# Magneto-hydrodynamics: computational issues and sample applications

G. Degrez ULB
Collège Belgique
Nouvelles méthodologies multidisciplinaires pour la simulation des écoulements 25 Novembre 2009

Introduction
What is magneto-hydrodynamics or (probably better) magneto- ﬂuid dynamics?

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Introduction
What is magneto-hydrodynamics or (probably better) magneto- ﬂuid dynamics? Magneto- ﬂuid dynamics (MFD) deals with ﬂows of electrically conducting ﬂuids, such as electrolytes, liquid metals or plasmas in presence of an electromagnetic ﬁeld Interaction between ﬂowﬁeld (velocity & thermodynamic variables) and electromagnetic ﬁeld.
2

Examples

S N

F
http://web.mit.edu

The liquid jet is deviated by the electromagnetic (Lorentz) force.

3

Examples

S N

F
http://web.mit.edu

The liquid jet is deviated by the electromagnetic (Lorentz) force.

3

Examples (cont.)
electromagnetic agitation
N
liquid metal solidiﬁed steel

S

magnetic ﬁeld

Steel production

N
S

electromagnetic pump

Geomagnetism
4

Examples (cont.)
Nuclear fusion Nuclear fusion reactor

Basic principle

Magnets

Blanket

Plasma

ITER

5

Governing equations
• Electromagnetics
·E 1 µ0 ·B ∂E ×B− 0 ∂t ×E = ηc
0

= 0 = J ∂B = − ∂t

with J = σ E + u × B
6

Approximations:

• Quasi-neutral medium ( • Displacement current (

ηc ≈ 0 ) fp )

electrostatic oscillations neglected ( f
0 ∂ E/∂t

) negligible

electromagnetic waves neglected With these approximations, Maxwell’s law reduces to Faraday’s law
1 J= µ0
7

×B

• Flowﬁeld ∂ρ
∂t ∂ρu + ∂t ∂ρE + ∂t +

· ρu =

0 ·τ +J ×B ·q+J ·E · u) + µv I ·u

· ρu ⊗ u = − p + · ρuH =

· (τ · u) − 2 ⊗u − I 3
T

with
τ q = µ( = −λ T ⊗u+

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Dimensionless parameters • Deﬁne dimensionless quantities
• Then,
E xi xi = , ˜ L = Ut ˜ t= , L ui ui = , ˜ U B ˜ B= B0 J 1 −u×B = σ µ0 σ ×B−u×B

= U B0

˜ ×B ˜ 1 ˜ ˜ B×u+ σr µ0 U L σ ˜

and Rm = σr µ0 U L is the magnetic Reynolds number
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• Lorentz force
FL = J × B = =
2 σr U B0 σ ˜

˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ E+u×B ×B

2 σr U B0 ˜ ˜ ˜ ( × B) × B Rm

∂ρu ˜ + ˜ · ρu ⊗ u ˜ ˜ ˜ ∂t

• momentum equation

1 ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ = ˜p + ˜ τ +N E+u×B ×B ˜ Re N ˜ 1 ˜ ˜ ˜ τ+ ˜ ( × B) × B = ˜p + ˜ Re Rm 2 σr B0 L where N = is the magnetic ρr U

interaction parameter
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• Induction equation [☜,☚]
˜ ∂B +˜× ˜ ∂t

˜ 1 ˜ ×B ˜ ˜ B×u+ Rm σ ˜

=0

• Joule heating
PJ = J · E = =
2 B0 U

˜ ˜ ×B ˜ ∂B 1 ˜ ˜ ˜ + ˜ · (u ⊗ B − B ⊗ u) = − ˜ ˜ × ˜ Rm σ ˜ ∂t
2 B0 U ˜ ˜ ( × B) · Lµ0

˜ ×B ˜ ˜ ˜ B×u+ Rm

˜ × B)2 ˜ ( ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ((B ⊗ u − u ⊗ B) · · ˜ ⊗ B + ) Lµ0 Rm
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• energy equation [☜,☚]
∂ ρ(˜ + ˜e ˜ ∂t
u ·u ˜ ˜ Ec 2 )

u·u ˜ ˜ Ec + ˜ · ρu(h + Ec ˜˜ ˜ )= 2 Re

· (τ · u)− ˜ ˜

˜ × B)2 ˜ 1 ˜ N Ec ˜ ( ˜ ·q+ ˜ ((B ⊗ u − u ⊗ B) · · ˜ ⊗ B + ˜ ˜ ˜ ) Re Rm Rm

where Ec = U 2 /∆hr is the Eckert number. The reference enthalpy variation ∆hr is at least equal to U 2, so that Ec ≤ 1.

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2 2 N B0 B0 pr 4 = = = for P. G., Rm ρr U 2 µ0 pr µ0 ρr U 2 γM 2 β where M is the Mach number and β is the socalled magnetic β .

number. It typically takes very small values for liquid metal, electrolytes and plasmas, which implies Rm Re .

Rm = νσr µ0 = P rm is the magnetic Prandtl Re

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Flow regimes & simpliﬁcations • Re, R 1 : ideal MHD (astrophysics)
The dissipative terms ( ∝ 1/Re or 1/Rm ) are neglected (but not the terms ∝ N/Rm ). Induction equation [☞]
∂B + ∂t · (u ⊗ B − B ⊗ u) = 0
m

Taking the scalar product of this equation by B/µ0 and adding to the energy equation [☞], one gets
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∂ρE +

B2 2µ0

∂t B · µ0

+

· ρuH+ ⊗B =0 µ0

· (u ⊗ B − B ⊗ u) + (u ⊗ B − B ⊗ u) · ·
B 1 = ·( µ ·(u⊗B−B⊗u))= µ 0 0

·(B 2 u−(u·B)B)

√ or, deﬁning ˆ = B/ µ0 , b ∂ρE + ∂t
ˆ2 b 2

+

or else (with ρE = ρE
∂ρE + ∂t

· (u(ρH + ˆ2 ) − (u · ˆ ˆ = 0 b b)b)
ˆ2 + b2 ˆ2

)

b · (u(ρE + p + ) − (u · ˆ ˆ = 0 b)b) 2

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Since
( × B) × B = (B · ∂ρu + ∂t )B −

the momentum equation can be rewritten as so that the complete system reads ﬁnally
ˆ2 b · (ρu ⊗ u − ˆ ⊗ ˆ + (p + )I) = 0 b b 2 

B2 = 2

·B⊗B−

B2 2

ρ ∂  ρu   + ∂t  ˆ  b ρE

ρu  ˆ2  ρu ⊗ u − ˆ ⊗ ˆ + (p + b2 )I b b ·  u⊗ˆ−ˆ⊗u b b  ˆ2 u(ρE + p + b2 ) − (u · ˆ ˆ b)b
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  =0  

• constant density ﬂows (liquid metals &
·u = 0

electrolytes) with Re 1, Rm ≥ O(1) . Assuming constant viscosity & electrical conductivity,
∂u + ∂t ∂b + ∂t · (u ⊗ u − b ⊗ b) · (u ⊗ b − b ⊗ u) = − P +ν = νm
2 2

u

b

with
ˆ b b= √ , ρ p b2 P = + , ρ 2
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νm

1 = . σµ0

• constant density ﬂows with Re

1, Rm

1.

Decomposing the magnetic ﬁeld into a uniform externally imposed ﬁeld B0 and a ﬂuctuation B much smaller than B0 , the system simpliﬁes to (quasi-static approximation)
∂u + ∂t · (u ⊗ u − b0 ⊗ b ) − ·u = 0
2

= − P +ν = νm
2

u

p with P = + b0 · b ρ

· (b0 ⊗ u)

b

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• low speed (small Ec), very small R
Induction equation [☞]
∂B + ∂t ×B × =0 σµ0

variable density ﬂows (e.g. IC thermal plasmas): fully resistive MHD.
m

or alternatively (taking the curl of this eqn),
∂σµ0 E + ∂t ×( × E) = 0

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Energy equation [☞] With Ec 1 , the kinetic energy contribution and the power of the viscous stresses can be neglected. But the Joule heating contribution 2 scaling as N Ec/Rm cannot.
∂ρe + ∂t · ρuh = − ·q+J ·E
=σE 2

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ρ ∂  ρu   + ∂t  ˆ  b ρE

• Ideal (compressible) MHD 
 

MHD waves
ρu  b ˆ ⊗ ˆ + (p + ˆ2 )I  ρu ⊗ u − b b 2  · u⊗ˆ−ˆ⊗u b b  ˆ2 u(ρE + p + b2 ) − (u · ˆ ˆ b)b 1 ωe = ∂s ρ − 2 ∂s p a
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Hyperbolic system with 7 eigen modes: entropy wave
λe = u s ,

  =0  

-

bs λA = us ± √ , ρ

- ˆAlfvén waves -

ˆo b ωA = −ˆo ∂s un + ˆn ∂s uo ± √ ∂sˆn b b b ρ

ˆn b b √ ∂sˆo ρ

Fast/slow magneto-acoustic waves λf,s =us ± cf,s with
cf,s = ρa2 + ˆ2 ± b (ρa2 + ˆ2 )2 − 4ρa2ˆ2 b bs 2ρ ρcf,sˆsˆn b b ∂s un ρc2 − ˆ2 b
f,s s

ωf,s =ρ∂s ρ ± ρcf,s ∂s us

ρc2 ˆn b ρc2 ˆo f,s f,s b ∂sˆn + b ∂sˆo + ∂s p b ρc2 − ˆ2 bs ρc2 − ˆ2 bs f,s f,s
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ρcf,sˆsˆo b b ∂s uo + ρc2 − ˆ2 b
f,s s

-

the 8th wave is degenerate. It has a 0 wave speed ( the jacobian matrix is singular) and its amplitude is
ω8 = ∂sˆs = 0 b

since for a 1D (plane) wave, the b solenoidal constraint imposes ∂sˆs = 0 . This is a source of numerical difﬁculties since numerically, the solenoidal constraint is not exactly satisﬁed.

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The solenoidal constraint
Numerical problem & solution techniques

• At the continuous level, the induction
∂B + ∂t ∂(

equation ensures that ∂t ( · B) = 0 . Indeed,

· B) ×E =0 ⇒ = − · ( × E) = 0 ∂t At the discrete level though, · ( × E) is not exactly 0. As a result, · B errors can

grow unboundedly unless some mechanism to control them is implemented.

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• Constrained transport technique

consists in applying a special discretization ensuring that · ( × E) = 0 exactly at the discrete level. For FDM/FVM, this generally implies the use of a staggered mesh with hydrodynamic variables, electric ﬁeld and magnetic ﬁeld evaluated at different locations. For FEM, this implies the use of mixed or hybrid elements such as Nédélec’s element.

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• Powell’s source term technique
S=−  ˆ · b  0 ˆ b u

Add to the RHS of the ideal MHD system the source term   In this way, the 8th degenerate wave transforms into
u·ˆ b    

so that ﬂow (but may buildup in stagnation regions).
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∂ ·ˆ b ·ˆ b ( )+u·( )=0 ∂t ρ ρ · ˆ errors are swept away by the b

• Divergence cleaning techniques
∂B + ∂t

The basic idea of divergence cleaning techniques is to add a Lagrange multiplier to the induction equation
· (u ⊗ B − B ⊗ u) + ψ=0

and a differential equation for the Lagrange multiplier
D(ψ) +

• D(ψ) = 0 : This is the classical projection
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·B =0

∂D(ψ) − ∂t

2

ψ=0

scheme. Requires solving a Poisson eqn at each time step: expensive!

• D(ψ) = ψ/α : Then, the differential problem
for the Lagrange multiplier ψ reads i.e. a diffusion equation.
∂ψ =α ∂t
2

ψ

1 ∂ψ and the differential problem D(ψ) = 2 V ∂t for the Lagrange multiplier ψ reads ∂2ψ 2 2 =V ψ ∂t2

i.e. a wave equation. This is analogous to the artiﬁcial compressibility technique for incompressible ﬂows (ACA).
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The ideal MHD system then transforms to
 ∂   ∂t    ρ ρu ˆ b ρE ψ    +   ρu  ρu ⊗ u − ˆ ⊗ ˆ + (p + ˆ2 )I b b b  2  u ⊗ ˆ − ˆ ⊗ u + ψI b b ·   ˆ2 b  u(ρE + p + 2 ) − (u · ˆ ˆ b)b V 2ˆ b ωd.c. = ∂sˆs ± b      =0   

This hyperbolic system has 2 additional eigen modes, the divergence cleaning waves with 1
λd.c. = ±V,
2

V Note that since the velocity V is a constant,

∂s ψ

errors may not build up.
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Sample applications
I. Space weather (ideal MHD) M.Yalim, D.Vanden Abeele & H. Deconinck

• Discretization: cell-centered ﬁnite volume, • Time-discretization: (implicit) backwardEuler (steady cases), (implicit) 3-point backward or 2-stage RK (unsteady test cases).
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2nd order TVD scheme or LF with reduced dissipation, Barth-Jespersen limiter with limiter freezing.

Validation 1: steady magnetic nozzle ﬂow Flow conditions:
u M = = 2.54, a u MA = = 3, vA β=2

• Unstructured grid with 4972 triangles

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Validation 1: steady magnetic nozzle ﬂow (cont.)

Density contours with magnetic ﬁeld lines (ACA + TVD-LF)

Density contours with magnetic ﬁeld lines (Powell + TVD-LF)
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Validation 1: steady magnetic nozzle ﬂow (cont.)

Density distributions along wall/symmetry line

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Validation 1: steady magnetic nozzle ﬂow (cont.)
Numerical scheme 1st order ACA-LF (∇⋅b)min (∇⋅b)max -6.90 10-8 2.84 10-7
→ →

idem with reduced (.1) dissipation -1.49 10-7 9.67 10-7 ACA-TVD/LF ACA-TVD/Roe Powell-TVD/LF

-7.49 10-7 2.34 10-7 -4.13 10-7 5.08 10-7 -0.37666 0.37173

(∇⋅b) errors with several schemes

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Validation 1I: supersonic Orszag-Tang vortex Unsteady test case: subiterations are b performed in order to achieve · ˆ = 0 at each time step.

Pressure contours at ﬁnal time: (a) ACA, (b) const. transport
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Validation 1I: supersonic Orszag-Tang vortex (cont.)

Pressure distribution along y=1.93
→ →

Iterative scheme 3-point backward with subiterations RK2 without subiterations

(∇⋅b)min (∇⋅b)max -0.0771 -0.536 0.0785 0.675

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Solar wind/earth magnetosphere interaction

• For this application, the global magnetic

ﬁeld is decomposed into the contribution of the earth magnetic ﬁeld (B0 ) and a perturbation ( B1 ). steady dipole ﬁeld

• The earth magnetic ﬁeld is modelled as a
1 B0 = 3 (3(m · er )er − m) r

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Solar wind/earth magnetosphere interaction (cont.)

• The ideal MHD system is rewritten in
ρ ∂  ρu   + ∂t  ˆ1  b ρE1    ·    

terms of the perturbation ﬁeld B1 (Tanaka).  
ρu ˆ2  ˆ1 ⊗ ˆ1 + (p + b1 )I  ρu ⊗ u − b b 2  · u ⊗ ˆ1 − ˆ1 ⊗ u b b  ˆ2 b1 u(ρE1 + p + 2 ) − (u · ˆ1 )ˆ1 b b  0 ˆ0 · ˆ1 )I − (ˆ0 ⊗ ˆ1 + ˆ1 ⊗ ˆ0 )  (b b b b b b  =0  ˆ0 − ˆ0 ⊗ u u⊗b b  u(ˆ0 · ˆ1 ) − (u · ˆ1 )ˆ0 b b b b

  +  

• Powell’s source term approach and ACA
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Solar wind/earth magnetosphere interaction (cont.)

• earth magnetic ﬁeld: m = −3e • Far ﬁeld conditions: M = 6.2, M
u = uex

z A

= 8, β = 2 ,

• •

ˆ = −ˆ z (interplanetary magnetic ﬁeld b be

aligned with earth dipole) opposite to earth dipole)

ˆ = ˆ z (interplanetary magnetic ﬁled b be

• inner boundary = magnetosphere/ionosphere ˆ
boundary (at r = 3Rearth ): ρ = 1, p = 8, b · n = 0
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Solar wind/earth magnetosphere interaction (cont.)

• Unstructured grid with 1.220.758
tetrahedra

Mesh in the plane of symmetry (x-z)
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Solar wind/earth magnetosphere interaction (cont.)

Schematic of ﬂow features (aligned IMF)

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Solar wind/earth magnetosphere interaction (cont.)

(a)

(b)

Pressure ﬁeld contour & magnetic ﬁeld lines in symmetry plane (aligned IMF) (a) ACA, (b) Powell’s source term (Powell et al.)
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Solar wind/earth magnetosphere interaction (cont.)

(a)

(b)

Pressure ﬁeld contour & magnetic ﬁeld lines in symmetry plane, close-up (aligned IMF) (a) ACA, (b) Powell’s source term (Powell et al.)
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Solar wind/earth magnetosphere interaction (cont.)

(a)

(b)

Pressure ﬁeld contour & magnetic ﬁeld lines in symmetry plane (opposite IMF) (a) ACA, (b) Powell’s source term (Powell et al.)
44

Solar wind/earth magnetosphere interaction (cont.)

(a)

(b)

Pressure ﬁeld contour & magnetic ﬁeld lines in symmetry plane, close-up (aligned IMF) (a) ACA, (b) Powell’s source term (Powell et al.)
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II. Incompressible MHD turbulence M. Kinet, B. Knaepen & D. Carati

Application 1: homogeneous turbulence very low magnetic Reynolds number quasi-static approximation

• Discretization: spectral (Fourier), pseudo• Time-integration: combination of analytic
integration (viscous terms) and 3-stage Runge-Kutta method (non-linear terms)
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spectral treatment of non-linear terms and Rogallo’s phase-shift de-aliasing method

Application 1: homogeneous turbulence (cont.)
without magnetic ﬁeld with magnetic ﬁeld

B

zero vorticity

large vorticity
B

Main effects 1) “less turbulent” 2) anisotropy development

B

t

47

Application 1: homogeneous turbulence (cont.)
B

B

B

t

vertical vortices

Energy spectrum

48

Application 1: homogeneous turbulence (cont.)
E(k⊥ , k )
80 70 60 50 40 !8 30 20 10 0 0 k 0 !2 !4 80 70 60 50 !6 40 !10 30 !10 20 10 0 0 k 0 !2

Joule dissipation
-14.4

!4 !6 !8

-12.6 -9.8 -7

-10.8 -7.2
20 40 k⊥ 60 80

!12 !14 !16 !18

!12 20 40 k⊥ 60 80 !14

without magnetic ﬁeld

with magnetic ﬁeld

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Application II: Instabilities in duct ﬂow

• Discretization: 2nd order cell-centered
ﬁnite volume

• Time-integration: fractional step method

for incompressible ﬂows, Crank-Nicolson discretization of viscous terms, semiimplicit discretization of convective terms, explicit Euler discretization of Lorentz force. pressure correction), Bi-CG stab (momentum equations).
50

• Linear solvers: AMG (electric potential /

Application II: Instabilities in duct ﬂow (cont.)

• Flow conﬁguration & phenomena

dp d2 u 2 = −σB u + ρν 2 dx dy

In 2D (inﬁnite width), J = σ(u × B) directed 2 spanwise, and FL = −σB u .
⇒ 1 dp u=− σB 2 dx

with δH =

ρν , and the Hartmann number σB 2 √ h σ Ha = = Bh = N Re δH ρν
51

cosh(y/δH ) 1− cosh(h/δH )

Application II: Instabilities in duct ﬂow (cont.) In 3D, the ﬂow behaviour near the side walls strongly depends on the electrical properties (conductor/insulator) of the walls.

Insulating walls

Conducting walls
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Application II: Instabilities in duct ﬂow (cont.)

Conducting Hartmann walls, insulating side walls

Strong side jets for large Hartmann numbers (intense magnetic ﬁeld), more prone to the development of instabilities.
lent rapide

•When do they appear? •How do they modify ﬂow properties?
53

Application II: Instabilities in duct ﬂow (cont.)

B

54

Application II: Instabilities in duct ﬂow (cont.)

B

54

Application II: Instabilities in duct ﬂow (cont.)

B

54

Application II: Instabilities in duct ﬂow (cont.)

Laminar regime

“First” unstable regime

55

Application II: Instabilities in duct ﬂow (cont.)

“Second” unstable regime

turbulent regime

56

III. RF inductively coupled thermal plasmas D.Vanden Abeele, T. Magin, P. Rini, G. Degrez
RF inductively coupled plasma torch

57

III. RF inductively coupled thermal plasmas D.Vanden Abeele, T. Magin, P. Rini, G. Degrez
RF inductively coupled plasma torch

•Gas at 0.01 atm or higher is injected in a

quartz tube surrounded by a copper inductor, •A radio-frequency electrical current runs through the inductor,
57

III. RF inductively coupled thermal plasmas D.Vanden Abeele, T. Magin, P. Rini, G. Degrez
RF inductively coupled plasma torch

57

III. RF inductively coupled thermal plasmas D.Vanden Abeele, T. Magin, P. Rini, G. Degrez
RF inductively coupled plasma torch

•and induces a secondary current through

the gas inside the quartz tube, which heats up by means of ohmic dissipation to a partially ionized plasma state with peak temperatures around 10,000 K.
57

58

Because of their electrodeless heating, IC plasmas are of high chemical purity, which makes them popular for a variety of applications:

58

Because of their electrodeless heating, IC plasmas are of high chemical purity, which makes them popular for a variety of applications:

deposition of metal coatings,

58

Because of their electrodeless heating, IC plasmas are of high chemical purity, which makes them popular for a variety of applications:

• •

deposition of metal coatings, synthesis of ultra-ﬁne powders,

58

Because of their electrodeless heating, IC plasmas are of high chemical purity, which makes them popular for a variety of applications:

• • •

deposition of metal coatings, synthesis of ultra-ﬁne powders, generation of high purity silicon,

58

Because of their electrodeless heating, IC plasmas are of high chemical purity, which makes them popular for a variety of applications:

• • • •

deposition of metal coatings, synthesis of ultra-ﬁne powders, generation of high purity silicon, testing of thermal protection materials for atmospheric (re-)entry vehicles.

58

Speciﬁc modelling features

• Axisymmetric geometry and ﬂow, • Steady hydrodynamic ﬁeld (velocity/
thermodynamic variables),

• purely monochromatic azimuthal electric
poloidal current),

ﬁeld, E = (ER + i EI ) exp(iωt)eθ = E exp(iωt)eθ

• steady ambipolar poloidal electric ﬁeld (zero
whence the induction equation simpliﬁes to
nc 2

E − iωµ0 σE = −iωµ0 Ic
59

i=1

δ(r − ri )

Speciﬁc modelling features (cont.)

Steady ﬂow at low Eckert number, hence
· ρu ⊗ u = − p + · ρuh = − · ρu = 0 ·q+J ·E ·τ +J ×B

where the Lorentz force and Joule heating terms are time-averaged.

Reactive ﬂow, i.e. non-uniform chemical composition. Can be modelled in two ways:

• •

Chemical non-equilibrium Local (thermo-)chemical equilibrium
60

Chemical non-equilibrium Additional conservation equations for the chemical species must be considered: where
· ρys u = − · Js + ωs , ˙ s = 1, . . . , ns

• •

the diffusion ﬂuxes Js are computed by solving the Stefan-Maxwell equations, and
˙ the chemical source terms ωs are computed using the law of mass action and an Arrhenius formulation for the reaction rates.
61

Local (thermo-) chemical equilibrium In this case, additional conservation equations for the chemical elements must be considered. The elemental diffusion ﬂuxes Jα can be expressed as linear combinations of the electric ﬁeld and elemental mass fractions, pressure and temperature gradients (Rini et al., Phys. Rev. E, 2005).
Jα =
E −Dα E

· ρYα u = −

· Jα ,

α = 1, . . . , ne

T ρDα

T−
62

p ρDα

p − ρDαβ Yβ

Heat ﬂux For both chemical non-equilibrium & local (thermo-)chemical equilibrium, the heat ﬂux must be modiﬁed to take into account the diffusion heat ﬂux q = qd − λ T . Chemical non-equilibrium: qd =
ns

Local (thermo-)chemical equilibrium: the diffusion heat ﬂux can also be expressed in terms of the electric ﬁeld and the elemental mass fraction, pressure and temperature gradients.
qd = −λE E − λT T − λp p − λα Yα
63

s=1

hs Js

Numerical aspects: space discretization

V = (δp, Yα or ys , ρu, T )

t

64

Numerical aspects: space discretization

• 2nd order pressure-stabilized cell-centered
ﬁnite volume solver written in terms of
V = (δp, Yα or ys , ρu, T )
t

64

Numerical aspects: space discretization

• 2nd order pressure-stabilized cell-centered
ﬁnite volume solver written in terms of
V = (δp, Yα or ys , ρu, T )
t

• MUSCL upwind approach for species/

elemental mass fractions, momentum & energy,

64

Numerical aspects: space discretization

• 2nd order pressure-stabilized cell-centered
ﬁnite volume solver written in terms of
V = (δp, Yα or ys , ρu, T )
t

• MUSCL upwind approach for species/

elemental mass fractions, momentum & energy, ﬁeld discretized using central ﬁnite volume discretization on a far-ﬁeld mesh extending beyond the torch
64

• non-singular formulation for the electric

Numerical aspects: iterative strategies

65

Numerical aspects: iterative strategies

• The discretized equations are solved using

damped (quasi-) Newton strategies and modern iterative linear solvers with various levels of ﬂowﬁeld/EM ﬁeld coupling:

65

Numerical aspects: iterative strategies

• The discretized equations are solved using • decoupled approximate Jacobian with
frozen mass ﬂuxes (Picard),

damped (quasi-) Newton strategies and modern iterative linear solvers with various levels of ﬂowﬁeld/EM ﬁeld coupling:

65

Numerical aspects: iterative strategies

• The discretized equations are solved using • decoupled approximate Jacobian with
frozen mass ﬂuxes (Picard), Newton),

damped (quasi-) Newton strategies and modern iterative linear solvers with various levels of ﬂowﬁeld/EM ﬁeld coupling:

• decoupled approximate Jacobian (Quasi-

65

Numerical aspects: iterative strategies

• The discretized equations are solved using • decoupled approximate Jacobian with
frozen mass ﬂuxes (Picard), Newton),

damped (quasi-) Newton strategies and modern iterative linear solvers with various levels of ﬂowﬁeld/EM ﬁeld coupling:

• decoupled approximate Jacobian (Quasi• exact coupled Jacobian (Newton)
65

Application I: comparison of LTE & CNEQ Geometry & operating conditions
Wall: 3 mm 1.4 W/m K R1 = 67 mm R2 = 80 mm R3 = 108.5 mm

L1 = 100 mm L2 = 250 mm L3 = 470 mm

pressure mass ﬂow frequency

0.05 - 0.3 atm Quartz tube 6 g/s 0.45 MHz swirl angle power

3mm 1.4 Wm-1K-1 45 ˚ 75 kW

66

Application I: comparison of LTE & CNEQ Physico-chemical and numerical parameters

• 11-species air model (N , O , NO, O, N,
2 2

N2 , O2
+

+

+, O+, N+, e-), ,NO

• chemical kinetics model of Dunn & Kang, • meshes: 131 x 47 , 262 x 94 (ﬂow) • non-catalytic quartz tube surface.
67

Application I: comparison of LTE & CNEQ (cont.)

Oxygen elemental fraction at 0.05 atm

68

Application I: comparison of LTE & CNEQ (cont.)

Oxygen elemental fraction at 0.05 atm

Signiﬁcant non-equilibrium effects at low pressure

68

Application I: comparison of LTE & CNEQ (cont.)

Oxygen elemental fraction at 0.05 atm Oxygen elemental fraction at 0.3 atm

69

Application I: comparison of LTE & CNEQ (cont.)

Oxygen elemental fraction at 0.05 atm Oxygen elemental fraction at 0.3 atm

• Much smaller non-equilibrium effects at high pressure

69

Application I: comparison of LTE & CNEQ (cont.)

Oxygen elemental fraction at 0.05 atm Oxygen elemental fraction at 0.3 atm

• Much smaller non-equilibrium effects at high pressure • Similar amount of elemental fraction variation

69

Application I: comparison of LTE & CNEQ (cont.)

Outlet species mole fraction proﬁles at 0.3 atm

70

Application I: comparison of LTE & CNEQ (cont.)

Outlet species mole fraction proﬁles at 0.3 atm

LTE formulation valid at high pressures
70

Application II: TCNEQ computations

71

Application II: TCNEQ computations

• Identical operating conditions, except:
Pressure = 0.05 atm, Power = 50 kW

71

Application II: TCNEQ computations

• Identical operating conditions, except:
Pressure = 0.05 atm, Power = 50 kW

• Identical air model & chemical kinetics

model + 2-temperature thermal NEQ model

71

Application II: TCNEQ computations

• Identical operating conditions, except:
Pressure = 0.05 atm, Power = 50 kW

• Identical air model & chemical kinetics

model + 2-temperature thermal NEQ model

• coarser 66 x 29 ﬂow mesh, 85 x 42 EM mesh

71

Application II: TCNEQ computations

• Identical operating conditions, except:
Pressure = 0.05 atm, Power = 50 kW

• Identical air model & chemical kinetics

model + 2-temperature thermal NEQ model

• coarser 66 x 29 ﬂow mesh, 85 x 42 EM mesh

71

Application II: TCNEQ computations (cont.)

0.600 0.000 0.200 -0.013 0.000 0.000 0.050

Flowﬁeld pattern

72

Application II: TCNEQ computations (cont.)

0.600 0.000 0.200 -0.013 0.000 0.000 0.050

Flowﬁeld pattern

• Typical base ﬂow pattern, with minor inﬂuence of
Lorentz and centrifugal forces
72

Application II: TCNEQ computations (cont.)
315 1000 3000 8500 8000 5000 6000 7000

Electro-vibrational temperature
315

1000

3000

5000 6200

6000

6150

6200 6240

Roto-translational temperature
73

Conclusion

74

Conclusion
• Magneto-ﬂuid dynamics is a tremendously
varied ﬁeld of study with many wildly different regimes and an increasing number of applications in fundamental research & industry.

74

Conclusion
• Magneto-ﬂuid dynamics is a tremendously • It poses speciﬁc numerical difﬁculties, in
varied ﬁeld of study with many wildly different regimes and an increasing number of applications in fundamental research & industry. particular the satisfaction of the solenoidal constraint & BCs for the EM ﬁeld.

74

Conclusion
• Magneto-ﬂuid dynamics is a tremendously • It poses speciﬁc numerical difﬁculties, in
varied ﬁeld of study with many wildly different regimes and an increasing number of applications in fundamental research & industry. particular the satisfaction of the solenoidal constraint & BCs for the EM ﬁeld. recent studies carried out at ULB & VKI.

• Recent progress has been illustrated by a few
74