane Loaded Lever Rule

Two or More Design Lanes Loaded g = e ginterior d e = 0.6 + e 10

Range of Applicability -1.0 < de < 5.5

Lever Rule

Nb = 3

Notes: In beam-slab bridges with diaphragms or cross-frames, the distribution factor for the exterior beam shall not be taken to be less than that which would be obtained by assuming that the cross-section deflects and rotates as a rigid cross-section. NL X ∑ NL e + ext R= Nb ∑ Nb x 2

Introduction to LRFD

1-15

M, Exterior Girder
For bending moment (Article 4.6.2.2.2d):
One lane loaded: Use the lever rule

Consider multiple presence factors when: - # of lanes of traffic on the deck must be considered in the analysis (Art. 3.6.1.1.2)

Number of Loaded Lanes 1 2 3 > 3

Multiple Presence Factors "m" 1.20 1.00 0.85 0.65

= R x 9 / 12

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Live-Load Distribution Factors M, Exterior Girder - (cont’d)
One lane loaded: Using the lever rule
9.0 = 0.750 12.0 Multiple presence factor m = 1.2 (Table 3.6.1.1.2 - 1) 1.2(0.750 ) = 0.900 lanes
Number of Loaded Lanes 1 2 3 > 3 Multiple Presence Factors "m" 1.20 1.00 0.85 0.65

Live-Load Distribution Factors M, Exterior Girder - (cont’d)
Two or more lanes loaded: Modify interior-girder factor by e
de (Table 4.6.2.2.2d-1) 9.1 2.0 e = 0 .77 + = 0 . 990 9.1 0 . 990 (0.807 ) = 0.799 lanes e = 0 .77 +

Note: 1) The multiple presence factor is not applied.

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1-17

Live-Load Distribution Factors M, Exterior Girder - (cont’d)
Special Analysis: for beam-slab bridges with diaphragms or cross frames Assuming the entire cross-section rotates as a rigid body about the longitudinal centerline of the bridge, distribution factors for one, two and three lanes loaded are computed using the following formula:
R= NL Nb + X ext ∑ NL e ∑ Nb x 2

Eq. (C4.6.2.2.2d-1)

Live-Load Distribution Factors M, Exterior Girder - (cont’d)
Special Analysis:
R=
R NL e x

NL Nb

+

X ext ∑ NL e ∑ Nb x 2

Eq. (C4.6.2.2.2d-1)

= reaction on exterior beam in terms of lanes = number of loaded lanes under consideration = eccentricity of a lane from the center of gravity of the pattern of girders (ft) = horizontal distance from the center of gravity of the pattern of girders to each girder (ft)

Xext = horizontal distance from the center of gravity of the pattern of girders to the exterior girder (ft) Nb = number of beams or girders

Introduction to LRFD

1-18

Live-Load Distribution Factors M, Exterior Girder - (cont’d)

X ext ∑ N L e R= + Nb ∑ Nb x 2 NL

15’-0”

(18.0 )(15.0 ) = 0.625 1 + 4 2 18.0 2 + 6.0 2 m1 R = 1.2(0.625) = 0.750 lanes
R=

(

)

Multiple Presence Factors "m" 1.20 1.00 0.85 0.65

18’-0”

1 2 3 > 3

Live-Load Distribution Factors M, Exterior Girder - (cont’d)

15’-0”

X ext ∑ N L e Nb ∑ Nb x 2 2 (18.0 )(15.0 + 3.0 ) R= + = 0.950 4 2(18.0 2 + 6.0 2 ) m2 R = 1.0(0.950) = 0.950 lanes (governs) R= NL +

Number of Loaded Lanes 1 2 3 > 3

Multiple Presence Factors "m" 1.20 1.00 0.85 0.65

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1-19

Live-Load Distribution Factors M, Exterior Girder - (cont’d)

R=
R=

NL Nb

+

X ext ∑ N L e ∑ Nb x 2

15’-0”

3 ( 18.0 )(15.0 + 3.0 - 9.0 ) + = 0.975 4 2 18.0 2 + 6.0 2 m3 R = 0.85(0.975 ) = 0.829 lanes

(

)

Number of Loaded Lanes 1 2 3 > 3

Multiple Presence Factors "m" 1.20 1.00 0.85 0.65

Live-Load Distribution Factors V, Exterior Girder - (cont’d)
For shear (Article 4.6.2.2.3b):
One lane loaded: Use the lever rule 0.970 lanes Two or more lanes loaded:

Modify interior-girder factor by e
de (Table 4.6.2.2.3b-1) 10 2. 0 e = 0 .6 + = 0.80 10 0.80(1.082 ) = 0.866 lanes e = 0 .6 +

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Live-Load Distribution Factors V, Exterior Girder - (cont’d)
Special Analysis:
The factors used for bending moment are also used for shear: One lane loaded: 0.750 lanes Two lanes loaded: Three lanes loaded: 0.950 lanes (governs) 0.829 lanes

All factors used for both pos. & neg. flexure.

Strength Limit State
AASHTO LRFD - Positive Flexure:
Bending Moment Shear Interior Girder 0.807 lanes 1.082 lanes Exterior Girder 0.950 lanes 0.950 lanes

AASHTO LRFD - Negative Flexure:
Bending Moment Shear Interior Girder 0.809 lanes 1.082 lanes Exterior Girder 0.950 lanes 0.950 lanes

Introduction to LRFD

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Fatigue Limit State
The fatigue load is placed in a single lane. Therefore, the distribution factors for onelane loaded are used. (see Article 3.6.1.4.3b) Multiple presence factors are not to be applied for fatigue. Thus, the distribution factors for one-lane loaded must be modified by dividing out the multiple presence factor of 1.2 specified for one-lane loaded. (see Article 3.6.1.1.2)

Fatigue Limit State - Design Example
AASHTO LRFD - Positive Flexure:
Bending Moment Shear Interior Girder 0.440 lanes 0.700 lanes Exterior Girder 0.750 lanes 0.750 lanes

AASHTO LRFD - Negative Flexure:
Bending Moment Shear Interior Girder 0.437 lanes 0.700 lanes Exterior Girder 0.750 lanes 0.750 lanes

Introduction to LRFD

1-22

Skew Correction Factors
For bending moment (Article 4.6.2.2.2e):
The skew correction factor for bending moment reduces the live-load distribution factor. For skew angles less than 30°, the correction factor is equal to 1.0. For skew angles greater than 60°, the correction factor is computed using an angle of 60°. The difference in skew angle between two adjacent lines of supports cannot exceed 10°. Dead-load moments are currently not modified for the effects of skew.

⎛ Kg ⎞ c1 = 0.25⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎜ Lt ⎟ ⎝ s⎠

0.25

⎛ S⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝L⎠

0.5

(Table 4.6.2.2.2e-1)

Correction factor = 1 − c1(tanθ)1.5

Skew Correction Factors – (cont.)
For shear (Article 4.6.2.2.3c):
The skew correction factor increases the live-load distribution factor for shear in the exterior girder at the obtuse corner of the bridge. The correction factor is valid for skew angles less than or equal to 60°. The factor may be conservatively applied to all end shears. Dead-load shears are currently not modified for the effects of skew.

⎛ Lt 3 ⎞ Correction factor = 1.0 + 0.20⎜ s ⎟ ⎜K ⎟ ⎝ g⎠

0 .3

tan θ

(Table 4.6.2.2.3c-1)

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Load for Optional Live-Load Deflection Evaluation (Article 3.6.1.3.2) The larger of: - The design truck, or - 25% of the design truck + 100% of the design lane load.

(Article 2.5.2.6.2)
Use the SERVICE I load combination & multiple presence factors where appropriate. For straight-girder systems, all lanes should be loaded and all supporting components should be assumed to deflect equally. For composite design, the stiffness used for calculation of the deflection should include the entire width of the roadway, and may include the structurally continuous portions of the railings, sidewalks and barriers.

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1-24

For the design example:
⎛N ⎞ DF = m3 ⎜ L ⎟ ⎜N ⎟ ⎝ b⎠ ⎛3⎞ = 0.85⎜ ⎟ = 0.638 lanes ⎝4⎠
Number of Loaded Lanes 1 2 3 > 3 Multiple Presence Factors "m" 1.20 1.00 0.85 0.65

(Impact - IM) – (Article 3.6.2.1)
IM = 33% (for truck or tandem only; not for lane). Exceptions are: Deck joints: Fatigue limit state:

IM = 75% IM = 15%

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QUESTIONS?