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Thomas K. Saad, P.E. Federal Highway Administration Chicago, IL
Evolution of Design Methodologies
SLD Methodology: (ft)D + (ft)L ≤ 0.55Fy, or 1.82(ft)D + 1.82(ft)L ≤ Fy LFD Methodology: 1.3[1.0(ft)D + 5/3(ft)L] ≤ φFy, or 1.3(ft)D + 2.17(ft)L ≤ φFy (φ by judgment) LRFD Methodology: 1.25(ft)D + 1.75(ft)L ≤ φFy (φ by calibration)
(new liveload model)
Introduction to LRFD
11
Evolution of Design Methodologies (cont’d)
SLD does not recognize that some types of loads are more variable than others. LFD provides recognition that types of loads are different. LRFD provides a probabilitybased mechanism to select load & resistance factors.
Evolution of Design Methodologies (cont’d)
As a result, LRFD achieves considerable improvement in the clustering of reliability indices versus the AASHTO Standard Specifications.
RELIABILITY INDEX
5
RELIABILITY INDEX
4
3.5
3
2
1
0 0 30 60 90 120 200
LFD LRFD
SPAN LENGTH (Feet)
Introduction to LRFD
12
Basic LRFD Design Equation
Σ ηiγiQi ≤ φRn = Rr Eq. (1.3.2.11)
where: ηi = ηD ηR ηI
· ηi ≥ 0.95 for maximum γ’s
· ηi =
γi = φ = Qi = Rn = Rr =
1 < 1.00 for minimum γ’s ηηη
D R I
Load factor Resistance factor Nominal force effect Nominal resistance Factored resistance = φRn
LRFD Limit States
The LRFD Specifications require examination of several load combinations corresponding to the following limit states: SERVICE LIMIT STATE
relating to stress, deformation, and cracking
FATIGUE & FRACTURE LIMIT STATE relating to stress range and crack growth under repetitive loads, and material toughness STRENGTH LIMIT STATE
relating to strength and stability
 (CONSTRUCTIBILITY) EXTREME EVENT LIMIT STATE
relating to events such as earthquakes, ice load, and vehicle and vessel collision
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3.3.2 Load and Load Designation
STRENGTH I : STRENGTH II : STRENGTH III : STRENGTH IV : STRENGTH V : SERVICE I : without wind. owner design / permit vehicles without wind. wind exceeding 55 mph. very high deadtolive load ratios. vehicular use with 55 mph wind. normal operational use of the bridge with a 55 mph wind and nominal loads. Also control cracking of reinforced concrete structures. control yielding of steel structures and slip of connections control cracking of prestressed concrete superstructures. control cracking of prestressed concrete substructures. repetitive vehicular live load and dynamic responses under a single truck.
SERVICE II : SERVICE III : SERVICE IV : FATIGUE :
3.3.2 Load and Load Designation
DD DC DW EH EL ES EV BR CE CR CT CV EQ FR IC IM LL LS PL SE SH TG TU WA WL WS = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = downdrag dead load of structural components and nonstructural attachments dead load of wearing surfaces and utilities horizontal earth pressure accumulated lockedin force effects resulting from the construction process, including the secondary forces from posttensioning earth surcharge load earth fill vertical pressure braking force centrifugal force creep vehicular collision force vessel collision force earthquake friction ice load dynamic load allowance live load live load surcharge pedestrian live load settlement shrinkage temperature gradient uniform temperature water load and stream pressure wind on live load wind load on structure
Introduction to LRFD
14
Permanent Loads (Article 3.5)
Dead Load (Article 3.5.1): DC  Dead load, except wearing surfaces & utilities DC1  placed prior to deck hardening and acting on
the noncomposite section
DC2  placed after deck hardening and acting on
the longterm composite section
DW 
Wearing surfaces & utilities acting on the longterm composite section
Load Factors for Permanent Loads, γp Load Factor Type of Load DC: Component and Attachments DD: Downdrag DW: Wearing Surfaces and Utilities EH: Horizontal Earth Pressure • Active • AtRest EV: Vertical Earth Pressure • Overall Stability • Retaining Structure • Rigid Buried Structure • Rigid Frames Maximum 1.25 1.80 1.50 Minimum 0.90 0.45 0.65
1.50 1.35
0.90 0.90
1.35 1.35 1.30 1.35 1.95
N/A 1.00 0.90 0.90 0.90
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Basic LRFD Design Live Load
HL93  (Article 3.6.1.2.1)
Design Truck: ⇒
or Design Tandem:
Pair of 25.0 KIP axles spaced 4.0 FT apart
or
25.0 KIP 25.0 KIP
superimposed on Design Lane Load 0.64 KLF
uniformly distributed load
+
0.64 Kip/ft
LRFD Negative Moment Loading
(Article 3.6.1.3.1)
For negative moment (between points of permanentload contraflexure) & interiorpier reactions, check an additional load case:
0.9 x
> 50’0”
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LRFD Fatigue Load
(Article 3.6.1.4.1)
Design Truck only => w/ fixed 30ft rearaxle spacing Placed in a single lane
1
Load Combinations and Load Factors
Load Combination DC DD DW EH EV ES γp γp γp γp 1.5 γp γp γp 1.00 1.00 1.00 LL IM CE BR PL LS 1.75 1.35 1.35 γEQ 0.50 1.00 1.30 0.80 0.75 WA WS WL FR TU CR SH TG SE Use One of These at a Time EQ IC CT CV
Limit State STRENGTHI STRENGTHII STRENGTHIII STRENGTHIV EH, EV, ES, DW DC ONLY STRENGTHV EXTREMEI EXTREMEII SERVICEI SERVICEII SERVICEIII FATIGUELL, IM & CE ONLY
1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
1.40 0.40 0.30 
1.00 0.30 
1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
0.50/1.20 0.50/1.20 0.50/1.20 0.50/1.20 0.50/1.20 1.00/1.20 1.00/1.20 1.00/1.20 
γTG γTG γTG 
γSE γSE γSE 




γTG γTG γTG 
γSE γSE γSE 
1.00 
1.00 1.00 1.00 
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Resistance Factors
(Article 6.5.4.2)
Resistance factors, φ, for the strength limit state shall be taken as follows: • For flexure φf = 1.00 • For shear φv = 1.00 • For axial compression, steel only φc = 0.90 • For axial compression, composite φc = 0.90 • For tension, fracture in net section φu = 0.80 • For tension, yielding in gross section φy = 0.95 • For bolts bearing on material φbb = 0.80 • For shear connectors φsc = 0.85 • For A 325 and A 490 bolts in shear φs = 0.80 • For block shear φbs = 0.80 • For web crippling φw = 0.80 • For weld metal in fillet welds: • tension or compression parallel to axis of the weld same as base metal • shear in throat of weld metal φe2 = 0.80
Resistance Factors
(Article 5.5.4.2)
Resistance factor φ shall be taken as: • • • • For flexure and tension of reinforced concrete……………………………….… 0.90 For flexure and tension of prestressed concrete……………………………….… 1.00 For shear and torsion: normal weight concrete……………… 0.90 lightweight concrete…………………. 0.70 For axial compression with spirals or ties, except as specified in Article 5.10.11.4.1b for Seismic Zones 3 and 4 at the extreme event limit state…………………………….. 0.75 For bearing on concrete…………… 0.70 For compression in strutandtie models… 0.70 For compression in anchorage zones: normal weight concrete……………… 0.80 lightweight concrete…………………. 0.65 For tension in steel in anchorage zones….. 1.00 For resistance during pile driving………….. 1.00
• • • •
•
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Structural Analysis & Evaluation
(Article 4)
Static Analysis (Article 4.6)
Approximate Methods of Analysis (Article 4.6.2) BeamSlab Bridges (Article 4.6.2.2)
LiveLoad Lateral Distribution Factors
TABLE 4.6.2.2.11 COMMON DECK SUPERSTRUCTURES COVERED IN ARTICLES 4.6.2.2.2 AND 4.6.2.2.3. SUPPORTING COMPONENTS Steel Beam TYPE OF DECK Castinplace concrete slab, precast concrete slab, steel grid, glued/spiked panels, stressed wood TYPICAL CROSSSECTION
Closed Steel or Precast Concrete Boxes
Castinplace concrete slab
Open Steel or Precast Concrete Boxes
Castinplace concrete slab, precast concrete deck slab
CastinPlace Concrete Multicell Box
Monolithic concrete
CastinPlace Concrete Tee Beam
Monolithic concrete
Precast Solid, Voided or Cellular Concrete Boxes with Shear Keys
Castinplace concrete overlay
Precast Solid, Voided, or Cellular Concrete Box with Shear Keys and with or without Transverse Posttensioning
Integral concrete
Introduction to LRFD
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LiveLoad Distribution Factors
For Moments – Interior Beams
Table 4.6.2.2.2b1 Distribution of Live Loads Per Lane for Moment in Interior Beams.
Type of Beams Concrete Deck, Filled Grid, Partially Filled Grid, or Unfilled Grid Deck Composite with Reinforced Concrete Slab on Steel or Concrete Beams; Concrete TBeams, T and Double TSections
Applicable CrossSection from Table 4.6.2.2.11 a, e, k and also i, j if sufficiently connected to act as a unit
Distribution Factors One Design Lane Loaded:
Range of Applicability 3.5 ≤ S ≤ 16.0
⎛ S ⎞ ⎛ S ⎞ ⎛ Kg ⎞ 0.06 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝ 14 ⎠ ⎝ L ⎠ ⎝ 12.0 Lts ⎠ Two or More Design Lanes Loaded: ⎛ S ⎞ ⎛ S ⎞ ⎛ Kg ⎞ 0.075 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝ 9.5 ⎠ ⎝ L ⎠ ⎝ 12.0 Lts ⎠ use lesser of the values obtained from the equation above with Nb = 3 or the lever rule
0.6 0.2 0.1
0.4
0.3
0.1
20 ≤ L ≤ 240 4.5 ≤ ts ≤ 12.0 Nb ≥ 4 10,000 ≤ Kg ≤ 7,000,000
Nb = 3
Notes:
1) Units are in LANES and not WHEELS! 2) No multiple presence factor
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LiveLoad Distribution Factors
For Shear – Interior Beams
Table 4.6.2.2.3a1 Distribution of Live Load per Lane for Shear in Interior Beams.
Type of Superstructure Concrete Deck, Filled Grid, Partially Filled Grid, or Unfilled Grid Deck Composite with Reinforced Concrete Slab on Steel or Concrete Beams; Concrete TBeams, Tand Double TSections
Applicable CrossSection from Table 4.6.2.2.11 a, e, k and also i, j if sufficiently connected to act as a unit
One Design Lane Loaded S 0.36 + 25.0
Two or More Design Lanes Loaded
0.2 +
S ⎛ S ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ 12 ⎝ 35 ⎠
2.0
Range of Applicability 3.5 ≤ S ≤ 16.0
20 ≤ L ≤ 240 4.5 ≤ ts ≤ 12.0 Nb ≥ 4
Lever Rule
Lever Rule
Nb = 3
Notes:
1) Units are in LANES and not WHEELS! 2) No multiple presence factor
LiveLoad Distribution Factors
Design Example
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LiveLoad Distribution Factors
Example
POSITIVE FLEXURE (END SPAN)
Calculate Kg:
n=8 N.A. is 39.63 in. from the top of the steel.
eg
eg =
9.0 + 3.5 + 39.63 − 1.0 = 46.63 in. 2
Kg = n I + Ae2 = 8 62,658 + 75.25(46.63)2 = 1.81x 106 in.4 g
(
) (
)
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LiveLoad Distribution Factors M+ , Interior Girder
tS
S L
Article 4.6.2.2.2b: One lane loaded:
⎛ S⎞ 0.06 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 14 ⎠
0 .4
⎛S⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝L⎠
0 .3
⎛ Kg ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 12 .0Lt 3 ⎟ ⎝ S⎠
0 .1
Two or more lanes loaded:
⎛ S ⎞ 0.075 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 9.5 ⎠
0.6
⎛S⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝L⎠
0.2
⎛ Kg ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 12.0Lt 3 ⎟ ⎝ S⎠
0.1
LiveLoad Distribution Factors M+ , Interior Girder  (cont’d)
One lane loaded:
⎛ 12.0 ⎞ 0.06 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 14 ⎠
0. 4
⎛ 12.0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 140.0 ⎠
0.3
⎛ ⎞ 1.81 x 106 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 12.0(140.0 )(9.0 )3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
0.1
= 0.528 lanes
Two or more lanes loaded:
⎛ 12.0 ⎞ 0.075 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 9 .5 ⎠
0.6
⎛ 12.0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 140.0 ⎠
0 .2
⎛ ⎞ 1.81 x 106 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 12.0(140.0 )(9.0 )3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
0 .1
= 0.807 lanes (governs)
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LiveLoad Distribution Factors V , Interior Girder
Table 4.6.2.2.3a1 One lane loaded:
S 25.0 12.0 0.36 + = 0.840 lanes 25.0 0.36 +
Two or more lanes loaded:
0 .2 + 0 .2 + S ⎛S⎞ −⎜ ⎟ 12 ⎝ 35 ⎠
2
12.0 ⎛ 12.0 ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ = 1.082 lanes (governs) 12 ⎝ 35 ⎠
2
LiveLoad Distribution Factors M , Interior Girder
L = 0.5(140+175) = 157.5 ft.
One lane loaded:
⎛ 12.0 ⎞ 0.06 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 14 ⎠
0 .4
⎛ 12.0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 157.5 ⎠
0 .3
⎛ ⎞ 2.65 x 106 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 12.0(157.5)(9.0 )3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
0 .1
= 0.524 lanes
Two or more lanes loaded:
⎛ 12.0 ⎞ 0.075 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 9 .5 ⎠
.
0. 6
⎛ 12.0 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 157.5 ⎠
0. 2
⎛ ⎞ 2.65 x 106 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 12.0(157.5)(9.0 )3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
0. 1
= 0.809 lanes (governs)
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LiveLoad Distribution Factors
Moments – Exterior Beams
Table 4.6.2.2.2d1 Distribution of Live Loads Per Lane for Moment in Exterior Longitudinal Beams. Applicable CrossSection from Table 4.6.2.2.11 a, e, k and also i, j if sufficiently connected to act as a unit One Design Lane Loaded Lever Rule Two or More Design Lanes Loaded g = e ginterior
e = 0.77 + de 9.1
Type of Superstructure Concrete Deck, Filled Grid, Partially Filled Grid, or Unfilled Grid Deck Composite with Reinforced Concrete Slab on Steel or Concrete Beams; Concrete TBeams, T and Double T Sections
Range of Applicability 1.0 < de < 5.5
use lesser of the values obtained from the equation above with Nb = 3 or the lever rule
Nb = 3
Notes: In beamslab bridges with diaphragms or crossframes, the distribution factor for the exterior beam shall not be taken to be less than that which would be obtained by assuming that the crosssection deflects and rotates as a rigid crosssection. NL X ∑ NL e + ext R= Nb ∑ Nb x 2
LiveLoad Distribution Factors
Shear – Exterior Beams
Table 4.6.2.2.3b1 Distribution of Live Load per Lane for Shear in Exterior Beams.
Type of Superstructure Concrete Deck, Filled Grid, Partially Filled Grid, or Unfilled Grid Deck Composite with Reinforced Concrete Slab on Steel or Concrete Beams; Concrete T
Applicable CrossSection from Table 4.6.2.2.11 a, e, k and also i, j if sufficiently connected to act as a unit
One Design Lane Loaded Lever Rule
Two or More Design Lanes Loaded g = e ginterior d e = 0.6 + e 10
Range of Applicability 1.0 < de < 5.5
Lever Rule
Nb = 3
Notes: In beamslab bridges with diaphragms or crossframes, the distribution factor for the exterior beam shall not be taken to be less than that which would be obtained by assuming that the crosssection deflects and rotates as a rigid crosssection. NL X ∑ NL e + ext R= Nb ∑ Nb x 2
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LiveLoad Distribution Factors
M, Exterior Girder
For bending moment (Article 4.6.2.2.2d):
One lane loaded: Use the lever rule
Consider multiple presence factors when:  # of lanes of traffic on the deck must be considered in the analysis (Art. 3.6.1.1.2)
Number of Loaded Lanes 1 2 3 > 3
Multiple Presence Factors "m" 1.20 1.00 0.85 0.65
= R x 9 / 12
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LiveLoad Distribution Factors M, Exterior Girder  (cont’d)
One lane loaded: Using the lever rule
9.0 = 0.750 12.0 Multiple presence factor m = 1.2 (Table 3.6.1.1.2  1) 1.2(0.750 ) = 0.900 lanes
Number of Loaded Lanes 1 2 3 > 3 Multiple Presence Factors "m" 1.20 1.00 0.85 0.65
LiveLoad Distribution Factors M, Exterior Girder  (cont’d)
Two or more lanes loaded: Modify interiorgirder factor by e
de (Table 4.6.2.2.2d1) 9.1 2.0 e = 0 .77 + = 0 . 990 9.1 0 . 990 (0.807 ) = 0.799 lanes e = 0 .77 +
Note: 1) The multiple presence factor is not applied.
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LiveLoad Distribution Factors M, Exterior Girder  (cont’d)
Special Analysis: for beamslab bridges with diaphragms or cross frames Assuming the entire crosssection rotates as a rigid body about the longitudinal centerline of the bridge, distribution factors for one, two and three lanes loaded are computed using the following formula:
R= NL Nb + X ext ∑ NL e ∑ Nb x 2
Eq. (C4.6.2.2.2d1)
LiveLoad Distribution Factors M, Exterior Girder  (cont’d)
Special Analysis:
R=
R NL e x
NL Nb
+
X ext ∑ NL e ∑ Nb x 2
Eq. (C4.6.2.2.2d1)
= reaction on exterior beam in terms of lanes = number of loaded lanes under consideration = eccentricity of a lane from the center of gravity of the pattern of girders (ft) = horizontal distance from the center of gravity of the pattern of girders to each girder (ft)
Xext = horizontal distance from the center of gravity of the pattern of girders to the exterior girder (ft) Nb = number of beams or girders
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LiveLoad Distribution Factors M, Exterior Girder  (cont’d)
One lane loaded:
X ext ∑ N L e R= + Nb ∑ Nb x 2 NL
15’0”
(18.0 )(15.0 ) = 0.625 1 + 4 2 18.0 2 + 6.0 2 m1 R = 1.2(0.625) = 0.750 lanes
R=
(
)
Number of Loaded Lanes
Multiple Presence Factors "m" 1.20 1.00 0.85 0.65
18’0”
1 2 3 > 3
LiveLoad Distribution Factors M, Exterior Girder  (cont’d)
Two lanes loaded:
15’0”
X ext ∑ N L e Nb ∑ Nb x 2 2 (18.0 )(15.0 + 3.0 ) R= + = 0.950 4 2(18.0 2 + 6.0 2 ) m2 R = 1.0(0.950) = 0.950 lanes (governs) R= NL +
Number of Loaded Lanes 1 2 3 > 3
Multiple Presence Factors "m" 1.20 1.00 0.85 0.65
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LiveLoad Distribution Factors M, Exterior Girder  (cont’d)
Three lanes loaded:
R=
R=
NL Nb
+
X ext ∑ N L e ∑ Nb x 2
15’0”
3 ( 18.0 )(15.0 + 3.0  9.0 ) + = 0.975 4 2 18.0 2 + 6.0 2 m3 R = 0.85(0.975 ) = 0.829 lanes
(
)
Number of Loaded Lanes 1 2 3 > 3
Multiple Presence Factors "m" 1.20 1.00 0.85 0.65
LiveLoad Distribution Factors V, Exterior Girder  (cont’d)
For shear (Article 4.6.2.2.3b):
One lane loaded: Use the lever rule 0.970 lanes Two or more lanes loaded:
Modify interiorgirder factor by e
de (Table 4.6.2.2.3b1) 10 2. 0 e = 0 .6 + = 0.80 10 0.80(1.082 ) = 0.866 lanes e = 0 .6 +
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LiveLoad Distribution Factors V, Exterior Girder  (cont’d)
Special Analysis:
The factors used for bending moment are also used for shear: One lane loaded: 0.750 lanes Two lanes loaded: Three lanes loaded: 0.950 lanes (governs) 0.829 lanes
All factors used for both pos. & neg. flexure.
SUMMARY LiveLoad Distribution Factors
Strength Limit State
AASHTO LRFD  Positive Flexure:
Bending Moment Shear Interior Girder 0.807 lanes 1.082 lanes Exterior Girder 0.950 lanes 0.950 lanes
AASHTO LRFD  Negative Flexure:
Bending Moment Shear Interior Girder 0.809 lanes 1.082 lanes Exterior Girder 0.950 lanes 0.950 lanes
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LiveLoad Distribution Factors
Fatigue Limit State
The fatigue load is placed in a single lane. Therefore, the distribution factors for onelane loaded are used. (see Article 3.6.1.4.3b) Multiple presence factors are not to be applied for fatigue. Thus, the distribution factors for onelane loaded must be modified by dividing out the multiple presence factor of 1.2 specified for onelane loaded. (see Article 3.6.1.1.2)
SUMMARY LiveLoad Distribution Factors
Fatigue Limit State  Design Example
AASHTO LRFD  Positive Flexure:
Bending Moment Shear Interior Girder 0.440 lanes 0.700 lanes Exterior Girder 0.750 lanes 0.750 lanes
AASHTO LRFD  Negative Flexure:
Bending Moment Shear Interior Girder 0.437 lanes 0.700 lanes Exterior Girder 0.750 lanes 0.750 lanes
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LiveLoad Distribution Factors
Skew Correction Factors
For bending moment (Article 4.6.2.2.2e):
The skew correction factor for bending moment reduces the liveload distribution factor. For skew angles less than 30°, the correction factor is equal to 1.0. For skew angles greater than 60°, the correction factor is computed using an angle of 60°. The difference in skew angle between two adjacent lines of supports cannot exceed 10°. Deadload moments are currently not modified for the effects of skew.
⎛ Kg ⎞ c1 = 0.25⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎜ Lt ⎟ ⎝ s⎠
0.25
⎛ S⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝L⎠
0.5
(Table 4.6.2.2.2e1)
Correction factor = 1 − c1(tanθ)1.5
LiveLoad Distribution Factors
Skew Correction Factors – (cont.)
For shear (Article 4.6.2.2.3c):
The skew correction factor increases the liveload distribution factor for shear in the exterior girder at the obtuse corner of the bridge. The correction factor is valid for skew angles less than or equal to 60°. The factor may be conservatively applied to all end shears. Deadload shears are currently not modified for the effects of skew.
⎛ Lt 3 ⎞ Correction factor = 1.0 + 0.20⎜ s ⎟ ⎜K ⎟ ⎝ g⎠
0 .3
tan θ
(Table 4.6.2.2.3c1)
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Load for Optional LiveLoad Deflection Evaluation (Article 3.6.1.3.2) The larger of:  The design truck, or  25% of the design truck + 100% of the design lane load.
LiveLoad Deflection
(Article 2.5.2.6.2)
Use the SERVICE I load combination & multiple presence factors where appropriate. For straightgirder systems, all lanes should be loaded and all supporting components should be assumed to deflect equally. For composite design, the stiffness used for calculation of the deflection should include the entire width of the roadway, and may include the structurally continuous portions of the railings, sidewalks and barriers.
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Distribution Factor for LiveLoad Deflection
For the design example:
⎛N ⎞ DF = m3 ⎜ L ⎟ ⎜N ⎟ ⎝ b⎠ ⎛3⎞ = 0.85⎜ ⎟ = 0.638 lanes ⎝4⎠
Number of Loaded Lanes 1 2 3 > 3 Multiple Presence Factors "m" 1.20 1.00 0.85 0.65
Dynamic Load Allowance
(Impact  IM) – (Article 3.6.2.1)
IM = 33% (for truck or tandem only; not for lane). Exceptions are: Deck joints: Fatigue limit state:
IM = 75% IM = 15%
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QUESTIONS?
Thomas Saad, P.E.
FHWA, Suite 301 19900 Governors Drive Olympia Fields, IL 60461 Ph: 708.283.3521 Email: thomas.saad@fhwa.dot.gov
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126
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