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Concrete structures deflect, crack, and loose stiffness when subjected to external load. Loss of flexural strength of concrete is largely responsible for cracks in structure. In reinforced concrete structures, the mix proportions of the materials of the concrete and aggregate type determine the compressive strength while the composite action of concrete and steel reinforcement supplies the flexural strength. In occasion of loss of stiffness, steel reinforcement no longer supports flexural stresses; concrete in turn is subjected to flexure. The compressive strength and flexural strength therefore play a crucial role. Effect of varying coarse aggregate size on the flexural and compressive strengths of concrete beam was investigated. Concrete cubes and beams were produced in accordance with BS 1881-108 (1983) and ASTM C293 with varying aggregate sizes 9.0mm, 13.2mm, 19mm, 25.0mm and 37.5mm, using a standard mould of internal dimension 150x150x150 for the concrete cubes and a mould of internal dimension of 150 x 150 x 750mm for the reinforced concrete beam. The water cement ratio was kept at 0.65 with a mix proportion of 1:2:4. The specimen produced were all subjected to curing in water for 28days and were all tested to determine the compressive strength and flexural strength using Universal Testing Machine. Compressive strength of cubes is 21.26N/mm2, 23.41N/mm2, 23.66N/mm2, and 24.31N/mm2 for coarse aggregate sizes 13.2mm, 19mm, 25.0mm and 37.5mm respectively. That of flexural strength of test beams is 4.93N/mm2, 4.78N/mm2, 4.53N/mm2, 4.49N/mm2, 4.40N/mm2 respectively. In conclusion, concrete to be used mostly to resist flexural stresses should be made of finer coarse aggregates.

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ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 5, Issue 1( Part 4), January 2015, pp.67-75

RESEARCH ARTICLE

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OPEN ACCESS

the Flexural Strength of Concrete Beam

S.O. Ajamu1 and J.A. Ige2

1,2

Department of Civil Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, PMB 4000 Ogbomoso, Oyo

State Nigeria

ABSTRACT

Concrete structures deflect, crack, and loose stiffness when subjected to external load. Loss of flexural strength

of concrete is largely responsible for cracks in structure. In reinforced concrete structures, the mix proportions

of the materials of the concrete and aggregate type determine the compressive strength while the composite

action of concrete and steel reinforcement supplies the flexural strength. In occasion of loss of stiffness, steel

reinforcement no longer supports flexural stresses; concrete in turn is subjected to flexure. The compressive

strength and flexural strength therefore play a crucial role. Effect of varying coarse aggregate size on the

flexural and compressive strengths of concrete beam was investigated.

Concrete cubes and beams were produced in accordance with BS 1881-108 (1983) and ASTM C293 with

varying aggregate sizes 9.0mm, 13.2mm, 19mm, 25.0mm and 37.5mm, using a standard mould of internal

dimension 150x150x150 for the concrete cubes and a mould of internal dimension of 150 x 150 x 750mm for

the reinforced concrete beam. The water cement ratio was kept at 0.65 with a mix proportion of 1:2:4. The

specimen produced were all subjected to curing in water for 28days and were all tested to determine the

compressive strength and flexural strength using Universal Testing Machine.

Compressive strength of cubes is 21.26N/mm2, 23.41N/mm2, 23.66N/mm2, and 24.31N/mm2 for coarse

aggregate sizes 13.2mm, 19mm, 25.0mm and 37.5mm respectively. That of flexural strength of test beams is

4.93N/mm2, 4.78N/mm2, 4.53N/mm2, 4.49N/mm2, 4.40N/mm2 respectively.

In conclusion, concrete to be used mostly to resist flexural stresses should be made of finer coarse aggregates.

Key words: Flexural strength, compressive strength, stiffness, aggregate size.

I. Introduction

Flexural strength is a measure of the tensile

strength of concrete; it is a measure of an

unreinforced concrete beam or slab to resist failure

resulting from bending stresses. Reinforcements are

provided to enhance the tensile strength of concrete.

The ability of concrete to induce tensile stresses to

reinforcement depends mostly on the bonding force

between the two materials and also on the size of

aggregates. Inability of concrete to adequately induce

tensile stresses to the reinforcement results in

cracking at the bottom fibre; cracks will open up

bond that exist between the two materials (concrete

and steel). This eventually reduces the stiffness of the

whole composite, and reinforcement will be exposed

to corrosion agents (water, chloride, air etc.). This

study therefore focused on the effect of coarse

aggregate size on the flexural strength of concrete.

To evaluate the flexural strength (the theoretical

maximum tensile stress reached in the bottom fibre of

a test beam during a flexural strength test) of concrete

implies subjecting concrete to loading on flexural

testing machine in order to measure its resistance to

tensile stresses.

The constituents of concrete are cement, water,

aggregates (fine and coarse aggregates), aggregates

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with the coarse aggregates taking between 50 and

60% of the concrete mix depending on the mix

proportion used (Waziri et. al., 2011). The larger

percentage of coarse aggregate in concrete mix

makes it to contribute a lot to the strength of

concrete. Its properties like toughness, hardness,

shape, size, soundness, density, and specific gravity

also affect the strength of concrete.

Many researchers (Wu et. al., (1997), Zhang et.

al. (2010), Waziri et. al. (2011), Abdullahi (2012),

and Joseph et. al. (2012)) have carried out studies on

the strength characteristics of concrete produced

using different aggregate materials and using

different brands of cement but little or no attention

have been focused on the flexural bond stress (which

is the stress in structural concrete members between

the concrete and the reinforcing element that results

from the application of external loads) between

reinforcement and concrete. Use of poorly graded

coarse aggregate in concrete matrix also has it share

in the causes of structural failure due to the

development of horny comb in the concrete. This also

results in a cohesionless composite of concrete and

steel with poor flexural bond. In such a case concrete

will not be able to effectively transmit the induced

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ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 5, Issue 1( Part 4), January 2015, pp.67-75

external (flexural) load to the reinforcement, thus

resulting in structural failure as the concrete will be

subjected to tensile stresses than it can accommodate.

Therefore it is imperative to determine the effect of

coarse aggregate size on the flexural bond strength of

concrete.

1.1 Materials and Methods

The materials used for this work are coarse

aggregate, fine aggregate, cement, beam mould

(750mm x 150mm x 150 mm), cube mould (150mm

x 150mm x 150 mm), water, shovel, weighing

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Machine). The coarse aggregate used was sourced

from a single quarry site (Igbo Ile Quarry Site,

Ogbomoso) to ensure uniformity of results. Dangote

brand of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) was used;

clean water fit for drinking was used throughout for

the research work.

1.1.1 Sieve Analysis

The fine and coarse aggregate was sieved to

various sizes in accordance with BS 812:103 as

shown in Figure 1 (A, B, C, D and E).

Figure 1: Coarse aggregate sizes used

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1.1.2 Mix Proportion

The proportion of each constituent material (i.e.

cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water)

was estimated with the following procedure:

(i) The total volume of concrete required to cast

three samples of test beams and three samples of

test cubes per specimen of coarse aggregate size

was estimated.

(ii) The total weight of concrete required per mix

was gotten by multiplying the total volume

required per mix by the unit weight of concrete

(24kN/m3).

(iii) The weight of cement, fine aggregate and coarse

aggregate required per mix was calculated using

a mix ratio of 1:2:4.

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by multiplying the weight of cement required per

mix by a constant water cement ratio (0.65).

(v) The weight required per mix of cement, fine

aggregate, coarse aggregate and water was

weighed on the weighing balance.

1.1.3 Slump Test

Slump test (test for workability of fresh concrete

mix) was carried out per mix (Figure 2) in

accordance with the procedure outlined in BS 1881102 (1983).

The specimen prepared for testing, concrete cubes and the beams were cured in curing tank for 28 days bore

carrying out the compressive and flexural strength tests (Figure 3).

The compressive strength and the flexural strength tests were carried out on Universal Testing Machine

UTM (Figures 4a, 4b and 4c) in accordance with the procedures outlined in BS1881-116: (1983) and BS 1881118: (1983) respectively. The formulae used to calculate the compressive strength and flexural strength are

respectively given by equation (1) and equation (2).

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ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 5, Issue 1( Part 4), January 2015, pp.67-75

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UTM

Test Beam

(UTM: Avery-Denison EN76066 7113DCJ; Capacity of 600kN)

Failure point

Beam

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L = span length (mm)

b = average width (mm)

d = average depth (mm)

The formula used to calculate the compressive

strength of each of the concrete cube specimen is

given by equation (1):

=

(1)

Where:

F = Load at failure or crushing load (N)

A = Load Bearing area of the cube (mm2)

2.1.2 Flexural Strength Calculation

Flexural Strength is the theoretical maximum

tensile stress reached in the bottom fibre of a test

beam during a flexural strength test. The formula

used to calculate the flexural strength of each of the

beam specimen using the results of the three point

flexural test is given by equation (2) for a rectangular

cross-section:

, =

(2)

2 2

Where:

R = modulus of rupture or flexural strength (N/mm2)

P = Load at failure (kN)

Slump (mm)

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200

180

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

carried out in order to determine the effect of the

variation of coarse aggregate size with constant

water-cement ratio on the workability of fresh

concrete. The results gotten are presented in Table 1

and plotted in Figure 5.

Table 1: Slump Test Result for Different Aggregate

Sizes with the Same Water Cement Ratio and Mix

Proportion

Coarse Aggregate size

Slump (mm)

(mm)

9.00

15

13.20

60

19.00

165

25.00

166

37.50

180

180

166

165

60

15

0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Figure 5: Variation of Slump with change in coarse aggregate size

3.1.2 Effect of Coarse Aggregate Size on Concrete Compressive Strength: The compressive test results

are presented in the Table 2.

Table 2: Compressive Strength Result after 28 Days of Curing

Aggregate Size

Average Crushing

Average Compressive

(mm)

Load

Strength (N/mm)

(KN)

478

21.26

13.20

527

23.41

19.00

532

23.66

25.00

547

24.31

37.50

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24.5

24.31

24

23.66

23.5

23.41

23

Average Compressive

Strength (N/mm2)

22.5

22

21.5

21.26

21

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Figure 6: Variation of Compressive strength with change in coarse aggregate size

Figure 6 illustrates the effect of varying coarse

aggregate size on compressive strength of the

hardened concrete after 28-days of curing. It was

observed that 28-days compressive strength of

concrete increases relatively with increase in coarse

aggregate size. With increase in coarse aggregate size

from 13.2 mm to 19 mm aggregate size compressive

strength was found to increase significantly.

According to specification in BS1881-116 (1983),

compressive strength for 1:2:4 mix at 28days should

not be less than 20 N/mm2.

3.1.3

Effect of Coarse Aggregate Size on

Concrete Compressive Strength

Flexural Strength is the theoretical maximum

tensile stress reached in the bottom fibre of a test

beam during a flexural strength test. The flexural test

measures the force required to bend a beam under

single point loading conditions. The test was

conducted to compare the flexural strength between

the beam sizes 150 x 150 x 750mm casted with

difference aggregate sizes. The test was conducted on

5 different difference coarse aggregate sizes, and the

final results are as presented in Table 3 and Figure 7.

Aggregate

Size (mm)

Weight after

curing (kg)

Deflection

(mm)

9.00

39.60

9.00

13.20

13.20

13.20

19.00

19.00

19.00

25.00

25.00

25.00

37.50

37.50

37.50

39.80

40.40

40.30

39.40

40.00

40.10

40.20

41.00

41.40

39.60

41.20

39.80

40.50

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Crushing

Load (kN)

1.50

Distance of failure

point from Left

Support (mm)

203.00

2.00

2.10

1.70

1.80

1.50

1.20

1.75

1.50

1.30

1.00

1.15

1.55

1.40

193.00

141.00

166.00

195.00

165.00

196.00

253.00

147.00

185.00

200.00

233.50

135.00

162.00

30.50

29.00

29.00

30.00

30.50

28.00

25.00

30.00

26.00

27.00

30.00

23.00

28.00

Average Flexural

Strength (N/mm2)

30.00

4.93

4.78

4.53

4.49

4.40

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ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 5, Issue 1( Part 4), January 2015, pp.67-75

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5

4.93

4.9

4.8

4.78

4.7

4.6

Flexural Strength

(N/mm2)

4.53

4.5

4.49

4.4

4.4

4.3

0

10

20

30

40

Figure 7: Variation of flexural strength with coarse aggregate sizes

Table 4 and Figure 7 show the summary of results of the compressive and flexural strength tests carried out

Table 4: Compressive Strength and Average Flexural Strength Test Results

Coarse aggregate

Average Compressive Strength

Average Flexural Strength

Sizes (mm)

(N/mm2)

(N/mm2)

21.26

4.78

13.2

23.41

4.53

19.0

23.66

4.49

25.0

24.31

4.40

37.5

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ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 5, Issue 1( Part 4), January 2015, pp.67-75

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30

25

Flexural Strength (N/mm2)

24.31

23.66

23.41

21.26

20

15

Flexural Strength (N/mm2)

10

4.78

4.53

4.49

4.4

0

0

10

20

30

40

It is found that with increase in coarse aggregate size

the flexural strength and compressive strength of

concrete of the same mix is inversely proportional.

The effect of coarse aggregate size on the

compressive and the flexural strength of concrete

beam were explored in this research. The following

are the conclusions and recommendations.

4.1 Conclusions

The following conclusions are drawn from the

output of this research and can be summarized as

follows:

(1) Coarse aggregate size is directly proportional to

the slump (workability) of a fresh concrete with

constant water cement ratio.

(2) Compressive strength of a concrete increases

with increase in coarse aggregate size. Coarse

aggregate size 13.2 mm, 19 mm, 25 mm, and

37.5 mm gave average compressive strength of

21.26 N/mm2, 23.41 N/mm2, 23.66 N/mm2 and

24.31N/mm2 respectively.

(3) Flexural strength of concrete beam is inversely

affected by the increase in coarse aggregate size

(4) Compressive strength of concrete is inversely

proportional to flexural strength as coarse

aggregate size increases when subjected to the

same condition(s)

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4.2 Recommendations

The following recommendations are made:

For a reinforced concrete beam, 19 mm and 25 mm

coarse aggregate size could be adopted as they give

appreciable flexural strength and compressive

strength and it also appropriate for minimum bar

spacing in beam.

(1) The choice of well graded aggregate size in

concrete mix is as important as proper

compaction of fresh concrete in order to prevent

honey comb which can result to loss of stiffness

of structural component and consequently result

in flexural crack. Thus concrete mix should be

well compacted.

(2) Concrete to be used mostly to resist flexural

stresses should be made of finer coarse

aggregates.

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International Journal of Civil Engineering

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ACI Committee (1998): Standard Practice

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Mass

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American Concrete Institute Materials

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ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 5, Issue 1( Part 4), January 2015, pp.67-75

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