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TCADA Research Brief

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Substance Abuse Trends in Texas:

June 1998

Texas Commission on
Alcohol and Drug Abuse
Substance Abuse Trends in Texas: June 1998

Jane Carlisle Maxwell, Ph.D.

© June 1998, Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse (TCADA), Austin, Texas. TCADA
grants full permission to reproduce and distribute any part of this document for non-commercial use.
Appropriate credit is appreciated. TCADA is a state agency headed by six commissioners appointed by
the governor. TCADA provides educational materials on substance use, develops prevention,
intervention, and treatment programs, and conducts studies on the problems of substance use in Texas.

Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse

9001 North IH-35, Suite 105
Austin, Texas 78753-5233
(512) 349-6600 n (800) 832-9623
Web site:

C This document was printed on recycled paper.

Substance Abuse Trends
in Texas: June 1998
C rack cocaine is the primary illicit drug for which adult clients are admitted to treatment, but the
proportion of crack admissions is declining, while admissions for powder cocaine are increasing.
Overdose deaths due to cocaine increased between 1995 and 1996, which may reflect increased use of
powder cocaine or the reported use of crack by Anglos and Hispanics. Heroin treatment admissions are
increasing; most are injectors. Heroin overdose deaths have increased annually, with a rash of overdoses
among young suburban residents reported in the DFW area. The price of Mexican heroin has dropped
sharply, while purity has increased. Vicodin is a major diversion problem, and codeine cough syrup is
growing in popularity. Marijuana is the primary drug problem for adolescent treatment admissions, and
the percent of adult and adolescents testing positive for marijuana at arrest continues to increase, as does
the volume of seized marijuana submitted for laboratory analysis. The availability of marijuana is high
and the price is lower. The use of marijuana and tobacco dipped in embalming fluid containing PCP
continues to be reported. Amphetamine and methamphetamine admissions to treatment are low but
increasing slightly as are DUF reports. Prices are dropping, and methamphetamine use appears to be
increasing at a higher rate in North Texas. Ephedrine use remains a problem. Depressants are a growing
problem because of their importation from Mexico, with Rivotril being substituted for Rohypnol.
Rohypnol treatment admissions are increasing, and Xanax continues to be abused by heroin addicts.
GHB overdoses are increasingly reported. LSD is easy to obtain, but the quality is low. AIDS cases
among heterosexuals are increasing, as are cases involving females and African Americans. Programs
are more aware of hepatitis C (HCV) and the lack of resources for testing and treatment, as well as the
fact that recovering drug users who have not used in years are now testing positive for HCV.

Area Description

The population of Texas Mexico and the coastline of the interstate highways. The interna-
(18,967,764) is distributed Gulf of Mexico have been the tional airports in Houston and
among 28 metropolitan statistical major routes for the transporta- Dallas-Fort Worth are major
areas and 254 counties. The tion of illicit substances into ports for the distribution of
racial/ethnic composition of Texas, and trafficking is reported drugs in and out of the state. A
Texas is 57 percent Anglo, 28.8 to have increased with the major problem is that Mexican
percent Hispanic, 11.5 percent implementation of the North pharmacies sell many controlled
African American, and 2.7 American Free Trade Agreement. substances to U.S. citizens who
percent other race/ethnicity. Drug traffic also moves through declare these drugs and then
Traditionally, the border with Texas across the three east-west legally bring up to a 90-day

Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse • 1

supply into the state. In addition, empire, with a resulting chaos in eled outside their own barrios to
“Conjunto” or “Norteno” music Ciudad Juarez which has led to use or to buy; now the social
now reflects the economic Colombian suppliers shifting to stratification has broken down.
problems of Mexico and the easy more stable routes through South In the past, El Paso addicts did
money involved in drug running. Texas and other areas of the U.S. not go to Ciudad Juarez to buy
With the death of Carrillo The chaos has influenced El drugs; today, Juarez is “wide
Fuentes, a Mexican drug lord, in Paso’s drug culture, which had open” with a great deal of traf-
1997, a war has erupted between formerly been close-knit. A ficking (Ramos, 1998).
rival factions for control of his decade ago, addicts rarely trav-

Data Sources and Time Periods

Data were obtained from the sition Process (CODAP) System of the National
following sources: provided data on clients at Institute of Justice provided
• Ethnographic information admission to treatment in information for 1991
and data on price, purity, public facilities from the first through the second quarter
trafficking, distribution, and quarter of 1983 through 1998 for Dallas and Hous-
supply—This information March, 1998. ton, and through the first
was provided by members of • Overdose data—Four of the quarter of 1998 in San
the Texas Epidemiology six regional poison control Antonio for arrestees who
Work Group (TEWG), centers in Texas reported calls were interviewed and tested
which met on May 7, 1998. about possible overdoses of for the presence of various
The Work Group includes various drugs. The reporting drugs.
representatives from the periods were not uniform, • Acquired immunodeficiency
Drug Enforcement Adminis- but the information received syndrome (AIDS) and other
tration, substance abuse covers between November, diseases data—The Texas
treatment providers, outreach 1995 and the first quarter of Department of Health’s Texas
workers, researchers, and 1998. Overdose death data AIDS Cases: Surveillance
medical examiners. Their came from death certificates Report provided cumulative
individual reports are re- from the Bureau of Vital and year-to-date data for the
flected in information in the Statistics at the Texas Depart- period ending March 31,
city-by-city summaries in ment of Health. Emergency 1998. The Texas Department
each drug section in this room reports are not dis- of Health, Infectious Disease
report. Copies of their full cussed, since new Drug Epidemiology and Surveil-
reports are published by Abuse Warning Network lance Division, provided data
TCADA in Current Trends in (DAWN) statistics have not on hepatitis C.
Substance Use: Texas 1998 (in been received since those • Special reports—These
press). reported in the Substance include Crack Cocaine as a
• Treatment data—The Texas Abuse Trends in Texas: Decem- Major Risk for HIV Transmis-
Commission on Alcohol and ber 1997. sion in a Crack House Popula-
Drug Abuse’s (TCADA) • Drug use by arrestees—The tion by Michael Ross et al.
Client Oriented Data Acqui- Drug Use Forecasting (DUF) (1997), “Fry:” A Study of

2 • Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse

Adolescents’ use of Embalming Comparison of the Mexican information on these and
Fluid with Marijuana and American Drug Culture in El other TCADA research
Tobacco by William Elwood Paso, Texas: 1987 to 1997 by reports are available at
(1998), and An Ethnographic Reyes Ramos (1998). More

Cocaine and Crack

Death certificates of persons those persons dying from a age was 35.6 years.
dying of cocaine (alone or in cocaine overdose, 43 percent Cocaine (crack and powder)
combination with other drugs) were Anglo, 33 percent were remains the number two sub-
show an increase in the number African American, and 23 per- stance abuse problem, after
of cases from 1995 to 1996. cent were Hispanic. Some 78 alcohol (38 percent), for adult
Between 1992 and 1996, of percent were male. The average clients admitted to publicly-
funded treatment programs
Number of Texas Cocaine Overdoses by throughout Texas, although
Race/Ethnicity—1992-1996 cocaine has dropped from 38
300 291
percent of all admissions in 1993
to 33 percent in 1997 (appendix
216 215 1). See appendix 2 for informa-
200 189
tion on the characteristics of
these clients.
Crack cocaine is the primary
100 illicit drug of abuse for adult
clients admitted to publicly-
funded treatment programs
0 throughout Texas, although it has
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
Anglo Hispanic Afr. American dropped from 28 percent of all
adult admissions in 1993 to 25
Characteristics of Clients Admitted to TCADA-Funded Treatment percent for 1997. Abusers of
by Primary Problem with Cocaine and Route of
Administration—Jan.-Dec. 1997 powder cocaine comprise 8
Powder Powder percent of admissions to treat-
Crack Cocaine Cocaine ment, and they are younger than
Smoke Inject Inhale
# Admissions 6,366 1,040 956 crack abusers and more likely to
% of Cocaine Admits 76% 12% 11% be male and Anglo. As the
Average Age 34 32 29 adjacent table shows, of the users
Lag-1st Use to Tmt-Yrs. 8 10 8
% Male 52% 58% 63% of powder cocaine, half prefer to
% African American 60% 5% 10% inject the drug, while the other
% Anglo 31% 72% 43% half prefer to inhale it. The term
% Hispanic 9% 22% 46%
% CJ Involved 39% 42% 48% “lag” refers to the period from
% Employed 17% 20% 33% first consistent or regular use of
% Homeless 12% 8% 2% cocaine to date of admission to
Average Income $6,376 $7,931 $8,352
Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse • 3
Powder cocaine was the Texas Arrestees Testing Positive for Cocaine (DUF)—1991-1998
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
primary drug of abuse for 6 Dallas Males 43% 41% 45% 35% 31% 32% 32% 29%
percent of youths entering Houston Males 56% 41% 41% 28% 40% 39% 39% 35%
treatment during 1997 (appen- San Antonio Males 29% 31% 31% 31% 24% 28% 26% 25%
San Antonio Male Juv. 6% 9% 6% 9% 15% 9%
dix 3), up from 4 percent in Dallas Females 46% 48% 43% 46% 44% 36% 34% 30%
1995. Crack cocaine accounted Houston Females 51% 44% 43% 36% 32% 34% 29% 45%
for 2 percent of youth admis- San Antonio Females 24% 25% 24% 23% 23% 23% 18% 18%
San Antonio Female Juv. 5% 6% 4% 11% 6% 0%
sions in 1997 as well as in 1995.
The proportion of arrestees Price of a Kilogram of Cocaine in Texas as
testing positive for cocaine has Reported by the DEA—1987-1998
decreased from the peak periods $50,000
in the early 1990s. However,
cocaine continues to be the drug $40,000

for which more adult female

arrestees test positive in DUF.
Compared with prices at the
end of 1997, the price of cocaine
statewide has remained level $10,000
while purity remains high,
according to DEA reports. $0











Cocaine prices in the state are
$10,000-$22,000 per kilogram
(75-95 percent purity) in Hous- Kilograms of Cocaine Submitted for Analysis
ton as compared to $12,500- plentiful and of high at Texas DPS Crime Laboratories—1993-1997
quality. A gram sells for Year Cocaine (kgm)
$15,000 in Dallas. The statewide
1993 613
price of powder is $500-$1,200 $45-$85, and an increase 1994 1,211
per ounce (50-88 percent purity), in intravenous use of 1995 2,256
cocaine is reported, along 1996 1,152
and $20-$100 per gram (40
1997 1,892
percent purity). Crack costs with snorting of cocaine
$500-$1,100 per ounce (up to by upper socioeconomic users. seen in the Hispanic community.
60 percent purity), $60-$100 per Crack is reported to be a lesser Crack is also being cooked down
gram, and between $10-$50 per quality, but the supply is plenti- with vinegar and lemon juice in
rock. ful. Rocks sell for $10 (a “dime”) order to inject it.
The crime laboratories of the or $20 (a “piece”); an ounce or In Dallas from 1996-1997,
Texas Department of Public “cookie” costs $700-$800. If the 30 percent of adults assessed
Safety (DPS) report an overall crack is made with 60 percent through the centralized intake
increase in the amount of cocaine baking soda and 40 percent system reported cocaine as the
examined. cocaine, it is called “rock.” A 40 primary drug of choice (37
percent baking soda and 60 percent report alcohol). Among
1998 TEWG REGIONAL percent cocaine mixture is called females, cocaine is the drug of
REPORTS “flame.” There are some reports choice for 36 percent of those
of adolescents aged 13-17 deal- assessed, as compared to 29
In Austin, powder cocaine is ing, and crack houses are now percent reporting a primary

4 • Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse

problem with alcohol. “bump” of crack (a “crumb”) sells selling crack. “Rocks” sell from
In El Paso, the supply of for $1; a “wholesale pack” of nine $5 to $100, depending on size.
cocaine is reportedly increasing, dime rocks costs $50. Very few High quality crack (“butter”) sells
while the cost is decreasing. A people are reportedly buying for $750 an ounce, while a rock
gram sells for $50, and a pound powder cocaine to make their costs $500-$600 an ounce. An
sells for $400-$550, as compared own crack rocks. ounce of powder cocaine sells for
to $2,000 per pound in the Alcohol consumption is $750 and a kilo sells for $17,500;
1980s. In 1987, a hit sold for common with cocaine use. the quality is reported to be very
$15; now it sells for $10. “Crackhead Specials” are two good. Powder cocaine is usually
In Houston, powder cocaine sixteen-ounce cans of Busch beer injected, not snorted, in Lub-
sells for $75 per gram. Because of which sell for 99 cents at conve- bock.
crack’s deleterious effects on the nience stores in Houston crack In San Antonio, single doses
African American community, neighborhoods. In addition, sell for $10-$25 on the street;
crack is not the drug of choice forty-ounce bottles of beer have 1/16th-ounce sells for $100 to
among young African Americans, become so popular that some $150; the price and quality are
but crack use is reported to be brewers have modified their stable. Cocaine use is reportedly
popular among Anglo and labels so that “40 oz.” appears in increasing among Anglo and
Hispanic street youths in a very large font on the front Hispanic teenagers. Use is either
Montrose who are turning to label. by snorting just cocaine, or by
crack because of the poor quality In Lubbock, young Hispanic mixing powdered cocaine and
of methamphetamine. There are gangs are now beginning to methamphetamine and then
two kinds of crack available in market crack alongside the either snorting the mixture or
Houston: “pineapple,” which has traditional African American “shebanging” it. “Shebanging”
a yellow tint, and “white,” the suppliers. Youths as young as ages occurs when the drug is mixed
brownish-cream color tradition- 9-14 are reported to be snorting with water and then is drawn up
ally associated with crack. A cocaine and to be using and into a syringe or a Visine bottle
and squirted up the nose.
In the period between 1992 Since
Number of Texas Heroin Overdoses by
and 1996, 53 percent of the 1993, the Race/Ethnicity—1992-1996
persons dying from heroin (either number of 311
heroin only or in combination heroin over- 300 288

with other drugs) were Anglo, 34 dose deaths in 250 221

percent were Hispanic, and 13 Dallas and
percent were African American, Tarrant coun- 167 171

with the proportion of decedents ties has contin- 150

who were Anglo increasing. In ued to increase. 100

terms of gender, between 1992 This is the
and 1996, 81 percent of the region where a
decedents have been male and 19 number of 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
percent female; the average age is overdoses have Anglo Hispanic Afr. American
38 years old. been reported

Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse • 5

among young suburban resi- Heroin Overdose Deaths by County of Residence—1992-1996
dents. Complete data on 1997 50

overdose deaths will not be

available from the Texas Depart-
ment of Health until fall, 1998.
Heroin ranks third after
alcohol and crack cocaine in the
number of adult clients admitted
to substance abuse treatment 10
programs funded by TCADA
(appendices 1 and 2). It com- 0
Bexar Dallas El Paso Harris Tarrant Travis
prised 13 percent of admissions
for 1997 as compared to 9 92 93 94 95 96

percent in 1993. The characteris-

Characteristics of Clients Admitted to TCADA-Funded Treatment
tics of these addicts vary depend- by Primary Problem with Heroin and Route of
ing on the route of administra- Administration—Jan.-Dec. 1997
Inject Inhale
# Admissions 3,083 199
Most heroin addicts entering % of Heroin Admits 94% 6%
treatment inject heroin. The term Average Age 36 31
Lag-1st Use to Tmt-Yrs. 14 8
“lag” refers to the period from
% Male 64% 51%
first consistent or regular use of % African American 11% 40%
heroin to the date of admission % Anglo 49% 29%
% Hispanic 39% 27%
to treatment. While the number
% CJ Involved 35% 31%
of individuals who inhale heroin % Employed 16% 24%
is small, it is significant to note % Homeless 10% 1%
Average Income $5,439 $6,042
that the lag period in seeking
treatment is eight rather than Texas Arrestees Testing Positive for Opiates (DUF)—1991-1998
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
14 years for injectors. This Dallas Males 4% 4% 5% 3% 5% 5% 4% 3%
shorter lag period means that Houston Males 3% 3% 2% 3% 5% 8% 10% 7%
San Antonio Males 15% 14% 14% 13% 10% 10% 10% 12%
contrary to street rumors that San Antonio Male Juv. 1% 1% 0% 4% 3% 1%
“sniffing or inhaling is not Dallas Females 9% 9% 11% 8% 5% 10% 4% 5%
Houston Females 4% 4% 5% 6% 3% 4% 5% 7%
addictive,” inhalers will need San Antonio Females 20% 13% 15% 14% 13% 13% 9% 10%
treatment much more quickly San Antonio Female Juv. 0% 1% 1% 2% 1% 0%
than needle users. Grams of Heroin Submitted for Analysis at
Only 2 percent of all adoles- Texas DPS Crime Laboratories—1993-1997
and 1998 has remained fairly Year Heroin (gm)
cents admitted to TCADA-
1993 5,593
funded treatment programs level. 1994 4,246
reported a primary problem of The increasing presence 1995 8,097
of heroin is also seen in the 1996 6,114
opiates (appendix 3).
1997 9,923
According to data collected amount of heroin examined
by the DUF program, the pro- in the crime laboratories of the The predominant form of
portion of arrestees testing Texas Department of Public heroin in Texas is Black Tar;
positive for opiates between 1991 Safety. some Mexican brown is also

6 • Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse

available. Southeast Asian, Price of an Ounce of Heroin in Texas as Reported
Southwest Asian, and Colombian by the DEA—1987-1998
heroin is transshipped through
Texas with little spillage; most of $7,000

it is destined for the Northeast. $6,000

The price of Black Tar heroin $5,000
has decreased over the past ten $4,000
years, according to DEA state- $3,000
wide reports. Currently, Black
Tar heroin sells on the street for
$250–$400 per gram; $800–
$3,500 per ounce, and $50,000–












$175,000 per kilogram at 44–80
percent purity. Southeast Asian
heroin costs $150,000–$175,000
per kilogram, Colombian costs area is $10 a hit, while a balloon tion was by nose or mouth. This
$50,000–$95,000 per kilogram in other areas sells for $20. A increase in heroin use has also
(30–80 percent pure), and gram sells for $190-$225. Black resulted in an increase in the
Southwest Asian costs $85,000 Tar is converted to powder by number of heroin addicts seeking
per kilogram. freezing it, then cutting it with admission to treatment. In the
The Domestic Monitor lactose in a blender. The color is second quarter of 1996, 26
Program reports that heroin in then adjusted. If it is cut with heroin addicts were assessed by
Dallas in 1997 sold for an acetone, it is reported to be the Greater Dallas County
average of $4.16 per milligram darker and stronger. Although Alcohol and Drug Abuse Cen-
pure and in Houston for $2.20 the Hispanic community con- tralized Intake System. In the
per milligram pure. The Mexican trols the flow of heroin into second quarter of 1997, 87
heroin in Dallas averaged 12.9 Austin, there is a reported in- heroin addicts were assessed.
percent pure, and in Houston it crease in intravenous heroin use In El Paso, heroin use has
was 17.6 percent pure. in the African American commu- remained fairly constant. A dose
nity. of 1/10 of a gram sells for $20. In
1998 TEWG REGIONAL In Dallas, there has been an 1987, a hit sold for $20. In
REPORTS increase in the number of youths 1997, a hit sold for $5 to $10. A
and young adults overdosing on decade ago, addicts bought
In Austin, heroin reported to heroin. At least fifteen such heroin in their barrios and only
be readily available and is in a fatalities have been reported by injected among family and close
cinnamon-color powder form. the media in the Metroplex friends; now addicts purchase
The quality is high and overdoses suburbs in 1996-1997. The heroin in Juarez and inject there
are occurring. Not as much Black heroin, called chiva, the Spanish in shooting galleries or in El Paso
Tar is available as at the first of term for heroin or “goat,” is often where non-relatives and non-
the year. There are more reports used with other drugs and close friends have entered a
of powder being snorted, espe- alcohol. Purity was reported to be formerly closed injecting society.
cially among young adults. The as high as 65 percent on the In Fort Worth, heroin use is
average price in the University street, and route of administra- increasing, especially among

Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse • 7

teenagers. Five suburban teenager to be three times the purity of the heroin wear off faster so
overdose deaths have been Black Tar. Most users are injec- people will buy more heroin.
reported by the media in the past tors, although there are some Results of urine testing of inject-
18 months. snorters. Cocaine is injected with ing drug users enrolled in the
In Houston, heroin is re- heroin, but not as a speedball Community Outreach for
ported as more prevalent. Good combination, and a new genera- Prevention of AIDS project
quality Mexican brown at 75 tion of middle and upper class indicate that 17 percent of
percent purity costs $100-$160 Anglo heroin addicts is appear- subjects who reported no use of
per gram. Black Tar is reported to ing. cocaine within the past 30 days
be of poor quality and is selling In San Antonio, heroin sells actually tested positive for
for $75 per gram. for $10, $20, and $80. Most is cocaine, as did 32 percent of
Heroin is more available in Mexican brown, with very little those who reported no use of
Lubbock, with numerous dealers Black Tar. The quality and price cocaine within the past 48 hours.
and papers that are larger and are stable. Outreach workers Heroin is popular with Hispanic
better quality and priced at $20 report some heroin dealers have teenagers. One outreach worker
per piece and $150-$200 per started cutting heroin with reported that youths as young as
gram. An ounce of Black Tar sells cocaine because the cocaine 12 years old are injecting or
for $3,500-$5,000. Mexican supposedly makes the effects of shebanging heroin.
brown is available and is reported

Other Opiates
This group excludes heroin Texas Arrestees Testing Positive for Methadone (DUF)—1991-1998
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
but includes opiates such as Dallas Males 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1%
methadone, codeine, Houston Males 1% 0% 1% 0% 2% 6% 7% 1%
hydromorphone (Dilaudid), San Antonio Males 2% 2% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 2%
Dallas Females 1% 1% 0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 1%
morphine, meperidine Houston Females 2% 0% 1% 1% 0% 1% 2% 0%
(Demerol), and opium. While San Antonio Females 5% 3% 2% 0% 1% 2% 2% 0%
abuse of these drugs is not as
Methadone Dosage Units Prescribed
common as heroin abuse, the percent of the diversion cases. in the Texas Triplicate Prescription
addicts who prefer other opiates Abuse of dilaudid, fentanyl, Data System—1991-1997
Year Methadone
are quite different from heroin Vicodin and other drugs contain-
1991 23,345
addicts. ing codeine or hydrocodone 1992 60,557
About 2 percent of all adults remains at a consistently high 1993 66,281
1994 85,421
who entered treatment during level. Unlike earlier years when
1995 90,228
1997 used opiates other than controlled substances were 1996 196,766
heroin (appendix 2). diverted by indiscriminate 1997 220,128
DUF statistics show that the prescribing, pharmacy theft,
percentage testing positive for forged prescriptions, doctor United States.
methadone is very low. shoppers, and impaired health The State Board of Pharmacy
According to DEA reports, care professionals, most of these reports that hydrocodone,
hydrocodone (Vicodin) is the drugs now are obtained in alprazolam, and diazepam are the
drug of choice, accounting for 80 Mexico and transported into the prescription drugs that are most

8 • Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse

often diverted. Examination of 1998 TEWG REGIONAL other soft drinks; or in cocktails.
data on methadone prescriptions REPORTS It is frequently procured through
shows the increase in the number indiscriminate prescribing and
of heroin addicts receiving In Houston, the use of the use of Medicaid and hospital
methadone treatment. codeine cough syrup has grown district card benefits.
DEA reports that anabolic in popularity, particularly in the Tylenol 4 which contains
steroids are being purchased in African American community. codeine sells for $4 a pill in
Mexico and brought into the Between 1997 and 1998, the Houston, and it is popular
U.S., where they are distributed price of an eight-ounce bottle of among older or more experienced
in physical fitness centers. Typical syrup increased from $25 to $60- injectors. It is also frequently
violators range from male high $80. It is consumed directly from obtained through Medicaid and
school athletes to professional the bottle; in styrofoam cups; hospital district card benefits.
athletes in a variety of sports. mixed with 7-Up, Big Red, or

Marijuana was the primary Texas Arrestees Testing Positive for Marijuana (DUF)—1991-1998
problem for 8 percent of adult 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
Dallas Males 19% 28% 27% 33% 39% 43% 44% 45%
admissions to treatment
Houston Males 17% 24% 24% 23% 30% 28% 23% 34%
programs in 1997 (appendices San Antonio Males 19% 28% 32% 30% 34% 38% 34% 41%
1 and 2). The average age of San Antonio Male Juv. 24% 35% 42% 45% 53% 49%
Dallas Females 11% 24% 20% 23% 23% 26% 27% 26%
marijuana clients continues to
Houston Females 8% 12% 15% 13% 20% 24% 17% 16%
increase: in 1985, the average San Antonio Females 8% 16% 17% 15% 16% 18% 17% 18%
age was 24; in 1997, it is 27. San Antonio Female Juv. 10% 4% 12% 18% 17% 20%
Marijuana was also the Pounds of Marijuana Submitted for
primary drug for 68 percent of remains high, and multi- Analysis at Texas DPS Crime
adolescent admissions in 1997 pound to multi-ton seizures Laboratories—1993-1997
Year Marijuana (lb)
(appendix 3), as compared to 35 are commonplace. Ton 1993 96,419
percent in 1987. Forty-five quantities flow through Texas 1994 89,515
percent of these adolescents were via tractor-trailers and false 1995 121,627
1996 154,526
Hispanic, 31 percent were Anglo, compartments in private 1997 149,817
and 22 percent were African vehicles. Marijuana prices
American (in 1987, 7 percent continue to drop, although they Mexican and domestic marijuana
were African American). fluctuate depending on quality, cost $50–$100.
In the DUF data overall, the quantity, demand, and availabil-
percentage of adult arrestees ity. In the southern half of the 1998 TEWG REGIONAL
testing positive for marijuana state, DEA reports a pound costs REPORTS
continues to increase. $250–$800; in the northern area,
The availability of marijuana Mexican marijuana costs $450– In Austin, quality is reported
is also shown by the amount $800 per pound, while domestic to be medium to high and costs
examined by the DPS crime with higher tetrahydrocannabinol $100 an ounce. A $10-$15 finger
laboratories. concentrations costs $700– bag will roll six to eight joints. A
The availability of marijuana $3,000. Ounce quantities of both single joint sells for $2-$3. A

Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse • 9

pound sells for $650-$900.
Price of a Pound of Commerical Grade Marijuana
In El Paso, an ounce sells for in Texas as Reported by the DEA—1992-1998
$60, and a pound sells for $400.
In Houston, both Hawaiian
and Red Bud strains are available
and selling for $70-$100 per $1,500

ounce. Mixing marijuana and

other psychoactive substances $1,000
remains popular. “Primos,”
marijuana mixed with crack in a $500
self-rolled cigarette, is less popu-
lar among young people, but
remains popular among working 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
people since the marijuana curbs
the anxiety associated with crack’s
psychoactive effects. “Fry,” substitutes. Ready-made blunts ounce is $60-$100, and a pound
“Amp,” and “Water-Water,” are becoming more prevalent; sells for $500-$700. The quality
which describe marijuana ciga- one cigar costs $5, three sell for ranges between good and excel-
rettes or blunts (cigars in which $10, and four sell for $15 at lent. Primos contain either crack
the tobacco has been replaced “Sweet Houses.” Ready-made or embalming fluid, and “Fry,”
with marijuana) dipped in “Candy Blunts,” which are which in Lubbock is a marijuana
embalming fluid containing PCP, cigarillos dipped in cough syrup, joint or blunt laced with em-
remain popular among adoles- sell for the same price as Sweets balming fluid, sells for $10 a
cents, although vials of embalm- (one for $5 and three for $15) at stick. Adults with a long history
ing fluid are not as available on Sweet Houses. And menthol of marijuana use are reportedly
the street. “Fry sticks” and “fry cigarettes, especially Newport mixing cocaine with the mari-
squares” cost $10. “Fry sweets,” and Kool brands, dipped in juana.
treated Swisher Sweet cigarillos, embalming fluid are called In San Antonio, Swisher
cost $15-$20. Swisher Sweets “Sherms.” Sweets or El Perfecto blunts are
continue to be the most popular In Lubbock, marijuana is popular among African American
blunt, although Philly Blunts and reported as more available. A bag youths and sell for $5.
King Edwards are acceptable costs between $5 and $20; an

Methamphetamines and proportion of Anglo clients has The proportion of arrestees
amphetamines comprise 5 risen from 80 percent in 1985 to testing positive for amphetamines
percent of adult admissions in 94 percent in 1997, while the in DUF has been low, but in
1997 (appendices 1 and 2). The percent of Hispanics has dropped 1997-1998 the percentages in
average client admitted for a from 11 percent to 5 percent and Dallas and San Antonio in-
primary problem with stimulants the percent of African Americans creased.
is aging. In 1985, the average age has dropped from 9 percent to 1 The Drug Enforcement
was 26; in 1997, it is 30. The percent. Administration reports Ritalin,

10 • Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse

Phentermine, Phendimetrazine, Characteristics of Clients Admitted to TCADA-Funded Treatment
by Primary Problem with Amphetamines and Route of
and Fenfluramine are being Administration—Jan.-Dec. 1997
diverted or illegally prescribed, in Smoke Inject Inhale Oral
# Admissions 119 788 236 122
addition to being legally declared % of Stimulant Admits 9% 62% 19% 10%
and brought in from Mexico. Lag-1st Use to Tmt-Yrs. 8 11 8 10
Average Age-Yrs. 29 30 28 30
Because of the large number % Male 37% 50% 45% 47%
of prescriptions which are written % African American 1% 1% 1% 0%
% Anglo 92% 96% 89% 89%
for Ritalin, information on this
% Hispanic 5% 2% 9% 11%
drug is no longer entered into the % CJ Involved 37% 49% 46% 51%
Texas Triplicate Prescription Data % Employed 19% 20% 29% 25%
% Homeless 10% 7% 6% 8%
System. While the number of Average Income $6,500 $6,592 $8,915 $7,925
prescriptions and dosage units Texas Arrestees Testing Positive for Amphetamines (DUF)—1991-1998
for other stimulants is decreas- 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
Dallas Males 1% 1% 4% 2% 2% 1% 4% 4%
ing, the number for Dexedrine
Houston Males 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
(dextroamphetamine) is increas- San Antonio Males 1% 0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 2% 4%
ing, from 1,522,637 dosage San Antonio Male Juv. 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1%
Dallas Females 3% 3% 6% 4% 4% 2% 4% 8%
units in 1991 to 8,791,037 in
Houston Females 0% 0% 1% 0% 1% 1% 2% 0%
1997. San Antonio Females 2% 1% 2% 0% 3% 2% 4% 4%
The overall increase in San Antonio Female Juv. 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
methamphetamine in Texas is 1998 TEWG REGIONAL Grams of Methamphetamine Submitted for
shown by the amounts examined REPORTS Analysis by Texas DPS Crime Laboratories—
each year by the DPS crime Year Methamphetamine (gm)
laboratories. In Austin, speed is 1993 8,393
Methamphetamine (“speed” called “crank” and is a 1994 17,881
1995 27,600
or “crank”) and amphetamine are yellowish color with a 1996 53,190
manufactured in Texas and are sticky texture; some powder 1997 46,962
also imported from California is also available. The quality
and Mexico. The availability is is medium to high and it is very drugs are manufactured in
increasing across Texas. Accord- popular in the topless bar scene Mexico.
ing to DEA reports, the pound and around the University. It is In Houston, use of “crystal,”
price range for methamphet- both snorted and injected. It sells “speed,” “crank,” or “go fast”
amine has dropped from for $75-$80 per gram and is remains low. Crystal is perceived
$15,000–$18,000 in January available in $10 hits. as a substitute for cocaine and as
1994 to $5,000–$12,500 in the In El Paso, crystal metham- a palliative for dope sickness. Use
current reporting period. Am- phetamine or crank use is in- is popular among young adult
phetamine pound prices have creasing among young adults. It club goers and men who frequent
decreased from $12,000– is manufactured locally in small- gay clubs. The price is $20 for a
$15,000 to $10,000–$12,000. scale laboratories using ephe- quarter gram and $100 for a
Ounce quantities of metham- drine. It is priced similarly to gram.
phetamine and amphetamine cocaine at about $20 per dose. In Lubbock, there is a re-
retail for $750–$2,000; a gram In Fort Worth, methamphet- ported “explosion” of stimulants,
costs $90–$125. amines and amphetamines are with increasing admissions to
returning to the scene, and the treatment. The purity is report-

Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse • 11

edly good, and the drug is those who snort the drug. Prices deaths, have been associated with
primarily injected, with some are $100 per gram, $1,500 for an the use of ephedrine since 1993.
smoking, snorting, and oral use. ounce, and $15,000 for a pound. These reports indicate that
Crystal meth is described as pink In San Antonio, crank use is dietary supplements containing
in color with a heavy oil film that primarily concentrated among ephedrine and energy boosting
surfaces when water is added for Anglos, and high school students products have been used to get
injection. Purity is very high with are reported mixing it with high, stay awake, lose weight,
an increase in paranoia and cocaine and snorting or enhance athletic performance,
delusional thinking. It is prob- shebanging it. It sells for $80 per boost energy levels, or attempt
ably locally manufactured and gram. suicide. School-age children
distributed by Bandito clubs. Ephedrine, the substance consider over-the-counter drug
Yellow meth is manufactured in used to make methamphetamine, products containing ephedrine to
stainless steel equipment and is continues to be a major problem be “legal” and cheap alternatives
preferred by injecting drug users, in Texas. More than 1,200 to amphetamines and other illicit
while white meth is made in glass reports of a wide range of adverse stimulants and hallucinogens.
equipment and preferred by effects, including at least eight

This “downer” category Benzodiazepines were the tives range from 0 to 1 percent.
includes three groups of drugs: depressant drugs most often Rohypnol continues to be
barbiturates, such as phenobar- identified by DUF. They remain smuggled into the U.S., and
bital and secobarbital (Seconal); a problem, with positive findings other benzodiazepines, such as
tranquilizers and benzodiaz- in 1998 ranging from 2 to 18 diazepam, alprazolam and
epines, such as diazepam, percent. For barbiturates, posi- clonazepam, are recommended
flunitrazepam (Rohypnol),
clonazepam (Klonopin or
Rivotril), flurazepam, and Texas Arrestees Testing Positive for Depressants (DUF)—1991-1998

chlordiazepoxide; and nonbarbi- BARBITURATES 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
turate sedatives, such as meth- Dallas Males 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
aqualone, over-the-counter Houston Males 1% 0% 2% 0% 0% 1% 0% 1%
San Antonio Males 1% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
sleeping aids, chloral hydrate, San Antonio Male Juv. 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1%
and gamma-hydroxybutyrate Dallas Females 1% 1% 2% 1% 1% 0% 0% 1%
(GHB). Houston Females 2% 1% 1% 1% 0% 1% 0% 0%
San Antonio Females 3% 1% 1% 1% 0% 0% 0% 1%
One percent of the adults San Antonio Female Juv. 1% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0%
entering treatment during 1997
had a primary problem with BENZODIAZEPINES
Dallas Males 2% 3% 3% 3% 2% 3% 3% 3%
barbiturates, sedatives, or Houston Males 4% 10% 6% 4% 6% 10% 18% 9%
tranquilizers (appendix 2). This San Antonio Males 4% 5% 5% 4% 3% 4% 5% 2%
group was very different from San Antonio Male Juv. 2% 1% 2% 2% 4% 0%
Dallas Females 6% 6% 9% 7% 4% 7% 7% 4%
most other drug abusers, as they Houston Females 8% 9% 9% 5% 7% 5% 7% 6%
were most likely Anglo and San Antonio Females 11% 6% 8% 6% 4% 9% 6% 6%
female. San Antonio Female Juv. 1% 1% 1% 5% 0% 0%

12 • Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse

by Mexican vendors for legal Quantity of Tablets Submitted for Analysis
at Texas DPS Crime Laboratories—1996-1997
importation. The first choice is 1996 1997 % Increase
clonazepam (Rivotril). It is now Diazepam (Valium) 140,899 165,532 17%
being used by juveniles in combi- Alprazolam (Xanax) 43,193 51,620 20%
Clonazepam (Rivotril) 18,278 30,936 69%
nation with beer just as Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) 19,165 5,650 -71%
Rohypnol has been used. Other
drugs which are legally being secondary or tertiary problem 1998 TEWG REGIONAL
brought into the U.S. on Mexi- with Rohypnol. Of the adult REPORTS
can prescriptions by anyone age clients, 65 percent were Hispanic
18 or older include Ritalin, and 35 percent were Anglo; 71 In El Paso, Rohypnol has
fenfluramine, phentermine, percent were male and average become a growing drug problem
Halcion, and Tylox. age was 24, which is much among high school youths. It can
The number of benzodiaz- younger than most adult clients be easily purchased in Ciudad
epine pills submitted to the DPS entering treatment (overall Juarez and sells on the street for
Crime Laboratories in 1996 and average age is 34 years old). $1-$2 per pill.
1997 for analysis shows the Heroin, alcohol, marijuana, In Houston, Rohypnol sells
increase in seizures of Valium, powder cocaine, and crack were for $1-$3 but it is less available
Xanax, and Rivotril. The increase other drugs most likely to be than in the past.
in Rivotril over the two years (69 abused by these adults. In Lubbock, Rohypnol is
percent) is almost the same as the DEA’s Dallas field division available but not as prevalent as
decrease in the number of reports Rohypnol sells for $1-$3 in the past.
Rohypnol pills submitted (down per pill; the Houston field In the Fort Worth area, GHB
71 percent). division reports the price is is found in the Arlington dance
TCADA’s CODAP system $1.50-$10 per pill. In Austin, the club scene. It sells for $10 an
began collecting treatment Rohypnol supply is limited. One ounce and is distributed in
admission information on pill sells for $3-$5, and a bottle travel-size mouthwash bottles.
Rohypnol on January 1, 1996. of 100 sells for $100-$200, when The Texas Association
Through February, 1998, 163 it can be found. Against Sexual Assault reports
youths had been admitted to Data from poison control that from October 1, 1996 to
treatment with a primary, sec- centers are incomplete, but a September 31, 1997, rape crisis
ondary, or tertiary problem with total of 64 cases involving centers in Texas reported 1,658
Rohypnol. Eighty-five percent of Rohypnol have been reported to sexual assault cases where drugs
the youths were Hispanic and 14 TCADA. Of these, 57 percent and/or alcohol were involved.
percent were Anglo; 71 percent are male, and the average age of Due to stigma, fear of retribu-
were male, and the average age the cases is 20.6 years. Another tion, and loss of memory, report-
was 15.3 years. Forty-five percent 110 calls were received involving ing of such crimes is low, and
were referred from the juvenile GHB. Of these cases, average age there is a problem in that testing
justice system. Other drugs of was 25.6 years and 63 percent and forensic evidence-gathering
abuse included marijuana, involved males. techniques do not normally show
powder cocaine, and alcohol. the presence of Rohypnol and
In addition, 136 adults were GHB. Only laboratories in two
admitted into treatment during counties are reported equipped to
this period with a primary, test for GHB.

Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse • 13

In Austin, Valium and Xanax pill. Prozac sells for $2, and it is Xanax and 10 mg. Valium sell for
are usually obtained by prescrip- combined with powder cocaine $2 each. Xanax abuse is reported
tion and found on the streets and and crack to provide a stronger to be increasing.
in the clubs. A 10 mg. Valium and longer high. Capsules are In San Antonio, the abuse of
sells for $2-$3 and Xanax sells for occasionally opened and the the benzodiazepines among
$2. contents inhaled, although the methadone clients is also noted:
In Houston, Xanax is popu- more frequent route is by mouth. about 20 percent of patients in a
lar among opiate users over age In Lubbock, methadone local methadone program have
30 because it levels out the highs clients who are not truly moti- tested positive for benzodiaz-
and lows of opiate use. It is vated toward treatment use the epines for several years. Xanax is
available on the street for $2 per benzodiazepines to get high. popular with all groups of street
users. A 1 mg. tablet sells for $1.


Among adolescent treat- Texas Arrestees Testing Positive for PCP (DUF)—1991-1998
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
ment programs, hallucinogens Dallas Males 0% 3% 3% 5% 8% 4% 3% 5%
accounted for 2 percent of the Houston Males 0% 0% 1% 3% 4% 3% 3% 6%
San Antonio Males 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
admissions in 1997 (appendix Dallas Females 0% 0% 1% 2% 2% 1% 1% 0%
3), while only 0.2 percent of Houston Females 0% 0% 0% 1% 2% 1% 1% 1%
San Antonio Females 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
adult admissions were for
hallucinogens (appendix 2).
Phencyclidine (PCP) use 1998 TEWG REGIONAL cigarettes and blunts are dipped
among DUF arrestees was most REPORTS in embalming fluid which may
likely to be reported among contain PCP.
Houston arrestees. While the In Beaumont, LSD and In Lubbock, hallucinogen use
percentages are low, this may be a Ecstasy are available in local is largely in the college and high
reflection of the use of marijuana night clubs, in bars, and among school scene. LSD sells for $5-
cigarettes dipped in embalming students. Supplies come from the $10 per hit, and 100-unit hits are
fluid containing PCP in the Houston area. easily obtainable. The quality is
Houston area (Elwood, 1998). In Houston, LSD is popular reported to be mediocre. Current
According to the DEA, a among youths and adults of all LSD hits are white zombie,
liquid ounce of PCP sells for racial and ethnic groups. Current beavis and butthead, and purple
$350-$500 and a dipped ciga- cost is $5-$10 per hit. Older haze. Ecstasy sells for $20 a hit
rette sells for $20. LSD sells for heroin users report acid attenu- and is readily available in pill and
$1-$10 in North Texas and $5- ates the high and “stops the powder form. There are rumors
$8 in the South Texas DEA nodding off.” It is alleged to help on the street of Ecstasy being
Region. Ecstasy sells for $7-$30 prevent “dope sickness.” Acid use combined with a synthetic
in the North Texas region and is also popular among street opiate, probably fentanyl.
$20-$25 in the South Texas youths who are interested in the In San Antonio, LSD from
region. 1960s and 1970s. Marijuana California is available.

14 • Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse

Analysis of overdose death conditioning mechanics and gasoline, paint thinner, and
certificates from 1990 to 1996 persons with occupations that products containing toluene
showed that 83 persons died of had access to and used freon on (“tolly”) are the most popular
inhalant abuse. Of these, 92 the job. chemicals and use is usually in
percent were male, 90 percent Inhalant abusers comprised 5 combination with heavy alcohol
were Anglo, 8 percent were percent of the admissions to use.
Hispanic, and the average age adolescent treatment programs in In Lubbock, gasoline, spray
was 27. Where specific inhalant 1997 (appendix 3) and 0.3 paint, auto parts cleaner,
substances were reported, data percent of adult admissions. markers, correction fluid, hair
showed that 41 percent of the spray, and propane are widely
decedents had died from use of 1998 TEWG REGIONAL abused. Use has been primarily
freon, while 16 percent died REPORTS by adolescent Hispanic males,
from use of toluene. Twenty-nine but more adolescent females are
percent of the decedents were In Austin, there is a reported reported to be experimenting
students. Persons dying from use increase in inhalant abuse by with inhalants.
of freon were most likely to be air adult street addicts. Spray paint,

AIDS and Other Diseases Among Drug Users

As of March 31, 1998, the In 1988, 3 percent of the 38 percent were African Ameri-
proportion of adult and adoles- AIDS cases were females over age can. Of the female cases, 56
cent AIDS (Aquired Immunode- 12; for 1998, 17 percent were percent were African American,
ficiency Syndrome) cases related female. In 1988, 15 percent of and of the male cases, 34 percent
to injecting drug use has gone the adult and adolescent cases were African American.
from 15 percent in 1988 to 23 were African Americans; in 1998, The Houston crack house
percent in 1998. Of these in
1988, 6 percent of the cases were
AIDS Cases in Texas by Route of Transmission, Texas
injecting drug users (IDUs), and 80% Department of Health—1988 through March 31, 1998
9 percent were male-to-male sex
and IDUs; in 1998, 17 percent
of the cases were IDUs, and 6
percent were male-to-male sex
and IDUs. The proportion of 40%

cases resulting from heterosexual 30%

contact has gone from 2 percent 20%
in 1988 to 10 percent in 1998. It 10%
should be noted that for first 0%
quarter 1998, the mode of Male to Male Male to Male Injecting Hetero-
Sex Sex & IDU Drug sexual
exposure of 21 percent of the User
cases was still classified as “un- 1988 1994 1996 1997 1998 (1Q)

Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse • 15

Male and Female AIDS Cases in Texas by Race/Ethnicity, Texas
Department of Health—1985 through March 31, 1998



Afr. Am. Females

Anglo Males
Afr. Am. Males
Anglo Females
Hispanic Males
Hispanic Females














study (Ross, 1997) found that report that due to easier access to of females who reported hetero-
41.6 percent of 435 crack users clean injecting equipment, there sexual sex as the risk factor were
interviewed on-site in Houston is a reduction in needle sharing. reported in the first nine months
crack houses were infected with However, hepatitis C is prevalent of 1997; between 1983 and
hepatitis C (HCV), and 13 in intravenous drug users. Many 1996, only six female cases were
percent were infected with people who are testing positive reported. Street drug users are
syphilis, 61 percent with herpes for HCV are recovering intrave- reporting prostitution by both
simplex virus-2, and 12 percent nous drug users who have not males and females in order to
with HIV. used in five to 15 years. At this obtain drugs. And more indi-
The incidence rates for acute time, there are no services avail- viduals are reporting HCV
hepatitis C do not adequately able for indigent clients who infection, including recovering
reflect the overall prevalence of need to be tested for HCV. drug users who have not injected
the disease, since reliable testing In Houston, injecting drug for five years or more. Very little
did not begin until 1992 and users account for 20 percent of information about HCV is on
reporting is only mandatory for AIDS cases reported since 1986. the street and testing is not
acute, not chronic, cases. The percentage of females readily available.
reporting injection drug use as an In San Antonio, HIV preva-
1998 TEWG REGIONAL HIV risk factor is steadily declin- lence among heterosexual injec-
REPORTS ing, with females having unpro- tors who have never used crack
tected heterosexual sex replacing remains at less than 1 percent.
In Austin, according to the drug-injecting women. There are Prevalence among crack users
Austin-Travis County MHMR over 3.2 times as many African who have never injected is 2.8
CARE program, there has been a American female injecting drug percent, and among drug users
decrease from 1996 to 1997 in users who are infected with HIV with a history of crack use and
persons testing HIV-antibody as Anglo female injecting drug injection, the prevalence is 4
positive who report intravenous users. percent. Despite high levels of
drug use as a risk. Street addicts In Lubbock, seven new cases injection risk, HIV among

16 • Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse

injecting drug users appears to be Characteristics of Needle Using Clients Admitted to TCADA-
Funded Treatment Centers—Jan.-Dec. 1997
sexually transmitted. Hepatitis C Heroin Stimulants Cocaine
is a major problem. At the No. 3,083 788 1,040
Community Outreach for Avg. Age 36.3 30.4 31.8
% Male 64% 50% 58%
Prevention of AIDS project, of % African American 11% 1% 5%
134 drug users who reported % Anglo 49% 96% 72%
current or past injecting, 86 % Hispanic 39% 2% 22%
% Employed 16% 20% 20%
percent were HCV positive, and % Crim. Just. Involved 35% 49% 42%
of 30 crack users who had never % Homeless 10% 7% 8%
injected, 33 percent were HCV Avg. Income $5,439 $6,592 $7,931

positive. In addition, a large Incidence Rate of Acute Hepatitis C,

treatment program reports that Texas Department of Health—1992-1997
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
liver disease is now the leading
Afr. American 2.4% 2.1% 1.9% 2.2% 0.9% 1.8%
cause of death among their Anglo 1.4% 1.9% 1.5% 1.6% 0.9% 1.2%
patients. Hispanic 0.9% 2.0% 1.5% 1.9% 1.2% 2.2%
Statewide Rate 1.4% 2.1% 1.7% 1.8% 1.1% 1.9%

Appendix 1. Percent of Adult Admissions to Publicly-Funded Treatment

Programs by Primary Drug of Abuse—January 1983-March 1998




30% Amphetamines



83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98

Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse • 17

Appendix 2. Characteristics of Adult Clients at Admission to TCADA-Funded Treatment Programs—
Jan. 1 through Dec. 31, 1997
Average Lag
Total Percent of all Average Average Age from 1st Use to Percent Percent Percent Using
Primary Drug Admissions Admissions Age at 1st Use Admission Married Male Needles

All Drugs 25,554 100.0% 33.9 20.4 14 21.8% 61.6% 24.9%

Heroin 3,342 13.1% 35.9 22.3 14 22.2% 62.5% 92.5%
Alcohol 9,593 37.5% 36.0 16.1 20 22.5% 69.8% 8.0%
Amphetamines 1,269 5.0% 29.8 20.1 10 19.9% 47.0% 62.8%
Cocaine 2,066 8.1% 30.8 22.2 9 24.0% 60.9% 51.2%
MJ Hash 1,993 7.8% 27.4 15.7 12 22.2% 69.5% 7.4%
Inhalants 76 0.3% 27.9 16.7 12 26.3% 55.3% 5.3%
Ecstasy 8 0.0% 23.4 16.4 8 25.0% 100.0% 0.0%
Crack 6,366 24.9% 33.7 26.1 8 18.8% 52.0% 5.5%
Hallucinogens 48 0.2% 24.6 17.6 8 12.5% 79.2% 20.8%
Other Opiates 458 1.8% 36.6 27.8 9 32.3% 40.0% 22.7%
Other Drugs 71 0.3% 31.8 23.7 9 28.2% 54.9% 21.1%

18 • Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse

Depressants 264 1.0% 36.2 26.5 10 26.9% 33.3% 11.7%

% Involved
Percent African Percent Percent Percent w/Criminal Average Percent Average Income
Primary Drug American Anglo Hispanic Employed Justice Education Homeless at Admission

All Drugs 24.4% 53.0% 21.3% 25.0% 44.2% 11.5 9.0% $7,146
Heroin 13.0% 47.5% 38.0% 17.1% 35.4% 11.3 9.8% $5,541
Alcohol 13.3% 61.0% 24.2% 30.4% 46.5% 11.5 9.3% $7,952
Amphetamines 0.6% 93.5% 4.5% 22.2% 47.1% 11.4 7.2% $7,134
Cocaine 7.7% 58.0% 33.1% 26.8% 44.4% 11.4 5.3% $8,208
MJ Hash 26.1% 51.4% 21.3% 39.7% 66.7% 11.2 2.9% $7,100
Inhalants 3.9% 11.8% 57.9% 14.5% 32.9% 7.9 3.9% $3,454
Ecstasy 12.5% 62.5% 25.0% 50.0% 62.5% 11.4 0.0% $4,850
Crack 59.5% 31.0% 8.7% 17.4% 38.8% 11.6 12.3% $6,376
Hallucinogens 14.6% 70.8% 12.5% 20.8% 60.4% 11.4 4.2% $6,639
Other Opiates 4.8% 86.5% 8.7% 15.1% 34.1% 12.2 4.6% $8,681
Other Drugs 5.6% 67.6% 26.8% 19.7% 40.8% 11.7 4.2% $8,456
Depressants 6.8% 86.4% 6.4% 16.3% 34.1% 12.1 5.3% $6,745

Source: TCADA Treatment Assessment Database (CODAP)

Appendix 3. Characteristics of Youth Clients at Admission to TCADA-Funded Treatment Programs—
Jan. 1 through Dec. 31, 1997
Average Lag Percent
Total Percent of all Average Average Age from 1st Use to Percent First w/History of
Primary Drug Admissions Admissions Age at 1st Use Admission Admissions IV Drug Use
All Drugs 3,067 100% 15 13 3 70% 10%
Opiates 55 2% 16 15 2 51% 62%
Alcohol 384 13% 16 12 4 75% 6%
Amphetamines 51 2% 16 14 3 47% 53%
Cocaine 191 6% 16 14 2 58% 36%
MJ Hash 2,089 68% 15 12 3 72% 5%
Inhalants 144 5% 15 13 3 58% 6%
Ecstasy 2 0% 17 16 2 0% 100%
Rohypnol 14 0% 15 14 2 93% 0%
Crack 47 2% 16 15 2 62% 9%
Hallucinogens 62 2% 16 13 3 50% 32%
Depressants 10 0% 16 14 2 50% 30%
Other Drugs 18 1% 16 13 3 83% 6%

Percent Percent w/ a Parent

Percent Percent African Percent Percent Involved w/ Average Who Abuses
Primary Drug Male American Anglo Hispanic Criminal Justice Education Substance(s)
All Drugs 77% 18% 33% 47% 77% 8 29%
Opiates 69% 9% 35% 55% 71% 8 40%
Alcohol 72% 13% 31% 54% 69% 8 37%
Amphetamines 55% 0% 86% 14% 65% 9 29%
Cocaine 60% 5% 46% 48% 69% 9 38%
MJ Hash 81% 22% 31% 45% 80% 8 27%
Inhalants 67% 4% 19% 74% 78% 8 33%
Ecstasy 0% 0% 100% 0% 0% 11 0%
Rohypnol 57% 0% 0% 100% 57% 8 29%
Crack 45% 11% 43% 45% 51% 9 30%
Hallucinogens 82% 15% 71% 13% 77% 8 24%
Depressants 80% 20% 20% 50% 80% 8 40%
Other Drugs 67% 28% 28% 44% 72% 9 22%

Source: TCADA Treatment Assessment Database (CODAP)

Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse • 19