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Controlled Extraction

In the controlled extraction machines, a series of poppet, spool or grid valves are installed
at an intermediate steam chest. The valve position is manipulated by the control system so
that some steam is forced out of the steam chest into the extraction piping at the required
pressure, while the remainder passes to the lower pressure section of the turbine. This
control can be delivered over a wide range of inlet flows, but is expensive because of the
additional steam chest. 1

Extraction Turbine Control


In addition to the governor valve, in extraction turbines, a second valve is required. It
controls the steam flow rate that is extracted from the first stage of the turbine and is sent
to the second stage. The extraction rate can be controlled to keep the pressure of the LP
header constant, but it can also be a function of shaft speed, or a combination of the two.
If the turbine incorporates the controls as a built-in feature, the turbine is referred to as an
automatic-extraction type. Such turbines are generally designed to deliver 100% shaft
power and to provide extraction steam only if the load requirements permit. This is the
most common type of extraction machine.
Extraction turbines may be visualized as two-stage units from which steam can be
removed at a pressure between that of the supply and that of the exhaust. When the
demand for work (load) on the turbine is small, the high-pressure stage may be adequate
to meet the work load, and consequently, a large amount of extraction steam may be
available to supply the low-pressure header. As work load increases, the second stage
becomes necessary to meet the demand for added work and begins to compete for the
steam previously being extracted. The control system must allow for this to occur, if
meeting the work load is the first priority.
At least a minimal amount of steam must be maintained through the second stage to
prevent overheating. This requirement may necessitate limiting extraction, but it can also
require the maintaining of a specific second-stage discharge pressure. These
requirements are given in the manufacturers operating specifications.2
1 Training Session5 - Steam Turbines
2 Steam Turbines Control

The extractions can be categorized as controlled or uncontrolled, as well as automatic or


manual. Some extractions are utilized for feedwater heating. The extraction control valves
typically have two functions; to regulate the steam flow externally and to maintain the
extraction steam pressure constant. The valves are hydraulically opened and springloaded shut. They are, however, not designed to be leak tight and will typically pass 5%
steam flow in the closed position.
Non-return valves (NRV) or check valves are normally installed downstream of the
controlled and uncontrolled (i.e., no regulating or control valve) extraction connections to
the turbine. The function of the valves is to permit flow of extraction steam in the outgoing
direction and prohibit backward flow into the turbine when turbine extraction pressure is
lower than the lines it feeds.
The valves are designed to be spring-loaded shut when there is no extraction pressure but
they also have an air or hydraulically assisted actuator to close the valve when the
systems are pressurized. Malfunctioning of extraction NRVs is the primary cause of
overspeed damage during turbine shutdown. As such, these valves need to be
tested, inspected, and overhauled on a frequent basis.3
Extraction-Pressure Control

Extraction-control valves are very similar to inlet control valve(s). Extraction valves control
the flow of steam to the downstream stages of the turbine. Another way to view extraction
control is, extraction valves regulate flow to the remainder of the turbine in an effort to
maintain constant back-pressure at the exhaust of the preceding section.
Many industrial applications call for extraction turbines which regulate two or more
parameters because economic benefits result from a more efficient use of energy.
As stated previously, the number of controlled parameters requires an equal number of
control devices.
The key to successful operation of automatic-extraction turbines is a control system which
provides stable control of two parameters. The two parameters are usually speed/load and
extraction pressure. Changing the position of the inlet or extraction valves affects both
speed/load and extraction pressure. Or, if speed/load or extraction demand changes, both
inlet and extraction-valve positions must be changed to re-establish speed/load and
extraction setpoints. However, with
generator drives in which load swings are acceptable, another parameter can be controlled
(inlet or exhaust pressure) in addition to extraction pressure.
The governor for an extraction turbine must control (ratio) the inlet valves and the
extraction valves in such a manner that both speed/load and extraction pressure are held
at desired levels. The ratioing circuit, as shown, is the source of this control scheme.
Speed/load and extraction controls receive two inputs each, a reference signal (desired)
and a status signal (actual). The controls compare these signal voltages and send a
correction signal to the ratioing circuit. The ratioing
circuit has outputs to both the inlet and extraction final drivers which, in turn, control their
respective actuators and steam valves. The ratioing circuit generates output signals so that
both inlet and extraction valves move in a direction to correct the errors. Similarly, an error
in extraction pressure will cause the inlet and extraction valves to move to correct the
extraction pressure and not change load.

3 Maintenance and Overhaul of Steam Turbines

The movement of the inlet and extraction valves may be in the same direction or opposite
direction depending on the change in condition for which a correction is taken. For an
increase in speed/load demand, the inlet valve must open to allow more steam to enter the
turbine. At the same time, the extraction valve must open to maintain constant extraction
pressure. For an increase in extraction flow demand, the extraction valve closes to supply
the additional extraction flow, and the inlet valve opens to maintain speed/load.

Extraction Steam Map


In order to make the ratioing circuit work properly, the control must contain particular data about the
turbine performance. The steam map for an extraction turbine contains the data necessary for the
ratio circuit to maintain proper control of the turbine. The steam map is a graphic description of the
operating range of an extraction turbine. The map is often called a steam envelope, since normal
turbine operation must be contained within the envelope lines.
The lines on the envelope define the operating characteristics of your turbine. Although these maps
are constructed by the turbine vendor for purposes of depicting turbine performance to the
customer, this map is also utilized by the control engineer to define the inlet (HP) valve to extraction
(LP) valve relationships.
In addition the map helps the control engineer to define the limits the control must keep the turbine
from exceeding. The axis of the steam map represent power output along the horizontal, and
throttle steam flow (or inlet valve position) along the vertical.
The first boundary line on the extraction map is the maximum throttle (inlet) flow line, referred to by
the control engineer as HP=1 line. The reason the control engineer does so is because this line
represents the point at which the inlet (HP) valve is at full open, which means the turbine is passing
the maximum steam flow allowed with the design steam conditions.

The second boundary line is the maximum power line, referred to as S=1 by the control engineer.
This line represents the maximum power output of the turbine with design steam conditions.
The next boundary line on the map is the maximum exhaust flow line, or LP=1 as designated by the
control engineer. This line represents a real limit of the turbine in that greater exhaust flows would
cause the turbine to operate at higher exhaust pressures. This line is also called the "pressure rise
line" by some turbine vendors because operation to the right of this line will cause the turbine
exhaust pressure to rise. Usually a limiter is applied in the control system to keep the turbine from
operating outside this line. This means the turbine will be throttled back until the turbine returns to
the area within the map.
The next boundary line is the zero extraction flow line, or P=0 as designated by the control
engineer. This represents the throttle flow from minimum load to maximum exhaust flow, with no
extraction steam flow demand. This also means the extraction (LP) valve would be fully open,
hence P=0.
The minimum power line is next and is referred to the control engineer as S=min. This is not a hard
limit because the turbine vendor usually chooses to cut the map off at some minimum power, below
which the customer will most likely not operate the turbine, and prediction of turbine performance is
difficult. The final boundary line is minimum exhaust flow, or LP=0 as the control engineer refers to
this limit. This line represents the combination of throttle and extraction flow, and associated power
output, when minimum steam flow passes to the exhaust section of the turbine. In all turbines there
must be a minimum amount of steam flowing through the exhaust in order to avoid overheating this
section of the turbine. In effect, the extraction (LP) valve would be fully closed, which is why the
control engineer designates this as LP=0.
Within the body of the map, bordered by the boundary lines just mentioned, are the combinations of
throttle and extraction flow that result in various power output levels. With the boundary lines
defined and the intersection points identified, the control engineer has all the data needed to design
a control system with the proper ratioing and dynamics to provide precise and stable control.