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Sequence

numbers as its domain.

{an}, where n represents an element in the domain of the

sequence. Thus, {an} = f(n); where we use n instead of x to

remind us the functional argument n represents a natural

number.

The terms of the sequence a1, a2, a3, …. are the elements of

the range. The first term a1 is found by letting n = 1, the

second term a2 is found by letting n = 2, and so on, so that the

nth term of the sequence is an. The formula for the sequence is

generally written in brackets {an} to distinguish it from the nth

term, an. Note: It is not necessary to start the index (n) at 1;

sometimes it is more convenient to start at 0 or some other

integer.

OWC Ethridge

Sequences

f(x)=3x {an}={3n}

sequence will be discontinuous since the domain only consists of

natural numbers.

OWC Ethridge

Sequences

Write the first five terms of each of the following sequences (let

index start at 1):

A. {an } = {2n − 1}

B. {an } = {(−1) n+1}

C. {an } = n

n + 1

1

D. {an } = n

2

1 n

E. {an } = 1 + −

2

OWC Ethridge

Sequences

term explicitly: the formula for an did not depend on a previous term.

Some sequences, however, are defined recursively. A recursive sequence

is one in which each term is defined as an expression involving one or more

prior terms. This form of definition also requires that the starting

term(s) be defined. For example:

a1=5, and {an} = 2an-1 - 3 for n≥

≥ 2.

sequence, which can be defined as

OWC Ethridge

Sequences

If the domain of a sequence is a finite set of natural numbers (for

example, {1,2,3,4,….,n}) , we call it a finite sequence.

If the domain of a sequence is the entire set of natural numbers, we

call it an infinite sequence.

For example,

A. The sequence of dates in the month of November

[finite sequence]

B. The sequence of nonnegative integers evenly divisible by 2

[infinite sequence]

Factorial Notation

Suppose we want the product of 10x9x8x7x6x5x4x3x2x1. Rather than

write this somewhat long and tedious expression, an abbreviated form

is 10!. In general:

If n≥

≥0 is an integer, then

n! = n(n-1)(n-2) …(2)(1)

where 0! = 1.

OWC Ethridge

Sequences

For example:

5! = (5)(4)(3)(2)(1)

4! = (4)(3)(2)(1)

Looking at this example, one can see that one could write 5! = 5 (4!)

n! = n (n-1)!

Summation Notation

sequence: a1 +a2 +a3 +…+an . Summation notation gives us a concise

way to express this sum. Summation notation utilizes the Greek

letter Σ, “sigma”, as shorthand for the sum. Thus, we could write

n

a1 + a 2 + a3 + ... + a n = ∑ a k

k =1

OWC Ethridge

Sequences

4

A. ∑ (2k + 1)

k =1

9

B. ∑ k

k =5

2

C . 2 + 4 + 6 + 8 + 10

D. x + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + x 5 + x 6

E. 1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + x 5 + x 6

OWC Ethridge

Sequences

Some important summation properties:

Let {an} and {bn} be two sequences; and let c be a real number:

n

∑ c = nc

n n

1.

k =1

2. ∑ ca

k =1

k = c ∑ ak

k =1

n n n

3. ∑ (a

k =1

k ± bk ) = ∑ a k ± ∑ bk

k =1 k =1

n j n

4. ∑a = ∑a

k =1

k

k =1

k + ∑a

k = j +1

k for 1 < j < n

n

n( n + 1) n

n(n + 1)(2n + 1)

5. ∑ k =

2

6. ∑k2 =

k =1 6

k =1

n(n + 1)

n 2

7. ∑ k =

3

To be proved later

k =1 2

OWC Ethridge

Sequences

unending succession of numbers (called terms) in a definite order. As

previously mentioned, a mathematical sequence is a function whose domain is a

set of nonnegative integers. The functional values are called the terms of the

sequence.

sequence.

But, because the function {an } is only defined for integer values of n, the only

limit that makes sense is

lim an

n →∞

1 n

n + 1 o {an } = 1 + −

2

o {an } = {(−1) n+1} 1

o {an } = n

2

OWC Ethridge

Sequences

sequences is varied as n → ∞. Thus, the limit of a sequence {an} is intended to

describe how an behaves as n → ∞. We say that sequence {an} approaches a

limit L if the terms in the sequence become arbitrarily close to L as n gets

arbitrarily large.

Limit of a Sequence

A sequence {an} is said to converge to the limit L if for each ε > 0, there

exists an integer N > 0 such that |an – L| < ε for n ≥ N. In this case we write

lim an = L

n →∞

A sequence that does not converge to some finite limit is said to diverge.

OWC Ethridge

Sequences

Properties

Let c be a constant, lim an = L and lim bn = M then:

n →∞ n →∞

1. lim c = c

n →∞

n →∞ n →∞

n →∞ n →∞ n →∞

n →∞ n →∞ n →∞

( )(

5. lim(anbn ) = lim an lim bn = LM

n →∞ n →∞ n →∞

)

an lim an L

6. lim = n →∞

= if M ≠ 0

n→∞ b

n lim

n →∞

bn M

OWC Ethridge

Sequences

100

lim

n →∞ n

n

lim

n →∞ 2n + 1

2n 2 + 5n − 7

lim

n→∞ n3

3n 4 + 23n − 15

lim

n →∞ 5n 4 + 2 n 2 + 1

n5 + 25

lim

n → ∞ 5n 4 − 2

OWC Ethridge

Sequences

Suppose sequence {an} agrees with real variable function f(x) at every positive

integer: that is f(x) = f(n) = an when x is a positive integer. One can see that

if f(x) → L as x →∞, then an→L as n →∞. This leads to the following useful

theorem.

Theorem

Let L be a real number. Let f be a function of a real variable such that

lim f ( x) = L

x →∞

If {an} is a sequence such that f(n) = an for every positive integer n, then

lim an = L

n →∞

imply a convergent real variable function.

OWC Ethridge

Sequences

the given nth terms. If the sequence converges, let’s find its limit.

n

an = n

e

an =

( )

ln n3

2n

an = n n

1

a n = n sin

n

OWC Ethridge

Sequences

If lim a n = L = lim cn

n→∞ n→∞

And there exists an integer N such that for all n > N a n ≤ bn ≤ cn

Then lim bn = L

n→∞

2n

an =

n!

n!

an =

nn

OWC Ethridge

Sequences

Useful in finding limits of sequences with both positive and negative terms.

n→∞ n→∞

2n

a n = (−1) n

n!

(−1) n+1

an =

n2

OWC Ethridge

Sequences

Sometimes we may just need to determine the convergence of a sequence and not

the value of the limit (if it exists). In such cases, monotonicity is frequently

helpful.

increasing if a1≤a2≤a3≤………≤an≤…

decreasing if a1≥a2≥a3≥………≥an≥…

sequence that is either strictly increasing or strictly decreasing is called

strictly monotone.

OWC Ethridge

Sequences

if an+1 – an < 0 then ?

if an+1 – an ≥ 0 then ?

if an+1 – an ≤ 0 then ?

if an+1/an < 1 then ?

if an+1/an ≥ 1 then ?

if an+1/an ≤ 1 then ?

3. f’(x) for x≥1 (if an = f(n), and f’(x) exists for x≥1)

if f’(x) < 0 then ?

if f’(x) ≥ 0 then ?

if f’(x) ≤ 0 then ?

OWC Ethridge

Sequences

Examine the following sequence using all three of the math tests for monotonicity:

n

an =

n +1

oscillation cannot occur. That is,

A monotonically increasing sequence either

(1). Has an upper bound U such that an≤U for all n, in which case

the sequence converges to limit L≤U

(2). Has no upper bound, in which case an!∞ as n!!∞

(1). Has a lower bound M such that an≥M for all n, in which case

the sequence converges to limit L≥M

(2). Has no lower bound, in which case an!-∞ as n!!∞

OWC Ethridge

Series

summation of the terms of an infinite sequence is an infinite series.

Infinite Series

An infinite series is an expression that can be written in the form

∞

∑a

n =1

n = a1 + a2 + a3 + ... + an + ...

The numbers a1, a2, a3,…… are the terms of the series.

3 3 3 3 3

Written as 0.3 + .03 + .003 + .0003 + .00003 + …… = + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + ........

10 10 10 10 10

this decimal can be seen as an infinite series.

∞

3 3 3 3 3 3

+ + + + + ... + k + ... = ∑ ak

10 102 103 104 105 10 k =1

3

where ak =

10k

OWC Ethridge

Series

∞

3

Thus we can write 0.33333...... = ∑ k

k =1 10

3

Let’s now form a sequence whose terms are s1 =

10

3 3

s2 = + 2

10 10

3 3 3

s3 = + 2 + 3

10 10 10

.

.

3 3 3 3

sn = + 2 + 3 + ... + n

10 10 10 10

The terms of this sequence can be viewed as a succession of approximations to

the repeating decimal 0.333333… and the value of the infinite series.

n →∞

OWC Ethridge

Series

To find this limit, let’s use a little algebra to write sn in a closed form with a

finite number of terms.

3 3 3 3

sn = + 2 + 3 + ... + n

10 10 10 10

1 13 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

and sn = + 2 + 3 + ... + n = 2 + 3 + 4 + ... n +1

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

Thus

1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

sn − sn = + 2 + 3 + ... + n − 2 + 3 + 4 + ... + n +1

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

9 3 3 3 1

sn = − n +1 = 1 − n

10 10 10 10 10

1 1

sn = 1 − n

3 10

1 1 1

lim sn = lim 1 − n =

n →∞ n→∞ 3

10 3

OWC Ethridge

Series

The number sn is called the nth partial sum of the series, and the sequence {sn}

is the sequence of partial sums.

∞

k =1

k with nth partial sum sn = a1 + a2 + a3 + ... + an

If the sequence of partial sums {sn} converges to a limit S, then the series is said

to converge to S, and S is called the sum of the series. That is,

∞

S = ∑ ak

k =1

If the sequence {sn} diverges, then the series diverges. A divergent series has no

sum.

1. Does a series converge or does it diverge?

2. If a series converges, what is its sum?

OWC Ethridge

Series

∑ (−1)

k =1

k +1

∑k

k =1

∞

1

∑

k =1 k ( k + 1)

Note: “telescoping series”

OWC Ethridge

Series

k −1 k

∞ ∞

1 1 1 1 1 1

1+ + + + ... + k + ... = ∑ = ∑

2 4 8 2 k =1 2 k =0 2

Notice each term is ½ times the prior term. That is, the ratio of each term to

its predecessor or successor is constant. an +1

=r

an

Such a series is a geometric series, and the number r is the ratio of the series.

Every geometric series can be written in the convenient, standard form

∞

∑ ar

k =0

k

= a + ar + ar 2

+ .... + ar k

+ ... (a ≠ 0)

OWC Ethridge

Series

A geometric series

∞

∑ ar

k =0

k

= a + ar + ar 2

+ .... + ar k

+ ... ( a ≠ 0)

diverges if |r| ≥ 1. If |r| < 1, the series converges to the sum

∞

a

∑

k =0

ar =

k

1− r

OWC Ethridge

Series

∞

∑ ar

k =0

k

= a + ar + ar 2

+ .... + ar k

+ ... ( a ≠ 0)

If |r| ≠ 1, then

sn = a + ar + ar 2 + ... + ar n

rsn = ar + ar 2 + ar 3 + ... + ar n +1

( ) (

sn − rsn = a + ar + ar 2 + ... + ar n − ar + ar 2 + ar 3 + ... + ar n +1 )

sn − rsn = a − ar n +1

(

sn (1 − r ) = a 1 − r n +1 )

sn =

(

a 1 − r n +1 )

1− r

If |r|<1, lim sn = lim

( )

a 1 − r n +1

=

a Why?

n →∞ n →∞ 1− r 1− r

If |r|>1, lim sn = lim

(

a 1− r )

n +1

D.N .E. Why?

n→∞ n →∞ 1− r

OWC Ethridge

Series

∞ k

1 1 1 1 1 1

1 + + + + ... + k + ... = ∑ (1) = =2

2 4 8 2 k =0 2 1− 2

1

∞

8

∑

k =0 3

k

1 − 12 + 14 − 18 + 161 − .....

∞ k

8

∑

k =0 3

0.1212121212....

OWC Ethridge

Series

∞ ∞

If ∑a

k =1

k = A, ∑b

k =1

k = B, & c is a real number, then

∞

1. ∑ ca

k =1

k = cA

∞

2. ∑ (a

k =1

k + bk ) = A + B

∞

3. ∑ (a

k =1

k − bk ) = A − B

number of terms from the beginning of a series. The sum of a

convergent series is, however, changed by removing terms.

Note 2: If c is a nonzero constant, then the series Σak and Σcak both

converge or both diverge.

OWC Ethridge

Series Convergence Tests

∞

If ∑a

n =1

n converges, then lim an = 0

n →∞

The contrapositive of this theorem will be of more use to us, in that it provides a

nice, fairly quick test for divergence of a series.

∞

If lim an ≠ 0

n →∞

, then ∑a

n =1

n diverges.

∞ ∞

∑ n)

(

∞

∑( )

n =0

3 n

2 ∑( )

n =1

n

n +1

1

n =1

OWC Ethridge

Series Convergence Tests

continuous, and decreasing function for x≥N; and an=f(n) for all n≥N then

∞ ∞

∑a

n= N

n and ∫ f ( x)dx

N

either both converge or both diverge.

This doesn’t say Σan =∫f(x)dx, if they both converge we still don’t know

the sum of the series.

∞

1

∑

n =1 n

2

∞

1

∑

n =1 n

OWC Ethridge

Series Convergence Tests

The last two examples are examples of an important class of series known as

p-series.

Definition: p-series

∞

1

∑

n =1 n p

where p>0

∞

1 1 1 1 1

∑

n =1 n

p

= 1 + p + p + p + p + ....

2 3 4 5

▪ Converges if p>1

▪ Diverges if 0<p≤1

OWC Ethridge

Series Convergence Tests

Use the previous theorem on p-series to determine whether or not each of the

following converge:

1+ 1

2

+ 1

3

+ .... + 1

n

+ ...

1 + 14 + 19 + 161 + ...

5 + 54 + 59 + 165 + ...

∞

∑n

−2

3

n =1

∞

1

∑n =1

3

n5

OWC Ethridge

Series Convergence Tests

When we have a complicated series with positive terms, we can often compare it

with a simpler series whose convergence/divergence is known.

That is, if the “bigger” series converges, then the “smaller” series also converges.

And, if the “smaller” series diverges, then the “bigger” series also diverges.

of partial sums of Σan is a monotonically increasing sequence (sum of positive terms

can’t decrease). Since each term of an ≤ term of bn, we know sn is bounded above

by L. Therefore, Σan also converges by the “bounded, monotonic, convergent

theorem” to a value K≤L.

OWC Ethridge

Series Convergence Tests

To use the “Direct Comparison Test”: (1) Make a “conjecture” whether Σan

converges or diverges (2) Find a comparison series that would prove your

conjecture correct. That is, if your conjecture is convergence, then find a

comparison series with larger terms that is known to converge. If your

conjecture is divergence, then find a comparison series with smaller terms that

is known to diverge.

To help with your initial “conjecture”, two useful “rules of thumb” are

1. Constant terms in the denominator of an can usually be deleted

without affecting convergence or divergence.

denominator of an, all but the leading term of the polynomial can

usually be discarded without affecting convergence or divergence.

For example, let’s examine the following series using the direct comparison test.

∞

1

∑n =1 n − .5

OWC Ethridge

Series Convergence Tests

Let’s examine the following series using the direct comparison test.

∞

1

∑ 2n

n =1

2

+n

∞

4n

∑

n =1 3 n

−1

∞

1

∑

n =0 5 + 2

n

∑e

n =0

−n3

OWC Ethridge

Series Convergence Tests

Another test of convergence for series with positive terms that is frequently

easier to apply than the direct comparison test is the “limit comparison test.”

Let Σan and Σbn be series with positive terms (an>0 & bn>0 for all n) such

that

an

lim = L

n →∞ b

n

If L is finite and L>0, then the series either both converge or both diverge.

For example, let’s examine the following series using the limit comparison test.

∞

1

∑n =1 n − .5

OWC Ethridge

Series Convergence Tests

Let’s examine the following series using the limit comparison test.

∞

1

∑ 2n

n =1

2

+n

∞

4n 2 − 2n + 6

∑

n =1 8n 7

+ n −8

∞

5n − 3

∑

n =1 n 2

− 2n + 5

∑ tan( )

n =1

1

n

OWC Ethridge

Series Convergence Tests

Thus far, we’ve discussed series with positive terms. Let’s now look at series

that have both positive and negative terms. Of these, series whose terms

alternate between positive and negative terms, are frequently of special

importance to us. We call such series, “alternating series”.

∞

1 1 1 1

For example, 1 − + − + ...... = ∑ (−1) n +1

2 3 4 n =1 n

∞

1 1 1 n 1

and − 1 + − +

2 3 4

− ...... = ∑

n =1

( − 1)

n

are both “alternating series”

Let an > 0. An alternating series of the form

∞ ∞

∑ (−1)

n =1

n +1

an or ∑ ( −1)

n =1

n

an

Converges if both of the following conditions are satisfied

1. lim an = 0

n →∞

2. an +1 ≤ an ∀n

OWC Ethridge

Series Convergence Tests

∞

1

∑ (−1)

n =1

n +1

∞

n

∑

n =1 ( −e)

n

∞

n+3

∑

n =1

(−1) n

n(n + 1)

Note: If a series fails the first part of the AST, then what do we conclude?

If a series fails the second part of the AST, then what do we conclude?

OWC Ethridge

Series Convergence Tests

Occasionally, we may have a series with terms of mixed (positive & negative)

signs, but not alternating.

∞ ∞

If the series ∑a n

converges, then the series ∑a

n =1

n also converges.

n =1

OWC Ethridge

Series Convergence Tests

∞

cos n

∑

n =1 n

2

∞

1

∑ (

n =1

−1) n

n ( n +1)

∞

(−1) 2

∑

n =1 4n

OWC Ethridge

Series Convergence Tests

Another useful test that utilizes this concept of absolute convergence is the

“Ratio Test.”

an +1

lim =L

n →∞ an

1. If L < 1, then Σan converges absolutely.

2. If L > 1 or L→

→∞, then Σan diverges.

OWC Ethridge

Series Convergence Tests

∞

2n

∑

n =1

(−1)

n

n!

∞

(2n − 1)!

∑ (−1) n

n =1 3n

∞

(n + 2)

∑ (−1) n

n =1 n(n + 1)

OWC Ethridge

Series Convergence Tests

If the series involves nth powers, the “root test” is frequently a good choice to

help determine convergence or divergence.

1

lim n an = lim an n

=L

n →∞ n →∞

1. If L < 1, then Σan converges absolutely.

2. If L > 1, or L→

→∞, then Σan diverges.

made about the convergence or divergence of the series.

OWC Ethridge

Series Convergence Tests

4n − 5

∞ n

∑

n = 2 2n + 1

∞

1

∑

n =1 (ln( n + 1) )n

∞

e 3n

∑

n =1 n n

OWC Ethridge

Series Convergence Tests

Direct Comparison Test

OWC Ethridge

Series Convergence Tests

Determine the convergence or divergence of each series. Identify the test used.

∞

∞

(−1) n 3 cos n

∑ n

∑

n =1 3

n

n =1

∞

(−1) n 3n −1 ∞

n3n

∑

n =1 2n

∑

n =1 n!

∞ ∞ n

2n 1

∑

n =1 n + 2

∑

n=2 ln n

∞

5

∑n

∞

n =1 n ∑ 2ne

n =1

−n2

∞

5n + 2

∑

∞

2 2

n =1 n 2

n ∑ n + 3 − n + 4

n =1

OWC Ethridge

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