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BBSE2001 Utility Services

http://www.hku.hk/bse/bbse2001/

http://www.hku.hk/bse/bbse2001/ L . V . Electrical System - Planning and Design Issues Dr. Sam C M
http://www.hku.hk/bse/bbse2001/ L . V . Electrical System - Planning and Design Issues Dr. Sam C M
http://www.hku.hk/bse/bbse2001/ L . V . Electrical System - Planning and Design Issues Dr. Sam C M
http://www.hku.hk/bse/bbse2001/ L . V . Electrical System - Planning and Design Issues Dr. Sam C M
http://www.hku.hk/bse/bbse2001/ L . V . Electrical System - Planning and Design Issues Dr. Sam C M

L.V. Electrical System - Planning and Design Issues

http://www.hku.hk/bse/bbse2001/ L . V . Electrical System - Planning and Design Issues Dr. Sam C M
http://www.hku.hk/bse/bbse2001/ L . V . Electrical System - Planning and Design Issues Dr. Sam C M

Dr. Sam C M Hui

Department of Mechanical Engineering The University of Hong Kong

E-mail: cmhui@hku.hk

Jan 2009

Contents

Contents • Load Evaluation • Assessment Guidelines • Supply Arrangements • Pl ant Rooms • Rising
Contents • Load Evaluation • Assessment Guidelines • Supply Arrangements • Pl ant Rooms • Rising

Load Evaluation Assessment Guidelines Supply Arrangements Plant Rooms Rising Mains Electrical Distribution

Load Evaluation

Load Evaluation • Tenant su pply – energy consumed b y each tenant; monitored by separate
Load Evaluation • Tenant su pply – energy consumed b y each tenant; monitored by separate

Tenant supply – energy consumed by each

tenant; monitored by separate energy meter Landlord supply:

Non-essential supply: plumbing and drainage, passenger lifts, air-conditioning plant, public lighting

Essential supply: fire protection/detection system, fireman’s lifts, essential lighting, PABX system, building management system, important computer room

Load Evaluation

Load Evaluation • Objectives • Ensure loading demands are estimated accurately • What happens if they
Load Evaluation • Objectives • Ensure loading demands are estimated accurately • What happens if they

Objectives

Ensure loading demands are estimated accurately

What happens if they are “under-estimated”? What happens if they are “over-estimated”?

Important factors

Load research data (from power company) Design margin Checking & monitoring at each design stage Obtain info from the client (e.g. by questionnaire)

Load Evaluation

Load Evaluation • Preliminary stage • Estimate total loading so as to: • Plan the transformer
Load Evaluation • Preliminary stage • Estimate total loading so as to: • Plan the transformer

Preliminary stage

Estimate total loading so as to:

Plan the transformer (Tx) & main switch room Apply to power company for supply

Based on rough info or past experience Important to know the loads of other BSE systems

Detail design stage

Update the estimate w/ more accurate info Detail design e.g. protective device & circuiting

Load Evaluation

Load Evaluation • Load evaluation by power company • Architect/Engineer/Developer submit application • For typical categories,
Load Evaluation • Load evaluation by power company • Architect/Engineer/Developer submit application • For typical categories,

Load evaluation by power company

Architect/Engineer/Developer submit application For typical categories, planning engineer of power company assesses the load estimation using the database Load Assessment Programme (LAST) Compare the declared load with assessed load

If declared load > assessed load, justification is needed

After finalising the total load, determine the nos. of transformer and transformer bays

Assessment Guidelines

Assessment Guidelines • General • Usable floor area (UFA) • Follow Buildin g (Plannin g) Reg
Assessment Guidelines • General • Usable floor area (UFA) • Follow Buildin g (Plannin g) Reg

General

Usable floor area (UFA)

Follow Building (Planning) Regulations

Development information

Floor area usage, public services, any special loads Standard load estimation sheet (see handouts)

Public services

Assessed independently

Public lighting, lift, water pump, fire services, lobby air conditioning

Minimum design load capacities for lighting and small power requirement for various types of building

Building type

Minimum load capacity

2

(W/m )

Office

 

60

School

 

30

Residential building

30

H

i

osp ta

l

25

Hotel

 

25

Church

 

15

Assessment Guidelines

Assessment Guidelines • After diversity maximum demand (ADMD) • Load densities derived by dividing the aggregate
Assessment Guidelines • After diversity maximum demand (ADMD) • Load densities derived by dividing the aggregate

After diversity maximum demand (ADMD)

Load densities derived by dividing the aggregate

load by the corresponding UFA or flat nos.

Cover most typical cases; for special situation,

designer/planning engineer may exercise his own

discretion to adjust the load estimates

* ADMD is for planning supply Tx capacity, it

may not be suitable for designing customer raising

mains and lateral mains

Assessment Guidelines

Assessment Guidelines • Load assessment data ( see tables in handouts ) • Table 1. Residential
Assessment Guidelines • Load assessment data ( see tables in handouts ) • Table 1. Residential

Load assessment data (see tables in handouts)

Table 1. Residential development Table 2. Commercial development Table 3. Industrial development Table 4. Municipal development

Diversity for mixed usages (e.g. domestic- commercial)
Diversity for
mixed usages
(e.g. domestic-
commercial)

Table 5. Mixed development diversity factor (MDDF) Table 6. Central air conditioning load Other special loads (use experience or judgment)

Reference (from CLP Power)

Code of Practice 215: Load Assessment Procedure

Assessment Guidelines

Assessment Guidelines • Load assessment forms • For central air conditioning load • For general development
Assessment Guidelines • Load assessment forms • For central air conditioning load • For general development

Load assessment forms

For central air conditioning load

For general development

Example of electrical load estimation

Estimation of total electrical loading

Estimation of essential loads

Electrical supply arrangement

Supply Arrangements

Supply Arrangements • Three types of incoming supply • Low voltage cable supply • When the
Supply Arrangements • Three types of incoming supply • Low voltage cable supply • When the

Three types of incoming supply

Low voltage cable supply

When the demand is low (< 240 kVA or < 400 A, 3- phase) & nearby network has adequate capacity

Normally, a 4-core aluminum LV cable of 400 A

11 kV high voltage cable & LV supply

11 kV/380 V transformer(s) & HV panels are needed

11 kV incoming direct supply

When load is extremely high and/or security of supply is desirable; require HV switch room

Supply Arrangements

Supply Arrangements • LV interconnection • With two 11 kV feeders • To enhance reliabilit y
Supply Arrangements • LV interconnection • With two 11 kV feeders • To enhance reliabilit y

LV interconnection

With two 11 kV feeders

To enhance reliability

Interconnection circuit breakers (4-pole type with

mechanical and electrical interlock)

Changeover arrangement for standby supply (for

essential loads)

Source: HEC’s Guide to Connection of Supply

Source: HEC’s Guide to Connection of Supply

Source: HEC’s Guide to Connection of Supply

Source: HEC’s Guide to Connection of Supply

Source: HEC’s Guide to Connection of Supply

Source: HEC’s Guide to Connection of Supply

Source: HEC’s Guide to Connection of Supply

Source: HEC’s Guide to Connection of Supply

Supply Arrangements

Supply Arrangements • Three situations for transformer (Tx) location: • Ground-floor (G/F) Tx room • Basement
Supply Arrangements • Three situations for transformer (Tx) location: • Ground-floor (G/F) Tx room • Basement

Three situations for transformer (Tx) location:

Ground-floor (G/F) Tx room

Basement Tx room

Upper floor Tx room

Must follow the technical requirements of the power company and statutory bodies

See HECs “Guide to Connection of Supply”,

CLP’s code of practice, & Supply Rules

Supply Arrangements

Supply Arrangements • General re q uirements for transformer ( Tx ) room • Proper access
Supply Arrangements • General re q uirements for transformer ( Tx ) room • Proper access

General requirements for transformer (Tx) room

Proper access & size Minimum headroom (for equipment & delivery) Fire services installation Space for maintenance/removal Next/Close to main switch room No expansion joint & other engineering services Independent ventilation Floor 150 mm > outside (prevent flooding) Generally, no more than 3 Tx in one room

Supply Arrangements

Supply Arrangements • Additional requirements for B/F Tx room • No oil-filled type Tx • A
Supply Arrangements • Additional requirements for B/F Tx room • No oil-filled type Tx • A

Additional requirements for B/F Tx room

No oil-filled type Tx

A separate & independent staircase to G/F

Also a protected lobby

Sum pit w/ sump pumps

Extract water when flooding

Hoist beam with pulley for 8,000 kg

Damp proof course (prevent moisture)

Supply Arrangements

Supply Arrangements • Additional requirements for upper floor Tx room • Accessible from a public area
Supply Arrangements • Additional requirements for upper floor Tx room • Accessible from a public area

Additional requirements for upper floor Tx room

Accessible from a public area (e.g. car park)

Also a protected lobby

A separate cable duct w/ 2 hour fire-rated for HV

cable and accessible from public area

Or an independent cable riser room

Lifting beam & trolley

For Tx > 5/F or 17 m, a lift shall be provided

Plant Rooms

Plant Rooms • Ma j or e quip ment in Tx rooms • Power transformer(s) [@
Plant Rooms • Ma j or e quip ment in Tx rooms • Power transformer(s) [@

Major equipment in Tx rooms

Power transformer(s) [@ max. 1500 kVA]

11 kV switchgear (ring main unit, RMU)

Other equipment (see layout drawings)

LV switchboard

LV capacitor bank

Battery & charger

Marshalling boxes

Meter panel

Plant Rooms

Plant Rooms • Civil works for Tx room • Structural framework • Cable trenches • Transformer
Plant Rooms • Civil works for Tx room • Structural framework • Cable trenches • Transformer

Civil works for Tx room

Structural framework

Cable trenches

Transformer plinth

Steel/stainless steel door

Painting of internal walls and ceilings

Provision and sealing of sleeves for incoming

cables

Plant Rooms

Plant Rooms • Buildin g services installations for Tx room • Fluorescent fittings • Socket ou
Plant Rooms • Buildin g services installations for Tx room • Fluorescent fittings • Socket ou

Building services installations for Tx room

Fluorescent fittings

Socket outlets

Lighting switch

MCB (miniature circuit breaker) distribution board

completed with MCB

Fire protection/detection system

Ventilation system

Gas leakage alarm system (for SF6 transformer)

Equipotential bonding and earthing conductor

Plant Rooms

Plant Rooms • Outdoor transformer • Fencing • No forced mechanical ventilation • Floor at 150
Plant Rooms • Outdoor transformer • Fencing • No forced mechanical ventilation • Floor at 150

Outdoor transformer

Fencing

No forced mechanical ventilation

Floor at 150 mm above ground level

Warning signs

Fire services requirements

Portable fire extinguisher (PFE)

Automatic fixed fire fighting installation (FFFI)

Plant Rooms

Plant Rooms • Submission/Approval procedure • Architectural drawings: location, layout, sections • Electrical main schematic diagram
Plant Rooms • Submission/Approval procedure • Architectural drawings: location, layout, sections • Electrical main schematic diagram

Submission/Approval procedure

Architectural drawings: location, layout, sections

Electrical main schematic diagram

Estimated max. electrical demand

Discuss with the power company

Requirements (civil, building services)

Some different practices between CLP & HEC

Such as connection between Tx & main switchboard, CLP use cable; HEC use base busbar

Plant Rooms

Plant Rooms • Main Switch Room: major considerations • Position • Access • Dimensions • Working
Plant Rooms • Main Switch Room: major considerations • Position • Access • Dimensions • Working

Main Switch Room: major considerations

Position

Plant Rooms • Main Switch Room: major considerations • Position • Access • Dimensions • Working

Access

Dimensions

Working space

Routing of outgoing circuits

No other services

Ventilation & illumination

Plant Rooms

Plant Rooms • Main switchboard • Receive & distribute the electrical power • Fault protection &
Plant Rooms • Main switchboard • Receive & distribute the electrical power • Fault protection &

Main switchboard

Receive & distribute the electrical power

Fault protection & coordination (circuit breakers)

Power factor correction

Metering

Construction, such as:

Assembly method Mechanical protection

Plant Rooms • Main switchboard • Receive & distribute the electrical power • Fault protection &

Rising Mains

Rising Mains • Distribute electricity throughout the building • 3-phase 4-wire tee-off for buildings > 4
Rising Mains • Distribute electricity throughout the building • 3-phase 4-wire tee-off for buildings > 4

Distribute electricity throughout the building

3-phase 4-wire tee-off for buildings > 4 floors

Separate riser earthing conductor

Metering arrangements (e.g. multiple tenants)

Switching and isolating

Types of rising mains

Cable system (up to 800 A)

Busduct or busbar trunking system

Source:

HEC’s Guide to Connection of Supply

Source: HEC’s Guide t o C onnec ti on of Supply

Source:

HEC’s Guide to Connection of Supply

Source: HEC’s Guide t o C onnec ti on of Supply

Source:

HEC’s Guide to Connection of Supply

Source: HEC’s Guide t o C onnec ti on of Supply
Source: HEC’s Guide to Connection of Supply

Source: HEC’s Guide to Connection of Supply

Rising Mains

Rising Mains • Desi gn factors • Load assessment (total electrical demand) • Load distr ib
Rising Mains • Desi gn factors • Load assessment (total electrical demand) • Load distr ib

Design factors

Load assessment (total electrical demand)

Load distribution (load centres)

Environmental conditions (e.g. temperature)

Heights of riser

Voltage drop

Fault level (protection against accidents)

Future expansion

Any other factors you can suggest?

Electrical Distribution

Electrical Distribution • General requirements of cable system • Routing & installation • Workmanship: support, spacing,
Electrical Distribution • General requirements of cable system • Routing & installation • Workmanship: support, spacing,

General requirements of cable system

Routing & installation

Workmanship: support, spacing, bending, etc.

Passing through walls & floors

Types of cable

PVC insulated

PVC sheathed non-armoured

Armoured or metallic-sheathed cable

Cable installation details

Cable installation details

R = red phase Y = y ellow phase B = blue phase N = neutra

R = red phase Y = yellow phase B = blue phase N = neutral

D = diameter of cables

Design & installation of LV single-core cables to minimise electromagnetic interference

Source: HEC’s Guide to Connection of Supply

R = red phase Y = yellow phase B = blue p h ase N =

R = red phase Y = yellow phase B = blue phase N = neutral

D = diameter of cables

Design & installation of LV single-core cables to minimise electromagnetic interference

Source: HEC’s Guide to Connection of Supply

Electrical Distribution

Electrical Distribution • Busbar trunking installation • Vertical • Horizontal • Components • Busbar casing •
Electrical Distribution • Busbar trunking installation • Vertical • Horizontal • Components • Busbar casing •

Busbar trunking installation

Vertical

Horizontal

Components

Busbar casing

Expansion unit

Feeder unit

Tap-off unit

Electrical Distribution • Busbar trunking installation • Vertical • Horizontal • Components • Busbar casing •
Busbar trunking system

Busbar trunking system

Vertical and horizontal busbar trunking
Vertical and horizontal busbar trunking

Vertical and horizontal busbar trunking

Source:

HEC’s Guide to Connection of Supply

Source: HEC’s Guide t o C onnec ti on of Supply

Electrical Distribution

Electrical Distribution • Wiring installation enclosure: requirements • Enclosures as protective conductors • Support of enclosures
Electrical Distribution • Wiring installation enclosure: requirements • Enclosures as protective conductors • Support of enclosures

Wiring installation enclosure: requirements

Enclosures as protective conductors

Support of enclosures

Fire barrier

Types of systems

Steel conduit

Steel trunking

Plastic or PVC conduit or trunking

Fittings and coupling for steel conduit
Fittings and coupling for steel conduit

Fittings and coupling for steel conduit

Electrical Distribution

Electrical Distribution • Factors affecting the choice of wiring system • Installation cost ($$$) • Purpose
Electrical Distribution • Factors affecting the choice of wiring system • Installation cost ($$$) • Purpose

Factors affecting the choice of wiring system

Installation cost ($$$)

Purpose and planned duration of the installation

Environment factors and installation conditions

Type of building construction

Flexibility of the system and circuit arrangement

Appearance of the finished installation

Safety aspect

Nature of power supply & type of earthing system

Application of Wiring System

Wiring System

Cable Type

General Use

Surface wiring

1/C PVC/PVC cables with separate cpc; 2/C PVC/PVC cables with cpc; 4/C armored cables

Temporary wiring; Low-cost housing

Conduit wiring

1/C PVC insulated cables

Office,

  • - Concealed

Private hosing;

  • - Surface

Factory; Plant room

Wiring in trunking

1/C PVC insulated cables

Sub-main/laternal main distribution

Risers in communal installation

Bare Cu/Al bars in trunking Armored cables in cable duct

Rising mains for internal

ower distribution system

p

Flameproof cable

Mineral-insulated cables

Petrol station, Flammable areas