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PRACTICAL
FRENCH COURSE
IN FIFTY LESSONS

AN ENTIRELY NEW METHOD


BY

RAPHAEL D'AMOUR,

A. M.,

OFFICIER D'ACADMIE.
DIRECTOR OF THE FRENCH DEPARTMENT
IN THE SCHOOL OF PEDAGOGY OF THE
BROOKLYN INSTITUTE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES:

FORMERLY,
ROFESSOR OF THE FRENCH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE
IN

FORDHAM UNIVERSITY.

THIRD EDITION

NEW YORK
1917

."Jta

to act of Congress
in the office of
librarian of Congress at Washington, D. C.

Entered according

The

1917

By

RAPHAL D'AMOUR
All Rights Reserved

OCT 26 1317
The Aster Press
New York

CLA476754

PREFACE
This radically

new method of learning the French language


form the working principle of the
"To teach Americans how to say in French the

embodies in concrete
author, namely:

away

very things they are daily saying in English," thus doing

with the useless phraseology of the old grammars so humorously ridiculed by

Mark Twain.

practical age of ours

The

fact

is,

that in this

a speaking knowledge of modern lan-

guages, of French especially, has become a matter of necessity,


the time being long past
like L,atin

and Greek,

when

for the

a foreign tongue was studied,


mere sake of general culture and

polish.

Originally written for those students

French rapidly, either

grammar

is

schools, also

The

now used with


by the

who wish

to master

for pleasure or business, the present

great success in colleges and

best private teachers, here

and abroad.

ever-increasing popularity of this book, which has already

reached the third edition,

is

the most convincing proof of

its

practical value.

In the two preliminary lessons of this grammar the pupil


how to pronounce, read and write French;
second, how to distinguish, by a very simple rule, the gender
of French nouns, and to form the plural of the same; third,
how to acquire an extensive French vocabulary by mere

is

taught: First,

observation.

In the subsequent practical lessons the student

is

led,

gradually and logically, through the intricacies of the lan-

guage, from those conventional phrases in current daily use, to


the fluent form of conversation and the mastery of idiomatic

French.

Each one
certain

is followed by a
which the pupil has to complete a
sentences by supplying missing words, an

of the first twenty-five lessons

practical exercise,

number

of

in

excellent system for learning to write in French.

An

important innovation will be found in the following


be translated into French:
By indicating the strict literal structure of each French sentence in English, the author feels confident to have not only

lessons, in the practical exercises to

greatly simplified the task of the student, but also to have

paved the way toward learning to think in French.


Special attention

is

called to the following features:

1.

Table of the French sounds with their nearest equivalents in


English.

2.

Three

introductory

phrases in current daily use.

grammatical lesson.

4.

of the irregular verbs.

expressions.
8.

6.

A
5.

lessons

The most commonly used

Literary quotations.

Short anecdotes.

9.

containing

set

Unity of subject for each


brief, yet comprehensive tabulation
3.

7.

idiomatic

French proverbs.

Classical definitions.

The author now presents this new, thoroughly revised and


considerably improved edition, with the hope that it may meet
with the kind approval of those teachers and students who wish
to leave the long-beaten path,

and

use, for teaching

and learn-

ing French, a common-sense method.

RAPHAKIy D'AMOUR.
New

York, September,

1917.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
LESSON

page;

I.

PRONUNCIATION.
1

How to Call the Letters of the French Alphabet


Table of the French Sounds with their nearest equivalents
in English
Miscellaneous Rules

LESSON

15

15

21

II.

GENERAI, NOTIONS.

How to Accent the Vowels


How to Read French
How to Distinguish the Gender of French Noun s
How to Form the Plural of French Nouns
How to See at a Glance the Similarity between a great many

English and French


Exercise

,2

Words

LESSONS

22
24

26

27

28

29

III

V.

USUAI, PHRASES.

The
The
3 The
4 The
5 The
6 The
7 The
i

Salutation

30

Days
Months

34

Seasons

34

Weather
Time of Day

35

Present, Past

31

37

and Future

38

LESSON

VI.

page

THE INDEFINITE) ARTICLE.


1

Grammatical Rules.

Practice

Exercise

39
39
43

LESSON

VII.

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE.


1

Grammatical Rules

Practice

45

Countries

47

Nationalities

Exercise

47
48

44

LESSON

VIII.

CONTRACTION OE THE DEFINITE ARTICLE.

Genitive or Possessive Case


Dative Case
Practice
.,,.

Important Remark on the word

Exercise...,

49
51

52

Home

53
53

LESSON

IX.

THE PARTITIVE ARTICLE.


1

Grammatical Rules

55

Practice

57

Exercise

59

LESSON

X.

INTERROGATIVE AND NEGATIVE FORMS.


i

4
5

How to Form Questions


How to Form Answers
How to Form Negative Sentences
Negative Expressions
Exercise

60
61

63

65
65

LESSON

page

XI.

NUMERAL ADJECTIVES.
i

Cardinal Numbers
Ordinal Numbers

66
69

Fractional Numbers
Nouns used as Numbers

Exercise

70
71

71

LESSON

XII.

DEMONSTRATIVE AND POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES.


1

Grammatical Rules

Practice

73
76

Exercise

78

LESSON

XIII.

QUALIFYING ADJECTIVES.
i

How to Form the Feminine of Adjectives


How to Form the Plural of Adjectives

79

Place of Adjectives

80
80

Irregular Adjectives

82

Practice

84

Exercise

85

LESSON XIV.
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.
2

How to Form the Comparative of Adjectives


How to Form the Superlative of Adjectives

Comparative Expressions

Exercise

87

89
.,

92

92

LESSON XV.
INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES.
94
96

Meanings of the word flme


Meanings of the word Tout
Practical Expressions formed with the Adjectives Tout
and Mme
Other Indefinite Adjectives

Exercise

99

Different

Different

97
98

LESSON XVI.
PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
1

page

Personal Pronouns used as Subject of the Verb


Personal Pronouns used Objectively
Place of Personal Pronouns

101

103
103

Practice

104

Important Remarks

106

Exercise

108

LESSON

XVII.

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.

How to Render in French the Interrogative Pronoun Who.


How to Render in French the Interrogative Pronoun Whom.
How to Render in French the Interrogative Pronouns What,

Practice

Exercise

Which

109

no
112

113
114

<

LESSON

XVIII.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.
1

4
5

How

Render in French the Demonstrative Pronouns


This, That, These, Those

to

Demonstrative Pronouns used Absolutely


Important Remarks on the Pronoun It...
Practical Expressions formed with C'est, (it is or that is)
How to Render in French the Demonstrative form Here
Here are, There is, There are
Exercise

115
117
117

119
is,

120
120

LESSON XIX.
1

How to

How

RELATIVE AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.


Render in French the Pronouns Who, Whom, To

Whom
to

122

Render in French the Pronouns Which, Of Which,

To Which

123
125

Demonstrative and Relative Pronouns Combined


Possessive Pronouns

Practice

127

Exercise

127

126

LESSON XX.

PAGE

INVARIABLE PRONOUNS.

word En (some,
from there)
Practical Exercise on the word Y (to it, to them; at it, at
them; there)
Idiomatic Expressions formed with the word Y

Exercise for Translation

Practical Exercise on the very important

any, of

it,

of them,

130

133
134

135

LESSON XXI.
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
1

3
4
5

6
7

8
9
[o
[i

12

On

(one, somebody, people)


Quelqu'un (somebody, someone, anybody)
Personne (no one, nobody)
Quelque chose (something)
Rien (nothing)
Quelques uns (some, a few)

Chacun (each one)


Tout le monde (everybody)
Quiconque (whoever)

136
136
137
137
137

138
138

138

L'un, L'autre (the one, the other)


Autrui (others)
Exercise

LESSON

136
,..

138

139
140

XXII.

THE ADVERB.

How

form Adverbs

141

Place of Adverbs
List of Adverbial Expressions

142

Important Remark on the Adverbs of Quantity

144

Practice

145

Exercise

146

to

142

LESSON

PAGE

XXIII.

INVARIABLE WORDS.

The Preposition
The Conjunction
The Interjection

Practice

Exercise

147

148

148
149
153

LESSON XXIV.
PRACTICAL EXERCISE ON SOME INVARIABLE WORDS
HAVING SEVERAL MEANINGS.
1

A En De Que

Bien

SiPourPar

Ou O Jusque.

155

LESSON XXV.
REMARKS ON THE RIGHT USE OE SOME PRACTICAL
WORDS.
1

Day, Morning, Evening


Year, Parents, Relatives, Father-in-Law, etc
Piece, Lecture, Office

164
165
166

167

Note
Present, Gift, Mouth, Fire
Word, Linen, Next
Audience, Sensible, Wages, Rivers

Exercise

171

4
5

End, Ticket,

Bill,

168
169

170

LESSON XXVI.
AUXILIARY VERBS.

Conjugation of the Verbs Avoir, to have, and Etre, to


Negative form

Interrogative form

be....

172
177

178

LESSON XXVII.
VERB ETRE, TO

BE.

Practical Exercise

180

on that Verb
Idiomatic Expressions formed with the Verb Etre

Exercise for Translation

184

183

LESSON XXVIII.
VERB AVOIR, TO HAVE1

Practical Exercise on that Verb....

185

Idiomatic Expressions formed with the Verb Avoir


Exercise for Translation

191

191

LESSON XXIX.
REGULAR VERBS.
i

General Notions
Hints for Conjugating the Regular Verbs
Table of Conjugation
Exercise for Translation

192
193
195

199

LESSON XXX.
WST OE THE MOST PRACTICAL
1

gation
3

4
5

VERBS.

Verbs of the first Conjugation


Remarks on the Spelling of some Verbs of the

Verbs of the second Conjugation


Verbs of the third Conjugation
Exercise for Translation

201
first

Conju206
207

207
208

LESSON XXXI.
THE USE OF THE TENSES.
i

Grammatical Rules.

2 Practice.

3 Exercise for Translation..

page
210

LESSON XXXII.
THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE.
i

Grammatical Rules.

Practice

216

THE PAST PARTICIPLE.


1

Grammatical Rules.

2 Practice.

3 Exercise for Translation..

218

LESSON XXXIII.
THE PRESENT OP THE INDICATIVE.
Grammatical Rules.

2 Practice

THE IMPERFECT OF THE INDICATIVE.


1

Grammatical Rules.

2 Practice.

3 Exercise for Translation..

224

LESSON XXXIV.
THE PAST INDEFINITE.
i

Grammatical Rules.

2 Practice.

3 Exercise for Translation..

228

LESSON XXXV.
THE PAST DEFINITE.
i

Grammatical Rules.

2 Practice.

3 Exercise for Translation..

234

LESSON XXXVI.
THE FUTURE.
I

Grammatical Rules.

2 Practice

238

THE CONDITIONAL.
1

Grammatical Rules.

2 Practice.

3 Exercise for Translation..

240

LESSON XXXVII.
THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
i

Grammatical Rules.

2 Practice.

3 Exercise for Translation..

244

LESSON XXXVIII.
THE IMPERATIVE MOOD.
I

Grammatical Rules.

2 Practice.

3 Exercise for Translation..

252

LESSON XXXIX.

PAGE

Miscellaneous Rules

257

LESSONS
1

Practical Exercise on
gation.

XIv.-XI.II.

some Important Verbs

LESSON
1

of the first Conju-

Exercise for Translation

Practical Exercise

264

XLIII.

on some Important Verbs

third Conjugations.

of the second and


Exercise for Translation

283

LESSON XLIV.
1

How

to

form the Compound Tenses of the Verbs of Motion.


290

2 Practice...

IMPERSONAL VERBS.
"

Conjugation of Impersonal Verbs.


for Translation

2 Practice.

3 Exercise

292

LESSONS XLV. XLVI.


Irregular Verbs

296

LESSON XLVII.
REFLEXIVE VERBS.
1

Model of Conjugation.

2 Practical

Exercise on some Important

Reflexive Verbs

316

LESSON XLVIII.
French Proverbs

326

LESSON XLIX.
Reading and Memory Exercises.

Short Anecdotes

LESSON
Definitions

330

L.

334

Practical French Course

15

PREMIRE LEON.

LESSON

I.

PRONUNCIATION.

I.

How to call the letters of the French alphabet.

ah

bay

say

day

ay

eff

zhay

ash

ee

oh

pay

kid

air

kah

ell

emm

enn

ess

tay

vay

eeks

J
zhee

Y
ee greek,

z
zedd

The letter w, called in French double v (doobl vay),


found only in some foreign words which have been
adopted into the French language.
is

II.

Table of the French sounds with their nearest


equivalents in English.

Although the pronunciation is best acquired bystudying the practical lessons with a French teacher,
we will give the following table as a useful guide to be
consulted when the learner does not know how to pronounce a word.

Practical French Course

16

VOWELS.
pronounced ah

is

(unaccented)

is silent

Panama
when madame

Pa-na-ma

Panama

mah-dm

madam

lur

the

final.

however sounded and le


pronounced somewhat like de
ur (r silent) in monosyl- cela
lables and at the beginning

It is

dur

of

sur-lah

that

kah-fay

coffee

of polysyllables.

with an acute accent (f) caf


sounds like ay.
with a grave accent (A) pre
sounds like ai in fair.
with a circumflex accent rve
(A) sounds broad like ea

pair

father

rev

dream

in pear.

sounds always like ee.


sounds always like o in so.
sounds nearly like the German u or somewhat like eu

O
U

ami
opra

ahm-ee

lu

friend
oh-pay-rah opera
read
lid

vu

vi

seen

in pleurisy.

beginning of a word yacht


or between two consonants style

at the

is

pronounced

yacht

yacht

steel

style

pay-yay

paid

ee.

But when placed between pay


two vowels it has the distinct sound of two French
i's.

DIPHTHONGS.
ai

au or eau
ei

eu or
oi

ou

pronounced ay.
pronounced oh.
sounds like ai in fair.
sounds nearly like u in fur.
sounds nearly like wah.
sounds like oo in too.
is

balai

bah-lay

broom

is

eau

oh
renn

water
queen

reine

feu

fur

fire

foi

fwah

fou

foo

faith
crazy

Practical French Course;

17

COMBINED VOWELS.

A vowel

surmounted by a diaeresis (""), trrna, does not


form a diphthong with another vowel, but either vowel is
Thus, for instance, the
to be pronounced separately.
word naif, naive, must be pronounced as if written nah-if.
Likewise, the following are not diphthongs, but com-

bined vowels to be pronounced separately

IA

pronounced

as

he prayed

if

written

il

pria

ill-pree-ah

if

written

il

salua

ill-sah-l-ah he saluted

if

written minuit

me-nii-ee

midnight

if

written duo

dii-oh

duet

ee-ah.

UA

pronounced as
u-ah.

Ul

pronounced as
u-ee.

UO

pronounced as
u-oh.

NASAL SOUNDS.
The combination
sonant

or

of a vowel or diphthong with the conn produces what we call in French, le son

nasal, (the nasal sound).

The

nasal sounds are represented

binations

AN

pronounced nearly like

EN

ng

EM

(final

silent).

maman

mah-mng marna

lampe

lmp

lamp

encore
empire

ng-core

yet,

r vin
limpide
pronounced nearly like J
pain
&ng (final g silent).
faim

IN

IM
AIN

AIM
EIN

-j

AM

by the following com-

sein

om-peer

vng

again
empire

png

wine
limpid
bread

fng
sang

hunger
bosom

lm-peed

Practical French Course

18

ON

^ pronounced nearly like

OM

ng

UN

pronounced nearly like

UM

nng

IEN

OIN

(final

bon
bng
tombeau tm-boh

lundi

lung-dee

Monday

parfum

par-fng

perfume

bien

bee-ng

well

loin

lw-ng

g silent).

(final

g silent).

pronounced nearly like |

ee-Mig (final g silent),

pronounced nearly like

>

7m.ng (final g

silent).

good
tomb

far

OBSERVATION.
If the

consonant

followed by

but the

initial

is immediately
sound is not given,
vowel must be pronounced separately.

a vowel,

or

is

the

doubled, or

nasal

Thus, for instance, the words innocent, immense, image, vinaigre,


as if written
ee-noh-sahng, ee-mongs, ee-mahzh,

must be pronounced

vee-neg-ger.

LIQUID SOUNDS.

The
French

following combinations represent what


les

sons

liquides

we

call in

(lay song leekeed), the liquid

sounds.

Their pronunciation must be heard from the mouth of a

French teacher

ail

pronounced

nearly travail

trahv-eye

work

nearly Versailles

Vair-sah-yr

Versailles

nearly soleil

so-lay-ye

sun

nearly abeille

ah-bay-yur

bee

nearly fauteuil

foh-t-ye

arm-chair

like eye.
aille

pronounced
like ah-y\xr.

eil

pronounced
like ay-ye.

eille

pronounced
like ay-yr.

eull

pronounced
like e-ye.

Practical French Course

euille

pronounced

19

nearly feuille

f-yr

leaf

nearly

fee-yr

girl

grn-noo-yur

frog

like -yr.
ille

pronounced

fille

like ee-yr.

ouille

pronounced

nearly grenouille

like 00-y.r.

gne

nearly champagne shm-pah-nee-

pronounced

Champagne

[er

like nee-yr.

CONSONANTS.
The consonants not mentioned
pronounced as

in the following table are

in English.

hard like

be-

caf

kah-fay

coffee

It is soft like s be-

ceci

ss-se

this

mah-sng

mason

she-ang

dog

chrtien

kray-tee-ng

christian

cueillir

cur-yeer

to

sounds hard like g garon

gar-sng

boy, waiter

goor-mng

greedy
Gustave

is

fore a, o, u.

CH

and maon

fore

e,

when

a cedilla

i,

is

placed under it.


generally chien

sounds

like sh.

hard like

It is

before

a conso-

nant.

CUE

pronounced

is

gather

nearly like cu in
cur.

in garden, before

the vowels a, o,
u,

gourmand

and also be- Gustave

fore

Giis-tahv

conso-

nant.

It

sounds

soft,

genou

zher-noo

knee

somewhat

like s

girafe

zhee-raf

giraffe

in

pleasure, be-

fore
e,

i.

the vowels

Practical French Course

20

GU

followed by e or i guerre
sounds like the figuier

hard

is

ghair
fee-ghe-ay

war
fig-tree

g.

sounded in l'homme

not

French, and
therefore

les

lohm

hommes lay-zohm

(the)

(the)

man
men

is

it

generally called

mute.

When

called aspi- la harpe

lah-ahrp
ler-ah-moh
only pre- le hameau
vents the con- les hameaux lay-ah-moh
nection with the les haricots lay-ah-ree-koh
last consonant of
the preceding
word, and also
the elision of the
vowels a, e, berate, it

fore
J

is

the harp
the hamlet
the hamlets

the beans

it.

pronounced

joli

nearly like s in jamais

zho-lee

pretty

zhah-may

never

bree-yong
roo-yay
fah-mee-yur

rusty

pleasure.

LL

preceded by an

and followed by
a or

e,

brillant

rouill

are called famille

liquid,

brilliant

family

and they

sound somewhat
like

ye or yur.

However,

11

sounds

like a single

QU

ville

veal

city

key

who,

ah-kwah-rell

water-color

sol-dah

soldier

may-zng

house

in

a few words.
sounds generally qui

whom

like k.

However, in a few aquarelle


words it is pronounced as in
English.

sounds

generally soldat

like s in

so.

When between two


vowels
like z.

it

sounds

maison

Practical French Course

pronounced

is

like s in

ending

mar-see-ahl

martial

words position
ion,

in

situation

ieux,

ing in

see-ti-ah-see-

situation

[ng
m-bee-see-yur ambitious

as prodmocra-

ie,

phtie^
tie,

martial

poh-zee-see-ng position

and in
some words end- ambitieux
ial,

21

aristocratie,

diplomatie.

TH

sounds always like th

tay

tea

t in tobacco.

MISCELLANEOUS RULES.
1.

At

the end of a

word the

syllables et, ez, ed, er, are

pronounced ay.
Poulet (poo-lay), chicken ; parler (par-lay), to speak.
Allez (ah-lay), go ; pied (pee-ay), foot.
However, the words amer, bitter ; enfer, hell; fier, proud, are pronounced ah-mair, ng-fair, fee-air.
2.

In monosyllables, and also

syllable, er
lost ;

3.

sounds air; cher

poly-

perdu (pair-du),

to look for.

Before a word beginning with a vowel or an h mute,

like Z

dix oranges, (deezohrngzh).

sounds like t

grand opra, (grntohpayrah).

F sounds like v

neuf hommes, (nvohm).

Ent

a verb.
the final

5.

(shair), dear;

chercher (shair-shay),

X sounds

4.

when beginning a

is silent when it marks the third person plural of


However, if the next word begins with a vowel,
t is sounded and carried over.

Ils

parlent

Ils

parlent anglais

The

(ill

pari), they speak.

final t of et,

always ay.

(ill

pari tnglay), they speak English.

and,

is

never pronounced.

Et sounds

Practical French Course

22

DEUXIEME LEON.
LESSON IL
GENERAL NOTIONS.
1.

The vowels,

How

in

to accent the vowels.

French, are rendered long or short by

marks placed over them.


There are three orthographic accents the acute (f) l'acthe grave (^), V accent grave ; the circumflex
cent aigu
certain accents or

A ), V accent
i

circonflexe.

The acute accent placed upon


Caf (kah-f ay), coffee

2.

e gives

The grave accent placed upon

sound of ai
Pre

vowel the

in fair.
(pair), father ;

The grave accent


Thus

The

the sound ofay.

e gives that

mre

(mair),

mother ; frre

(frair), brother.

serves also to contradistinguish a few

words which have the same sound, but a

3.

it

bont (bong-tay), goodness.

different

a,

unaccented, means has.

accented,

la,

unaccented,

l,

accented,

' '

"
"

at or

meaning.

to.

the.

there.

ou, unaccented,

"

or.

0, accented,

<f

where.

circumflex accent gives the vowel a broader,

longer sound, and generally denotes the suppression of a

Practical French Course

23

which was formerly used after the vowel over which


That letter generally an s has been preit is placed.
served in a number of English words coming from the
letter

French, as

Mt, mast ;

le, isle ;

fort, forest ; hpital, hospital.

ELISION.

The vowels

and replaced by
an apostrophe before words beginning with a vowel or an
h mute. Thus, we write and pronounce for the sake of
euphony
a, e,

are generally cut off

1/ arme, the army, instead of la arme.


"
L'enfant, the child,
le enfant.

L'homme,

the

man,

I have,
J'aime, I like,
Je l'aime, I like

' '

le

homme.

je ai.

J'ai,

it,

"

je aime.

"

je le aime.

HYPHEN.

A hyphen, called in French trait d'union, is placed


between the two parts of a compound noun or number.
Porte-monnaie, pocket-book.
Dix-sept, seventeen.

A
noun

hyphen

is

in the interrogative

mood used

between the verb and the prosentences and in the imperative

also placed

affirmatively.

Avez-vous ?
Bst-il ?

Have you ? Donnez-moi. Give me.


Donnez-le-moi. Give it

Is he ?

to

me.

DOERESIS.

French trma, is placed over the


vowels which are to be pronounced separately.
Thus, for instance, the word hair, to hate, must be pronounced ah-eer, Without the trema, or two dots over the
i, it would be pronounced air.
diaeresis, called in

Practical French Course

24

CEDILLA.

A cedilla

( s ),

called in

French

cdille

(say-dee-yur),

placed under the letter before the vowels


should be pronounced like s in so.
Faade

(fah-sad), front ;

reu

II.

a, o, u,

when

is
it

garon (gar-song), boy ;

(rer-si), received.

How

to read French.

SYLLABIC ACCENT.

As

is laid, in French, upon the last


words not ending with a mute e, and upon
syllable but one in words ending with a mute e.

a rule, the stress

syllable in all

the last

Charjeau, hat.

Perte, door.

Gnra/, General.
Amricain, American.

Chemise,

Popular^, popularity.

Popu/tfce, mob.

shirt.

Diffrence, difference.

IMPORTANT RULES
ABOUT THE FINAI, CONSONANTS.
I.

cept

The last consonant of a word is generally silent, exwhen the following word begins with a vowel or an

h mute.
However, the four
the end of a word.

letters c,

Examples
Mais (may),

(dk), Duke.

CE>uf (uf), egg.

Lit (lee), bed.

Tapis (tah-pee), carpet.

Nous parlons

are often sounded at

Duc

but.

r,

f, 1,

(noo-par-long),

Fil

we

(fill),

Soir

thread.

swahr), evening.

Practical French Course)


2.

The

consonant of a word

last

carried over and joined to the next

25

generally sounded,

is

word when

it

begins

with a vowel or an h mute.

The
is

slurring of a final consonant to the following vowel

called in French, liaison.

The
tion,

notice

by

liaison

and

we

it,

will indicate the

w.

this sign

Vous

avez,

Vous

tes,

for a

pure pronuncia-

Thus

same,

in the first ten lessons,

you have, pronounced as

if

spelt voo-zah-vay.

"

"

"

voo-zett.

Les enfants, the children, "

"

"

lay-zon-fong.

Les hommes, the men,

"

"

lay-zohm.

"

"

may-zah-mee.

Mes

3.

being very important

order to help and accustom the learner to

in

amis,

you

are,

my friends,

"

In words ending in rd,

stead of the final d or

rt,

the r

is

carried over in-

t.

C'est lourd porter (say-loo-rah portay),

it is

heavy

to

carry.
Il est

mort Paris ( ee-lay moh-rah Pah-ree), he died

in Paris.

4.

Final n

not carried over to the following vowel so

is

as to preserve the nasal sound

Ma

maison
house

est

grande (man may-zong ay grnd),

my

is large.

However, the n of on (one, people, they), and also the n


of en (in, of it, of them, some, any), must be carried over.
On

a sonn (ohnah sonay), someone has rung.

J'en ai assez (zhah-nay-ah-say),

I have enough of it.

Practical French Course

26

IMPORTANT OBSERVATIONS
ABOUT THE LETTER E.
I.

Final e

not sounded before a word beginning with

is

The

a vowel or an h mute.

any regard

must be made without

liaison

Thus,

to that e or h.

for instance

is,

must be pronounced

ell-ay.

she has,

must be pronounced

ell-ah.

Kile

est,

Bile

a,

Je parle

she

un

peu,

speak a

little,

must be pronounced

zher-par-lung-pur.

must be pronounced

Elle hsite, she hesitates,

2.

ell-ay-zeet.

In conversation the e of the second monosyllable

not sounded.
Je le sais,

Thus

is

I know it, is pronounced zhull-say.


/ do not know, is pronounced zhun-say-pah.

Je ne sais pas,

3.

The

letter e

is

also frequently slided over in the mid-

Thus

dle of a word.

Appeler, to

call, is

Bpeler, to spell,

"

Acheter, to buy,

Amener,

III.

How

pronounced as
"
"
'

to bring,

'

to distinguish the

if

spelt op-lay.

"

ayp-lay

"

"

ash-tay.

"

"

ahm-nay.

gender

of

a French noun.

There is no neuter gender in French.


All the substantives in the French language are either
masculine or feminine.

The gender

of substantives

following general rule

may

be determined by the

Practical French Course)

27

OF THE FEMININE GENDER ARE


of course, the

Besides,

nouns denoting- a female

by-

nature,
i.

2.

3.

4.
5.

All the nouns ending in


...ion
All the nouns ending in
.....aison
Most nouns ending in
eur
Most nouns ending in
t
Most nouns (about 95 per cent.) ending with a mute....e

Nouns ending otherwise

will generally

be found mascu-

line.

Practice will teach the exceptions to the above very

simple rule.
IV.

The

How

to form the plural of French nouns.

plural of a noun, in French,

in English,

by adding an

is

generally formed, as

s to the singular, but the s

is

not to be sounded, except before a word beginning with a

vowel or an h mute.

The number

of a French noun

always clearly indi-

is

cated by the prefixed article or adjective.

Un sou,
Deux

one

sous,

cent.

Le

two

Les

cents.

Trois francs, three francs.

livre, the book.


livres, the books.

Des pommes, some

apples.

EXCEPTIONS.

I.

The nouns ending

change
Le
La
Le

in the singular

with

s, x, z,

in the plural.

fils,

the son.

voix, the voice.


nez, the nose.

Les fils, the sons.


Les voix, the voices.
Les nez, the noses.

do not

Practical French Course

28

The nouns ending

2.

in the singular in au, eau, eu,

take

x in the plural.
Le drapeau, the flag.
Le feu, the fire.

Les drapeaux, the flags.


Les feux, the fires.

3. The nouns ending in the singular in al, ail, generally


change those terminations into aux in the plural.

Le

cheval, the horse.

Un

journal, a newspaper.

Les chevaux, the horses.


Des journaux, (some) newspapers.

Le

V.

Les travaux, the works.

travail, the work.

How to

see at

great

many

(1).

Most words

a glance the similarity between a


English and French words.

{over 2,006) ending with the following

terminations are the same in both languages

al

animal,

rival,

fatal,

ce

silence,

science,

chance,

face.

de
ge

parade,

brigade,

suicide,

homicide.

page,

rage,

courage,

outrage.

le

simple,

table,

possible,

terrible.

ne
ant

mine,

doctrine,

famine,

canine.

restaurant,

instant,

important,

constant.

ent

accent,

moment,

accident,

monument.

ion

nation,

situation,

occasion,

excursion.

(2).

musical, etc.

Most English words ending with one of the follow-

ing terminations become French by changing

it

as follows

into ie

malady

maladie

ty into t

activity

activit

er into re
ic into ique

letter

lettre

Republic

Rpublique

id into ide

solid

solide

Practical French Course;

or into eur

ism

doctor

isme

into

29

docteur
catholicisme

Catholicism

ist into iste

dentist

dentiste

ive into

motive

motif

if

ary into aire


ency into ence
ory into oire
ous into eux

ordinary

ordinaire

excellency

excellence

victory

victoire

curious

curieux

OBSERVATION.
Practice will teach the exceptions to the above rules

EXERCISE.
1.

Le crayon

(m.), the pencil

2.

La

(f.),

3.

Le chien

4.

Le chat

5.

Le cheval

6.

Un

7.

Une noix

8.

Un chapeau

9.

Une plume

(f.),

a pen.

10.

Une

chaise

(f.),

ci

11.

Une

table

12.

Un

13.

fentre

the window.

(m.), the dog.

(m.), the cat.


(m.), the horse.

gnral (m.), a general.


(f.),

a nut.

(m.), a hat.

5-

Les
Les
Les
Les

6.

Des , {some) generals.

7.

Des

8.

Des , (some)

9.

Des

1.

2.

3-

4.

Les

the pencils.

the windows.

the dogs.

the cats.

the horses.

(some) nuts.
hats.

(some) pens.

10.

Des , (some)

11.

Des

bureau (m.), a desk.

12.

Des , (some)

Un

gant (m.), a glove.

13.

Des

14.

Un

animal (m.), an animal.

14.

Des , (some) animals.

15.

Une

15.

Des , (some)

leon

(f.),

(f.),

chair.

a table.

a lesson.

chairs.

(some) tables.
desks.

(some) gloves.

lessons.

Practical French Course)

30

TROISIEME LEON.

LESSON

III.

USUAL PHRASES.
On
On
Qui
Qui

a sonn.

Somebody has rung.

a frapp.

Somebody has knocked.

est l

Who is
Who is

est-ce?

there ?
it

C'est moi.

It is I.

Entrez.

Come

Bonjour, monsieur.
Bonjour, madame.

Bonjour, mademoiselle.

Good morning, sir.


Good morning, madam.
Good morning, miss.

charm de vous voir.


Charm de faire votre connais-

I am glad to see you.


Glad to make your acquaintance.

Je suis

in.

sance.

Le

plaisir est

The pleasure

pour moi.

Take
Take
Take

tez votre paletot.


Otez votre jaquette.
tez votre manteau.
Mettez- vous votre
Faites

comme

is

mine.

offyour coat.
offyour jacket.
offyour cloak.

Make yourself comfortable.


Make yourself at home.

aise.

chez vous.

Asseyez-vous.

Sit down.

Veuillez vous asseoir.

Please be seated.

Merci.

Thank you.

Comment vous portez- vous ?


Comment allez- vous ?
Comment a va ? (familiar.

How do you do f
How are you ?
How goes it ?

Practical French Course


Trs bien, merci et vous-mme ?
Assez bien, merci.
Pas trop mal.
;

Comme
Comme

ci

comme

Very well, thank you ;

how are you

Pretty well, thank you.

Not so bad

As

l'ordinaire

31

(not too badly).

visual.

So, so

Parlez- vous franais?

Do you

speak French ?

Un
Un
Un

petit peu.

A
A little

bit.

tout petit peu.

Just a

peu.

little.

little bit.

Comprenez- vous ?

Do you

Je comprends.

I understand.
I do not understand.

Je ne

comprends

pas.

understand?

Oui, monsieur.

Yes, sir.

Non, monsieur.

No,

S'il

vous

plat.

Merci.

sir.

Ifyou please.

Thank you.
Thank you very much.

Merci bien.
Merci beaucoup.
Je vous remercie.
Je vous suis bien oblig.

Many thanks.
I thank you.
I am very much

Du

Not

Il

tout (or) de rien.


n'y a pas de quoi.
votre service.

Au
Au

revoir.
plaisir

de vous revoir.

Bonsoir.

Bonne

nuit.

at

DonH

all.

mention

it.

At your service
Good bye
Good bye

(till

we meet

I see you

Good evening.
Good night.
Till to-morrow.

/undi (ln-dee).

Monday,

Mardi (mar-dee).

Tuesday.
Wednesday.
Thursday,
Friday.
Saturday,
Sunday.

Jeudi (zhud-dee).

Vendredi (vng-drud-dee)

Samedi (sm-dee).
Dimanche (dee-mngsh).

(you are welcome),

(till

A demain.

Mercredi (mair-kr-dee).

obliged to you.

again).

again).

Practical French. Course

32

QUATRIEME LEON.
LESSON IV.
USUAL PHRASES.
Comment
Il

How is yourfather?
He is well, thank you.

se porte votre pre. (*)

se porte bien, merci.

Comment

se porte votre mari

"

votre

votre frre ?

'

'

"

votre oncle

"

votre neveu?

votre cousin

'
'

votre

'

Comment

How is your husband ?


How is your son ?
How is your brother ?
How is your uncle ?

fils?

se porte votre

ami

H07V is your nephew ?


How is your cousin ?
How is yourfriend ?

How is your mother ?

mre ?

Bile se porte bien, merci.

She

Comment

dame ?
femme ?

How is your wife?


How is your wife ?

se porte votre

sur ?

How is your sister ?


How is your daughter?
How is your sister-in-law?
How is your daughter-in-law
How is your aunt ?
How is your niece ?
How is your (lady) cousin ?
How is your (lady) friend ?

'

(*)

thank you.

se porte votre
"
votre
'

pre ?

is well,

"

"

<<

< <

<

(<

<<

(C

votre nice

(C

(<

votre cousine?

Il

votre amie

votre fille?
votre belle -sur?
votre belle-fille?
votre tante ?
?

In polite conversation we say

Comment

se porte

madame

Comment

votre

mre ?

se porte

(polite.')

(familiar.*)

monsieur votre

Practical French Course

Comment
Ils se

se portent vos enfants

Comment

se portent vos

How are your children ?


They are

portent bien, merci.

surs ?

33

well,

thank you.

How are your sisters ?

Elles se portent bien, merci.

They are

Comment va-t-on chez vous ?


le monde va bien, merci.

How are all at home ?

Comment vont

How is business

Tout

les affaires

well,

Everybody

thank you.

is well,

Tout doucement.

Rather slow.

Que

dites-vous de nouveau ?
Pas grand 'chose.

What is the news


Nothing much.

Dites-moi quelque chose en franais, voulez- vous?

Tell

Je ne sais que dire.


Essayez.

I do

Fermez

la porte.

Ouvrez

la fentre.

Shut the door.


Open the window.

Montez

le store.

Raise the shade.

me

something in French, will

you ?
not

know what

Try.

Baissez le store.

Lower the

Allumez

Light the gas.

le gaz.

Eteignez le gaz.

Turn

Venez.

Come.

Venez

ici.

Venez avec moi.


Venez encore.

Venez

bientt.

Allez.

Tout de

suite.

Dpchez- vous.

shade.

off the gas.

Come here.
Come with me.
Come again.
Come soon.
Go.

Allez-vous-en.

thank you.

Go
At

away.
once.

Hurry

up.

to say.

Practical French Course

34
Ecoutez.

Listen.

Ecoutez-inoi.

Listen to we.

Attendez.

Wait.

Attendez-moi.

Wait for me.


Wait a minute.

Attendez une minute.


Pardonnez-moi.
Je vous

Pardon me.

demande pardon.

Excuse me.

Excusez-moi.
Certainement.

Vous parlez trop

Certainly.
vite.

Parlez plus lentement.

Rptez,

s'il

Comment
uary ?

On

dit

'

L beg your pardon.

vous

plat.

dit-on en franais " Jan-

'

janvier (zh5n-vee -ay).

You speak

Repeat, ifyou please.

How

do they say fanuary in


French ?
'janvier.
They say :
'

Fvrier (fay-vree-ay).

February.

Mars (mars).

March.

Avril (ah-vrill).

April.

Mai (may).

May.

Juin (zhwng).
Juillet (zhwee-yay).
Aot (oo or oot).

July.

Septembre (sep-tm-br).

September.
October.

November.
December.

L'automne

(loh-tone).

Iy'hiver (lee-vair).

'

August.

Octobre (c-toh-br).

printemps (*) (ler-pri g-tng),


Iv't (lay-tay).

'

fune.

Novembre (noh-vm-br).
Dcembre (day-sm-br).
L,e

too fast.

Speak slower.

Th) Spring.

Summer.
Autumn.
Winter.

Avez- vous compris?


Je pense que oui.

Have you understood?


I think so.

C'est bien.

All right

(*) In French the names of the days, months and seasons are written
with a small initial, only the proper names being written with a

capital.

Practical French Course;

35

CINQUIEME LEON,
LESSON V.
Le Temps

(1er

The weather.

tong)

some idiomatic

In relation to the weather and also in

expressions the verb faire,


in the

same manner

to

make,

is

used impersonally

as the English verb to

However, the verb

tre, to be, is

used

be.

when

word

the

it.
Thus, for instance, one may
u Le
beau temps," it is fine weather or
beau," the weather is fine.

temps, weather, precedes


say either "II

temps

est

Quel temps

fait

f ait-il

How is the weather? ( What weather


makes

it ?)

Il fait

beau temps.
mauvais temps.

It is

{it

Il fait

chaud.

It is

warm.

Il fait

Il fait froid.

Il fait frais.

It is {it

makes) fine weather.


makes) bad weather.

It is cold.
It is cool.

lourd.

It is sultry {heavy).

Il fait

humide.

It is

Il fait

du

It is foggy.

Il fait

brouillard.

damp.

Il fait

du vent.

It is windy.

Il fait

de

It is dusty.

Il fait

mauvais marcher.

It is

Il fait

sombre.

It is dark.

Il fait

du

It is sunny.

la poussire.

soleil.

de lune.
un beau clair de lune.

bad walking.

Il fait clair

It is moonlight.

Il fait

It is a beautiful moonlight.

Practical French Course

36
Il fait jour.

It is daylight.

Il fait nuit.

It is night.

Le temps
Le temps
Le temps
Il fait
Il

est orageux.

The weather is cloudy.


The weather is threatening.
The weather is stormy.

clairs.

It is lightning.

est couvert.
est

des

menaant.

tonne.

It thunders.
It is raining ; it rains.

Il pleut.
Il

pleut verse.

It pours.

Il gle.
Il

It freezes.

dgle.

It thaws.

INTERROGATIVE FORM.
The

interrogation

is

formed

in

French, either by placing

the pronoun after the verb with a hyphen connecting


or

by prefixing the expression

est=ce que, is

it

them

that, to the

affirmative form.

The form est-ce que,


and familiar writing.

is

generally used

Examples
Fait-il
FvSt-ce

chaud ? or
qu'il fait chaud

in

conversation

Is it

warm ?

Pleut-il? or

Est-ce qu'il pleut?

Is it raining ?

NEGATIVE FORM.

To
ne

is

render a sentence negative in French,


placed before the verb and pas after

Examples
Il
Il
Il

ne fait pas chaud.


ne fait pas froid.
ne pleut pas.

it.

It is not

warm.

It is not cold.
It is not raining.

the

particle

Practical French Course

37

L'heure (lur) The time (the hour).


Quelle heure

"

"

une heure.
deux heures.

"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"

"

trois heures.

Il est

What time

est-il ?

midi.

"

two

"

three o'clock.

o'clock.

" four o'clock.


" Jive o'clock.
" six o'clock.

" seven
"
"
"
"

nine

o'clock.

ten o'clock.

eleven o'clock.

It is twelve o'clock (mid-night).

Il est tard.

It is late.
It is early.

Douze heures
une heure

r\c" n

~~"

is

never used except in the sense of twelve hours.

et cinq,
et jix. (dees).

' '

"

et quart, (car).

" "
" "
" "

"
"
"

"

et vingt.

"

et vingt-cinq.

"

et demie.

Il est deux

heures moins vingt-cinq.

"""

"

^ "

" "
"
" "

"

"

'

'

' '

"

"

Suis- je en avance

Suis- je en retard

Vous

moins vingt.
moins un quart.
moins dix.
moins cinq.

{
'

It is five (minutes) past one.

<<

"

' '

o'clock.

eight o'clock.

n'est de bonne heure.

Il est

It is twelve o'clock (mid-day).

(*)

Il^est minuit.

(*)

is it

It is one (hour) o'clock.

" quatre heures.


" cinq heures.
" six heures.
" sept heures.
" huit heures.
" neufheures. (nvr).
" dix heures.
" onze heures.

Il est

(hour)

tes en avance.

Vous"tes~enretard.

'

'

"
'

'

li

ten (minutes) past one.


a quarter past one.
twenty (minutes) past one.

twenty-five (minutes) past one.

half-past one.

It is twenty-five (minutes)

of two.
twenty (minutes) of two.
a quarter of two,
" ten (minutes) of two.
" five (minutes) of two.
"
1

'

Am I early ?
Am I late ?
You are
You are

early.
late.

Practical Frknch Course

38

Votre montre avance.


Votre pendule retarde.

Your watch is fast.


Your clock is slow.

C'est l'heure juste.

It is the correct time.

Le prsent
Le pass

The present.
The past.

(ler-pray-zng)
(ler-pah-say)

L'avenir (lav-neer) The future.


Aujourd'hui (oh-zhoor-dwee).
Maintenant (mant-nng).

prsent.

Ce matin (ser-mah-tang).
Cet aprs-midi (set-ah-pray-mee-

To-day.

Now.
At present.
This morning.
This afternoon.

dee).

Ce

This evening

soir (ser swahr).

Hier

Yesterday.

(ye-air).

Avant-hier (ah-vn-tee-air).

Lundi pass.

La semaine passe
Le mois pass.

{or) to-ni^

(f.)

L'an pass (long-pah-say).

Demain (der-mng).
Aprs demain.
Lundi prochain (proh-shang).
La semaine prochaine (proh-shn).
Le mois prochain.
L'an prochain.

{The day) before yesterday.


Last Monday.
Last week.
Last month.
Last year.
To-morrow.
The day) after to-morrow.

Next Monday.
Next week.
Next month.
Next year.

<sm!&?s>

Practical French Course

39

SIXIEME LEON.

LESSON

VI.

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.


The

indefinite article

is

rendered

Un

before a masculine noun.

Une

before a feminine noun.

Ex.
Ex.

in

French by

un garon, a boy.
une fille, a girl.

PRACTICE.
Qu'avez-vous

fait

aujourd'hui?

J'ai lu le journal.
J'ai crit

une

lettre.

J'ai pris

un

J'ai fait
J'ai fait

une promenade.
une visite.

J'ai fait

des emplettes.

bain.

What have you done

to-day ?

I have read the newspaper.


I have written a letter.
I have taken a bath.
I have taken a walk.
I have paid a visit.
I have made some purchases.

Qu'avez-vous achet? (or)


Qu'est-ce que vous avez achet

J'ai achet,

(masculine nouns.)

Un costume, a suit.
Un chapeau, a hat.
Un pardessus, an overcoat.
Un gilet, a vest.
Un corsage, a shirt-waist.
Un jupon, a petticoat.
Un bracelet, a bracelet.

What have you bought ?


?

I have

bought.

(FEMININE NOUNS.)

Une robe, a gown.


Une voilette, a veil.
Une ceinture, a belt.
Une jaquette, a jacket.
Une montre, a watch.
Une pendule, a clock.
Une bague, a ring.

Practical French Course

40

Un ventail, a fan.
Un parapluie, an umbrella.
Un tapis, a carpet.
Un fauteuil, an arm-chair.
Un sofa, a sofa.
Un canap, a couch.
Un
Un

couteau, a knife.
canif, a penknife.

Un
Un
Un
Un

crayon, a pencil.
encrier,

an inkstand.

cheval, a horse.
chien, a dog.

Une cravate, a necktie.


Une casquette, a cap.
Une malle, a trunk.
Une valise, a valise.
Une canne, a cane.
Une table, a table.
Une chaise, a chair.
Une cuillre, a spoon.
Une fourchette, a fork.
Une assiette, a plate.
Une maison, house.
Une bicyclette, # bicycle.

collective nouns.

Une paire
Une paire
Une paire
Une paire
Une paire
Une paire
Une paire
Une paire

de
de
de
de

bas.

chaussettes.
jarretires.

de souliers.
de bottines.
de pantoufles.
de caoutchoucs.

Une
Une
Une
Une

douzaine
douzaine
douzaine
douzaine

Une
Une
Une

bote de bonbons.

Un

livre

A pair ofgloves.
A pair of stockings.
A pair of socks.
A pair of garters.
A pair of shoes.
A pair of button-shoes.
A pair of slippers.
A pair of rubbers

gants.

de mouchoirs.
de chemises.
de cols.
de manchettes.

de sucre.

bouteille de bire.
mtre de dentelle.

A dozen (of) handkerchiefs.


A dozen (of) shirts.
A dozen (of) collars.
A dozen (of) cuffs.

A pound of sugar.
A box of candies.
A bottle of beer.
A yard of lace.
COMPOUND NOUNS.

J'ai achet aussi:

Un lit-pliant.
Un timbre-poste.
Un tire-bouchon.

I have

also bought:

A folding-bed.
A postage-stamp.
A cork-screw.

Practical French Course

41

A screw-driver.
A paper-knife.

Un tourne-vis.
Un coupe-papier.
Un gratte-papier.
Un presse-papier.
Un porte-plume.
Un porte-monnaie.

An eraser.

A paper-weight.
A pen-holder.
A pocket-book.
A rocking-chair.
A sewing-machine.

Une chaise-berante.
Une machine coudre.

C'est tout.

What else ?
Nothing else.
That is all.

C'est assez.

That

Combien

How much have you paid?

J'ai

I have paid 20 francs.

Quoi encore ?
Rien de plus,

(or)
(or)

Quoi de plus ?
Plus rien.

avez- vous pay ?


pay vingt francs.

is

enough.

C'est cher.

It is dear.

Ce

It is not dear.

n'est pas cher.

bon march.
C'est trs bon march.

It is cheap.

C'est

It is very cheap.

OBSERVATIONS.
un (m), une (f), is not used in French between the verb to be and a noun denoting a profession or
I.

The

article

a nationality.
Il est

mdecin.

Il est franais, (adj.)

The

2.

(French).

is, however, used after c'est, it is


and also when an adjective determines the
He is and she is are generally rendered by c'est

(or) that

noun.

He is a physician.
He is a Frenchman

article un, une,

is,

before a substantive or adjective used substantively.


C'est

C'est

C'est

un mdecin.
un Franais, (subst.)
une Franaise.

He is a physician.
He is a Frenchman.
She

is

a French-woman.

Practical French Course

42
C'est

un bon

C'est

une bonne

lve, (m.)

The

3.

lve,

(f.)

>

He

(f.)

She

indefinite article

is

is

a good pupil.
a good pupil.

not used in French,

is

after

the preposition sans {without), before a substantive.


Sans faute.
Sans guide.
Sans matre.

The

4.

Without a mistake.
Without a guide.
Without a master.

indefinite article

is

omitted

in

French, in ex-

clamatory sentences.
Quel beau jour
Quel dommage
Quel imbcile

(m.)

Quelfe belle nuit!


Quelle honte
Quelle chance

(f.)

The

5.

article un, une, is

What a fine day


What a pity!
What a fool!
What a fine
What a shame !
What (a) hick !

not

nouns of measure or weight, but


(m), la

le

Quel

Un

the

(f),

est le prix

6.

francs la livre.

When

used

in

French with

replaced by the article

franc le mtre.

Deux

is

What is the price ?


One franc a meter.

Two francs

a pound.

speaking of time, the indefinite article a

translated by par {per.)


Vingt
Vingt
Vingt
Vingt

francs par jour.

francs par semaine.


francs par mois.
francs par an.

Twenty francs
Twenty francs
Twenty francs
Twenty francs

a day.
a week.
a month.
a year.

is

French

rRACTiCAi,

Course;

43

EXERCISE.
Let the pupil replace each dash by the requisite word
both orally and in writing.
i.

Qu'as- tu fait? (familiar) or:


Qu'est-ce que tu as fait
J'ai

2.

3.

4.

1.

I have read the

What has he done ? or lit. :


What is it that he has done ?

Ila

He has

What has she done? or lit. :


What is it that she has done ?

Kile a

She has paid a

Qu'a-t-elle fait? or

3.

Qu' ont-ils

(m.) or

fait ?

4.

ont

Qu'ont-elles fait?

(f)

Klles ont

or

5.

Qu'avez- vous lu ? or

6.

J'ai

Qu'avez-vous crit? or:

7.

Nous avons
achet

Elle
10.

J'ai

newspaper.

What have you written ? or lit. :


What is it that you havewritten

or

8.

What has she bought ? or lit. :


What is it that she has bought ?

kerchiefs.
a-t-elle

pay

or

est-ce qu'elle

-a

Combien
Combien

What have you read? or lit. :


What is it that you have read ?

She has bought a dozen hand-

Elle a

Combien
Combien

What have they done ? or lit. :


What is it that they have done ?
They have made some purchases

We have written twenty letters

9.

What have they done ? or lit. :


What is it that they have done ?

I have read the

8. Qu'a-t-elle

visit.

They have taken a bath.

Qu'est-ce qu'elles ont fait?

7.

taken a walk.

Qu'est-ce qu'elle a fait?

Ils

6.

newspaper.

Qu'est-ce qu'il a fait?

Qu'a-t-il fait? or

Qu'est-ce qu'ils ont fait?

5.

What hast thou done ? or lit.


What is it that thou hast done

How much has she paid ? or lit.


How much is it that she haspaid?
:

She has paid eleven francs.

avez- vous pay

or

jo.
:

How much have you paid? or


lit.
How much is it that you
:

est-ce
.

que vous

have paid?
I have paid ten

dollars.

Practical French Course

44

SEPTIEME LEON.

LESSON

VII.

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE.


The

I.

definite article the

is

Le before a masculine noun,

rendered in French by

singular.

Ex.:

le pre,

Ex.

la

Ex.

les enfants.

the father.

La before

a feminine noun, singular.

mre,

the mother.

Les before a plural noun,

either gender.

the children.

2.

Before a word beginning with a vowel or a silent h,

the letter e or a

is,

for

the sake of euphony, omitted and

replaced by an apostrophe.
L'ami, the friend,

L'homme, /^ wa,

instead of le ami.
"
le homme.

"
"

L'eau, the water


L'histoire, the history,

3.

The

article, in

noun with which


Le

4.

pre, la

The

mre

article

it

la eau.
la histoire.

French, must be repeated before each


has to agree

et les enfants

gender and number.

in

the father,

must be used

in

mother and children.

French

Before the names of countries. Ex. la France.


Before the titles prefixed to names. Ex. le docteur X.
Before the names of seasons. Ex. le printemps.
Before each noun used in a general sense. Ex. le pain,
bread; levin, wine; la gloire, glory ; la vertu, virtue.
:

Practical French Course


5.

The

article

45

omitted in French before the ordinal

is

number designating

a sovereign or chapter.

Napolon premier, Napoleon the first.


Chapter the first.

Chapitre premier,

PRACTICE.
Que

dsirez-vous

Passez-moi,

me

Voulez- vous

vous

s'il

What do you wish


plat.

passer

Pass me, ifyou please.


Will you pass me ?

le pain, the bread.

la soupe, the soup.

le beurre, the butter.

la viande, the meat.

le

jambon, the ham.

la sauce, the sauce.

moutarde, the mustard.

le poulet, the chicken.

la

le poisson, the fish.

la salade, the salad.

le rti, the roast.


le

fromage, the

la glace, the ice.


la bouteille, the bottle.

cheese.

le sel, the sait.

la carafe, the decanter.

le poivre, the pepper.

Peau, the water.

le vinaigre, the vinegar.

l'huile, the oil.

les radis, the radishes.


les olives, the olives.

les pois, the peas.


les haricots, the beans.
les tomates, the tomatoes.
les

les

concombres, the cucumbers.


pommes de terre, the potatoes.

les fraises, the strawberries.


les

pommes,

the apples.

les raisins, the grapes.

Vous avez

Je ne suis pas bien.


La tte me fait mal.
Les dents me font mal.

l'air

malade

(idiom) You look

/ am

ill !

not well.

The (my) head hurts me.


The (my) teeth hurt me.

Practical French Course

46

Qu'est-ce qui vous fait

What hurts you ?

Lit. :

mal

Le front, the forehead.


Le nez, the nose.
La bouche, the mouth.
Le menton, the chin.
La langue, the tongue.
La gorge, the throat.
Le cou, the neck.

La poitrine, the chest.


Le cur, the heart.
Le dos, the back.

is it

that

makes you

ill

Les oreilles, the ears.


Les yeux, the eyes.
Lesgencives, the gums.
Les lvres, the lips.
Les paules, the shoulders.
Les bras, the arms.
Les mains, the hands.
Les doigts, the fingers
Les jambes, the legs.
Les genoux, the knees.
Les pieds, the feet.

L'estomac, the stomach.

Tant pis

(kes-key-voo-fay-mahl.)

What

So much the worse !

/ am very sorry for you.

J'en suis trs fch pour vous.

REMARK.
After the verb aimer,

the substantive or adjective

to like,

used substantively must be preceded in French by the


article le, la, les, according to the gender and number of
the noun:

I like

wine.

I like

beer.

I like

strawberries.

J'aime le vin.
J'aime la bire.
J'aime les fraises.
J'aime le franais.
J'aime l'anglais.

I like French {language).


I like English.

J'aime le blanc.
J'aime le rouge.
J'aime le rose.
J'aime le bleu.

I like red.
I like pink.
I like blue.

Aimez- vous

Do you

le

Oui, je l'aime.

vin? (m.)

I like

Yes,

white.

like wi?ie

I like

it.

Practical French Course


Aimez- vous

la bire

Do you

(f.)

like

I like

47

b,

Oui, je l'aime.

Yes,

Aimez-vous les fraises?


Oui, je les aime beaucoup.

Do you like strawberries ?


Yes, I like them very mucK

Pays

(pay-ee) Countries.

La France, France.
L'Angleterre, England.
L' Allemagne, Germany.
Austria.

Iv' Autriche,

La

Russie, Russia.

L'Espagne, Spain.
L'Italie, Italy.

La Belgique, Belgium.
Iya Suisse,

Switzerland.

L'Irlande, Ireland.

L'Ecosse, Scotland.
Iya Sude, Sweden.
Iya

Norvge, Norway.

Iye

Danemark, Denmark.

Grce, Greece.
Turquie, Turkey.
Iya Chine, China.
Iya

Iya

Iye

Japon, Japan.
Canada, Canada.

Iye

Mexique, Mexico.

Iye

Nationalits, Nationalities.

Les
Les
Les
Les
Les
Les
Les
Les
Les
Les
Les
Les
Les
Les
Les
Les
Les
Les
Les
Les
Les
Les

L'Europe, Europe.
L'Amrique, America.

Les Etats-Unis, the United States.


L'Amrique du Sud, South
{America.

it.

Europens, the Europeans.


Amricains, the Americans.
Franais, the French.
Anglais, the English.

Allemands, the Germans.


Autrichiens, the Austrians.

Russes, the Russians.

Espagnols, the Spanish.


Italiens, the Italians.

Belges, the Belgians.


Suisses, the Swiss.
Irlandais, the Irish.

Ecossais, the Scotch.

Sudois, the Swedes.


Norvgiens, the Norwegians.
Danois, the Danes.
Grecs, the Greeks.
Turcs, the Turks.
Chinois, the Chinese.
Japonais, the Japanese.

Canadiens, the Canadians.


Mexicains, the Mexicans.

Le nord, the North ; l'est, the East.


Le sud, the South ; l'ouest,
[the West.

EXERCISE.
Let the pupil replace each dash by the requisite
adjective or adjective used substantively.

article,

Practical French Course

4S

I.

livre (m.), the book.


livres
the books.
me
the soul.

ciel (m.), the sky.


lune
the moon.
soleil (m.), the sun.
toiles
the stars.
dictionnaire (m.), the dictionary.
miroir (m.), the mirror.

(pi.),

(f.),

(f.),

plancher (m.), the floor.


plafond (m.), the ceiling.
rue
the
avenue
the avenue.
mur (m.), the wall.
toit (m.), the roof.
street.

(f ),
.

(f.),

2.

souliers (pi.), the shoes.

argent (m.), the silver {money).


or (m.), the gold.

He is English.
He is an Englishman.

11 est

He is
He is

Il est

{an) American.
an American.

He is Irish.
He is an Irishman.
He
He
3.

(pl.)>

Il est

C'est

is

Spanish.

Il est

a Spaniard.

C'est

Aimez-vous
Aimez-vous
Aimez-vous
Aimez- vous
Aimez-vous
Aimez-vous
Aimez-vous
Aimez-vous
Aimez-vous

I like

it.

Je

I like

them very much.

Je

Present Indicative of
J'aime, / like.
Tu aimes, thou likest.
Il aime, he likes.
Elle aime, she likes.

C'est

is

Do you like pears ?


Do you like cherries ?
Do you like {the) theatre ?
Do you like music ?
Do you like raspberries ?
Do you like green? (color.)
Do you like grey ?
Do you like black ?
Do you like France ?

C'est

aime.

aime

AIMER,

poires ?
cerises

musique?

(f.)

framboises ?
vert ?

gris?
noir

France ?

to like.

Nous aimons, we
Vous aimez, you
Ils

thtre? (m.)

aiment, they

like.
like.

like.

Elles aiment, they

like.

Practical French Course

49

HUITIME LEON.

LESSON

VIII.

CONTRACTION OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE.


I.

Genitive

or Possessive Case.

Singular.
i.

Before a masculine noun, singular, beginning with a

consonant, of the
of de

is

rendered by du, which

Du pre, of the father,


Du frre, of the brother,

2.

a contraction

instead of de le pre.
"
de le frre.

Before a feminine noun, singular, beginning with a

consonant, of the

is

translated literally

De
De

3.

is

le.

la
la

by de

la.

mre, of the mother.


sur, of the sister.

Before a masculine or feminine noun, singular, be-

ginning with a vowel or an h mute, of the


the sake of euphony, by de 1\

De l'enfant, of the child, instead


"
De l'homme, <?//^ wa,
"
De l'arme, of the army,
"
De l'histoire, of the history\

of

is

rendered, for

du enfant.
du homme.
de
de

la

arme.

la histoire.

Practical French Course

50

Pujrai,.

Before a plural noun of either gender, of the


des, which is a contraction of de les.

rendered

is

by

Des

enfants, of the children, instead of de les enfants.


"
de les armes.

Des armes, of the armies

HOW TO CONSTRUCT

A SENTENCE

IN

THE

POSSESSIVE CASE.
In French the

name
father

name

of the possessor always follows the


Thus, for instance, " Peter's

of the object possessed.


"

must be translated
Le pre de

Pierre, the father

La mre de Jean.
Le livre du professeur.
La grammaire de l'lve.
La sur de la modiste.

of Peter.

fohn's mother.

The professor's book.


The pupiVs grammar.
The milliner'' s sister.
The children'' s playthings.

Les jouets des enfants.

REMARK.
From

the

is

rendered, as of the, by du, de

la, des,

accord-

ing to the gender and number of the noun to which


refers.

Where do you come from ?

D'o venez- vous ?


Je viens du parc, (m.)
Je viens du thtre.
Je viens de la campagne,
Je viens de la banque.

I come from
I come from
(f.)

Je viens des Philippines, (pi.)

the park.
the theatre.

I come from
I come from

the country.

I comefro7n

tke Philippines.

the bank.

it

Practical French Course;


II.

Dative

51

Case.

Singular.
i.

Before a masculine noun, singular, beginning with a

consonant,
of

to the is

rendered by au, which

to the is

translated literally

A
A

3.

instead of le pre.
"
le frre.

Before a feminine noun, singular, beginning with a

consonant,

or

a contraction

le.

Au pre, to the father,


Au frre, to the brother,

2.

is

la
la

by

la.

mre, to the mother.


sur, to the sister.

Before a noun of either gender beginning with a vowel

h mute,

to

the

is

rendered, for the sake of euphony,

by l'

A l'enfant, to the child, instead of au enfant.


"
A l'ami, to the friend,
au ami.
"
A l'homme, to the man,
au homme.
A l'ennemi, to the enemy, "
au ennemi.
"
A l'arme, to the army,
la arme.

Plural.

Before a plural noun of either gender

by aux, which

is

a contraction of

to the is

rendered

les.

Aux enfants, to the children, instead


Aux amis, to the friends,
"
Aux hommes, to the men,
Aux ennemis, to the enemies,
"
Aux armes, to the armies.
'

'

' '

of les enfants.

les amis.
les hommes.
les ennemis.
les armes*

Practical French Course;

52

PRACTICE.
O

Where are you going f

allez- vous?

I am going to the park.


I am going to the theatre.
I am going to the restaurant.
I am going to the ball.
I am going to bed.
I am going to the city hall.

Je vais au parc, (m.)


Je vais au thtre.
Je vais au restaurant.

Je vais au bal.
Je vais au lit.
Je vais l'htel de

ville.

Je vais la pharmacie.
Je vais la cour.
Je vais l'cole.

I am going to the country.


I am going to the bank.
I am going to the postoffice.
I am going to the drug store.
I am going to court.
I am going to school.

Je vais l'glise.

I am going

Je vais la campagne,
Je vais la banque.
Je vais la poste.

(f.)

to church.

REMARKS
ABOUT THE PREPOSITION To.
r.

After the verb aller,

dered by

En before the names


Au before the names
mute

to

go,

the preposition to

of countries ending with a

reir

mute

e,

and by

of countries ending otherwise than with a

e.

allez- vous?

Where are you going?

Je vais en Europe.
Je vais en France.

I am going to Europe.
I am going to France.

Je vais au Canada.

I am going lo Canada.
I am going to Japan.

Je vais au Japori.

2.

is

However, we say

Cuba,

to

Cuba, and au Mexique, to Mexico.

Practical French Course

After the verb aller,

2.

city the preposition to

allez-vous

to

go, and before the

I am going
I am going

After the verb aller,

allez

to

to Paris.

to

London

go, and before another verb in


is

not translated in French.

Where are you going ?

vous ?

/ am going to take a walk.


I am going to pay a visit.
I am going to take a bath.
I am going to take the car.
I am going to read the newspaper.
I am going to write a letter.
I am going to see my friend.

Je vais faire une promenade.


Je vais faire une visite.
Je vais prendre

of a

Where are you going ?

the infinitive, the preposition to

name

rendered in French by

is

Je vais Paris
Je vais Londres.

3.

53

un

bain.

Je vais prendre le tramway.


Je vais lire le journal.

Je vais crire une lettre.


Je vais voir mon ami.

IMPORTANT REMARK
on the word Home.
In French there

word home.
chez meaning at

Home

glish

to the Engby the preposition

no word corresponding

is

is

translated

(or) to the house of.

/ am going home.
I am going to your house.
I am going to the dentist's.

Je vais chez moi.


Je vais chez vous.

Je vais chez le dentiste.

EXERCISE,
O

vas-tu ? (familiar)

Je vais

(m.

allez- vous

Nous

O
Il

allons

va-t-il

va

1.

Where art thou going f

I am going

(f.)

Where are you going ?


are going

Where

(verb)

We

is

he going

He is going

Practical French Course

54

4.

va-t-elle ?

5.

vont-ils ?

Ils vont"'

6.

Where is she going ?


She is going

5.

Where are they going?


They are going

(f.)

est-il all ?

Where did he go
went

6.

est-elle alle

7.

8.

Where did she go ?


She went

Bile est alle

8.

9.

sont-ils alls?

Ils

sont alls

le docteur.

irez-vous

demain

Nous
10. Il

irons

/shall go
We will go

faut que j'aille

que
faut que
faut que

j'aille

Il

j'aille
j'aille

Qu'est-ce que
Je vais prendre
Je vais tudier
12.

I must go home.
I must go to the doctor's.
I must go to the dentist's.
I must go to Wanamaker's.

10.

Qu'allez- vous faire?

11.

Where will you go to-morrow

9.

(f.)

Il faut

Il

Where did they go ?


They went to the doctor's.

(m.)

J'irai

He

(m.)

Il est aile"

7.

4.

-(*0

Elle va

What are you going

11.

to

do ?

leon

I am going to take my lesson.


I am going to study my lesson

(f.)

Allez

Go

12.

to church.

Let us go

Allons

Present Indicative of

ALLER,

to

go;

to the theatre.

VENIR,

to

come.

Je vais, I go {am going).

Je viens, I come {am coming).

Tu

Tu

Il

Il

vas, thou goest.


va, he goes.

Nous
Vous

we go.
you go.

allons,
allez,

Us vont, they go.

viens, thou contest.

vient, he comes.

Nous venons, we come.


Vous venez, you come.
Us viennent, they come.

Tracticai, FkExNCh

Course

55

NEUVIEME LEON.
LESSON IX.
THE PARTITIVE ARTICLE.
I.

The English

French

some

adjective

or any, which

we

call in

rendered by

article partitif (partitive article), is

Du, before a masculine noun, singular.


Ex.

De

la,

du

pain,

some bread.

before a feminine noun, singular.

de la soupe, some soup.


Ex.
Des, before a plural noun, either gender.
Ex.: des -pom.rn.es, some apples.
:

Before a noun beginning with a vowel or h mute, the

changed,

partitive article

du,

de

euphony, into de

I\

Thus, we say

De l'argent,
De Tor,
De V eau,
De l'huile,

in

Nouns used
French by the

is

affirmative

3.

J'ai

de

4.

mang du

is

la,

the sake of

(some) money, instead of du argent.


"
"
gold,
du or.
"
"
water,
de la eau.
"
"
oil,
de la huile.

always preceded

in a partitive sense are

article du, de la or des

when

the sentence

pain,

du beurre,

partitive

article

/ have

eaten bread,

butter,

salad

and strawberries.

la salade et des fraises.

The

for

du

(m.), de la

(f.),

des

(pl-)> is

not used after a negation, but the preposition de, (of).

Practical French Course

56

Je n'ai pas de vin.

Have you any wine?


I have some wine.
I have no (or not any)

Avez-vous de la bire ?
J'ai de la bire.
Je n'ai pas de bire.

Have you any beer?


I have some beer.
I have no beer.

Avez-vous des allumettes ?


des allumettes.

Have you any matches ?


I have some matches.
I have no matches (at all).

Avez-vous du vin ?
J'ai

du

vin.

J'ai

Je n'ai point (*) d'allumettes.

(*)

Point

5.

When

by an

is

wine.

more exclusive than pas.

the noun taken in a partitive sense

adjective, the preposition de {of)

of the partitive article du, de

is

is

preceded

employed instead

la, des.

However, the use of the latter has recently been authorized by an official decision of the Minister of Public Instruction.

I have good

de bon vin.
bonne bire.
Elle a de belles robes.

J'ai
Il

6.

When

wine.

He has good beer.

a de

She has beautiful gowns.

the noun and adjective are so connected that

they form a compound noun, the partitive article must be


used instead of the preposition de.

7.

Young men.
Young ladies.

Des jeunes gens.


Des jeunes filles.

after

Thus, we say

The partitive article du, de la, des is not employed


an adverb of quantity but only the preposition de.
>

Practical French Course;

57

Many people (a great number of).


Much money (a large quantity of).

Beaucoup de monde.
Beaucoup d**argent.
Assez de place.
Trop de bruit.
Combien de fois?

Enough room.
Too much noise.
How many times ?

IMPORTANT REMARK.

When

the English

word some

is

used, not in a partitive

sense, but as an indefinite adjective,

French by quelque

for the

it

is

translated into

singular and quelques for the

plural.

Some
Some
Some

Quelque jour.
Quelques jours.
Quelques oranges.
Quelque chose.

day.

{or a few) days.

{or a few) oranges.


Something.
Sometimes.

Quelquefois.

PRACTICE.
Avez- vous dn ?
Pas encore.
Avez- vous djeun
Oui, j'ai djeun.
A quelle heure ?

A huit

Have you dined?


Not yet.
Have you had breakfast
Yes, I have.
At what time ?
At eight o'clock.

heures.

Qu'avez- vous mang?

Qu'est-ce que vousjtvez


J'ai

or)

mang ? j What have you

mang, I have eaten

eaten ?

Practical French Course

58

du pain, bread.
du beurre, butter.
du poulet, chicken.
du poisson, yzVz.
du fromage, cheese.

de la soupe, soup.
de la viande, meat.
de la salade, salad.
de la crme, cream.
de l'omelette, omelet.
des
des
des
des
des

hutres, oysters.

pches, peaches.

prunes, plums.
noix, z^s.
figues, y?^.

Qu'avez-vous bu? (<?r)


Qu'est-ce que vous avez bu
J'ai bu,

Un
Un
Un
Un

verre de bire.
lait.

verre de limonade.

Une tasse de
Une tasse de
Une tasse de

A cup of coffee.
A cup of coffee with milk.
A cup of tea.

caf.

caf

I drank

A glass of wine.
A glass of beer.
A glass of milk.
A glass of lemonade.

verre de vin.

verre de

What did you drink ?


?

lait.

th.

Est-ce tout? (ess-too.)

Is that all ?

Oui, c'est tout, (say-too.)

Yes, that is all.

C'est assez, (say-tah-say.)

That

Que

dsirez- vous

(or)

Qu'est-ce que vous desirez?

Garon, apportez-moi

Un uf la coque.
Un bifteck, saignant.
Une ctelette d'agneau.

is

enough.

What do you wish f

>

Waiter, bring fne:

A soft-boiled egg.
A beefsteak, rare.
A lamb chop.

(dah-nee-oh.)

Une
Une

ctelette de

demi-tasse.

L'addition.

mouton.

A mutton chop.
A small cup of coffee.
The

bill.

Practical French Course


Etes- vous servi
Pas encore.

59

Are you waited on ?


Not yet.

Wait on me, please.

Servez-moi, je vous prie.

I am

Je suis press.
Oui. monsieur, tout de suite.

in a hurry.

Yes, sir, at once.

EXERCISE,
/.
2.

3.

Have you any milk ?


Have you any lemonade?
Have you any oysters ?

7.

I have some coffee.


I have good coffee.
I have some cream.
I have good cream.

8.

More money.

4.

j.
6.

11.

Have you a cigar?


Have you any cigarettes ?

me a plate.
me a napkin.
me a saucer.
me a tooth-pick.

17.

Go and bring me

15.

J'ai

6.

J'ai

7-

J'ai

10.

16.

14.

J'ai

5-

9-

Give
Give
Give
Give

13.

4.

8.

Less wine.
10. Much work.
.

12.

3.

Avez- vous
Avez- vous
Avez- vous

1.

2.

some soap,
some wood,
some coal,
some hot water,
a towel.

-?

?(f.)

(m.)

"'

(f.)

Plus

Moins
Beaucoup

12.

13.

Donnez-moi

11.

(m.)

trava

cigare? (m.)
cigarettes? (p.)

assiette.

14.

serviette.

15.

soucoupe.

16.

cure-dent.

17.

Allez

me

chercher

savon, (m.)
bois, (m.)
charbon, (m.)

eau chaude

(f.)

essuie-main (m.)

Practical French Course

60

DIXIEME LEON.

LESSON
[.

The
tion,

is

How

to

form Questions.

auxiliary verb to do, used in English to ask a ques-

never used

in

French.

The interrogation

according to the following rules


I.

X.

If the subject of the

is

formed

sentence

is

a personal pronoun,

it

simply placed after the verb with a hyphen connecting


them.

is

Do you

Comprenez- vous ?

understand?

{Lit.:

Un-

derstand you ?)

Do you think?
Do you know ?

Pensez- vous ?

Savez- vous

2.

{Lit.:

Think you?)

(L it. :

Know you ?)

sentence is a noun, the noun


and the corresponding pronoun

If the subject of the

placed before the verb,

is
is

repeated after the verb.


mari ?
maison ?
Vos parentssont-ilsf la maison?
Votre frre
Votre sur

est-il

Lit.:

est-elle la

Lit.

w w

Lit.:

Your brother, is he married?


Your sister, is she at home ?
Your parents, are they at
[home ?

3. A euphonic t between two hyphens is inserted between the verb and the pronoun when the verb, in the
third person singular, ends with a vowel.

Votre ami a-t-il crit ?


Votre mari parle-t-il franais

Lit.:

Yottr friend, has he written ?

Lit.:

Your husband, speaks he

Lit. :

Your

[French ?

Votre

dame

parle-t-elle anglais

wife, speaks she

[English ?

French Course

Practicai,

When

4.

the verb, in the

first

Est-ce que je prononce bien

The

e, it is

Do I pronounce well?
Do I speak correctly?

interrogative form annexed

in English,

but in French

expression n'est=ce pas,

it is

is it

better to use the

is it that.
I

Est-ce que je parle correctement?

5.

person singular of the in-

mute

dicative present, ends with a

interrogative form est=ce que,

61

to

a proposition varies

invariably rendered by the

not (so)

Il fait

You are Frejnch, are you not ?


You understand, do you not?
You have understood, have you not?
It is warm, is it not?

Il est riche, n'est-ce

He is rich,

Vous tes franais, n'est-ce pas ?


Vous comprenez, n'est-ce pas?
Vous avez compris, n'est-ce pas ?
chaud, n'est-ce pas?
pas ?
Elle est jolie, n'est-ce pas ?
Vous viendrez, n'est-ce pas?
C'est entendu, n'est-ce pas?

6.

The

She

is

he not ?

is pretty, is

You will come,

she not ?
will you

not?

It is understood, is it not ?

interrogative expression n'est=ce pas

times used in the beginning of the sentence.

is

It

someis

then

followed by que, that.


N'est-ce pas qu'elle est jolie?
N'est-ce pas que c'est beau

II.

1.

An

answer

How

in

to

She

is pretty, is

It is fine, is it

she not?

not?

form Answers.

French must be explicit. It cannot,


merely of the auxiliary

therefore, as in English, consist

verb preceded by a nominative pronoun, as


Are you tired? I am.
Have you understood ?

Do you understand I do.


Will you come will.
?

have.

Practical French Course

62

The sentence
as well as in

French must be complete in the answer


the question.
Therefore, the above examples
in

must be translated as follows

in

Oui, je suis fatigu.

Comprenez-vous ?Avez- vous compris?


Viendrez- vous ?

Oui, je comprends.

The neuter pronoun

2.

Etes- vous fatigu ?

Oui, j'ai compris.


Oui, je viendrai.

le (it) is,

an answer as a substitute

however, generally used


an adjective or a noun,

for

The pronoun

thus preventing their repetition,

le is

placed

before the auxiliary verb.


Btes-vous prt

Are you ready?

(m.) (pray.)

Oui, je le suis.

Ces deux garons sont-ils frres


Oui,

Yes,

I (it) am.

Are

those two boys brothers ?

Yes, they are.

ils le sont.

IMPORTANT REMARK.
The word

si is

often used as an adverb of affirmation in

the sense of yes.

Si

question or assertion
Etes-vous fatigu ?
Oui, je le suis.
N'tes- vous pas fatigu

must be used
;

Are you
Yes
?

Vous ne comprenez pas


Si, je

Mais
Si

je

fait, je

Are you

Yes,
?

(or)

comprends.

(More emphatic.)

understand ?

I do.
understand?

I understand.

You do not understand !

I do.
Why yes, I understand.
Yes, I do understand.
Yes,

comprends

not tired ?

I am.

Do you not
Yes,

tired ?

I am.

Do you

comprends.
si,

Yes,

Si, je le suis.

Comprenez- vous ?
Oui, je comprends.
Ne comprenez- vous pas
Si, je comprends.

answers to a negative

in

oui in plain answers.

Practical French Course


III.

I.

To

How

to

after

form Negative Sentences.

render a sentence negative

ne, as already stated,

is

in

French the particle

placed before the verb, and pas

it.

/ understand.
I do not understand.

Je comprends.

Je ne comprends pas.

63

Before a verb beginning- with a vowel or a mute h,

the e of ne

is

omitted for the sake of euphony and replaced

by an apostrophe.
I have

Je n'ai pas.
Il n'a pas.

He has

Je n'aime pas.

I do

3.

If there is a

pronoun joined

not.
not.

not like.

to the verb, the particle

ne precedes the pronoun.

I do not understand you.


I do not like him, her, or it.
I do not like them.

Je ne vous comprends pas.


Je ne l'aime pas.
Je ne les aime pas.

4.

When

a negative sentence

is

used interrogatively the

negative pas must be placed after the pronoun.


N'ai- je pas ?

Am I not?
Have I not ?

Ne comprenez-vous pas ?

Do you

Ne

suis-je

5.

pas ?

When

the

negative

words

not understand f

rien,

nothing;

never ; point, none; personne, no one nobody


y

nowhere ; occur

in a sentence,

jamais,

; nulle part,

they take the place of pas.

Practical French Course

64

ne

Je

/ know nothing.
I never smoke.
I have 110 money.
I know no one.
I shall go nowhere.

sais rien.

Je ne fume jamais.
Je n'ai point d'argent.
Je ne connais personne.
Je n'irai nulle part.

6.

verb

If the

is

understood, the negative

by a single word, the


verb

is

est

venu

allez- vous

Combien

7.

expressed

when

the

expressed.

Avez- vous dn ?
Fumez- vous ?

Qui

is

particle ne being used only

When

Personne.
Nulle part.

Who has

Point.

How many f

Pas encore.

Have you dined ?

Jamais.

Do you smoke ?

the verb

of the negation

is

is

{is) come ?
Where are you going ?

in a

Not yet.
Never.

Nobody.

Nowhere.
Not

any.

compound tense, the second part

placed between the auxiliary and the

past participle.

However, the negative personne

is,

by exception, placed

after the past participle.


Je n'ai pas eu le temps.
Je n'ai rien fait.
Je n'ai jamais t Paris.
Je n'ai vu personne.

8.

When

I have not had the time.


I have done nothing.
I have never been in Paris.
I have seen no one.

the words rien, jamais, personne, begin a sen-

tence, they are followed

by the

particle ne placed before

the verb.
Rien n'est plus facile.
Jamais je ne fume.
Personne n'est venu.

Nothing

is easier.

I never smoke.
Nobody has

(is)

come.

Practical French Course

65

OTHER NEGATIVE EXPRESSIONS.


The manner
more; but

shown
Je n'ai

of expressing the negatives but, only

little,

but

few ;

in the following

que cinq

no,

any;

not

examples

neither,

no

nor, is

/ have only Jive cents.


I have no more money.
I have but few friends.

sous.

Je n'ai plus d'argent.


Je n'ai gure d'amis.

I have no

Je n'ai aucun intrt.


Je n'ai ni le temps ni l'argent.

interest.

I have neither the time nor the


[money.

OBSERVATION.
After the verbs savoir,
oser, to dare,

and cesser,

to
to

know ; pouvoir,
cease,

to be able ;

the negative (pas)

is

suppressed for elegance.

/ do not know where


I cannot do it.
I dare not say it.

Je ne sais o aller.
Je ne puis le faire.
Je n'ose le dire.

to go.

EXERCISE.
Let the pupil replace each dash by the requisite word

3.

Voulez-vous? Will you?


Je veux. / will.
Pouvez- vous ? Can you ?

4.

Je

5.

Vous parlez franais

6.

Il

1.

2.

peux

parle franais

7.

Votre mari

8.

Ma sur

9.

10.

je

suis.

4-

Will you not?

/ will

3.

not.

Can you not?

I cannot.

You speak French, do you not ?

He speaks
?

ici ?

malade?

I can.

{or) je puis.

/.

2.

French, does he not?

7.

Is your husband French ?

8.

Is

jo.

11.
12.

my sister here ?

Are you ill?


Yes, I am.
Are you not
Yes, I am.

tired

66

Practical French Course;

ONZIEME LEON
LESSON XI.
NUMERAL ADJECTIVES.
There are two kinds of numeral
and the ordinal.

I.

adjectives, the cardinal

Cardinal Numbers.

I,

Un

(ng).

21,

2,

Deux

(dur).

22,

Vingt et un (vn-tay-ng).
Vingt-deux (vnt-dr).

3,

Trois

(troo-ah).

23,

Vingt-trois

Quatre
Cinq
Six
Sept

(kahtr).

Vingt-quatre (vnt-kahtr).
(vnt-snk).
25, Vingt-cinq
26, Vingt-six
(vnt-sees).
(vnt-set).
27, Vingt-sept
28, Vingt-huit
(vnt-weet).
(vnt-nf).
29, Vingt-neuf

4,
5,
6,

7,

8,

9,

Huit
Neuf

(snk).
(sees).
(set).

(weet).
(nf).

(vnt-troo-ah).

24,

IO, Dix
h. Onze
12, Douze
13,

Treize

14,

(kah-torz).

70,

15,

Quatorze
Quinze

(knz).

80,

16,

Seize

(sayz).

17,

(dee-set).

IOO,

(deez-weet).

200,

Deux

19,

Dix-sept
Dix-huit
Dix-neuf

Trente
(trnt).
Quarante
(kah-rnt).
Cinquante
(san-knt).
Soixante
(swah-snt).
Soixante-dix (swah-snt-dees)
Quatre- vingt (kahtr- vang).
Quatre-vingt-dix (kahtr- vn(sahng).
Cent
[dees)

(deez-nf).

1,000,

20,

Vingt

(vng).

1,000,000, Million (mee-lee-ng).

18,

(dees).

30,

(ngz).

40,

(dooz).

50,

(trayz).

60,

90,

cents
Mille

(dsahng).
(meal).

IMPORTANT REMARKS ON THE CARDINAL NUMBERS,


1. The feminine of un (one) is une,

Practical French Course;

67

The x of deux, six and dix is sounded like z before


word commencing with a vowel or an h mute, but it
2.

a
is

silent before a consonant.

Deux enfants (dzng-fong), two children.


Six oranges (seezoh-rngzh), six oranges.
Dix hommes (dee-zohm), ten men.
Deux mois (dur mwah), two months.
Six semaines (see serman), six weeks.
Dix francs (dee frng), ten

3.

The x

of six

and dix

is

francs.

sounded

like s

when

Nous sommes six (noo sohm sees), we are six.


Nous tions dix (noo-zay-tee-ng dees), we were

4.

The

of neuf

is

pronounced

like

it is final.

ten.

v before a vowel or

an h mute.
Neuf ans (n-vng), nine years.
Neuf hommes (n-vohm), nine men.

5.

Numbers

are formed in succession, as in English, up

to seventy, the first nine

The word

6.

et {and)

is

being placed between each tenth.


used only for 21, 31, 41, 51, 61,

71.

Between 60 and 80, and again between 80 and 100,


in French the first nineteen numbers.
Thus,

we repeat
we say
:

Soixante-dix (60
10) for 70.
Soixante et-onze (60
11) for 71, and so on.
Quatre-vingt-dix (80
10) for 90.
Quatre-vingt-onze (80
11) for 91, and so on.

+
+
+

Practical French Course

68

we do not say un cent, but simply cent,


hundred; nor do we use the conjunction et {and) between
Thus, for instance, we do not
cent and another number.
7.

In French

say un cent et cinquante, but simply cent cinquante (150).


Then again, we do not say dix cents for ten hundred, but
mille (one) thousand ; nor do

we

say vingt et un cents for

twenty-one hundred, but deux mille cent, two thousand [and

and so forth.
However, we generally count by hundreds from eleven

one) hundred,

to nineteen.

Thus,

we say

Onze cents, eleven hundred, instead


"
Douze cents, twelve hundred,
Treize cents, thirteen hundred,

8.

The word mil

[thousand)

is

of mille cent.

"

mille

deux

cents.

mille trois cents.

used instead of mille

for

the Christian era.


L'an mil neuf cent, the year one thousand nine
hundred.

However,

in conversation,

we say more

frequently:

L'an dix-neuf cent, the year nineteen hundred.

9.

Cardinal numbers do not vary except vingt and cent,

which take an s when multiplied by one number and not


followed by another.
Quatre-vingts hommes, eighty men.
francs, two hundred francs.

Deux -cents

Trois-cent cinquante soldats, three hundred

and fifty soldiers.

The English word " figure " is in French chiffre, (m.)


The word " number" is in French nombre (m,). "Numro"
" Even
is used for houses, rooms, carriages and badges.
"
" Odd
are called in French nombres pairs.
numbers
10.

numbers

"

are called in French nombres impairs.

69

Practical French Course

Ordinal

II.

The

ordinal

Numbers.

numbers are generally formed

in

French

by-

adding the termination ime to the cardinal numbers.


Deux, two.

Deuxime,

Trois, three.

Troisime, third.
Vingtime, twentieth.

Vingt, twenty.

second.

REMARKS.
I.

When

letter is

the cardinal

number ends with a mute

that

Quatrime, fourth.
Onzime, eleventh.
Trentime, thirtieth.

Quatre, four.

Onze, eleven.
Trente, thirty.

2.

e,

omitted before the termination ime.

The

of neuf

is

changed into v before the termina-

tion ime.

Neuvime,

Neuf, nine.
Dix-neuf, nineteen.
Vingt-neuf, twenty-nine.

3.

The

ninth.

Dix-neuvime, nineteenth.
Vingt-neuvime, twenty-ninth.

q of cinq

is

followed by u before the termina-

tion ime.
CvM\,five.

Vingt-cinq, twenty-five.

4.

Cinquime, fifth.
Vingt-cinquime, twenty-fifth.

is rendered in French by premier (m.)


premire (f.).

First

Last

is

rendered

in

Le premier jour, (m.)


Le dernier jour.

La premire semaine,
La dernire semaine.

French by dernier (m.) dernire


The first day.
The last day.

(f )
.

The first week.


The last week.

(f.).

Practical French Coursk

70

After the numbers 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100 and
1,000, the ordinal adjective first is rendered by unime.
5.

Vingt et unime.
Trente et unime.
Quarante et unime.
Cent-unime.

Twenty-first.
Thirty-first.

Forty-first.

One hundred and first.

French by second (ser-gohng)


when one speaks of only two persons, animals or objects,
and by deuxime if there is a third, fourth, etc.
Second

6.

Vous

rendered

is

You are

tes le premier.

I am

Je suis le second.

Vous

tes le premier.

Louis est

Henri

le

in

deuxime.

You are

the first.

Louis

the second.

Henry

est le troisime.

the first.

the second.

is

is the third.

The ordinal numbers (except premier) are replaced


French by the cardinal numbers:

7.

in

After the names of sovereigns.

Before the names of months.

Louis quatorze.

Napoleon the First.


Napoleon the Third.
Louis the Fourteenth.

Le premier janvier.
Le quatre juillet.
Le quatorze juillet.

The first {of) January.


The fouHh (of) July,
The fourteenth (of ) July.

Napolon premier.
Napolon trois.

III.

Demi,

Fractional

half, (adj.)

La moiti, the half, (subst.)


Le tiers, the third.
Le quart, the fourth.
Le cinquime, the fifth.
Le sixime, the sixth {etc.).

Numbers,

Une demie, a half.


Une moiti, one-half.

Un
Un
Un
Un

tiers, one-third.

quart, one-fourth.

cinquime,

one-fifth.

sixime, one-sixth

[etc.).

Practical French Course

71

REMARK.
The word demi

cedes the substantive, but takes

when

it is

placed after

the gender of the noun

One hour and a

Nouns

paire, a pair.

douzaine, a dozen.
huitaine, eight days,

quinzaine, a fortnight.

half.

used as Numbers.

Une
Une
Une
Une

vingtaine, about twenty.


trentaine, about thirty.

centaine, about one hundred.


millier, about

one thousand.

EXERCISE.
O demeurez-vous?
Je demeure

2.

Quelle rue?

1.

(f.)

Where do you

I live

2.

What

in

live ?

street?

Forty-second

street.

Thirty-fourth

Fourteenth

street.

street.

125th street.

3.

Twenty-first street.

Bleecker

Bleecker.

Quelle avenue
avenue.

street.

What avenue ?

(f.)

First avenue.

Second avenue.

4.

Fifth avenue.
Madison avenue.

Madison.

Quel tage

(m.)

pre-

A half hour.

IV.

i.

it

it.

Une demi-heure.
Une heure et demie.

Une
Une
Une
Une

when

{half) remains invariable

4.

What floor.
First floor.

Seventh floor.
Tenth floor.

Practical French Course

72
5.

How old are you ?

Quel ge avez- vous?

fils ?

What age have you ?


twenty years old.
Lit.: L have 20 years
How old is your son ?

fille?

He is fifteen years old.


How old is your daughter ?

Lit. :

I am

J'ai vingt ans.

Quel ge a votre
Il_a

Quel ge a votre
Ellea
Quel ge a-t-il?

IU-

Quel

C'estle
C'est le

7.

quantime du mois ?

6.

8.

frres avez-vous

7.

9.

Combien de

livres avez-vous

J'en ai

J'en ai

J'en ai

Henri
Louis
Louis

3.

Le

is it ?

How many brothers have you ?


I {of them) have one. (m.)
How many sisters have you ?
I have one. (f.)

How many

books have you ?

I have about twenty.


I have about forty.
I have about fifty.
).

Louis the Fifteenth.


Louis the Sixteenth.

Henry

Kdouard
Guillaume
ro.

What day of the month

It is the last.

twenty-four years old.

It is the thirty-first.

Combien de surs avez-vous ?


J'en ai

is

Lt is the nineteenth.
.

old.

Lt is the first.
.

Combien de
J'en ai

She

C'est le

old.

How old is she ?

nine years

He is seventy-five years

a-t-elle

est le

C'estle

is

How old is he ?

Quel ge
Ellel

6.

She

the Fourth.

Edward the

Seventh.

William the Second.


10.

The first of May, 1Q02.

Practical French Course

73

DOUZIEME LEON.
LESSON XII.
.

Demonstrative

The demonstrative

Adjectives.

adjectives are, in French

SINGULAR MASCULINE

FEMININE SINGULAR

ce

cette

ces

This or thaL

This or that.

These or those.

Ce monsieur.

plural, either gender

Cette dame.
Cette demoiselle.

This or that gentleman.


This or that lady.
This or that young lady.

Ces messieurs.
Ces dames.
Ces demoiselles.

These or those gentlemen.


These or those ladies.
These or those young ladies.

REMARKS.
I.

Before a masculine word beginning with a vowel or

an h mute, a euphonic
Cet
Cet
Cet
Cet
Cet

enfant.

oiseau.

arbre.
encrier.

tablissement.

Cetliomme.
Cethtel.

t is

added

to ce (cet).

This
This
This
This
This
This
This

or that child.
or that bird.
or that tree.
or that inkstand.

or that establishment.
or that man.
or that hotel.

Practical French Course;

74

2.

Although the same word

is

used

in

French

to ex-

press this and that, these and those, the nearness or re-

may

be indicated by the adverb ci


and l, meaning there, placed
Ci refers to
after the noun and joined to it by a hyphen.
this and these ; l to that and those.

moteness of an object
(abbreviation of

Ce

ici,

here)

livre-ci (m.), this book.

Ces

livres-ci, these books.

Cette plume-ci (f.), this pen.


Ces plumes-ci, these pens.

II.

The French

Ce

livre-l, that book.

Ces

livres-l, those books.

Cette plume-l, that pen.

Ces plumes-l, those pens.

Possessive

Adjectives.

possessive adjectives are


Singular
masculine.

Singular

Plural,

feminine.

either gender.

my

mon

ma

mes

thy

ton
son

ta

tes
ses

his, her, its

sa

your

notre
votre

nos
vos

their

leur

leurs

our

IMPORTANT REMARKS.
I.

In French the possessive adjectives ton, ta, tes {thy)

are always used to denote intimacy, instead of votre {your).

O
O
O

est ton
est ta

pre ?

mre

sont tes parents?

Where is thy father?


Where is thy mother?
Where are thy parents

Practical French Course


2.

75

In French the possessive adjective must be repeated

before each noun with which

it

has to agree in gender and

number.

Mon pre, ma
mes

3.

mre, mes surs et

My

campagne.

frres sont la

mother,

father,

sisters

and

brothers are in the country.

Before a feminine word beginning with a vowel or an

h mute, the masculine adjectives mon, ton, son, are substieuphony, for the feminine ma, ta, sa.

tuted, for the sake of

Thus, we say

Mon

amie,

Ton
Son

amie, thyfriend,
amie, his or her friend,

Mon

habitude,

my friend

(f.),

my habit,

instead of ma amie.
"
ta amie.
"
sa amie.

instead of

Ton habitude, thy habit,


Son habitude, his or her habit,

4.

"

ma habitude.
ta habitude.
5a habitude.

In French the possessive adjective of the third per-

son singular, son,

sa, ses, does not

agree with the possessor,

as in English, but with the object possessed.

In other words, the French possessive- adjective agrees


in

gender and number with the noun that folloivs

Il

a perdu son pre.

Il

a perdu sa mre.

Il

a perdu ses parents.

it.

He has lost his father.


He has lost his mother.
He has lost his parents.

Elle a perdu son pre.

Elle a perdu sa mre.


Elle a perdu ses parents.

She has
She has
She has

lost

lost
lost

her father.
her mother.
her parents.

OBSERVATION.

He

is,

she

(m.) elle est

is,

they are, are rendered in

(f.), ils

sont (m.), elles sont

French by
(f.),

il

when they

est,

re-

French Course

Practicai,

76

and by

late to an adjective,

c'est, it is, or that is ; ce sont,

they are, these are or those are, before a substantive.

However,

in

consequence of a recent decision {February

26th, ioi) of the Minister of Public Instruction, c'est

may

be used instead of ce sont.

Comment

trouvez- vous ce

Il est trs

bon. (m.)

Comment
Ils

How do you

cette
[soupe?

(f.)

trouvez- vous ces pois

They are

trouvez- vous ces fraises?

Biles sont exquises,

(f.

like these peas ?

delicious.

How do you like these strawberries?


They are exquisite.

pi.)

Do you know that man ?

Connaissez- vous cet homme-l ?

concierge de cette

Oui, c'est le

soup?

like this

It is {she is) excellent.

How do you

sont dlicieux, (m. pi.)

Comment

wine ?

It is {he is) very good.

Comment trouvez-vous
Elle est excellente,

PRACTICE
vin?
How do you like {find) this

Yes,

he

is the janitor

is

that

of this

house.

maison-ci.

Qui (or Quelle)

est cette

femme

C'est la concierge de cette

Who
She

is

woman ?

the janitress of that house.

maison-l.

Qui (or Quel)

est ce

monsieur?

Qui
Qui

est ce

monsieur ?

est cet

homme?

C'est

monpre.

C'est

mon oncle.
mon graud-pre.

C'est

Qui

est cette d<ime

C'est

ma mre.

Who

is that

gentleman

He is my cousin.
He is my friend.

mon cousin.
C'est mon ami.
C'est

Who
Who

is

that gentleman ?

is

that

man ?

He is my father.
He is my uncle.
He is my grand-father.
Who
She

is

is

that lady ?

my

mother.

Practical French Course


C'est
C'est

Qui

ma tante.
ma grand 'mre.

She
She

est cette demoiselle

is
is

Who

my aunt.
my grand-mother

is that

ma sur.
C'est ma nice.
C'est mon amie.

She
She
She

Qui sont ces messieurs?


Qui sont ces hommes ?
Qui sont ces jeunes gens ?
Ce sont (or c'est) mes amis.

Who
Who
Who

They are

Qui sont ces dames ?


Qui sont ces demoiselles ?
Qui sont ces jeunes filles ?

Who
Who
Who

C'est

Ce sont

(or c'est)

mes

Comment va votre beau-pre?


Comment va votre beau -frre ?
Comment va votre beau-fils ?
Il

va bien, merci.

Comment va votre
Comment va votre
Comment va votre

belle-mre ?
belle

sur ?

belle-fille

Comment vont vos


Ils

parents
vont bien, merci.

Comment va ton
Il

pre

(familiar. )

Comment va

ta mre ?

are those young

men (people) ?

my friends.

are those ladies ?


are those young ladies ?
are those young girls ?

my friends.

How is your mother-in-law ?


How is your sister-in-law ?
How is your daughter-in-law?
is well,

thank you.

How are (go) your parents ?


They are (go)

How is
He is

va bien, merci.

are those gentlemen ?


are those men ?

How is (goes) yourfather-in-law?


How is your brother-in-law ?
How is your sofi-in-law ?
He is (goes) well, thank you.

She

Elle va bien, merci.

young lady ?

my sister.
is my niece.
is my friend.
is

They are

amies.

77

well,

thank you.

thy father ?

well,

thank you.

How is thy mother ?

Elle va bien, merci,

She

Comment vont tes

How are thy parents ?

Ils

parents ?

vont bien, merci.

is well,

They are

thank you.

well,

thank yo-u.

Practical French Course

78

Have you seen our horse ?


Have you seen our carriage ?
Have you seen our flowers?

Avez- vous vu notre cheval ?


Avez- vous vu notre voiture ?
Avez- vous vu nos fleurs?

Qui avez- vous vu ?


vu son frre, sa femme

J'ai

Whom
et

ses enfants.
J'ai

vu son mari, sa sur

I have seen her husband,

et

vu leur pre, leur mre

C'est

mon
son

I have

et

affaire,

That
That
That
That
That

(f.)

affaire.

C'est votre affaire.


C'est leur affaire.

Ce

sister

and

seen theirfather, mother and

friends.

C'est notre~affaire.

C'est

wife and

children.

leurs amis.

C'est

seen his brother,

children.

ses enfants.
J'ai

have you seen

I have

ma faute.
ma faute.

It is

n'est pas

is

my

is

his or her business.

business.

is your business.

is

our

is

their business.

business.

my fault.
my fault.

It is not

EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION.


1.

How
It is

2.

Do you know

do you like that cigar ?(m.)


very good.

How do you like that

sauce

Yes, they are


daughters.

? (f . )

They

It is excellent.

3.

Do you know
Yes, he

He

is

my

that

young man ?

7.

She

is

is

my

He
He

that young lady ?


my sister's daughter.

brother's

nieces.

that

young man?

the janitor's son.

is

that gentleman

my wife's father.
is my father-in-law.

is

niece.
9.

5.

is

my

friend.

Do you know
Yes, she

my

Do you know

Who
4.

are

Yes, he

the doctor's son.

is

those young

ladies?

Do you know

those gentlemen

Yes, they are

my friends.

Who is that lady ?


is my husband's mother.
is my mother-in-law

She
She

Practical French Course

79

TREIZIEME LEON,

LESSON

XIII.

QUALIFYING ADJECTIVES.

GENERAL RULE.
The French
ber with the

How

which

to

Un

petite

homme

A large theatre.
A large house.

2.

est trs grand.

femme

est trs

generally formed by the

A little boy.
A little girl.

fille.

grand thtre.

Cette

is

of Adjectives.

to the masculine.

Une grande maison.


Cet

and num-

refers.

of adjectives

mute e

petit garon.

Une

it

form the Feminine

to

The feminine

I.

addition of a

Un

adjective always agrees in gender

noun

grande.

That
That

man is very tall.


woman is very tall.

Adjectives ending in the masculine with a mute e do

not change in the feminine.


Ce monsieur
Il est trs

Cette

est trs riche.

charitable.

dame

est trs riche.

Elle est trs charitable.

That gentleman

He is

is

very rich.

very charitable.

That lady is very wealthy.


She is very charitable.

Practical French Course

80

II. How to form the Plural of Adjectives.

I.

The plural

of adjectives

is

generally formed by add-

ing s to the singular.


Ces garons sont trs grands.
Ils

Those boys are very

Ces

filles

Those girls are very tall.


They are very polite.

sont trs grandes.

Elles sont trs polies.

2.

When

the adjective relates to two or more nouns of

different genders,

Ce garon

tall.

They are very polite.

sont trs polis.

it is

put in the masculine gender.


That boy and girl are very

et cette fille sont trs

tall.

grands.
Ils

They are very polite.

sont trs polis.

HI.

Place

of Adjectives.

I. The adjective in French has no definite place.


sometimes precedes the noun, but more frequently
lows it.
Euphony is the best rule to go by.

A good boy.
A bad boy.
A pretty girl.

Un bon garon.
Un mauvais garon.
Une

jolie fille.

Un enfant paresseux.
Un homme laborieux.
Un lve studieux.
Un homme charmant.

2.

Some

adjectives

It

fol-

lazy child.

An

industrious man.

A studious pupil.
A charming man.
have a

different

meaning, according

as they are placed before or after the noun.

Practical French Course

The

81

following are those which occur more frequently

Un grand homme, a great man.


Un petit homme, a short man.
Un brave homme, an honest man.

Un homme
Un homme
Un homme

Une sage-femme,

Une

a mid-wife.

grand, a

tall

man.

a mean fellow.
brave, a brave man.
femme sage, a virtuous woman
petit,

IMPORTANT REMARKS
ON THE FEMININE OF CERTAIN ADJECTIVES.
I.

Adjectives ending

change that termination into

in f

ve for the feminine.


Neuf

(m.),

neuve

Actif (m.), active

(f.),
(f.),

(brand)new.

Vif (m.),

active.

Attentif (m.), attentive

vive

(f.), lively.
(f.),

attentive.

2.

ending

Adjectives

in

change that

termination

into se.
Courageux, courageuse, courageous

heureuse, happy.
Heureux,
Malheureux, malheureuse,

Jaloux,

jalouse, jealous.

unhappy.

3.

Adjectives ending in eur generally change that

ter-

mination into euse.


Flatteur, flatteuse,

flattering.

Menteur, menteuse,

deceitful.

However, the adjectives

Trompeur, trompeuse, deceiving.


Moqueur, moqueuse, mocking.

extrieur, exterior ;

intrieur,

interior ; suprieur, superior ; infrieur, inferior; meilleur,


better ;

majeur, major

mineur, minor, form their femin-

ine according to the general rule, that

addition of a mute

e.

is,

by the simple

Practical French Course

82

ending

Adjectives

4.

in

eau change that termination

into elle.

Nouveau, nouvelle, new {different).

Beau, belle, beautiful.

5.

Adjectives ending in er change that termination into

re (air).

Cher (m), chre (f),


Amer,
am re,

6.

dear.

Fier (m),

bitter,

Lger (lay-zhay), lgre,

Adjectives ending in as, os,

double

the

last

proud.

fire (f),

ot, et, el, eil,

light.

en, on,

il,

consonant before taking the feminine

termination.
Gras (m), grasse
Gros,

Ancien (m), ancienne

(),fat.

grosse,

big (stout).

Bon,

bonne,

(f), ancient.

good.

Cruel,

cruelle,

cruel.

Sot,

sotte,

Pareil,

pareille,

similar, alike.

Coquet,

coquette, coquettish.

Gentil,

gentille,

nice.

Net,

nette,

7.

Contrary to the above

rule, the

t,

inquiet, uneasy,

but take a grave accent on the e

Complet, complte.

Secret,

Discret,

Inquiet, inquite.

discrte.

neat.

adjectives complet,

complete ; discret, discreet ; secret, secret

do not double the final


which precedes the t.

foolish, silly.

secrte.

ADJECTIVES WHICH FORM THEIR FEMININE


QUITE IRREGULARLY.
Blanc (m.), blanche
Franc,

franche,

Sec,

sche,

(f.),

white.

Doux

frank.

rousse,
fausse,

false,

publique,

public,

(m.),

dry.

Roux,
Faux,

fresh.

Public,

douce

(f),

Frais,

frache,

cool.

Long,

longue,

Fou,

folle,

crazy.

Favori,

favorite,

Mou,

molle,

soft.

Vieux

sweet.

reddish,

long,

favorite.

(vee-ur), vieille (vee-ay-yur)


old.

Practical French Course;

83

OBSERVATIONS.
Before a masculine word beginning with a vowel or h

I.

mute, the adjectives beau, nouveau, fou, vieux, are changed,


the

for

sake

euphony,

of

into

bel,

nouvel,

fol,

vieil

(vee-ay-ye).

Un bel

Un
Un
Un

A handsome child.

enfant.

Le nouvel

The new year.

an.

An old miser.
An old man.

vieil avare.
vieil

homme,

A foolish hope.

fol espoir.

2.

The

rendered

termination ish in English adjectives of color


in

French by

is

tre.

Bleu,

blue.

Bleutre,

Rouge,

red.

Rougetre, reddish.

Gris,

grey.

Gristre,

bluish.

greyish.

IMPORTANT REMARKS
ON THK
I.

PUJRAI, OF CERTAIN ADJKCTIVES.

Adjectives ending in x or s do not change in the

masculine plural.
Cet enfant est trs paresseux.
Ces enfants sont trs paresseux.

That child is very lazy.


Those children are very lazy.

Ce vin

That wine

est trs mauvais.


Ces cigares sont trs mauvais.

2.

al

is very bad.
Those cigars are very bad.

Adjectives ending in au take an

x.

Those ending

change that termination into aux.

Beau, beaux, beautiful.

Egal, gaux, equal.

Nouveau, nouveaux, new.

Principal, principaux, principal.

in

Practical French Course

S4

EXCEPTIONS.

The

following adjectives do not change their termina-

tion into aux, but take

general rule

an

s in the plural,

according to the

Amical,

fatal, final, frugal, initial,

Nasal, naval, glacial, sentimental.

PRACTICE.

Je suis prt(e).
Je suis malade.

I am very sorry for you.


I a?n angry with you.
I am very tired.
I am very much surprised.
I am very much embarrassed.
I am very busy.
I am in a great hurry.
I am ready.
I am sick.

Je suis fch(e) de vous dranger.


Je suis fch(e) de vous avoir

I am sony
I am sony

J'en suis fch(e) pour vous.

Je suis fch (e) contre vous.


Je suis trs fatigu(e)
Je suis trs surpris(e).
Je suis trs embarrass(e).
Je suis trs occup(e).
Je suis trs press(e).

to disturb
to

you.

have disturbed you.

drang.
[dre.

Je suis f ch(e) de vous faire attenJe suis fch(e) de vous avoir fait

I am
I am

sorry to keep you waiting.

sorry to have kept you

attendre.

Il est

amoureux.

Il est

jaloux.

Il est

mari.

Il est trs intelligent.

Il est trs fort.


Il est trs habile.

maladroit (or) gauche.


heureux.
est malheureux.

Il est trs

Il est trs
Il

Il est

reconnaissant.

Il est ingrat.
Il est

dcourag.

He is in love.
He is jealous.
He is married.
He is very intelligent.
He is ve7y strong.
He is very skilful.
He is veiy awkward.
He is veiy happy.
He is unhappy.
He is grateful.
He is ungrateful.
He is discouraged.

Practical French Course


Il est trs avare.
Il est

content.

Il est satisfait.
Il est ivre,

sol (or) gris.

Il est fou.

Bile est amoureuse.


Bile est jalouse.

Bile est mchante.


Bile est trs jolie.

Bile est blonde.

Bile est brune.

Bile est laide.


Bile est

folle.

Nous sommes
Nous sommes
Vous
Vous

trs occups.
brouills.

tes trs drle.


tes trs aimable.

85

He is very stingy.
He is contented.
He is satisfied.
He is drunk.
He is crazy.
She
She
She
She
She
She
She
She

is

in love.

is jealous.

is

naughty.

is very pretty.
is fair.
is

dark.

is

ugly (ill-looking).

is crazy.

We are very busy.


We are no longer friends.
You are very funny.
You are very kind.

Biles sont trs aimables.

They (m.) are very kind.


They (/.) are very kind.

Soyez un bon garon.


Soyez une bonne fille.
Soyez sage.

Be a good boy.
Be a good girl.
Be good (behave).

Ils sont trs aimables.

EXERCISE.

chapeau.
robe.
Un costume
Une maison
Du ruban
De la soie
Un tableau.
Un cadre.
Une peinture.

A new (different) hat.


A new gown.
A new (brand new) suit
A new house.
Some white
Some white
8.

10.

Un

Une

ribbon.

silk.

A beautiful picture.
A beautifulframe.
A beautiful painting.
A pretty flower.

10.

Une

fit

Practical French Course

S6

i.

You are very lazy, (m.)


You are vety lazy. (/.)
Dear sir.
Dear madam.
Dear miss.

20.

My dearfriend,

(m.)

20.

21.

My

dear friend,

(fi)

21.

manteau.
maison.
Elle a de yeux, (m.)
Elle a de cheveux, (m. pi.)
Vous tes trs
Vous tes trs
monsieur.
madame.
mademoiselle.
Mon ami.
Ma amie.

Are you ready?


Are you ready?

(m.)

22.

Etes-vous

(_/.)

23-

ii.

12.

13.
14.
13.
16.

1 j.
18.

22.
23.

An
An

old cloak.

11.

Un

old house.

12.

Une

She has {some) beautiful

She has fine hair.

24. Is your sister,


23.
26.
2j.

28.
2.

ready ?

Are you sick ?


I am sick.
I am sorry for you.
Are you angry with me?
I am angry with you.

eyes.

13.
14.

15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

24.

malade

26.

Je suis

29.

Je suis fch

30.
31-

Etes-vous
Etes-vous

He is

very proud.

32.

Il est

She
She

is

very proud.

33-

Elle est

is

very nice.

34-

Elle est

35-

Il est

36.

Il est

37-

Elle est

36.

He is very nice.
He is crazy.

37.

She

is crazy.

38.

He

is

33.

innocent.

to

TRE,

have;

am,

Je suis

Tu as

Tu

Nous avons
Vous avez
Ils

ont

?
?

have, etc.

J'ai

II

innocent.

38.

Present Indicative of AVOIR,

32.

34.

pour

contre moi

28.

Are you in a hurry ?


Are you busy ?

33.

31.

30.

Votre sur

25-

27.

II

to be.

etc.

es

est

Nous sommes
Vous tes
Ils

sont

Practical French Course

87

QUATORZIME LEON.
LESSON XIV.
I.

How

to

form the Comparative

The comparative

of Adjectives.

formed in French
by placing plus (more) before the adjective and que (than)
I.

after

of superiority

is

it.

Paris est plus beau

que

New York.

Paris

is

more beautiful than

New

York.

La langue anglaise est plus


que la langue franaise.
plus chaud qu'hier.

Il fait

The comparative

2.

moins
Je suis
Je suis
Il

facile

fait

yesterday.

is formed by placing"
and que (than) after it.

of inferiority

(less) before the adjective

moins habile que vous.


moins grand que vous.
moins chaud aujourd'hui

The comparative

warmer than

It is

I am

less skilful

/ am

not as tall as you.

It is not as

than you.

warm

to-day as it was

yesterday.

qu'hier.

3.

The English language is easier


than the French langttage.

of equality

is

formed by placing

aussi (as) before the adjective and que (as) after


Je suis aussi grand que vous.
I/' un est aussi bon que l'autre.
Il fait

aussi chaud qu'hier.

/ am
One

it.

as tall as you.

is

It is as

as

good as

warm

the other.

as yesterday.

In negative sentences the adverb as before an adjective

may

be rendered either by aussi or

gros
que vous (or)}
Je ne suis pas

v
* aussi
.
.
t
>
Je ne suis pas si gros que vous.
J

si.

Ir dtn

not as stout as you.

Practical French Course

88
Il
Il

ne
ne

fait
fait

pas aussi chaud qu'hier {or)


pas si chaud qu'hier.

It is not so

warm as

yesterday.

IMPORTANT OBSERVATIONS.
I.

More

than, for nouns,

by plus de

que

rendered into French

de.

Plus de beurre que de pain.


Plus de vin que d'eau.
Plus d'hommes que de femmes.

2.

is

Less or fewer
que de.

More butter than bread.


More wine than water.
More men than women.

than, for nouns,

rendered by

is

moins de

Moins de beurre que de pain.


Moins de vin que d'eau.
Moins d'hommes que de femmes.

3.

As much

or as

autant de

many

as, for

nouns,

is

rendered by

que de.

Autant de beurre que de pain


Autant de vin que d'eau.
Autant d'hommes que de femmes.

4.

Less butter than bread.


Less wine than water.
Fewer men than women.

As much butter as bread.


As much wine as water.
As many men as women.

So much or so many, before a noun, is rendered by


When the noun is understood the preposition de

tant de.
is

omitted.

J'ai tant
J'ai tant

de travail
de choses
!

J'ai tant faire

faire

Je n'ai pas tant d'argent.


Je n'ai pas tant de livres.

5.

/ have so much work !


I have so many things to do !
I have so much to do !
I have not so much money.
I have not so many books.

Than, followed by a number,

by de (not

que).

is

rendered

in

French

Practical French Course;

More than twenty.


More than fifty.
More than once.

Plus de vingt.
Plus de cinquante.
Plus d'une fois.
Il est

plus de trois heures.

It is

more than

three o 'clock.

At

the end of a sentence more is rendered by davan=


and
by de plus after a number.
tage,
6.

En

Have you enough

avez-vous assez ?

Donnez-m'en davantage.
Donnez-m'en un de plus.

II.

I.

How

to

(of if) ?

I have not enough (of if).


Give me more (of if).
Give me one more (of them).

Je n'en ai pas assez.

form the Superlative of Adjectives.

The superlative absolute

is

formed

in

French by plac-

ing the adverbs trs, fort or bien (meaning very) before the
adjective.
C'est bien beau.

It is very beautiful.

C'est trs bon.

It is very good.

C'est fort intressant.

It is very interesting.

The superlative relative is formed by placing before


the
the words le plus, la plus, les plus, according to the gender and number of the noun.
2.

adjective

Le plus grand pays. (m.


La plus grande ville, (f
.

sing.)
sing. )

Les plus grands pays. (m. pi. )


Les plus grandes villes, (f. pi.)

The largest country.


The largest city.
The largest countries.
The largest cities.

REMARK.
Adjectives

in

the superlative

either before or after the

noun

may

degree

La plus grande ville,(or)


La ville la plus grande.

be placed

Practical French Course

90

IRREGULARITIES.
I.

The comparative and

good, are irregular, to wit

superlative of the adjective bon,

Le meilleur,

Meilleur, better.

Le vin franais

est meilleur

que

le

vin amricain.

French wine

bire allemande est meilleure


que la bire franaise.
Les cigares amricains sont meilleurs que les cigares franais.

German

The

The comparative and

Comment vous

best wine.
best beer.
best cigars.

best oranges.

best in the (of the) world.

superlative of the adverb bien,

better.

sentez- vous ?

votre pre
va mieux.
Il va beaucoup mieux.
Tant mieux.

Il

mieux que

Le mieux,

the best.

How do you feel ?


Ifeel better.

sens mieux.

Comment va

3.

than

Mieux,

C'est le

better

French cigars.

Le meilleur du monde.

me

Amer-

beer is better than French

American cigars are

Les meilleurs cigares, (m. pi.)


Les meilleures oranges, (f. pi.)

Je

better than

beer.

The
The
The
The

Le meilleur vin. (m. sing.)


La meilleure bire, (f. sing.)

is

ican wine.

La

well, are

the best.

je puisse faire.

The comparative and

mauvais, bad, are

How is yourfather?
He is better.
He is much better.
So much the

better.

It is the best that

superlative

I can

of the

Plus mauvais (or) pire, worse.


Le plus mauvais (or) le pire, the worst.

do.

adjective

Practical French Course

Vous
Vous

tes plus

mauvais que moi (or)\ You

It is the worst cigar that

The comparative and

badly, are

I have

ever smoked.

jamais fum.
C'est le pire de tous les cigares.
j'aie

It is the worst

of all cigars.

superlative of the adverb mal,

Plus mal (or) pis, worse,

Je parle

a%

tes pire que moi.

C'est le plus mauvais cigare que

4.

91

mal

L,e

plus mal (or) le pis, the worst.

I speak French

franais.

badly.

Mon frre parle plus mal.


Ma sur parle le plus mal.

My brother speaks worse.


My sister speaks the worst.

Tant

So much the worse.


It is the worst that may happen.

pis.

C'est le pis qui puisse arriver.

5.

The comparative and

petit, small,

little,

are

superlative

of the

Plus petit (or) moindre, smaller, less.


Le plus petit (or) le moindre, the smallest, the

6.
little,

The comparative and


are

adjective

least.

superlative of the adverb peu

Moins, in a smaller degree,


Le moins, the least.

less.

OBSERVATION.
For a better understanding of the above rules, we will
say that an adjective is a word which modifies a noun, while
an adverb

is

word which

modifies a verb.

Practical French Course

92

COMPARATIVE EXPRESSIONS,
More and more.

De plus en
De moins en moins.
De mieux en mieux.
De mal en pis.
plus.

Less and
Better

Le plus

The

tt possible.

plus

better.

From bad to worse.


As soon as possible.

Aussitt que possible.

Au
Au

less.

and

earliest possible.

At the
At the

tt.

plus tard.

earliest.
latest.

Plus tt que d'habitude.

Earlier than usual.

Ou plutt.
De bonne heure.
De meilleure heure.

Early.
Earlier.

Bon march.

Cheap {good market).

Meilleur march.
Le meilleur march.

Cheaper.

Moins on

travaille,

Or rather.

moins on veut

The
The

cheapest.

one works, the

less

less

one

wishes to work.

travailler.

Plus je vous vois, plus


aime.

je

vous

The more I see you, the more

I like

you.

EXERCISE,
I am

older than you.

You are

i.

than I.
I am less rich than you.
Is it colder than yesterday ?
It is colder than yesterday.
More bread than butter.
Less water than wine.
taller

As many
9-

10.
ii.

12.
13-

2.

3.

4.
5.
6.
7.

boys as girls.

8.

More than twenty-five.


More than one thousand.

9.

10.

The most beautiful country.


The most beautiful city.
France and America are the
most beautiful countries in

11.
12.
13.

Je suis

tes

Paris

is the

most beautiful

in the world.

city

14.

vous.

grand

Je suis
Il

filles.

Plus

mille.

beau pays.
belle ville.

La France

et

Paris est

the world.
*4>

moi.
riche vous.
Fait-il froid hier?
fait froid hier.
Plus pain beurre.
Moins eau
vin.
Autant garons
Plus vingt-cinq.
Vous

monde.

l'Amrique sont
pays
monde.

ville

Practical French Course;


15-

The American ladies are the


most beautiful women in the

15-

I^es

93

Amricaines

femmes

belles

sont

monde.

world.
16,
17-

The
The

best book.

17-

18.

How is {goes) your mother ?

18.

19.

She

19.

is better,

thank you,

(m.)

livre,

16.

method.

best

mthode,
Comment va
Elle va

20.

How is yourfriend ?

20.

Comment

He

21.

Il

22.

So much

22.

23-

Come early.

23-

Tant
Venez

24.

25-

I shall come early.


I shall come earlier.

25-

Je viendrai
Je viendrai

26.

Come

26.

Venez

27.

at

27.

Je viendrai

getting (I become) more

28.

Je deviens

24.

worse.
the worse.

as soon as possible.

shall

come at six

o'clock

?
.

the latest.
28.

I am

and more
2.

like

ress(e)

interested in the

study of the French language.


The more I study it, the more I

29.

How do you feel ?

30.

Comment

I do

not feel well.

31.

Je ne

32.

How is your mother ?

32.

Comment va

She is better.
She is much better.
That is good.

33.

Bile

34.

Bile

35-

35.

36. It is very useful.

36.

amusing.
38. Have you enough ?

37.

37- It is very

38.

Imperfect Indicative of AVOIR,


I had, I

je l'tudi,

was having,

used to have

J'avais
Tu avais
II

avait

Nous avions
Vous aviez
Us avaient

me

sens pas

C'est utile.
C'est amusant.
En avez-vous
C'est

to

TRE,

have;
I

to be.

was, I used to be
J'tais

Tu
Il

tais

tait

Nous tions
Vous tiez
Ils

int-

je l'aime.

it.

3i-

34>

dans l'tude

30.

33-

21.

is

(f.)

taient

Practical French Course

94

QUINZIEME LEON,

LESSON XV.
INDEFINITE ADJECTIVE.

I.

Different

the article

le, la,

The same day.


The same morning.
The same evening.
The same price.

mme nuit, (f )
mme semaine.
mme anne.
mme chose.

The same night.


The same week.
The same year.
The same thing.

mmes hommes,
mmes femmes,
le

mme

mme

chose.

Nous avons
C'est la

Mme.'*

an adjective meaning same.

Le mme jour, (m.)


Le mme matin.
Le mme soir.
Le mme prix.

Les
Les

of "

The word mme, preceded by

{the), is

La
La
La
La

Meanings

(m. pi.)

got.

Que dsirez- vous boire


N'importe quoi.
Le mme que vous.

A votre sant.
A la vtre.

pi.)

(f.

The same men.


The same women.

We have
It is the

the same taste.


same thing.

What do you wish

to

drink

No -matter what (anything).


The same as you.
(Here is) to your
To yours.

health.

les

Practical French Course


2.

The word mme

(pi.

95

mmes), combined with the per-

sonal pronouns, corresponds to the English adjective self


selves.

Moi-mme, myself.
Toi-mme, thyself.
Lui-mme, himself.
Elle-mme, herself.

3.

Nous-mmes, ourselves.
Vous-mmes, yourselves.
Eux-mmes, themselves, (m.)
Elles-mmes, themselves,

The word mme

is

(f.)

used as an adverb in the sense of

even.

Mme vous.
Mme maintenant.
Mme prsent.

4.

Even you.
Even now.
Even al present.

The word mme placed

the sense of very, this very

after a substantive

Ce jour-l mme.

l'instant

5.

The word mme

Je suis

mme

is

used idiomatically

de, to be able

mme de me

dfendre.

in

able to defend myself.

PRACTICAL EXPRESSIONS

Tl est la

bont mme.

the expres-

to.

I am

formed with the word Heme.


Tout de mme.
Faites de mme.

in

This very morning.


This very instant.

mme.

sion tre

used

That very day.


This very day.

Aujourd'hui mme.
Ce matin mme.

is

All the same.


Do the same.
He is goodness

itself.

Practical French Course

96

Cela revient au mme.


De la mme manire.

That amounts to the same.


In the same manner.

Quand mme.

Even though, even


Come neve7'theless.

Venez quand mme.

II.

Different

Meanings

of

if.

the word "Tout."

I. The word tout {all)


used as an adjective agrees in
gender and number with the substantive to which it relates.
The masculine plural of tout is tous (s silent).

Tout
Tout

All the day.


All the time.

(m.)
temps.

le jour,

le

Toute
Toute

All the night.


All the week.

la nuit, (f.)
la

semaine.

Tous les hommes, (m. pi.)


Toutes les femmes, (f. pi.)

Tout, tous and toutes

All
All

are

(the)
{the)

often

men.
women.

used in the sense of

every.

Tout
Tous
Tous

le

Everybody (all the people).


Every morning.
Every evening.
Eveiy hour.
Every two hours.
Every day.
Every other day.

les soirs.

Toutes
Toutes

Tous
Tous

monde.

les matins.

les heures.
les

deux heures.

les jours.
les

Tous

deux

jours.

(m.), toutes

final s of

tous

is

(f.),

are also used as pronouns.

then sounded (toos).

The

Practical French Course;


Venez tous, (m.)
Venez toutes, (f.)

Come ail.
Come ail.

Prenez ces

Take these books.


Take them all.

livres.

Prenez-les tous.

Prenez ces

97

Take these flowers.


Take them all.

fleurs.

Prenez-les toutes.

Tout and toute are sometimes used as adverbs

in the

sense of quite, very, entirely.


Il est

He is quite young.

tout jeune.

Elle est toute jeune.

Ce chapeau

est tout neuf.

Cette robe est toute neuve.


C'est tout

nouveau

C'est une toute autre histoire.

Tout autre (m.), toute autre


any other.
Tout autre aurait pleur.
Toute autre aurait ri.

She is very young.


That hat is brand new.
This dress is brand new.
That is qtiite new (novelty).
That is quite a different story.

(f.),

are used in the sense of

Any other would have cried.


Any other would have laughed.

PRACTICAL EXPRESSIONS
FORMED WITH THE WORD

Tout."

Point du tout.

Not at all.
Not at all (don't mention
None at all.

Rien du

Nothing

Pas du

Du

tout.

tout.

tout.

C'est tout.

Voil tout.

En

tout.

Tout ensemble.
Tout vous.

That is
That is
In all.

if).

at all.

all.
all.

Altogether.

All yours

(yotirs very truly).

Practical French Course

98

Almighty.
All at once.
All of a sudden.
Above all.

Tout-puissant.

Tout d'un coup.


Tout coup.
Surtout (or) par dessus tout.

For good, in
Not quite.

Tout de bon.
Pas

tout--fait.

Within one hour (just now).


Both of them.

Tout--1' heure.

Tous

les

earnest (honest /)

deux.

C'est tout un.

It is all the same.

Tout au plus.
Tout au moins.

At the most.
At the least.

De

tout

Tout

mon

With all my heart.


All is well that ends

cur.

est bien qui finit bien.

III.

Other

Aucun (m.), aucune


Nul (m.), nulle (f.)

The above two


the verb.

Nul

is

well.

Indefinite Adjectives.

(f.))

'

(b
K

nQun)J

adjectives require the particle ne before

a stronger negative than aucun.

Aucun homme n'est parfait.


Nul homme n'est immortel.

Tel (m.),

No man is perfect.
No man is immortal.

telle (f.), such.

my interest.
my thought.

Tel n'est pas mon intrt.


Telle n'est pas ma pense.

Such
Such

Monsieur un

tel.

Mr. So-and-So.

Madame une

telle.

(idiom)

is

not

is

not

Mrs. So-and-So.

Chaque, each, every.

Chaque pays a ses coutumes.


Chaque billet cote cinq francs.

Every country has its customs.


Each ticket costs five francs.

Practical French Course

99

Plusieurs, several.

For several reasons.


For several motives.

Pour plusieurs raisons.


Pour plusieurs motifs.

L'autre, the other.

Les autres, the

Les autres

others.

The other book.


The other books.

L'autre livre.
livres.

Quelconque, whatever, any.

D'une manire quelconque.


Donnez-moi un livre quelconque.

In anyway whatever (anyhow).


Give me a book (any kind of a book).

Quelque, quelques, some, a few.

Quelque chose.
Quelques livres.

Something.

A few books.

OBSERVATION

When

quelque chose

is

followed by

an

adjective,

it

requires the preposition de (of) before the adjective which


retains the masculine form.

Quelque chose de bon.


Rien de mauvais.

The same

rule applies to rien,

Something (of) good.


Nothing bad.

EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION.


i.

2.

3.

4.
5.

The
The
The
The
The

same boy.
same girl.
same children.
same book.
same books.

6.

Is it the

7.

It is

8.

Is it

9.

It is

10.

same? (m.)

the same.
the same?
the same.

Even

I.

(f.)

100

Practical French Course

II.

Even the

12.

42.

14.

This very day.


This very evening.
All the time, (m.)

15-

All the year,

16.

43-

Nothing extraordinary.
Nothing good.
Both of them, (f.)

44.

He is

45-

The almighty

All the Americans.

46.

How many

17.

All the Frenchmen.

47-

Twelve in

all.

18.

All the French

48.

The other

day.

19-

All the people.

49-

20.

Every day.
Every month, (m.)
Every week, (f.)

50.

Another time.
Give me a few matches.

13-

professor.

(f.)

women.

41.

almighty.
dollar, (m.)

in all

58.

29.

Nothing at all.
Do you understand ?

30.

Not

60.

Take these fruits.


Take them all. (m.)
Take these apples.
Take them all. (f.)
She is goodness itself.
The same exercise, (m.)
The same mistake (faute),
Is it the same price?
It is the same price.
Every other week.

3i-

How many in

61.

This very evening.

21.
22.

2324.

They (m.) are all good.


They (f.) are all bad.

25. Is that all

That

27.

What do you wish?

is all.

quite.
all

35-

36.

No man

33-

34-

373839-

40.

is

5354-

56.

Miss So-and-So.
Each time {fois).
Sometimes.
Several times.

32.

52.

55-

26.

28.

5i.

perfect {parfait).

Something funny {drle).


Something easy {facile).
Something good.
Nothing better.

Future Indicative of
I shall or will

have, etc.

J'aurai

Tu auras
Il

aura

Nous aurons
Vous aurez
lis

auront

57-

59-

62.

He

63.

68.

She is quite small.


Are you tired ?
Not at all.
Not the least in the world.
What do you wish ?
Nothing at all.

69.

All

is

70.

All

is right.

64.

6566.

67.

AVC >IR,

to

is

(f.)

quite small.

wrong. (All goes badly!)


(All goes well !)

have;

TRE,

to be.

I shall or will be, etc.

Je serai
Tu seras
Il sera

Nous serons
Vous serez
Ils

seront

Practical French Course

101

SEIZIEME LEON,

LESSON

Personal Pronouns Used as

The personal pronouns used


in

XVI.

French

Subject of the Verb.

as subject of the verb are,

Je,

/.

Tu,

thou.

Il,

he\

Nous, we.
Vous, you.
they,

Ils,

(m.)

Elles, they. (/.)

Elle, she)

Personal pronouns are placed before the verb in affirmand after the verb in interrogative sen-

ative sentences,

tences, with a
Je

suis,

Tu

es,

hyphen connecting them.

I am.

Suis-je?

am I ?

thou

Es-tu ?

art thou ?

art.

he?

II est,
he is I
{Uis)
Elle est, she ts>

Est-il?

Nous sommes, we are.


Vous tes,
you are.

Sommes-nous ? are we ?
are you ?
Etes- vous ?

is

Est-elle

Ils sont,

they

Elles sont,

they (f.) are.

Sont-ils

(in.) are.

? is

Sont-elles

(is it?)

she ?

are they

are they

IMPORTANT REMARKS.
I.

The pronoun

someone, somebody)
particular.

they

is

when

rendered

it

in

French by on

{one,

does not refer to anybody

in

Practical French Course

102

On vient.
On le dit.
On vous appelle.
On vous demande.
On me l'a dit.

2.

The pronouns

toi, lui,

c'est, it

Qui a

They are coming.


They say so.
They call you {some one calls you).
They want you {you are wanted).
They told me so.

/, thou, he, they, are rendered by moi,


eux (m.), elles (f.), when they are preceded by
is, and also in comparative sentences.

fait cela

Who

has done that ?

C'est moi.

It is I.

C'est

toi.

It is thou.

C'est

lui.

It is he.

Vous

tes plus riche

que moi.

Je suis plus jeune qu'elle.


Je suis plus jeune qu'eux, (m.)
Je suis plus jeune qu'elles

3.

It is they

c'est elles

eux

is

(f.)

richer than

I.

generally rendered by c'est eux (m.),

when followed by que, whom, and by ce sont


sont elles (f.), when followed by qui, who.

(f.),

(m.), ce

eux que je cherche.


Ce sont eux qui me cherchent.
C'est

4.

You are

I am younger than she.


I am younger than they {are).
I am younger than they {are).

It is they

whom I seek.

It is they

who

seek me.

The same pronouns moi, toi, lui, eux, are employed


je, tu, il, ils, when they are used absolutely or

instead of

after a verb to give

sentence,

a greater force to the subject of the

Practical French Course

You and 1.
You and he.
You and they.

Vous et moi.
Vous et lui.
Vous et eux.
Je

le sais,

I know

moi.

it,

I do.

He knows it,

Il le sait, lui.

II.

103

Personal

he does.

Pronouns Used Objectively.

accusative or direct object.

DATIVE OR INDIRECT OBJECT.

Me (m' before a vowel), me.


Nous,
us.

He

(m* before a vowel),


Nous,

to us.

Te (f before a vowel),
Vous,

thee.

Te (V

to thee.

you.

Vous,

to you.

Le
La

(V before a vowel),

htm

III.

him.

Lui,

to

Lui,

to her.

Leur,

to

her
them.

Les,

before a vowel),

me.

to

Place

of Personal

them.

Pronouns.

Both accusative and dative pronouns are placed


before the verb in interrogative and affirmative sentences.
I.

fie comprenez-vous ? (or)

Est-ce que vous

me

comprenez

Do you

understand

"

"

me ?
"

I understand you.

Je vous comprends.

2.

In negative sentences the personal pronouns are also

placed before the verb, but after the particle ne.

Ne me comprenez- vous pas


Je ne vous comprends pas.

Do you not understand me ?


I do not understand you.

Practical French Course

104

3.

When

the verb

is

in a

compound

tense the pronouns

are placed before the auxiliary.


M'avez- vous crit?

Je vous ai crit.

Have you written to me?


I have written to you-

PRACTICE.
He connaissez-vous?
Ne me connaissez-vous

pas ?

Je VOUS connais.
Je ne vous connais pas.

Voyez-vous ce monsieur

I know you.
I do not know you.
?

Do you

see that

gentleman ?

I see him.
Do you know him ?
I know him.
I do not know him.

Oui, je le vois.

Le

Do you know me ?
Do you not know me?

Yes,

connaissez- vous ?

Je le connais.

Je ne le connais pas.

Voyez-vous cette dame

Do you

see that lady ?

Je ne la connais pas.

I see her.
Do you know her?
I know her.
I do not know her.

Voyez- vous ces messieurs ?

Do you see

Oui, je les vois.

Yes,

Oui, je la vois.

La

Yes,

connaissez- vous ?

Je la connais.

Les connaissez-vous

Je les connais.
Je ne les connais pas.

'entendez- vous ?
Est-ce-que vous m'entendez?
Oui, je vous entends.

n'aimez- vous?
Oui, je

vous aime.

those gentlemen ?

I see them.

Do you

knozv them ?

I know them.
I do not know

Do you
Yes

me?

I hear you.

Do you
Yes,

hear

them.

love

me?

I love you.

Aimez- vous ce monsieur ?

Do you

Oui, je l'aime.

Yes,

like that gentleman

I like him.

Practical French Course


Aimez- vous cette dame ?
Aimez- vous cette demoiselle ?

Do you
Do you

Oui, je l'aime.

Yes,

Aimez- vous ces messieurs?

Do you like

like that lady ?

like that young lady ?

I like

I like

Oui, je les aime.

Yes,

langue franaise ?
Oui, je l'aime beaucoup.

Do you

n'avez- vous vu?

Did you

Aimez- vous

la

Yes,

105

her.

those gentlemen ?

them.

like the

I like

it

French language

very much.

see

me ? {Me

have you

seen ?)

Oui, je

vous

ai vu.

Yes,

Avez- vous vu votre ami ?

I saw you.

{I you have seen. )

l'avez- vous vu?


vu ce matin.
O l'avez-vous vu?
Je l'ai vu dans le parc.

Did you see yourfriend ?


Yes, I saw him.
When did you see him ?
I saw him this morning.
Where did you see him f
I saw him in the park.

Avez- vous vu votre amie?

Ha ve you

Oui, je l'ai vu.

Quand

Je

l'ai

Oui, je

vue.

l'ai

Yes,

(f.)

Avez- vous vu vos* amis

Oui, je les ai vus. (pi.)

vous

ai crit.

Lui avez- vous crit

lui avez- vous dit

leur avez- vous dit

Je lui ai dit

Je leur ai dit

Have you written to them


I have written to them.

crit?

Je leur ai crit.

Que
Que

Have you seen yourfriends ?


Yes, I have seen them.

Have you written to him or her?


I have written to him or her.

Je lui ai crit.

Leur avez- vous

seen her.

Have you written to me


I have written to you.

n'avez- vous crit?


Je

seen your friend ?

I have

What did you


What did you

tell

him or her

tell

them ?

I told him or hev


I told them

Practical French Course

106

Que
Que
Que
Que
Il

vous
vous
vous
vous

What did he tell you ?


What did she tell you ?
What did they (m.) tell you f
What did they (/.) tell you ?

a-t-il dit ?

a-t-elle dit

ont-ils dit

ont-elles dit?

He told me

m'a dit
m'a dit

She told me
They (m.) told me
They (f.) told me

Bile
Ils

m'ont

dit

Biles m'ont dit

Cela
Cela
Cela
Cela

(or a) m'est gal. (idiom.J

nous

lui est gal.

leur est gal.

Qu'est-ce que a

a ne

me

me

What difference does it make


{What do I care f)
It makes no difference to me.

fait?

fait rien.

Qu'est-ce que a
Qu'est-ce que a

nous
vous

fait

fait?

Qu'est-ce que a lui fait?


Qu'est-ce que a leur fait?

Cela
Cela
Cela
Cela
Cela
Cela

same (equal) to me.


same to us.
It is all the same to him.
It is all the same to them.
// is all the
It is all the

est gal.

ne me regarde pas.
ne nous regarde pas.
ne vous regarde pas.
ne le regarde pas.
ne la regarde pas.
ne les regarde pas.

Peu m'importe.

to

met

What do we care f
What do you care ?
What does he care ?
What do they care ?
That
That
That
That
That
That

does not concern me.


does not concern us.

does not concern you.

does not concern him.


does not concern her.
does not concern them.

It does not matter to me.

IMPORTANT REMARKS.
I.

In the imperative used affirmatively the pronouns fol-

low the verb, as in English.


dered by moi.

Me

and

to

me

are then ren-

Practical French Course


Croyez-moi.

Parlez-moi.

107

Believe me.

Speak

to

me.

In the imperative used negatively the pronouns are

2.

placed before the verb, according to the general rule, but


after the particle ne.

Me

and

to

me

then rendered

are

by me.
Ne me taquinez pas.
Ne me parlez pas.

When two

3.

Do
Do

not tease me.


not speak to me.

pronouns, one direct and the other in-

direct, occur with one verb, the personal pronouns te and


vous are placed before the objective pronouns le, la, les,
but the pronouns lui and leur are placed after them.

Je vous le prte.

I give it (m.) to
I lend it to you.

Je le lui donne,
Je le leur prte,

I give it to him.
I lend it to them.

Je te le donne.

4.

thee.

In the imperative used affirmatively the objective pro-

noun

is

placed, as in English, before the personal pronoun.

Donnez-le-moi.
Donnez-le-nous.
Donnez-Ia-lui.

Donnez-les-leur.

Give it (m.) to me.


Give it to us.
Give it (/.) to him or her.
Give them to them. {Lit.)

EXCEPTION.
In the imperative used negatively the personal pronouns

me and nous
them)

precede the objective pronouns

le, la,

les

{it,

Practical French Course

108

Ne me le donnez pas.
Ne nous le donnez pas.

Do
Do

not give

it (m.~) to

not give

it to us.

me.

OBSERVATION.
After a preposition the pronouns him, her, them, are ren-

dered by

lui, elle,

eux

(m.), elles

(f.).

Avec lui.
Sans elle.
Pour eux.

For them, (m.)

Contre elles.

Against them.

With him.
Without her.
(f.)

NOTE.
This lesson being one of the most important,
made the object of very serious sttidy.

it

should be

EXERCISE.
I.

He is younger than
She

I.

than he.
3> Do you understand him ?
4- I understand him.
5- Do you understand her
6. I understand her.
2.

is taller

7-

Have you

8.

friend ?
I have written to him.
Has yourfriend written

9-

10.

ii.
12.

1314.

15-

16.

He has

written

written to me.

I bet you.
Speak to me
(to)

your

to you?

jeune

11 est

7-

grande
comprenez- vous ?
comprends.
Je
comprenez- vous ?
comprends.
Je
Avez- vous crit

8.

Je

9-

Votre ami

3-

456.

10.

11.

in French.

me.
I shall write to you.
Tell {to) him.
Tell (to) them.
Write

to

1.

2.

12.
1314.

15-

16.

Bile est

ai crit.

a-t-il crit?

a crit.
Je parie.
Parlez en
Ecrivez
Je crirai.
Dites
Dites
Il

Practical French Course;

109

DIX-SEPTIEME LEON,

LESSON

XVII.

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS,

I.

The

dered

in

interrogative pronoun

French by

who (nominative)

Qui

(or)

qui est=ce qui.

Who

has

Qui a gagn ? (or)


Qui est-ce qui a gagn ?

Who

has won ?

Qui
Qui

Who

is

Who

has taught you

Qui vous a crit ? (or)


Qui est-ce qui vous a crit

Who

has written

Qui vous a donn cela? (or)


Qui est-ce qui vous a donn cela ?

Who gave you

Qui vous l'a dit ? (or)


Qui est-ce qui vous l'a dit?

Who

Qui
Qui

est

venu

(or)

est-ce qui est

venu

(is)

corne ?

est votre professeur ? (or)

your teacher ?

est-ce qui est votre professeur?

Qui vous a enseign ? (or)


Qui est-ce qui vous a enseign

to

that

told you so?

you ?

is

ren

Practical French Course

110
2.

The

dered

in

interrogative pronoun

French by

whom

(accusative)

is

ren-

Qui

(or)

qui est-ce que.

Qui demandez- vous ? (or)


Qui est-ce que vous demandez ?

Whom

do you ask for ?

Qui avez-vous vu ? (or)


Qui est-ce que vous avez vu ?

Whom

have you seen ?

Qui aimez- vous? (or)


Qui est-ce que vous aimez ?

Whom

do you love?

OBSERVATION.
The

interrogative forms qui est=ce qui and qui est-ce que

are less elegant than qui, but they are nevertheless frequently

employed by French people in ordinary conversation.


When, however, who and whom are used absolutely,
they are always rendered by qui.

3.

The

tive before

interrogative pronoun what, used as an accusa-

a verb,

is

rendered in French by

Que

Que

(or)

qu'est=ce que.

What do you wish ?

dsirez- vous ? (or)

Qu'est-ce que vous dsirez?

Que voulez-vous ?

What do you want ?

(or)

Qu'est-ce que vous voulez

Que voulez- vous dire ? (or)


Qu'est-ce que vous voulez dire

What do you mean ?


?

Practical French Course

Que

faites- vous

What are you doing ?

(or)

111

Qu'est-ce que vous faites?

Que

dites-vous

What do you

(or)

Qu'est-ce que vous dites

Que pensez- vous ?

say

What do you think ?

(or)

Qu'est-ce que vous pensez?

Que cherchez- vous ?

What are you looking for?

(or)

Qu'est-ce que vous cherchez?

Que

What do you prefer

prfrez- vous ? (or)

Qu'est-ce que vous prfrez?

Qu'avez- vous? (or)


Qu'est-ce que vous avez

What

Qu'avez- vous mang? (or)


Qu'est-ce que vous avez mang

Que

is

the matter with you ?

What have you

eaten ?

What have you

told

lui avez-vous dit? (or)

him or her?

Qu'est-ce que vous lui avez dit?

I bade him

Je lui ai dit bonjour.

Que

leur avez-vous dit

good morning.

told

them

I told them

Je leur ai dit

Que vous

'

What have you

(or)

Qu'est-ce que vous leur avez dit

'

a-t-il dit ? (or)

What did he

tell you

Qu'est-ce qu'il vous a dit?


Il

m'a

He

dit

Que vous

a-t-elle dit

(or)

toldme

What did she

tell you

Qu'est-ce qu'elle vous a dit?


Elle m'a dit

She told

Que vous

What did

they tell you ?

They told

me

ont-ils dit

(or)

me

Qu'est-ce qu'ils vous ont dit?


Ils

m'ont

dit

'

'

Practical French Course

112

4.

lated

What used
by

as a nominative before a

verb

is

trans-

Qu'est=ce qui.

Qu'est-ce qui vous fait mal?

Qu'est-ce qui lui fait mal?


Qu'est-ce qui leur fait mal?
Qu'est-ce qui vous chagrine?
Qu'est-ce qui vous rend triste
Qu'est-ce qui vous fait rire

What hurts you?


What hurts him or her ?
What hurts them ?
What worries you ?
What makes you sad?
What makes you laugh ?

IMPORTANT REMARKS
on the word What.
1.

an

What {between two verbs) is ce que when it is used


and ce qui when it is used as a subject.

as

object,

Savez- vous ce que je pense?


Savez- vous ce que je crois

Savez- vous ce que j'ai fait?


Savez- vous ce que j'aime?
Savez-vous ce que j'aimerais

Do you know what I think ?


Do you know what I believe ?
Do you know what I have done?
Do you know what I like ?
Do you know what I would like?

que vous voudrez.


que vous voudrez.
Mangez ce que vous voudrez.
Buvez ce que vous voudrez.

Do what you will.


Say what you will.
Eat what you will.
Drink what you please.

Savez-vous ce qui est bon ?


Savez-vous ce qui m'ennuie ?
Savez-vous ce qui est arriv ?

Do you know what is good ?


Do you know what worries me ?
Do you know what has (is)

Faites ce

Dites ce

happened ?
Mlez-vous de ce qui vous regarde!
Mlez-vous de vos affaires
!

2.

What,

Attend

employed absolutely

dered by quoi.

to

what concerns you

Mind your own

business

or indefinitely,

is

ren-

Practical French Cours k


Quoi

De
De
De
De

What!

quoi parlez- vous

do you speak ?
What are you laughing at ?
What ij the discussion about
What is it about ?
What are you thinking of?
What is the use ?
What is the use of crying ?

Of what

quoi riez- vous ?


quoi est-il question?
quoi s'agit-il ? (idiom.)
A quoi pensez- vous ?
A quoi bon ? (idiom.)
A quoi bon pleurer ?
La vie est trop courte

Life

3.

113

What

is too

short

(or) which, relating to a noun,

is

translated

quel, quelle; quels, quelles,

according- to the gender


Quel est votre nom ?
Quel ge avez-vous ?
Quel est votre mtier ?
Quel temps f ait-il ?
Quel est le jour du mois ?
Quel est le train pour Paris
Quelle
Quelle
Quelle
Quelle
Quelle

est votre adresse

est-il

What

name ?

is your

trade ?

the weather ?

What day of the month


Which

A quelle heure dnez- vous ?

is it

is

translated

by

Lequel,
in reference to a masculine noun, singular.
Laquelle, in reference to a feminine noun, singular.

Which ones

is

the train to Paris ?

What novels do you read?


What are your intentions ?

Which one

is

What is your address ?


What is your profession ?
What time is it fWhat street is this ?
What avenue is this ?
At what time do you dine ?

avenue ?

Quels romans lisez- vous ?


Quelles sont vos intentions

is your

How is

est cette rue


est cette

What

How old are you ?

est votre profession

heure

and number of the noun.

translated

by

Lesquels,
in reference to a masculine noun, plural.
Lesquelles, in reference to a feminine noun, plural.

by

Practical French Course

114

EXERCISE.
Who

/.

Who

2.

has tola you that ?

1.

has broken that window f

2.

Qui vous a dit cela


Qui est-ce qui

(or)
?

Qui a cass cette vitre?

(or)
?

j.

Who has

4.

What

been elected ?

does he want

3.

Qui a t lu

4.

Que

(or)

veut-il

(or)

Qu'est-ce qu'

What

5.

does she want

5.

Que

veut-elle

(or)
?

What do

6.

they want ?

6.

Que

veulent-ils

(or)
?

(m.)

What do

7.

they

want ?

7.

Que

veulent-elles

(/)

What are you doing

8.

there

8.

Que

(or)

f aites-vous

l ? (or)
?

What did he

say ?

9.

What did she say ?

10.

Conditional of
I

should or would have,

10.

AVOIR,
etc.

to

Qu'a-t-il dit? (or)

Qu'a-t-elle dit? (or)

have;
I

ETRE,

to be.

should or would be,

J'aurais
Tu aurais
Il aurait

Je serais

Nous aurions
Vous auriez
Us auraient

Nous serions
Vous seriez

Tu
Il

serais

serait

Ils

seraient

etc.

115

Practical French Course

DIX-HUITIEME LEON.

LESSON
I.

XVIII.

Demonstrative

Pronoi ins.

SING! JI,AR.

Masculine
Celui

Feminine

That, the one

This

Celui-ci

Celle-ci

That

Celui-l

Celle-l

Celle

PUJRAI,.

Feminine

Masculine
Those, the ones

Ceux

Celles

These
Those

Ceux-ci
Ceux-l

Celles-ci

Celles-l

PRACTICE.
Quel

Which book have you?

livre avez- vous?

J'ai celui

de

mon

I have my

frre.

brother's (that

of

my

brother).

J'ai celle

Quelle montre avez- vous ?


de ma sur.

I have my sister's.

Quels gants avez- vous ?


ceux de mon frre.

I have my

Which watch have you

Which gloves have you

J'ai

Quelles bagues avez- vous


J'ai celles

de

ma

Which rings have you ?

I have my sister's.

sur.

Mon chapeau est noir;


mon frre est gris.

brother's.

celui de

My hat is black ; my brother's {that


of my brother)

is

gray.

Practical French Course

116

Ma

robe est noire

sur

celle

de

ma

Mes gants

My gown is black ; my sister's {that


of my

est grise.

sont noirs

ceux de mon

amie sont blancs.

My

sister) is

gray.

gloves are black ;

{those of

my friend)

my friend's
are white.

Vos cheveux (*) sont plus noirs que


ceux de votre sur.

Your hair is blacker than your


ter's (that of your sister).

Vos robeo oont plus

Your dresses are prettier than your


sister's (those ofyour sister).

jolies

celles de votre sur.

Voyez ces deux livres


Lequel prfrez-vous?

que

Choisissez.

See these two books :


Which do you prefer ?
Choose.

Je prfre celui = ci. (m. sing.)


Je prfre celui = l.

I prefer this.
I prefer that

Voyez ces deux bagues


Laquelle prfrez-vous ?

See these two rings :


Which do you prefer?

Je prfre celle=ci.
Je prfre celle=l.

I prefer this.
I prefer that.

(f.

sing.)

Regardez ces gants


Lesquels prfrez- vous ?

Look at these gloves :


Which do you prefer f

Je prfre ceux-ci. (m. pi.)


Je prfre ceux=l.

I prefer these.
I prefer those.

Regardez ces fleurs


Lesquelles prfrez- vous ?

Look at these flowers :


Which do you prefer?

Je prfre celles=ci.
Je prfre celles-l.

I prefer these.

(f.

pi.)

I prefer

sis-

those.

(*) The hair of persons is in French les cheveux, the hairs (pi.)
The hair other than that of the head, and also the hair of animals

called poils.

is

Practical French Course


II.

Demonstrative Pronouns Used Absolutely.


Ceci, this.

indefinite

Cela

(or) a,

that

cela are never used before a noun.

and

Ceci

117

They

are

or absolute pronouns serving only to point out

objects.
Voulez- vous ceci
Prenez ceci.

Do you want this ?

Take

Donnez-moi cela (or)


Racontez-moi cela.
Regardez cela.

Voyez

Tetl

me that.
me that.

Look

at that.

Give

a.

this.

See that.

cela.

Voyez-vous cela

Do you see that?


Do not say that.
Do not do that.
Do not touch that.
Do not believe that.

Ne dites pas cela.


Ne faites pas cela.
Ne touchez pas cela.
Ne croyez pas cela.

That is it.
That goes without saying.
Leave that alone.

C'est cela (or) c'est a.

Cela va sans dire.


Laissez a tranquille.

IMPORTANT REMARKS
on

The pronoun

I.
il

pronoun

It.

relative to a noun,

or elle (he or she) according to the

as there

Le dner
Oui,

La

it,

the;

il

is

no neuter

est-il

prt

table est-elle mise

French

translated

Yes, it (he) is (ready).

by

gender of the noun,

Is the dinner ready ?

est prt.

Oui, elle est mise.

in

is

Is the table set ?


Yes, it (she) is (set).

118

Practical French Course

2.

//,

pronoun (not relative

indefinite

dered in French by ce

(c*

of the verb tre, to be

Who

tore (has torn) this

C'est moi.

It is I.

Ce

It is not I.

n'est pas moi.

moi que vous

parlez ?

Oui, c'est vous que je parle.

qui est-ce jouer

C'est

moi

3.

mon

is

ce

is

paper?

me ?
I speak.

is it to play ?

my turn

to play.

my turn.

generally used by French people in

Qu'est-ce que c'est?

What

is it ?

What

is

that ?)

C'est l'ambulance.

It is (that is) the ambulance.

C'est le bruit des voitures.

It is the noise

Ce n'est

It is (that is) nothing.

rien.

Qu'est-ce que c'tait?


C'tait

Ce

une parade.

n'tait rien.

Qu'est ceci ?
Qu'est cela ? (or)
Qu'est-ce que c'est a? (or)
Qu'est-ce que c'est que a? (pop.)

une aiguille.
une pingle.
C'est un d.
C'est du fil.
C'est
C'est

C'est

un bouton.

ren-

It is your turn to play.

It is

the sense of that

to

Yes, it is to you that

It is

tour

The word

Do you speak

Whose turn

jouer.

C'est vous jouer.


C'est

noun)

before a vowel) as the nominative

Qui a dchir ce papier ?

Est-ce

to a

What was
It

It

it

of carriages.

was a parade.
was nothing.

What
What

is this ?

is that ?

It is (or that is) a needle.


It is

a pin.

It is a thimble.
It is thread.
It is a button.

Practical French course

119

PRACTICAL EXPRESSIONS.
C'est bon,

It is good.

bad.
easy.
C'est facile,

C'est
pretty.
C'est
C'est laid,
ugty nice.
C'est gentil,
simple.
C'est simple,
perfect.
C'est parfait,
correct.
C'est correct,
absurd.
C'est absurde,
ridiculous.
C'est ridicule,
interesting
C'est intressant,
amusing.
C'est amusant,
funny.
C'est drle,
sweet.
C'est doux,

C'est amer,
certain.
C'est certain,
sure.
C'est sr,
doubtful.
C'est douteux,
possible.
C'est possible,
impossible.
C'est impossible,
terrible.
C'est terrible,
dreadful.
C'est affreux,
C'est pouvantable, frightful.
dangerous.
C'est dangereux,
practical.
C'est pratique,
necessary.
C'est ncessaire,
well done.
C'est bien
badly done.
C'est mal
C'est mauvais,

difficile,

difficult.

joli,

bitter.

fait,

fait,

Here

Here
is

is

or here are

is

a contraction of vois

is.

C'est assez,

It is enough.

C'est trop,

too

C'est trop petit,

too small.

C'est trop grand,

C'est trop haut,

C'est trop bas,

C'est trop gros,

C'est trop mince,

C'est trop lourd,

C'est trop lger,

C'est trop court,

C'est trop long,

C'est trop

C'est trop fonc,

C'est trop loin,

C'est trop prs,

C'est trop bte,

C'est trop

C'est trop tard,

C'est trop cher,

C'est trop froid,

C'est trop serr,

C'est trop sec,


C'est trop mouill,
clair,

tt,

too high.
too low.

too big.

too thin.
too heavy.
too light.
too short.

too long.
too light.
too dark.
too far.
too near.

too foolish.

too soon.
too late.

too dear.

too cold.
too tight.
too dry.
too wet.

that is

It

Ce n'est pas

It is not

was

C'tait

It

Ce sera
Ce serait

It will be
It

would be

Here are.

rendered in French by
ici,

too large.

C'est

is,

much.

see here.

voici,

which

Practical French Course

120

There

is

or there are

contraction of vois

is

by

translated

voil,

which

Here is your hat.


Here are your gloves.

Voil votre parapluie.


Voil vos caoutchoucs.

There is your umbrella.


There are your rubbers.

Voici votre chapeau.

is,

Here she

Here

}
>

is,

Le
(Here

voici.
voici.

Les

they are,

There he

is,

it is.)

La

voici.

There she

is,

est

voici.

Where is my hat ?
Here it (he) is.

voil.

There it

est

voici.

Where is my cane ?
Here it (she) is.

voil.

There

sont

Me

i.

2.

Whose hat

is this

EXERCISE.
A qui

is this

my friend's.

est

(m.)

C'est

brother's (that of).

Whose umbrella
It is

it is.

Here I am.
Here we are.

voici.

my

voil.

There they are.

voici.

It is

voil.

Where are my gloves f


Here they are.

mes gants ?

Les voici.
Les voil.

Nous

La

is.

La
La

canne

voil.

Les

There they are,

Le
Le

mon chapeau ?

Le

}
y (There it is.)

ma

l, see there.

Voici vos gants.

Here he

is

2.

A qui est
C'est

parapluie
.

(m.)

Practical French Course


j.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

10.

11.

Whose gloves are these f


They are my sister's.

3.

Whose rings are these ?


They are my sister's.

4.

Take this
Take that

{one).

(/.)

{one),

{m.)

Take these {ones), (m.)


Take those {ones). (/.)

Here are two rings.


Which do you prefer ?

Here are two diamonds.


Which do you prefer ?
Where is your book
Here it is.

Where is my pencil ?
Here it is.

Where are my gloves f


Here they are.

121

gants?

A qui sont
Ce sont

bagues?

qui sont

Ce sont
5.

6.

7-

8.

Prenez
Prenez

Prenez
Prenez

(m. pi.)

deux bagues,

(f.)

prf rez-vous ?

deux diamants, (m.)


prfrez- vous ?

9-

Ouest

livre?

0.

est

1.

sont

12.

est

13.

Est-ce

(m.)

crayon? (m.)

gants?

There they are.


12.

Where is my box of cigars ?


Here it is.
There

-?

it is.

13. Is it correct ?

Est-ce que
It is correct.
It is not correct.

14,

Here he

75.

There she is.


There you are!

16.

is.

14.
15.

16.

voici.
voil
voil!

{or)
?

(f.)

(f.

pi.)

Practical French Course

122

DIX-NEUVIEME LEON,

LESSON XIX.
I.

Relative
Qui,

who, which (nominative).

Que,

whom, which, that (accusative).


to whom, whose (dative).

A qui,

The

relative

French

or Conjunctive Pronouns.

pronoun que can never be suppressed in


whom,

the corresponding English pronouns

like

which.

Likewise, the conjunction que [that), which

omitted

in

often

is

English, must always be expressed in French.

PRACTICE.
L'homme

qui demeure au premier


un vieux garon.

tage est

Le monsieur que

j'ai

salu est

mon

professeur de franais.
J'ai lu

avec un trs grand plaisir


lettre que vous

charmante
m'avez crite.

la

Voici

le

livre

que vous m'

prt la semaine passe.

The man who


floor is an old

lives

on the

first

bachelor.

The gentleman (whom) I have


saluted is my French teacher.

I have read with


pleasure

the

(a)

very great

charming

{which) you have written

Here

is

the book {which)

me last

week.

Je l'ai trouv trs intressant.

Ifound

Je vous remercie beaucoup.

I thank you

it

very interesting.
very much.

letter

{to)

you

me.
lent

Practical French Course

qui avez-vous crit


mon ami.

To whom have you written ?


I have written to my friend.

J'ai crit

qui est ceci ?

Whose is this ?
mine {belongs

C'est moi.

It is

qui est ce parapluie ?


moi.

Whose umbrella

qui est cette canne

mon

Whose cane

It is

frre.

qui sont ces gants


sont ma sur.

De

qui parlez- vous ?

New

York.

Of whom do you speak ?


I speak of the Mayor of New

York.

is this ?

is that ?

It is for you.

With whom have you been


park ?
With my friend.

au parc ?

Avec mon ami.


Je pense
Je pense

is this ?

brother's.

For whom
For whom

Pour qui est ceci ?


Pour qui est cela ?
C'est pour vous.

Avec qui avez-vous

my

Of {to) whom do you think


I think of (to) my friend.

qui pensez-vous ?
mon ami.

Je pense

Je parle du maire de

is this f

Whose gloves are these ?


They are my sister's.

Ils

to me).

It is mine.

Il est

Elle est

123

que vous avez


que vous avez

to the

I think {that) you are right.


I think you are wrong.

raison.
tort.

OTHER CONJUNCTIVE PRONOUNS.


The

following are employed with reference to a noun or

to avoid a double

meaning

in the sentence.
SlNGUIyAR.

Masculine.

Which or whom.
Of which, of whom.
To which, to whom.

Lequel.
Duquel.
Auquel.

Feminine.
Laquelle.

De

laquelle.

laquelle.

Practical French Course

124

PU7RAI,.

Which or whom.
Of which, of whom.
To which, to whom.

Masculine.
Lesquels.
Desquels.

Feminine.
Lesquelles.
Desquelles.

Auxquels.

Auxquelles.

PRACTICE.

qui

appartient

l'htel

dans

lequel vous demeurez?

qui appartient la maison dans


laquelle vous demeurez ?

Auquel de

ces messieurs avez- vous

parl ?

La dame laquelle

j'ai

parl est

franaise.

To whom does the


you live belong ?

hotel in which

To whom does the house in which


you live belong ?
To which (one) of those gentlemen
did you speak ?
The lady
spoken)

to
is

whom I

spoke (I have

French.

REMARK.
The pronouns de

qui,

of whom, or from whom, and

duquel, de laquelle, desquels, desquelles, of which, ox from

which, are most frequently replaced by the invariable pro-

noun dont, when they are not used


Connaissez-vous l'homme dont je
parle

je parle est fran-

knozv the

man of whom I

Les personnes dont

The woman of whom I speak

is

French.

aise.

riches.

Do you
si

La femme dont

interrogatively.

je parle sont

The persons of whom I speak are


rich.

Practical French Course


C'est ce

dont

j'ai

what I am afraid of
what I have need of
You do not know what I am

That
That

peur.

Voil ce dont j'ai besoin.


Vous ne savez pas ce dont je suis

is

is

capable

capable.

II.

Demonstrative

125

of.

and Relative Pronouns Combined.

NpMINATlVE.
Celui qui, he who, the one which.
Celle qui, she who, the one which.

Ceux

qui, they who, the ones which


Celles qui, they whoJJie ones which

ACCUSATIVE.
Celui que, the one
Celle que, the one

whom
whom

or which.
or which.

Ceux que, the ones whom or which.


Celles que, the ones whom or which

INDIRECT OBJECT.

Ceux dont,

Celui dont, that of which.

the ones of which.


Celles dont, the ones of which.

Celle dont, that of which.


Ce dont (neuter), that of which.

PRACTICE,
Celui qui est riche n'est pas toujours heureux.

He who is rich

Avez- vous remarqu ce monsieur


Lequel ?
Celui qui m'a salu.
Celui que j'ai salu.

Have you

Avez- vous remarqu cette dame


Laquelle ?
Celle qui m'a salu.
Celle

que

j'ai salue.

Apportez-moi mes gants.


Lesquels ?

is

not always

happy.

noticed that gentleman t


Which (one) ?
The one who has saluted me.
The one whom' I saluted.

Have you

noticed that lady f


Which (one) ?
The one who (has) saluted me.
The one whom I have saluted.

Bring me my gloves.
Which (ones)?

Practical French Course

126

Ceux qui sont sur la commode.


Ceux que j'ai achets ce matin.

Those which are on the bureau.


Those which I bought this -morning.

L'homme dont vous

The

petit

celui

dont

parlez est

grand.
I,a

is tall.

dame dont vous

brune

man of whom you speak is


whom I speak

small ; the one of

je parle est

celle

dont

The lady of

parlez est

whom you speak is


whom I speak

dark ; the one of

je parle est

blonde.

is fair.

HI.

Possessive

Pronouns.
SINGULAR.

Masculine.

Feminine.

Le mien.
Le tien.
Le sien.

La mienne.
La tienne.
La sienne.

Le ntre.
Le vtre.
Le leur.

La ntre.
La vtre.
La leur.

Mine.
Thine.

His or hers.
Ours.
Yours.
Theirs.

PIJJRAI,.

Mine.
Thine.

His or hers.

Masculine.

Feminine.

Les miens
Les tiens.
Les siens.

Les miennes.
Les tiennes.
Les siennes.

Les ntres.
Les vtres.
Les leurs.

Ours.
Yours.
Theirs.

PRACTICE.
Votre chapeau est l

le

mien

est

Your hat

is there ;

mine

is here.

Practical French Coursk


Votre canne est l

la

mienne

est

Your cane

les

Your gloves are on

127

is there ;

mine

is here.

ici.

Vos gants sont sur la table


miens sont sur la chaise.
Vos mains sont

trs petites

les

est noir

mine

Your hands are very small ; mine

miennes sont grandes.

Mon chapeau

the table ;

are on the chair.

are large.
le

vtre

My hat is black ; yours is gray.

est gris.

Ma

robe est bleue

la

vtre est

My dress is blue ; yours is pink.

rose.

OBSERVATIONS.
I.

When

used without the prefixed

possessive pronouns
Ce chapeau

est

Ces gants sont miens.


Ces fleurs sont miennes.

There

is

in

adjectives.

This hat is mine (belongs


That cane is mine.
Those gloves are mine.
Those flowers are mine.

mien,

Cette canne est mienne.

2.

French no such construction

of mine, of yours, etc.

the above

article,

become possessive

We

say

One of my friends.

Un

One of ourfriends.

de nos amis.

me).

as a friend

de mes amis, (m.)


Une de mes amies, (f.)

Un

to

EXERCISE.
/.

Do you know the gentleman who


on the third floor ?
Yes, I know him.
He is a doctor.
He is a dentist.
lives

i.

Connaissez- vous le monsieur

demeure
Oui, je

connais.

docteur.
dentiste.

Practical French Course

128

He is a jeweler.
He is a druggist.
He is a clock-maker.
He is a grocer.
He is a butcher.
He is a banker.
2.

bijoutier.

pharmacien.
horloger.
picier.

boucher.
banquier.

Do you know the lady who lives

2.

I know

Yes,

She
She
She
She
She
She

is

is
is
is
is
is

Oui, je

her.

a milliner.
a dressmaker.
a corset maker.
a palmist.
a manicure.
a clairvoyant.

4.

is

corsetire.

palmiste.

manicure.
clairvoyante.

whom

rencontr

Non.

whom you

Is the lady French to

6.

7.
8.

4.

L,a

10.

The

ai'e

book

12.

is this

Whose

10.

I/homme

I speak

is

11.

I,a

veil is this ?

W/tose books are these ?

They are mine.

avez-vous vu?
avez-vous rencontr ?
parl?
est
livre? (m.)
fleurs?
sont

is

13.

14.

je parle

dame

est

est

est

crayon? (m.)

voilette
Elle est (or) c'est
sont livres? (m.)
Ils sont (or) ce sont
Il est

It is mine.
14.

vous avez parl

9-

12.

speak

allemand.

8.

It is mine.
ij.

7-

man of whom I

Whose pe?icil

5.

6.

these flowers.

very rich.
11. The lady of whom
very pretty.

dame

nous

est-il

Non,

have you seen ?


have you met ?
To whom have you spoken?
is this

est-elle

Whom
Whom

For whom
For whom

Le monsieur

met?
German.

have spoken ?
No, she is English.
5.

connais.

couturire.

{have')

No. he

modiste.

Is the gentleman French

we

Connaissez- vous

on the fifth floor?

est

(or) c'est

? (f.)

Practical French Course

Whose flowers are


They are mine.

these

fleurs?

15.

Biles sont

16.

He is a friend of mine.

16.

C'est

17.

She

17.

C'est

18.

is

Where

a friend of mine.
is your

book

18.

on the table.
Where is yours ?
It is on the chair.
It is

i.

20.

2i.

22.

Il

Where are your brothers ?


They are upstairs.
Where are yours ?
They are downstairs.

20.

Where are your sisters ?


They are in London.
Where are yours ?
They are in Paris.

21.

does this book belong?

may have,
Que j'aie
Que tu aies

etc

sur

est

est

la ville.

sont

la ville.

Ils

sont

sont vos surs?

en haut.
?

sont en bas.
Elles sont

sont

appartient

22.

appartient.

appartient cette

23.

Present Subjunctive of AVOIR,


I

sur

en bas de

It belongs to

That

Il

To whom does this house belong?


Mr. Vanderbilt.

est

(f.)

(or) ce sont

en haut de

It belongs to me.

23.

un
une

est

19.

whom

O
Il

Where is your sister ?


She is uptown.
Where is yours ?
She is downtown.

To

129

Elle
to

have;

TRE,

to be.

I may be,
Que je sois
Que tu sois

That

etc.

Qu'il ait

Qu'il soit

Que nous ayons


Que vous ayez

Que nous soyons


Que vous soyez

Qu'ils aient

Qu'iJs soient

Practical French Course

130

VINGTIEME LEON.

LESSON XX.
INVARIABLE PRONOUNS.

En, some, any, of

This most important pronoun

when
It

the noun

is

it,

of them.

is

employed

immediately precedes the verb, except

imperative,

when

Encore,

in

answers

understood to avoid repetition thereof.

it is

in the

affirmative

placed after the verb.

more
some more.

Ne

plus,

not any more.

PRACTICE.
Have you any tobacco?
I (of it) have.
I (of it) have not.

Ayez- vous du tabac?


J'en ai (zhah-nay).
Je n'.en ai pas.

Avez- vous encore de l'argent ?


J'en ai encore.

Je n'en

ai plus.

Dsirez-vous encore
poulet ?

Merci

un peu de

Oui, j'en

ai.

Do you

wish some more chicken ?

Thank you ; I have^enough.

j'en ai assez.

Avez- vous des enfants

Have you any more money ?


I have some more.
I have not any more.

Have you any


Yes, I have.

children?

Practical French Course

Combien en

avez- vous

J'en ai deux.

Avez- vous du papier ?


Avez-vous de la colle?
Avez- vous des enveloppes ?
J'en ai.
Je n'en ai pas.
Je n'en ai point.

Je n'en ai plus.

Combien de frres avez-vous ?


J'en ai un.

Combien de surs avez-vous ?


J'en ai une.

(f.)

Combien d'enfants avez-vous?


J'en ai plusieurs.

Combien en avez-vous ?
J'en ai cinq.

Avez-vous beaucoup d'lves?


J'en ai beaucoup.
En avez-vous assez ?
J'en ai assez.
Je n'en ai pas assez.

J'en ai de reste.

voulez- vous

J'en veux.
Je n'en veux pas.

En

voulez- vous encore ?

Je n'en veux plus.


J'en ai assez.

En

dsirez-vous

Combien en

(of them) have you ?

Have you any paper ?


Have you any glue f
Have you any envelopes ?
I have some.
I have not any.
I have none.
I have no more.

How many brothers have you ?


I have one.
How many sisters have you ?
I have one.
How many children have you ?
I have several.
How many have you ?
I have five.
Have you many pupils t
I have many.
Have you enough ?
I have enough.
I have not enough.

I have very little (or) few.


I have too much (or) too many.
I have some left.

J'en ai trs peu.


J'en ai trop.

En

How many
I have two.

131

dsirez- vous ?

Do you want some ?


I want some.
I do not want

any.

Will you have some

more?

I do not want any more.


I have enough.

Do you

wish for some (of it)

How much (of) how many


want ?

do you

Practical 'French Course

132

Donnez-m'en un peu.
Donnez-m'en un morceau.
Donnez-m/en une tranche
Donnez-m'en un verre.
Donnez-m'en une tasse.
Donnez-m'en une livre.
Donnez-m'en une douzaine.

Give me (of if) a little.


Give me a piece.
Give me a slice.
Give me a glass.
Give -me a cup.
Give me a pound.
Give me a dozen (of them).

Donnez- lui-en un peu.


Donnez-leur-en un peu.
Donnez-nous-en un peu.

Give him or her (of it) a


Give them a little.
Give us a little.

Ne
Ne

Do
Do

lui

en donnez pas.

leur en donnez pas.

not give

him or her any.

not give them any.

Ne m'en donnez plus.


Ne lui en donnez plus.
Ne lui en donnez plus.
Ne leur en donnez plus.

Do
Do
Do
Do

J'en ai assez.
Il en a assez.

I have enough

Nous en avons assez.


Vous en avez assez.
en ont

not give

me any

not give

him any more.

more.

not give her any more.


not give them any more.

(of it or of them).
has enough.
She has enough.
We have enough.
You have enough.

He

Elle en a assez.

Ils

little.

They ha ve enough
They have enough,

assez.

Elles en ont assez.

(f.)

OBSERVATION.
The word en
from there.

is

also used as an adverb in the

Etes- vous de Paris?

Are youfrom Paris?

J'en suis.

I (from

Venez- vous de Paris


J'en viens.

there)

am.

Do you come from


I do.

sense of

Paris ?

(Ifrom there come.)

Practical Frknch Course

133

Y.

This

is

pronoun,

another important word


it

an adverb,

except

in

means to it,
means there.
to

them

it

It

at

;
is

Used as a
them.
Used as

French.

in

at

it,

placed before the verb,

the affirmative imperative.

Pensez-y (png-say-zee).

Think of it.

J'y pense.

I think of it.

J'y penserai.

I wilt think of it.

avez- vous pens

Do
Do

N'y pensez pas.


N'y pensez plus.
N'y pensons plus.
est-il

Il

n'y est pas.

chez

lui (or) la

Votre mre

chez

est-elle

elle (or)

la maison?

Vos parents sont-ils chez eux


la maison ?
Ils

Ils

n'y sont pas.

Cor)

Vos surs sont-elles chez


(or) la maison ?

J'y vais
!

(or) in the

is.

mother at home

(or) in the

is.

is not.

Are your parents

at

home

(or) in

the house ?

elles

Are your sisters at home


house ?

They are.
They are not.

sont.

Elles n'y sont pas.

home

They are.
They are not.

sont.

Allons-y

Ls your

She
She

est.

Allez-y

Ls yourfather at

house ?

Elle n'y est pas.

not think of it.


not think of it any more.

He (there)
He is not.

est.

Elles

it.

house ?

Il

to

Let us not think of it any more.

maison ?

Elle

Think

Have you thought of it?


I have thought of it.
I have not thought of it.

J'y ai pens.
Je n'y ai pas pens.

Votre pre

Lit.:

Go there !

I go there !

Let us go there

(or) in the

Practical French Course

134

IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS
FORMED WITH THE WORD

Il
Il
Il

y
y
y

there is (or) there are.

a,

avait, there

was

aura, there will

a-t=il ? (or)

Est=ce

qu'il

Y.

be.

Is there (or) are there ?

y a?

avait-il ? (or)

(or) there were.

Wa$

there

Est-ce qu'il y avait?)

Yaura-t=il?(^)

,^

were theye

Est-ce qu'il y aura?

Il
Il
Il

y a beaucoup de monde
y avait beaucoup de monde
y aura beaucoup de monde

Il

a,

ago.

Combien de temps y a-t-il ?


y a deux ans.
Il y a environ trois ans.
Il

There are many people


There were many people ..,
There will be many people

Lit. : There is (or) there are.

How long ago ?


Two years
About

Long

ago.

three years ago.

Il

y a longtemps.
y a bien longtemps.

It is a very long time since.

Il

n'y a pas longtemps.

Not long

Il

ago.

ago.

Practical French Course

135

EXERCISE.
2.

Is your brother married ?


Has he any children ?

3.

How many

4.

He has two.

5.
6.

/.

7.
8.
.

10.

How many pupils have you f

5.

Combien

6.

J'

Has he many pupils?

7.

He has not many.


He has very few.
Have you much work ?

75.

16.

Do you

too

i.

wish any oranges ?


me a dozen.
Do you wish any beer ?
Yes, give me a glass.

20.

Are

21.

There are not many.

Yes, give

there

many people

...

22.

Were there many people

23.

There were not many.

24. Is
25.

26.
27.
28.

29

30.

he from Paris?

Il

12.

Avez-vous

13.

Je n'

14.

J'

15.

Je n'

16.

Dsirez- vous

17.

Oui, donnez m'

18.

Dsirez- vous

19.

Oui, donnez

ai

20.
Il

n'y

Il

n'y

?
.

m'

beaucoup
a

24. Est-il

28.

Serez- vous

29.

Oui,

30.

N'

il

penserez- vous ?
j'

j'

Oui,

avait

est.

Oui,

there.

beaucoup

22.

23.

ai qu'

27.

there.

ai point.

26.

I shall be

travail (or)

trop.

J'

Will you think of it ?


I will think of it.
Will you be at home?

Yes,

Avez-vous
ouvrage

25.

Do not go

beaucoup.

Yes, he is from there.

Yes,

avez- vous?

9.

21.
.

A-t-il

Un'

n.

much.

a-t-il ?

8.

10.

Have you any matches ?


I have not any.
I have one.
/ have only one.

18.

Il

have twenty.

mari?
?

Combien

12.

1 j.

A-t-il

3.

I have

14.

Votre frre

4.

has he ?

11.

13.

1.

2.

penserai.
vous?
serai.

allez pas.

Practical French Course

136

VINGT ET UNIEME LEON,

LESSON XXL
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

ON.

The

pronoun on

is

used

very often

in

the

French

language.
It

stands for the English words one, somebody, people

-,

we, they, whenever these words have a general and indefin-

meaning that is, whenever they do not refer to anybody in particular.


The pronoun on enables the French to use the verb in

ite

the active form, which they always prefer to the passive.

On sonne.
On a sonn.
On frappe.
On frappe la porte.
On a frapp.
On dit qu'il est trs riche.
On le dit.
On me l'a dit.
On craint (que)
On croit
Ici

on parle franais

Somebody rings.
Somebody has rung.
Somebody knocks
Somebody raps at the door.
Somebody has knocked.
They say that he is very rich.
They say so {one it says.)
I was told so.
It is feared {that)
It is believed

(or)

Ici l'on parle franais

(euphonie

1')

French
French

is

is

spoken here.
spoken here.

Quelqu'un, somebody, some one, anybody.


Personne, nobody, no one, not
anybody.

Practical French Course

137

Avez-vous vu quelqu'un?

Have you

Je n'ai vu personne.

I have

a-t-il

Is there anybody there

Il

n'y a personne.

quelqu'un

There

Y avait-il quelqu'un

seen anybody ?

not seen anybody.

is

nobody there.

Was there anybody there?


There was nobody there.

Il.n'y avait personne.

Quelque chose, something, anything.


Rien,

nothing, not anything.

Je n'ai rien achet.

Have you bought anything?


I have bought something.
I have not bought anything.

Quelque chose de beau.


Quelque chose de drle.
Quelque chose de nouveau.
Quelque chose d'intressant.
Donnez-moi quelque chose boire.

Something fine.
Something funny.
Something new.
Something interesting.
Give me something to drink.

Rien du tout.
Rien de bon.
Rien de meilleur.

Nothing at all.
Nothing good.
Nothing better.

Avez-vous achet quelque chose


J'ai achet quelque chose.

Que

faites- vous?

dites- vous

Je ne dis rien.

Qu' avez-vous dit?


Je n'ai rien

What are you doing ?

I am doing

Je ne fais rien.

Que

dit.

nothing.

What do you say ?

I do

not say anything.

What have you said?

I said nothing.

Quelques=uns (m.))
a f
Quelques-unes (f.) ; bome Jew
<-.

'

'

Practical French Course

138

Voulez- vous des timbres-poste ?


Oui, donnez-m'en quelques-uns.

Do you want some postage stamps $


Yes, give me a few.

Voulez- vous des enveloppes

Do you want any envelopes


Yes, give me a few.

Oui, donnez-m'en quelques-unes.

Chacun
Chacune

(f.)

Chacun de ces messieurs.


Chacune de ces dames.
Chacun son got.
Chacun son mtier.
Chacun son tour.
Chacun pour soi.

Tout

Tout
Tout
Tout
Tout

le
le

le
le

^ 7
Each

(m.))
}

Each
Each
Each
Each
Each
Each

le

monde,

monde sait cela.


monde le sait.
monde le dit.
monde aime l'argent.

one of those gentlemen.


one of those ladies.
one to his taste.
one to his trade.
in his turn.

one for himself.

everybody.

Everybody knows that.


Everybody knows it.
Everybody says so.
Everybody likes money.

Quiconque, whoever, whosoever.

Quiconque n'aime pas sa mre'


n'est pas digne d'tre aim.

Quiconque

flatte

ses matres, les

Whoever loves not


unworthy of being
Whoever

mother

flatters his

is

masters be-

trays them.

trahit.

L'un (m.), l'une (f.),


Les uns, les unes,

his

loved.

(the) one.

L'autre,

(the) ones.

Les autres, the others.

the other.

Practical French Course

139

L'un est blanc, l'autre est noir.


L'une est blanche, l'autre est noire.

One

uns sont bons, les autres sont


mauvais.
Les uns disent oui, les autres
disent non.

Some

are good, the others are bad.

Some

say yes, the others say no.

Donnez-moi
Donnez-moi

Give
Give

Ives

l'autre.

les autres.

L'un est aussi bon que l'autre


L'un vaut l'autre.

(or)

One

is white, the

other

is black.

me the other.
me the others.

is

as good as the other.

L'un aprs l'autre.


Les uns aprs les autres.

One after another.


The ones after the others.

L'un ou l'autre, (m.)


L'une ou l'autre, (f.)

Either one ; the one or the other.

L'un et l'autre (or)


Tous les deux, (m.)
L'une et l'autre (or)

Either, both.

Toutes les deux,

(f.)

Ni l'un ni l'autre, (m.)


Ni l'une ni l'autre, (f.)
Il

faut s'aimer les uns les autres,

<

<<

Either, both.
<<

<<

Neither.

We must

love one another.

(idiom.)

Autrui, others (invariable

Il

faut respecter le bien d' autrui.

Ne

pas autrui ce que vous


ne voudriez pas qu'on vous ft.
faites

applies to people only).

We must respect other 's property.


Do not unto others that whtCh you
would not

to be

done unto you.

Practical French Course

140

Qui que,
Quoi que,

whoever, whosoever.
whatever (before a verb in the subjunctive mood).
whatever (relating to a masculine noun).

Quelque,

Quelle que, whatever (relating to a feminine noun).

Qui que ce soit.


Quoi que ce soit.

Whoever it may be.


Whatever it may be.

Quel que soit le prix.


Quelle que soit la difficult.

Whatever the price may be.


Whatever the difficulty may

4-

One ca?i.
One cannot.
One copJd.
They would

4-

5-

It is thought that

5-

peut
pourrait.
voudrait
pense que

Has he seen anybody ?

6.

A-t-il

7-

Il n'

i.
2.

3-

6.

I.

2.

3-

8.

He has seen nobody.


Do you wish for anything

9-

I do

7-

io.

ii.

12.
ij.

14.

75.
16.

1 j.
18.

i.
20.
21.

22.

23.

not wish for anything.

Give

me something

to eat.

Will you have a few cigars ?


me a few. (m.)
Will you have a few oranges ?
Yes, give me afezo. (_/".)

Yes, give

What did he say ?

He

did not say anything.


What did she say ?
She did not say anything.

him.

Everybody
Everybody
Everybody

likes

One
One

the other is pink.

likes her.

8.
9-

0.

peut.

vu

...

?
.

Je dsire
Donnez-moi
Dsirez-vous

14.

Voulez- vous
Oui, donnez m'en
Dsirez- vous
Oui, donnez m'en

15.

Qu'a-t-il

16.

Un'

17.

Qu'a-t-elle

18.

Elle n'

11.
12.
13.

19.

20.

be.

Tout
Tout

le
le

manger.
?
.

?
.

monde
monde

1'
1'

likes them.

is red,
is blue,

the other is yellow.

22.

1/

23

1/

,.

est rouge,
est bleu,

1'

est rose.
est jaune.

1'

Practical French Course:

141

VINGT-DEUXIEME LEON,

LESSON

XXII.

THE ADVERB.

I.

Adverbs,

Formation of the Adverbs.


French, are generally formed by adding

in

Ment

ment to the feminine termination of the adjective.


corresponds to the English ending ly
I^ente, (f.)

slow.

Forte,

strong.

(f.)

Lentement,
Fortement,
Grandement,
Heureusement,

Grande, (f.) great.


Heureuse, (f.) happy.

slowly,

strongly,
'

greatly.

happily.

Adjectives ending in ant, ent, form their adverbs

in

amment, emment.
Ngligent,

constamment,
ngligemment,

Prudent,

prudemment,

Constant,

Some adverbs

constantly.

negligently.

prudently.

require an acute accent over the e pre-

ceding the termination ment


Profondment,

deeply,

Prcisment,

precisely.

Expressment,

expressly.

Communment,
Commodment,
Enormment,

commonly.
commodiously
enormously

Practical French Course

142

II.

Place

of the Adverbs.

In simple tenses the adverb

compound tenses
iliary and the past
in

it is

participle

beaucoup

/ work very much.


I have worked very much.

travaill.

You are doing very well.


You have done very well.

Vous faites trs bien.


Vous avez trs bien fait.
Je

m'amuse beaucoup.

Je

me

suis

I enjoy myself very much.


I have enjoyed myself very much.

beaucoup amus.

III.

List of Adverbial Expressions.


(I.)

Bien,

well, right.

Mai,

badly, wrong.

ADVERBS OF MANNER.
1

(2.)

Premirement,
Finalement,

placed after the verb, but

Je travaille beaucoup.
J'ai

is

generally placed between the aux-

Mieux,

better.

Ainsi,

so, thus.

ADVERBS OF ORDER.

firstly.

finally.

Ensemble,
Sparment,

together.

separately.

ADVERBS OF QUANTITY.

(3.)

enough.

Peu,

Assez,

Plus,

more.

Moins,

less,

Trop,
too much, too many.
Tant,
so much, so many.
Autant, as much, as many.

little, few.
Beaucoup, much, many.

fewer.

(4.)

Vraiment,
Certainement,

ADVERBS OF AFFIRMATION.

truly, indeed.

certainly.

Assurment,
assuredly.
Naturellement, naturally,

of course.

Practical French Course;


(

O?

ADVERBS OF INTERROGATION.

5.)

D'o?

where ?
from where ? whence ?

Quand ?

when

(6.)

here

L,

there

Devant,

before

Derrire,

Dessus,

Dessous,

Comment ? how?
Combien ? how much ? how many?
Pourquoi ? why ?

ADVERBS OF

PI, ACE.

Dedans,
Dehors,

Ici,

143

inside.

outside.

Loin,

far.

behind.

Prs,

near.

upon
unde meath

Ailleurs,

elsewhere.

Partout,

everywhere.

',

in front of.

( 7.)

ADVEB JBS OF TIME.


formerly.

Aujourd' hui,

to-day.

Autrefois,

Hier,

yesterday.

Dsormais,

Demain,

to-morrow.

Dornavant

Maintenant,

now.

Aussitt,

henceforth.
,

hereafter.-

as soon,

immediately.
Tt,

soon.

Bientt,

very soon.

Alors,

then.

Soudain,
Ensuite,

suddenly.

Tard,
Souvent,
Jamais,
Toujours,

after, afterwards.

Rarement,

seldom, rarely.

Enfin,

lastly, at last.

Longtemps

a long time.

(8.)

late.

often.

never, or ever.

always.

ADVERBIAE PHRASES.

D'abord, first, at first.

A prsent,

Tout d' abord, from the very first.


Quelque part, somewhere.
Nulle part, nowhere,
Peu peu, little by little.

En avance, early, in advance.


En retard, late, behind time.
En haut, up, upstairs.
En bas, down, down-stairs.

Petit petit, by degrees.

D'ailleurs, besides, in other respects.

Peut-tre, perhaps.

Du
En

Tout d'un coup, all at once.


Tout coup, all of a sudden.
Tout fait, quite.
Tout de suite, at once.
Tout l'heure, just now,by-and-by.

De

at present.

reste, besides,

'
'

outre, besides that, further.

plus, moreover, furthermore.


Par consquent, consequently.
De nouveau, anew, anon, again.
En mme temps, at the same time.

Practical French Course

144

De bonne

la

heure, early.

bonne heure, very

well.

Combien de fois ? how many times ?


Une fois, once.
Plusieurs

fois,

several times.

Combien de temps ? how long?


Depuis quand ? since when ?

De temps en temps, once in a while.


Loin de l, far from it.
Tant s'en faut, farfrom it, (id.).

A peine,
Tant

a
a

hardly, scarcely.

much

pis, so

se peut,

it

the worse.

may

be.

se pourrait, it might be.

REMARKS ON THE ADVERBS OF QUANTITY.


I.

Before a noun the adverbs of quantity, as already

stated, are

always followed by the preposition de (of)

Combien de frres avez-vous ?


Combien d'argent avez-vous ?

How many brothers have you?


How much money have you ?

Beaucoup de livres.
Beaucoup d'argent.
Trop de travail.
Trop de peine.
Trop d'argent.
Trop de monde.
Peu d'argent.
Peu de personnes.
Tant d'argent.
Tant de fois.

Many

money.
Too much work.
Too much trouble.
Too much money.
Too many people.
Little money.

Few persons.
So much money.
So many times.
More money.
Less work.

Plus d'argent.

Moins de

2.

travail.

The adverb

books.

Much

assez,

enough,

is

always

French, before the noun, adjective, or adverb.

Assez
Assez
Assez
Assez
Assez

d'argent.

Enough money.

grand.
haut.

Large enough.

loin.

High enough.
Far enough.

bien.

Well enough.

placed,

in

Practical French Course

145

PRACTICE.
/ desire to

Je dsire parler franais

couramment

et correctement

speak French

and

correctly.

/ desire

to learn the French


language thoroughly.

Je dsire apprendre fond

langue franaise.
Est-ce que je parle trop vite

fluently

Do I speak

too fast ?

Oui, vous parlez trop vite.

Yes, you speak too fast

Parlez plus lentement.

Kst-ce que je prononce bien.


Vous prononcez trs bien.

Speak slower.
Speak louder.
Speak lower.
Do I pronounce well ?
You pronounce very well.

Me

Do you

Parlez plus haut.


Parlez plus bas.

comprenez- vous

Je vous comprends parfaitement.


Vous prononcez trs distinctement.

Aimez-vous

la

langue franaise ?

musique

la

homme

est

femme

it

like the

French

very much.

I like it passionately.
Do you like money ?
Of course.

Naturellement.
Cela va sans dire.

Cet

Do you

distinctly.

Do you like music ?

Je l'aime passionnment.
Aimez- vous l'argent ?

Cette

You pronounce very

I like

Je l'aime beaucoup.

Aimez- vous

understand me ?
I understand you perfectly.

That goes without saying.

normment riche.
est immensment

That
That

man is enormously rich.


woman is immensely rich.

riche.
Il fait

Il fait

terriblement chaud.
excessivement froid

It is terribly hot.
It is exceedingly cold.

Allez-vous souvent au bal ?

Do you go

J'y vais trs rarement.


Allez-vous souvent au thtre

I go

J'y vais

une

Comment va
Il est trs

Tant pis

fois

par semaine.

votre ami

malade.

(there*)

Do you go
I go

to the ball often

to the theatre often

once a week.

How is yourfriend ?
He is

very seldom.

very sick.

So much the worse !

Practical French Course

146

Comment va

votre

mre

How is your mother?

She is very much better.


So -much the better !

Elle va beaucoup mieux.

Tant mieux

EXERCISE.
I.

You work

2.

Yes,

34-

too

I work

much.
much.

too

He is doing very well.


He has done very well.

She speaks very well.


6. She has spoken very well.
7 He pronounces very badly.
8. She pronounces very distinctly.

5-

9-

10.
ii.

12.
1314.

15-

You speak

better.

She speaks very much better.


Let us go together.
Let us go separately.
Where have you been ?

When will you leave?


L shall leave to-morrow.

How

do you pronounce this


word ?
17- How do you spell that word?
18. Why do you cry ?
19. Why do you laugh ?
20. Why do you smile?
21. Where do you live ?
22. You live too far away.
23- Are you angry with me ?
16.

1.

Vous

2.

Oui, je travaille
Il fait
Il

5-

Elle parle

6.

Elle a

fait.

parl.

prononce

7.

Il

8.

Elle prononce

9-

Vous parlez

10.

Elle parle

11.

14.

Allons
Allons
avez-vous t ?
partirez- vous ?

15.

Je partirai

12.
13-

16.

17.

prononcez-vous
(m.)
pelez-vous

21.

22.

Vous demeurez

18.

19-

20.

23-

24.

25-

26.

Many people.

26.

25-

pleurez- vous
riez-vous

souriez- vous

demeurez- vous

Etes- vous fch


.

Avec

27.

28.

28.

29.

C'est

plaisir.

monde.

More than that.


Less than that.
29. That is good enough.
30. That is too easy.

30.

facile.

J/. It is too difficult.

31-

difficile.

27

3-

4-

Far from it.


With much pleasure.

24.

travaillez

m&p?

cela.
cela.
.

mot?

Practical French Course

147

VINGT-TROISIEME LEON.

LESSON
[.

The

(I.)

at or

A,
Aprs,
Avant,
Avec,
Chez,
Contre,
Dans,

Preposition.

SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS.

Hors

to.

out

de,

Malgr,

after.

of.

in spite of.

before.

Moyennant

with.

Nonobstant notwithstanding.

at or to the house of.

Outre,

against.

Parmi,
Pendant,
Pour,

by means

of.

in, into, within.

De,
of or from.
Depuis, since.
Durant, during.

Except except.
in.
En,
,

between

Entre,

XXIII.

besides, beyond.

amongst.
pending, during.
for.

Sans,

without.

Sauf,

save, except.

Selon,

according

Suivant,

following.
on, upon.

Sur,

to.

Environ about.
Hormis, except.

Sous,

under.

Vers,

Hors,

Envers,

towards (direction or
towards (of people).

except.

(2.)

A cause de,
A l'gard de,

COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS.

En

on account of
in regard to.

faveur de, in favor of.


Vis vis de
opposite.
,

Au

beyond.
del de,
A l'exception de, with the excepAu dessus de,
above.
tion of.

Au dessous de,
Au milieu de,
Au lieu de,
Autour

de,

[time)

below.

En

face de,

Prs de,

facing.
near, close

Loin de,

far from.

A ct

at the side of.

de,

to.

Au devant de,

before, in front.

instead of.

Jusqu',

until, as far as.

around.

Quant

as for.

in the middle

of.

148

Practical French Course


II.

The

SIMPLE CONJUNCTIONS..

(I.)

Car,

Conjunction.

Or,

now

however.

Ou,

or.

Pourtant, however, though.


Puisque,
since.

for, because.

Cependant,

Comme,

as, like.

Donc,

then, therefore.

Et,

and.

Lorsque,
Mais,

when.
but.

ni ....
Ni
Nanmoins,

'

although.

Si, sinon,

if,

that.

if not.
whether, so be

Toutefois, however, yet,

COMPOUND CONJUNCT ions

Aussitt que as soon

it.

still.

(followed by a verb).

Pourvu que,

as.

as soon as.

que,

Que,
Quoique,
Soit,

nevertheless.

(2.;

Ds

nor

neither

then, well now.

Bien que,

provided
although

De

so that.

that.

Pendant que while.


Tandis que, while.

Jusqu' ce que, until.

Afin que,

so that.

A moins

que,

unless.

Pour que,

in order that.

De peur

que,

lest,

Parce que,

because.

Avant que,

Ou

or.

Par consquent, consequently.


Sans que,
without.

bien,

Aprs que,

after.

III.

The following

is

The

and exclamatory phrases


Ah!
Oh!

H
Eh

bien

bien

H!

Dites donc

for fear

before.

that.

Interjection.

of the

list

sorte que,

most usual interjections

Ah!

Parbleu

Oh!

Courage

Now then !

Allons
Allons done

Well then !
Hey ! See here!

Forsooth

Bravo

Courage !
Come ! Courage !
Nonsense! Is that
Bravo !
{sot

Practical French Course


Hlas
Hol!
Bien

Chut

"Vraiment

A la bonne heure
Gare!
Attention

Prenez garde

Mais oui
Mais si

Bis!

What!

Very well !

Tiens

Attention

Tenez

Indeed !

Look out !
Take care !

Comment
Dame

Good !

Bon!

Hush !

Alas!
Hello !
Well!

Quoi

149

How !

Ah, well !
Hold!

Misricorde
Mon dieu

Why yes !
Yes indeed !

Ma

Encore !

Silence

Good gracious !

foi

Behold !
Mercy !

My faith

Silence !

PRACTICE.
Avec moi.
Avec nous.
Avec lui.
Avec elle.
Avec eux. (m.)
Avec elles, (f )
Avec plaisir.

With me.
With us.
With him.
With her.
With them.
With them.
With pleasure.

Aprs vous.
Aprs cela.
Aprs djeuner.
Aprs dner.

After you.
After that.
After breakfast.
After dinner.

Aprs-midi.

Afternoon.

Sans doute.
Sans peine.

Without a doubt.
Without any trouble.
Without any difficulty.
Without ceasing.
Without care.

Sans* difficult

Sans
Sans

cesse.
souci.

Pourquoi ?
Pourquoi pas ?
Pourquoi pleurez- vous ?
Porquoi n'tes- vous pas venu?
C'est pourquoi (or) voil pourquoi.
Parce que.
Parce que je ne peux pas.
Parce que je ne veux pas.

Why?
Why not ?
Why do you

cry ?

Why did you

not come ?

Therefore, that is why.

Because.

Because I cannot.
Because I will not.

Practical French Course

150

Avant, before
Devant, before

Avant maintenant.
Avant longtemps.
Devant vous.
Devant ma maison.

(for time).
(for place).

Before now.
Before long.
Before (in front of) you.
Before my house.

Depuis, since (for time).


Puisque, since, as, for the reason

Depuis longtemps.
Depuis ce temps-l.
Depuis lors.

Since a long time.

Since that time.


Since then.
Since you will have

Puisque vous le voulez ainsi.


Puisque vous ne pouvez pas.
Puisque c'est impossible.

que
que
que
que

Since

je suis

New

impossible

Ever since I was


York.

I am

in

York.

partir de, from, starting from.

Ds aujourd'hui.
Ds maintenant.
Ds demain.

From to-day.
From now on.
From to-morrow.

From

partir d'aujourd'hui.

born.

New

Since

je suis retourn.

Ds from, beginning.

Since

I came.
Since I returned

venu.

it is

since (before a verb).

je suis n.
je suis

it so.

Since you cannot.

Depuis que,

Depuis
Depuis
Depuis
Depuis

that.

this

day forward.

Practical French Coursk


Aussitt que

Ds que

(or)

ds que, as soon

As soon
As soon

possible.

Aussitt que possible.

Entre, between.

151
as.

as possible.

as possible.

Parmi, among, amid.

Entre vous et moi.


Entre nous.
Entre deux et trois heures.

Between you and me.


Between us.
Between two and three

Parmi nous.
Parmi le nombre
Dans le nombre.

Amongst

towards (direction) about (time).

Envers, towards

Il

(of people).

He

was going towards the river.


She was going towards the park.

allait vers la rivire.

Elle allait vers le parc.

Je viendrai vers cinq heures (or)


Je viendrai vers les cinq heures.
Il faut tre poli

us.

Among the number.


Among the number.

(or)

Vers,

o'clock.

envers les dames.

I shall come around five

o 'clock.

One must be polite towards the ladies

Prs de,

near, close

Auprs de,

near, about.

to.

Prt (adjective), ready

to.

Practical French Course

152

Prs de
Il

ma maison.

demeure prs

Near to my house.
He lives close by.

d'ici.

Stay near me (or by me).


I am ready to go out.

Restez auprs de moi.


Je suis prt sortir.

Durant,
Pendant,

during (whole duration).


pending, during.

Pendant que,

Durant sa vie.
en Floride pendant
Pendant que j'y suis.
Pendant que vous y tes.
Pendant que j'y pense.
J'irai

Sur, upon.

Sur
Sur
Sur
Sur
Sur

while.

l'hiver.

While I am at it (or there).


While you are at it (or there).
While I think of it.

Sous, under.

chemine.

le perron.

le toit.

ma parole.

Sous
Sous

Derrire, behind.

Upon the table.


Upon the mantel-piece
Upon the stoop.
Upon the roof.
Upon my word.

la table.
la

During his life.


[winter.
I shall go to Florida during the

Under the sofa.


Under the tree.

le sofa.

l'arbre.

Behind the door.


Behind you.

Derrire la porte.

Derrire vous.

Dessus, upon,

over.

Otez cela de dessus la table.


Otez cela de dessous la chaise.
C'est au dessus de mes forces.

Dessous, underneath.

Take that off the

Remove

table.

that from

It is beyond

under the

my strength.

chair.

Practical French Course


Par dessus
Par dessus

le
le

march.
mur.

Into the bargain.

Over the

dessus.

Ci-dessous.

Cent francs

wall.

{Here) above.
Thereupon.
{Here) below.

Ci-dessus.

153

et

One hundred francs and upward.

au dessus.

En,
in (countries, time, situation).
Dans, in (into, within, at the end of).

Je suis n en France en i860.


J'espre que vous tes en bonne

I was born in France in i860.


I hope that you are in good health.

sant.

Rome

n'a pas t btie en

un

Dans une heure.


Dans un quart d'heure.
Dans une demi-heure.
Dans deux mois.
Dans ma poche.
Dans le tiroir.
Dans la cuisine.
Dans le salon.
Dans la salle manger.
Dans la salle de bain.
Dans le corridor.
Dans l'armoire.
Dans l'escalier.
Dans la rue.
Dans le jardin.
Dans le parc.
Dans la cave.

jour.

Rome was

not built in a day.

In one hour.
In a quarter of an hour.
In half an hour.
In two months.
In my pocket.
In the drawer.
In the kitchen.
In the parlor.
In the dining-room.
In the bathroom.
In the hall.
In the closet.
In (on) the staircase.

In
In
In
In

the street.
the garden.

the park.
the cellar.

EXERCISE.
/.
2.

j.

With much difficulty.


With great pleasure.
With the greatest pleasure.

lm

2.

3.

difficult.

un plaisir.
le plaisir.

Practical French Course

154
4.

5.
6.

7.
8.

10.
11.
12.
13.

14.
75.

After my lesson.
After my dinner.
Without you.
Without him.
Without her.
Why do you not study ?
Why do you not try ?
Because I am too busy.
Because I am tired.
Because it is useless.
Before to-day.
Before the stove.

18.

Behind the curtain.


Behind the screen.
As soon as you can.

ig.

As

20.

Near there.
I shall come

16.

17.

21.
22.

soon as

While

zve

I can.

4
5

6
7

ma
mon
vous.

lui.

elle.

tudiez-vous

9
10

essayez-vous
je suis

11

12

13
14

are at

it.

?
?

occup.

fatigu.

inutile.

aujourd'hui.

15

fourneau, (m.)

16

rideau, (m.)

17

paravent, (m.)

18

vous pourrez.

19

je pourrai.

20
at about 2 o'clock.

21

l.

Je viendrai

22

nous y sommes.

23.

In the bureau.

23

commode,

24.

On

24

25.

27.

In the pantry.
In a moment.
In the middle of the

bureau, (m.)
garde-manger, (m.)

28.

Until to-morrow.

27
28

26.

the desk.

25
26
street.

29.

As for me.

29

30.

Closed on account of death.

30

31.

During

the lesson.

3i

32.

In
In

ofyou.
of all that.

32

33.

spite

spite

might have,

rue. (f.)

moi.

Ferm

dcs.

leon.

33

etc.

un moment.
demain.

Imperfect Subjunctive of AVOIR,


That

(f.)

vous.
cela.

TRE,

to have;

That

might

to be.

be, etc.

Que j'eusse
Que tu eusses

Que
Que

Qu'il et

Qu'il ft

Que nous eussions


Que vous eussiez

Que nous fussions


Que vous fussiez

Qu'ils eussent

Qu'ils fussent

fusse
tu fusses

je

Practical French Course:

155

VINGT-QUATRIEME LEON.

LESSON XX IV.
PRACTICAL EXERCISE ON SOME INVARIABLE WORDS
WHICH HAVE SEVERAL MEANINGS.

to>

Corresponds generally to the English prepositions aland


but in many cases it is used idiomatically and may be

rendered in English by after;

till,

by, on.

A mon regret.
A droite.
A gauche.

To my regret.
To the right.
To the left.

A quelle heure dnez- vous ?


Je dne six heures.

At what

A la franaise.
A l'amricaine.

After the French fashion.


After the American fashion.

A bord.
A cheval.
A pied.
A bicyclette.

On board.
On horseback.
On foot.
On a bicycle.

A ce soir.
A demain.
A bientt.
A tout l'heure.

Till this evening,

I dine

time do you dine ?

at 6 o'clock.

Till to-morrow,
(

Till) shortly.

{Till) by

and by.

Pas pas.

Step by step.

Peu peu.

Little by little.

Petit petit l'oiseau fait son nid.

Little by little the bird builds {up)

her nest.

Practical French Course

156

IMPORTANT REMARK.
The

preposition

two nouns

in the

is

often used idiomatically

Une tasse caf.


Une cuillre caf.
Une brosse dents.
Une brosse cheveux.
Une pingle cheveux.
Une assiette soupe.
Une assiette dessert.
Une cuillre bouche.
Une cuillere bouche.

A coffee-cup.
A coffee-spoon.
A tooth-brush.
A hair-brush.
A hair-pin.
A soup plate.
A dessert plate.
A tablespoon.
A tablespoonful.

Du

Some

papier

lettre.

Un bateau vapeur.
Un bateau voiles.
Une peinture l'huile.
Une tarte la crme.
Une omelette au rhum
caf au

letter-paper.

A letter-box.
A bedroom.
A steamboat.
A sail boat.

Une bote lettres.


Une chambre coucher.

Du

between

sense of used for, propelled by, made with.

An

oil pai?iting.

A cream pie.
A rum omelet.

Coffee

lait.

and milk.

EN
Corresponds generally to the English preposition in, but
used idiomatically and maybe rendered in English by

it is

at, to,

from

there,

of it, of them, as or

like, on, by.

En hiver en t en automne.
En Europe en France en prison.
En traneau.
En voiture.

hi winter; in summer; in autumn.

En
En

At war ; at peace.
At liberty ; at nurse.

guerre
libert

en paix.
en nourrice.

Etes-vous de Paris?
Oui, j'en suis.

I?i

Europe; in France; in jail.

In a sleigh.
In a carriage.

{All aboard!)

Are you from Paris?


Yes, I {from there) am.

Practical French Course;

De temps en

157

Fro?n time to time.

temps.

{Once in a

while. )

De mal en

From bad to

pis.

Have you a pencil?


Yes, I have one.
Have you any matches ?
Yes, I have some.

Avez-vous un crayon ?
Oui, j'en ai un.

Avez-vous des allumettes ?


Oui, j'en

ai.

En
En
En

partant.

Un

officier

arrivant.

dbarquant.

en

worse.

civil.

On
On
On

leaving.

An

ununiformed officer.

arriving.
landing.

I speak

Je vous parle en ami.

to you as

a friend.

DE
Corresponds generally to the English prepositions of
and from.
Le cheval de mon

oncle.

L'automobile de mon ami.


La bicyclette de ma femme.
Je viens de Versailles.
Versailles n'est pas loin de Paris.

My uncle's horse, {The horse of)


My friend' s automobile
My wife's bicycle.
I come from
Versailles

is

Versailles.

not far from Paris.

IMPORTANT REMARK.
The name of the material of which an object is composed always follows, in French, the name of the object
itself, the two words being connected either by the preposition

Une
Une
Une
Une
Une

en or

de.

montre d'or (or)


montre en or.
montre d'argent (or)
montre en argent.
plume d'acier.

A gold watch.
A gold watch.
A silver watch.
A silver watch.
A steel pen.

Practical French Course

158

Un chapeau

de

Une robe de

soie.

A straw hat.
A silk dress.

paille.

Wool stockings.

Des bas de laine.


Des bas de coton.

Cotton stockings.

QUE
Corresponds generally to what and that, but it has
other meanings, being rendered into English,
according to the sense of the phrase, by than, as, but or
several

only, how, how much


why (exclamatory).

Que pensez-vous de

Paris

or

how many,

Je pense que c'est la plus belle


ville
Il

du monde.
(popular.)

chaud qu'hier?
plus chaud qu'hier.

when, whether,

What do you think of Paris f


I think (that} it is the most beautifui

n'y a pas d'erreur

till,

world.
no mistake about that.

city in the (of the)

There

is

war in as yesterday ?
warmer than yesterday.

Fait-il aussi

Is it as

Il fait

It is

Avez-vous de l'argent sur vous ?


Je n'ai que cinq francs.
Combien de cigares avez-vous ?
Je n'en ai qu'un.

Have you a?iy money about you ?


I have but five francs.
How many cigars have you f

Que vous
Que vous

How kind you are !


How good you are !
How warm it is !
How pretty you are !

tes aimable

Qu'il fait

bon
chaud

Que vous

tes jolie

Oh

je

que

tes

vous aime

Que d'argent
Que de monde

I have but

one.

Oh ! how I love you !

How much money ! (exclam.)


How many people /

Attendez que je vienne.


1,'anne que j'tais Paris.
Qu'il pleuve ou qu'il neige.
Que ne le faites-vous
Que n'y allez-vous
!

Wait

till

I come.

The year (when) I was in Paris.

Whether

Why
Why

it

rains or snows.
it ! (exclam.)

don't you do
don't you

go !

Practical French Course

159

BIEN
Corresponds generally to the English adverb well, but
in many instances it is used idiomatically, and maybe rendered into English by very, quite, right, very much or very

many and

indeed.

C'est bien.

I am well ; I have good health.


Everything goes well.
All is well that ends well.
All right ; that's right.

Je suis bien las.


Je suis bien content.
J'en suis bien aise.
J'en suis bien fch.

I am
I am
I am
I am

Je

me

porte bien.

Tout va bien.
Tout est bien qui

finit bien.

very tired.
very satisfied.
very glad of it.
very sorry {for if).
very dear.
very astonishing.

C'est bien cher.

It is

C'est bien tonnant.

It is

C'est bien fait pour vous.

It serves yoti right.

bien chaud.
C'est bien gentil de votre part.

It is quite

Il fait

J'ai

Je

bien

me

J'ai

vu bien des pays.

a bien promis qu'il viendrait,

mais

je

ne crois pas

warm

very nice of you.

I laughed very much.


I enjoyed myself very much.
I have seen many countries.
A great many people.

ri.

suis bien amus.

Bien des personnes.


Il

It is

qu'il vienne.

He

certainly promised he would


come, but I do not believe he wilL

Je vous le promets bien.


Si vous le voulez bien.

I do promise (it to) you.


Ifyou are quite willing.

Je veux bien.

I am

quite willing.

REMARK.
The word

bien

is

also used as a substantive in the sense

of good, blessing, property, estate.

Practical French Course;

160

Le bien
Cela

d' autrui.

fait

du

The property of others.


That does one good.
That will do you good.
We must re?ider goodfor evil.
He is an honest man.
Health is the most precious

bien.

Cela vous fera du bien.


Il

faut rendre le bien pour le mal.

un homme de
La sant est le bien

C'est

bien.
le plus

prcieux.

of

blessings.

Les biens de

The good things of the earth.

la terre (or) d'ici -bas.

SI

Corresponds to the English words


Si c'est possible.

if,

whether,

S'il fait

If it is possible.
If I can.
Ifyou can.
If the weather permits.
If it is fine weather.

S'il

Ifyou please.

Si je peux.
Si vous pouvez.

temps le permet.
beau temps.
vous plat.

Si le

Je ne sais
non.

si

je pourrai venir

I do not know whether I

ou

chaud
bon
C'est une si bonne location
Je ne suis pas si bte (pop. )
si

shall be

able to co7ne or not.

Il fait si

C'est

so.

It is so

warm !

good !
is so good a

It is so

It

I am not

location.

so foolish !

POUR.

The word

pour, as

already seen, corresponds to the

English preposition for, but


to,

in order to

Il

faut

also used in the sense of

and per.
For whom

Pour qui est ceci ?


C'est pour vous.

manger pour

J'ai dit cela

it is

is this

It is for you.

vivre.

pour plaisanter.

One must eat to live.


I said that in jest.

Practical French Course

161

In order to speak and write cor


rectly in French,
one tmist

Pour parler et crire correctement


en franais il faut savoir fond
la grammaire franaise.

know

{the)

French grammar

thoroughly.

Les caisses d'pargne paient


trois et demi pour cent.

Le pour

The savings banks pay three and

le

a half per cent, (interest).

Pro and con.

et le contre, (subst.)

PAR
Corresponds to the English prepositions by, per, through.
serves also to form

It

many

Qu'avez- vous lu ?
J'ai lu les " Trois

Mousquetaires, "

par Dumas, pre, et "Cyrano


de Bergerac, par Edmond Ros'

idiomatic expressions.

What have you read?


I have read the " Three Guardsmen," by Dumas, the elder, and
"Cyrano

'

Combien payez-vous par jour ?


Combien payez-vous par semaine ?
Par o

Bergerac,"

by

tes- vous entr

How much do you pay per day ?


How much do you pay per week ?
How didyou get in ?

Je suis entr par la fentre.

I got

in

Cela ne vaut rien.

That

is

Jetez-le par la fentre.

Throw

Par o faut-il passer ?


Par ici.
Par l.
Par ici la sortie.
Par ci, par l (or)

de

Edmond Rostand.

tand.

et l.

Par amour.

through the window.


not good.
out of the window.

it

Which way must one go ?


This way.

That way.
This

way

out.

Here and there (or)


Here and there.
For love.

so so.

OU.

The word ou (unaccented) corresponds


conjunction

or.

to the English

Practical French Course

162

Tt ou tard.
Tout ou rien.
Maintenant ou jamais.
Plus ou moins.
Mort ou vif.

Sooner or later.

All or nothing.

Now or never.

OU

More or

less.

Dead or

alive.

(accented)

Corresponds generally to the English adverb where, but


also used idiomatically in the sense of in, which and
when.
it is

O demeurez- vous ?
O avez- vous t ?

Where do you live f


Where have you been ?
The danger in which you

Le danger o vous tes.


Le sicle o nous vivons.
Le jour o je suis venu.

The century in which we


The day (when) I came.

are.
live.

JUSQUE.
an adverb which denotes both time
The word jusque
and distance, being rendered into English by till and as
is

far

as.

It is

also used sometimes in the sense of even.

Jusqu' prsent.
Jusqu'alors.

Jusqu'o ?
Jusqu' Boston.
Jusqu' la rivire.
Jusqu'au parc.
Jusqu' ses amis.
Jusqu' la dernire minute.
Depuis le premier jusqu'au dernier.

Until now.
Until then.
As far as where ?
As far as Boston.

As far
As far
Even

as the river.
as the park.

his friends.

Up to the last minute.


From the first to the last.

EXERCISE.
my great

i.

To

2.

Turn to your right.


I shall come at one o'clock.

3.

regret.

regret.
votre

1.

2.

Tournez

3.

Je viendrai

mon

Practical French Course


4-

He is in

(at) Paris.

8.

I shall go on foot.
We will go on horseback.
Give me a coffee-cup.
Give me a cup of coffee.

9-

My friend' s father is sick.

s.
6.
7-

10.
11.

4-

11 est

5-

J'irai

6.

Nous

8.

11.

X?

14-

How

nice !

14.

i5-

I am

so tired !

1516.

17.

Klle est

A French lesson.

21.

22.

My sister's bicycle.

2324.
2526.
27.

A silver watch.
A wooden chair.
What do you think of me ?
What do you think of her ?
It serves him right.

her right.
29. What do you wish ?
30. What do you say ?
V> What did you say ?
28. It serves

32.

33
34-

Are you sorry for it ?


I am sorry for it.

We laughed very much.

Imperative of AVOIR,

Je suis
Elle est

2T.

ig.

13.

20.

18.

is

18.

lasse

jolie

est-il?

19-

Il est

20.

Au

revoir

22.

La

bicyclette

23-

Une montre

de franais.

25-

de bois.
de moi

26.

d'elle?

24.

27.

C'est bien fait

bien fait
dsirez-vous?

28. C'est
29.

30-

31.
32.

dites- vous
avez- vous dit?
tes- vous fch

33. J'

34.

to

suis fch.

Nous avons

have;

ETRE,

Sois, be thou

Ayez, have you


Ayons, let us have
Qu'il ait, let him have

Soyez, be you
Soyons, let us

her have
Qu'ils aient, let them have
Qu'elles aient, let them have

Qu'elle soit,

let

(f.)

Aie, have thou

Qu'elle ait,

est malade.

pensez-vous Mlle X
Je pense elle est charmante
c'est gentil

12.

very pretty
is so pretty !
Where is he ?
He is in (at) Paris or London.
Good-bye ; till to-morrow.

She
n- She
i.

Un
Un

10.

What do you think of Miss


I think she is charming.

irons

9-

13-

12.

Donnez-moi
Donnez-moi
Le pre

7-

A gold bracelet.
A silk hat.

163

Qu'il soit,

let

to be.

be

him

let

be

her be

Qu'ils soient, let them be


Qu'elles soient, let them be

Practical French Course

164

VINGT-CINQUIEME LEON.

LESSON XXV.
REMARKS ON THE RIGHT USE OF SOME
PRACTICAL WORDS.
DAY. MORNING.

EVENING.

The words day, morning and evening are translated in


French by jour, matin and soir (m.) when one refers to
any part of the day, morning or evening, and also after
the words tous, every ; chaque, each ; ce, this or that.
They are translated by journe, matine, soire, (f.) when
one wants to express the whole duration of the day, morning or evening.
Each day.
Every day.

Chaque jour (or)


Tous les jours.
Ce jour.
Il
Il

This day.

a fait une belle journe.


a plu toute la journe.

It
It

I shall come to-morrow morning.


I shall leave at 8 o'clock a.m.

Je viendrai demain matin,


Je partirai huit heures du matin.

Je viendrai dans la matine.


J'ai travaill toute la matine.

Nous viendrons ce soir.


Nous partirons huit heures du

has been a fine day.


has rained all day long.

I shall come in the forenoon.


I have worked all the morning.

We will come to-night.


We will leave at 8 o'clock p.m.

soir.
[us.

Venez passer la soire avec nous.


J'ai pass une trs agrable soire.

Come and spend the evening with


I have spent a very pleasant
evening.

Practical French Course

165

YEAR.

The word year is translated in French by an (m.) for a


number of years, and by anne (f.) for an indefinite

definite

number,
number.
Il

for interrogative

y a deux

Deux ans

Two years ago.


Two years after.
I am twenty years

ans.

aprs.

vingt ans.

J'ai

En

sentences and after an ordinal

quelle anne tes-vous n

Je suis n en l'an 1880.

mme

L,a

old.

In what year were you born ?


I was born in the year 1880.

The same year.

anne.

Je vous souhaite une

bonne anne.

I wish you a prosperous year.

PARENTS. RELATIVES.

The French word

parents

means both

(pah-rahng)

parents and relatives.

The word

relations

means only

social or

commercial

acquaintances.

Comment se portent vos


Nous sommes parents.

Un proche

(or)

How are your parents ?


We

parent.

Un parent paternel
mon pre.
Un

parents ?

du ct de

parent maternel (or) du ct


ma mre.

are related.

A near relative.
A relation on my father' s side.
A

relative on

my

mother's

side.

de

Nous sommes en

relations

We

are commercially related.

d'affaires.

FATHER=IN=LAW, STEP=FATHER, ETC.

The words

father-in-law, step-father, and

words, are rendered

in

all

similar

French by the same expression.

Practical French Course;

166

Beau-fils.

Father-in-law (or) step-father.


Brother-in-law (or) step-brother.
Son-in-law (or) step-son.

Belle -mre.

Mother-in-law (or) step-mother.

Beau-pre.
Beau-frre.

Belle-sur.

Sister-in-law (or) step-sister.

Belle-fille.

Daughter-in-law
daughter.

(or) step-

PIECE.

The English word


morceau,

for

piece

material

is

translated

in

French by

of something-, and for

portion

The. French word pice is used for coins, theatrical plays, rooms, and (speaking of price) a piece, each.

music.

pice de cinq francs.

A piece of bread.
A piece of music.
A five-franc piece.

pice amusante.

An

Un morceau
Un morceau
Une
Une

de pain.
de musique.

amusing play.

Ceci est une belle pice.

This

Un appartement

An apartment of six
How much for one ?

Combien

Un

de six pices.

la pice

is

a fine room.

One franc a piece

franc pice.

rooms.

(or) each.

LECTURE.

The English word lecture is translated in French by


The French word lecture means reading.

confrence.

Je vais entendre une confrence.

I am going

Un
Un
Un

A lecturer.
A (reading) book.
A reading room.

confrencier.
livre

de lecture.

cabinet de lecture.

to

hear a lecture.

OFFICE.

The word

office is

translated in French as follows

Practical French Cours k

Etude

167

for lawyers, notaries, etc.

(f.),

Cabinet (m.), for statesmen, doctors, dentists.


Bureau (m.) for tradesmen and bankers.
Atelier (m.)

The French word

for printers, artists, etc.

office is

used with quite a different

meaning.
Thus, we say

L'office divin.

The divine

Mes bons

My good services.

Un

offices.

avocat

Une

office

nomm

service.

A lawyer appointed by the judge.


A pantry well provided.

d'office.

bien garnie.

END.

The word end is

translated by fin

(f.)

period of time and for the end of a book.

by bout (m.)

for the

end of a
rendered

for the
It is

extremity of an object.

du livre.
du mois.
Au bout du corridor.

At the end of the month.


At the end of the hall.

Un

A bit of ribbon.

La

The end of the

fin

la fin

bout de ruban.

From

D'un bout l'autre.


Le bout des doigts.
Le bout de la langue.
Au bout du compte.

as follows

beginning to end.

The finger-ends.
The tip of the tongue.
After

TICKET.

The words

book.

ticket

billy

BILL.

all ; upon-the whole.

NOTE.

and note are translated

Billet fm.),

for theatres, railroads, lotteries

Carte Cf.),
Etiquette

for visiting cards

Note

in

(f.)

and

and bank-notes.

bills of fare.

for clothing tickets, etc.

for a bill and a short letter.


Facture (f.), for invoices.
Addition (f.), amount of check (for meals).
(f.),

Un billet de theatre.
Un billet de faveur.
Un billet d'aller et retour.

A theatre ticket.
A complimentary ticket.

Un

A love-letter.

billet

French

doux.

An excursion ticket.

Practical French Course

168

Envoyez-moi votre note.


Envoyez-moi la facture.

Send me your bill.


Send me the invoice.

Un
Un
Un

A bank-note.
A draft payable at sight.
A draft payable to order.

billet

de banque.

billet vue.
billet ordre.

PRESENT. GIFT.

The word

present or gift

rendered

is

in

French

by-

prsent for valuable presents, and by cadeau tor small


presents.
C'est
C'est

un
un

It is a fine present.

joli prsent.
joli

cadeau.

It is a fine present.

Je vous en fais cadeau.


Je vous ferai un prsent.

I give it to you.
I will make you a present.

On m'en
On m'en

a fait cadeau.

It

a fait prsent.

It

was given to me.


was given to me as a present.

MOUTH.

The word mouth is translated by bouche for men, horses


and cannon by gueule for animals (except horses), and
by embouchure for rivers.
;

Ouvrez la bouche.
Fermez la bouche.
Bouche bante.
Faire la bouche en cur.
Cela fait venir l'eau la bouche.
I,a gueule d'un animal.
L'embouchure d'une rivire.

Open your mouth.


Close your mouth.

Open-mouthed.
To screw up one's mouth.
That makes one's mouth water.
The mouth of an animal.
The mouth of a river.

FIRE.

The

"word, fire is

rendered by

generally translated by feu (m.).

incendie (m.)

building, a conflagration.

when

it

It is

means the burning of a

Practical French Course


Allumez
Faites

Light the fire.

le feu.

Make afire in my

du feu dans ma chambre.

Le feu est teint.


Quel bon feu

The fire

Un feu d'artifice.
Un feu de joie.
Au feu au feu

Fire-works.

Un

A terrible fire.
A fire engine.

A bonfire.
Fire ! fire !

terrible incendie.

Une pompe

incendie.

The firemen.

pompiers.

I^es

room.

is out.

What a good fire !

169

WORD.
Is translated in

French by mot (m.) or parole

Mot is used for a word


means a word spoken.
Comment
Une

Parole

How do you spell that word ?

mot ?

pelez-vous ce

Un mot mal

(f.).

written, spelled or printed.

A
A

imprim.

faute d'impression.

Je vous donne ma parole.


Parole d'honneur!

word badly printed.


mistake in printing\ a misprint.

I give you my word.


My word of honor !

LINEN.
Is translated

by linge (m.) or

for (linen) apparel, the

dame a de beau
femmes aiment la

second

Cette

linge.

Ives

lingerie.

Un

mtre de

toile

(f.).

The

first is

That lady has fine linen.

Women

toile.

are fond oflinen garments.

meter of linen

cloth.

NEXT.

The word

next

is

rendered

in

French as follows

Suivant=e,
for the order.
Prochain =e, for the time.
Voisin-e,

used

for the material.

for the place.

Practical French Course

170

Next

Le chapitre suivant.
Dans la chambre voisine.
Le mois prochain.
Le jour suivant (or) le lendemain.
Le surlendemain.

(following) chapter.

In the next room.


Next month.
The day following.

Two

days after ; the third day.

AUDIENCE.

The word

audience

is

translated in French

by

l'auditoire

(m.) or les auditeurs.

The French word audience means

the hearing, the re-

ception (sovereigns, the Pope, etc).

Un nombreux

A large

auditoire.

audience.

L'audience du tribunal.

The hearing of the

Jour d'audience.

Court day.

tribunal.

SENSIBLE.

The word sensible is translated into French by


The French word sensible means sensitive.
He is a very sensible man.
Il est trs sens.
He is very sensitive.
Il est trs sensible.

sens.

WAGES.
The word wages
le salaire

is,

in

French,

or la paie (pay-yur) for


4

for officials

les

les

gages for servants,

workmen,

le

traitement

honoraires for clergymen, lawyers, doctors.

RIVERS.

The word

river

is,

in

ing into another river


into the sea.

French, rivire

(f.)

for a river flow-

fleuve (m.) for a river emptying

Practical French Course

171

EXERCISE.
snowed all day.

/.

It has

2.

I spent twenty days in Paris.


I spent two years in London.

j.
4.

The first year.

6.

At about 10 'clock
At about 11 p.m.

7.

Is he y our son ?

8.

He is my

Is she your daughter ?

5.

10.

She

is

a.m.

my step-daughter.

12.

A magnificent piece of music.


A twenty-franc piece.

13.

I heard a

14.

He is a

11.

15.

16.
17.

very fine lecture.

brilliant lecturer.

A lawyer's
A doctor's
A banker's

The end of the

20.

A complimentary ticket.

25.
26.

2j.
28.

2.

30.

31,

lesson.

Est-ce

8.

C'est

9-

Est-ce

10.

C'est

11.

Un

18.

the end of the table.

a fine present.

?
.

?
.

.
magnifique
de vingt francs.
Une
J'ai entendu une trs belle

brillant
d' avocat.
Le d' docteur.
Le d' banquier.
C'est

L'

La

20.

Au
Un

21.

C'est

22.

Eteignez

19.

Put out the fire.


It was a terrible fire.
Upon my word.

23. C'tait

24.

I do not understand that


Next time.

word.

There was a large audience.


The workmen's wages.

The President's salary.


The priest's salary.
The Seine is a river.

7-

13.

Paris.
.

Vers
Vers

12.

pass

6.

16.

At

24.

La

17.

office.

i.

23.

J'ai pass

14.

office.

2i. It is

3-

4.

15-

office.

18.

22.

Il

J'ai

5-

step-son.

a neig

1.

2.

25.
26.

La fois.
y avait
des ouvriers.
Le
Le du prsident.
du prtre.
Les
La Seine est

27. Il
28.
29.
30.

31.

Sur
Je ne comprends pas
.

m&t?

PbacticaIv

172

French Course

VINGT-SIXIEME LEON.

LESSON XXVI.
Auxiliary Verbs.

There are only two auxiliary verbs


Avoir,

to have,

and tre,

in

French:

to be.

These two verbs are so important that the pupil should


have them, so to speak, at his finger-ends.
He must,
therefore learn them by heart, affirmatively\ negatively and
interrogatively.

In studying them at the same time, their points of


ence and similarity will be noticed more readily.

differ-

Experience has shown that most pupils have difficulty


in correctly pronouncing the various forms of the verbs
avoir and tre. I have therefore deemed it advisable to
give approximate equivalents of these sounds in English,
as a help to the pupil.

However, a perfect pronunciation can only be acquired


by hearing the sounds enunciated by the teacher.

Practical French Course

173

Conjugation of the Auxiliary Verbs.

I.

Simple Tenses.

INFINITIVE PRESENT

(Infinitif prsent).

A
Avoir (ah-voo-ahr),

to have.

Etre

PRESENT PARTICIPLE
(ay-yng), having.

Etant (ay-tng),

(), had.

(Participe pass).

Et

INDICATIVE PRESENT
I

(ay-tay), been.

(Indicatif prsent).

have, etc.

Je suis (zher

am,

J'ai

(zhay).

Tu as

(tii

ah).

Tu es

(tii

ay).

(ill

ah).

Il

est

(ill

ay).

Il

being.

PAST PARTICIPLE
Eu

(Participe prsent).

Ayant

(ay-tr), to be.

etc.

siiee).

Elle a (ell ah).

Elle est (ell ay).

Nous avons (noo-zah-vng).


Vous avez (voo-zah-vay).

Nous sommes (noo-sohm).


Vous tes
(voo-zett).

Ils

ont

Elles ont

Ils

Elles sont

IMPERFECT
I

sont

(ill-zng).

(ell-zng).

had, I was having, or I used to


have, etc.

(ill-sng).

(ell-sng).

(Imparfait).
I

was, I was being, or

used

to be, etc.

J'avais

(zhah-vay).

J'tais

(zhay-tay).

Tu

(tii-ah-vay).

Tu

(tii-ay-tay).

(ill-ah-vay).

Il tait

(ill-ay-tay).

Nous tions
Vous tiez

(noo-zay-tee-ng).

Il

avais

avait

'

Nous avions (noo-zah-vee-ng).


Vous aviez (voo-zah-vee-ay).
Ils

avaient

(ill-zah-vay).

Ils

tais

taient

(voo-zay-tee-ay).
(ill-zay-tay).

Practical French Course

174

PAST DEFINITE
This tense

is

narrative only

(Pass dfini).

therefore,

it is

not used in

ordinary conversation.
I had, I

did have,

etc.

J'eus

(zh).

Je fus (zher

Tu eus

(tii ti).

Tu

(illii).

Il

Il

eut

eurent

fus

fut

Ils

(ill-ziir).

FUTURE

furent

^tii

oh-rah).

Tu

aura

(ill

oh-rah).

Il

(ill-zoh-rng).

Ils

J'aurais

(zhoh-ray).

Tu

(tii

Il

aurait

Ils

oh-ray).

auraient

surah).

(noo-srng).
(voo-sray).

seront

(ill-srng).

(Conditionnel).

etc.

(ill-oh-ray).

Nous aurions
Vous auriez

(ill

Nous serons
Vous serez

should or would have,

aurais

sera

(voo-zoh-ray).

(noo-zoh-rng).

CONDITIONAL
I

or will be, etc.

Je serai (zher suray).


seras (tii surah).

(zhoh-ray).

auront

fii-t).

(ill fii-r).

I shall

J'aurai

Ils

fii-m).

(Futur).

Tu auras

Nous aurons
Vous aurez

fi).

(ill fii).

I shall or will have, etc.

Il

etc.

(tii fii).

Nous fmes (noo


Vous ftes (voo

Nous emes (noo-z-m).


Vous etes (voo-z-t).
Ils

was,

should or would be,


zher sray).

Je serais

Tu

(tii

sray).

(ill

sray).

Il

serais

serait

etc.

(voo-zoh-ree-ay).

Nous serions (noo-sr-ee-ng)


Vous seriez (voo-sr-ee-ay).

(ill-zoh-ray).

Ils seraient

(noo-zoh-ree-ng).

(ill

suray).

Practical French course

SUBJUNCTIVE

175

(Subjonctif).

Present.
That

Que
Que

may

That

have, etc.

j'aie

(ker-zhay).

tu aies

(ker-t-ay).

Que
Que

(kill-ay).

Qu'il soit

Qu'il ait

may

be, etc.

je sois (ker-zher-swah).

tu sois (ker-tu-swah).
(kill-swah).

Que nous soyons

Que nous ayons

(ker-noo-swah-yng).

(ker-noo-zay-yng).

Que vous ayez

(ker-voo-zay-yay).

Que vous soyez

Qu'ils aient

(kill-zay).

Qu'ils soient (kill-swah).

(ker-voo-swah-yay).

IMPERFECT
This tense
That

(imparfait).

always derived from the past

is

might have,

Que j'eusse
Que tu eusses

(ker

Qu'il et

(kill ).

That

etc.

(ker-zh-ss).
tii i-ss).

Que
Que

je fusse

might

be, etc.

(ker zher

tu fusses (ker tu

Qu'il ft

Que nous eussions

definite.

(kill

fii-ss).

fii-ss).

fi).

Que nous fussions

(ker noo-zu-se -ng).

(ker noo-fii-see-ng).

Que vous fussiez

Que vous eussiez

(ker voo-fii-see-ay).

(ker-voo-zii-see-ay).

Qu'ils eussent (kill-zii-ss).

Qu'ils fussent (kill

IMPERATIVE
Aie

(ay),

Ayez
Ayons

(ay-yay),

have {thou).
have (you).

(ay-yng),

let

us have.

fii-ss).

(Impratif).

Sois

(swah),

Soyez (swah-yay)
Soyons (swah-yng),

be {thou).

be {you).
let

us

be.

OBSERVATION.
The imperative
English forms

let

in

French has no third person. The


let her, let them
are rendered by

him,

Practical French Course

176

the

person singular or plural

third

subjunctive,

of the

present.
Qu'il ait

(kill-ay).

Qu'elle ait

(kell-ay).

That he may have (or) let him have.


That she may have (or) let her have.
That they may have (or) let them

Qu'ils aient (kill-zay).

{have.

Qu'il soit

(kill-swah).

Qu'elle soit

(kell-swah).

That he may be (or) let him be.


That she may be (or) let her be.
That they may be (or) let them be.

Qu'ils soient (kill-swah).

II.

We

Compound

will give

only the

Tenses (Temps composs).

first

person singular of the

differ-

ent compound tenses, as from that the other persons can


readily be formed.

PAST INFINITIVE

(Infinitif pass).

To have

To have had.

Avoir

Avoir eu.

COMPOUND PARTICIPLE

Having been.

Ayant

eu.

PAST INDEFINITE
This tense

is

always used

t.

(Participe compos).

Having had.

Ayant

been.

in

t.

(Pass indfini).

conversation instead of the

past definite.
I

have had,

etc.

J'ai eu, etc.

have been,

etc.

J'ai t, etc.

Practical French Course

PLUPERFECT
I

had had,

J'avais eu,

(Plus-que-parfait).
I

etc.

have had,

I shall

would have been,

Que

j'aie

etc.

J'aurais t, etc.

SUBJUNCTIVE PAST
may have

etc.

(Conditionnel pass).

etc.

J'aurais eu, etc.

That

have been,

J'aurai t, etc.

CONDITIONAL PAST
would have had,

etc.

(Futur antrieur).

etc.

J'aurai eu, etc.

had been,

J'avais t, etc.

etc.

FUTURE ANTERIOR
I shall

177

(Subjonctif pass).

That

had, etc.

may have

Que

eu, etc.

j'ai

been, etc.

t, etc.

PLUPERFECT OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE


(Plus-que-parfait

That

might have had,

Que

III.

j'eusse eu,

How

The negation
stated,

etc.

etc.

du

subjonctif).

That

might have been,

Que

etc.

j'eusse t, etc.

to Conjugate the Verbs Negatively,

in French is formed, as we have already


by placing ne before the verb and pas after it. In

Practical French Course

i?8

compound

tenses ne

is

placed before the auxiliary and pas

before the past participle.

MODEL OF NEGATIVE FORM,


SIMPLE TENSES

(ist

person singular).

Let the pupil supply the other persons.


I am

Je ne suis pas, etc.


Je n'tais pas, etc.
Je ne fus pas, etc.
Je ne serai pas, etc.
Je ne serais pas, etc.
Je n'ai pas, etc.
Je n'avais pas, etc.
Je n'eus pas, etc.
Je n'aurai pas, etc.
Je n'aurais pas, etc.

COMPOUND TENSES
Je n'ai pas eu, etc.
Je n'avais pas eu, etc.
Je n'aurai pas eu, etc.
Je n'aurais pas eu, etc.
Je n'ai pas t, etc.
Je n'avais pas t, etc.
Je n'aurai pas t, etc.
Je n'aurais pas t, etc.

IV.

How

not.

I was not.
I was not.
I shall not be.
I would not be.
I have not.
I had not.
I had not.
I shall not have.
I would not have.

(ist

person singular).

/ have not had.


I had not had.
I shall not have had.
I would not have had.
I have not been.
I had not been.
I shall not have been.
I would not have bee?i.

to Conjugate Verbs Interrogatively.

Verbs are conjugated interrogatively by placing the


nominative pronoun after them, or by using the expression

Practical French Course


est=ce que

(is

it

thai)

before the

179

nominative

pronoun

followed by the verb.

MODEL OF INTERROGATIVE FORM.


SECOND FORM.

FIRST FORM.
Suis-je

Ne
Est

Am I?
Am I not ?

suis-je pas

il ?

N'est-ilpas?

Etes- vous
'

Est-ce qu'il est?

Is he not?

Est-ce qu'il n'est pas?

tes- vous

pas ?

Sont-ils?

Ne

Est-ce que je ne suis pas?

Is he ?

Sommes- nous ?
Are we ?
Ne sommes-nous pas ? Are we not ?

Est-ce que je suis

sont-ils pas

Est-ce que nous

sommes ?
sommes pas ?

Est-ce que nous ne

A re you ?

Est-ce que vous tes?

Are you

Est-ce que vous n'tes pas

Are
Are

not ?

they?

Est-ce qu'ils sont?

they not ?

Est-ce qu'ils ne sont pas?

EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION.


I.

2.

3-

45-

6.
7.
8.

9-

10.

11.
12.

Was I ? (imperfect.)
Was he not ?
Was she not ?
Had you ?
Had you not ?
Were we ?
Were you?
Were you. not ?

13-

Shall I be?

14.

I have?
Will you be?
Will you have?
I shall not be.
I shall not have.
Would you be?

15-

16.
17-

18.

19-

Shall

would

be.

20.

Had I not?
Had we ?

21.

Would she have

22.

had.
We had.

23-

She would not have


Are you not ?
Have you not ?

24.

Practical French Course

i8o

VINGT-SEPTIEME LEON.

LESSON XXVII.
PRACTICAL EXERCISE
on the verb Etre,

to be.

PRELIMINARY OBSERVATION.
The two

parts of the

French negative (ne pas) are used

conjointly before a verb in the infinitive, or before the

pronoun,

objective

which

may

precede the verb

in the

infinitive.
Etre, ou

ne pas

tre, voil la

To

de or not to be, that is the

question.

question.

Pour ne pas vous dranger.

Not

Je suis charm de vous voir.

I am
I am
I am

Je suis enchant de vous voir.


Je suis bien aise de vous voir.

est votre frre

He is

est votre

sur ?

Elle est sortie.

sont vos parents ?

Ils

sont sortis

Ils

sont absents.

Ils sont la

campagne.

sont vos surs

Elles sont au bord de la mer.

Elles sont l'tranger.

you.

delighted to see you.

very pleased to see you.


very glad to see you.

Where

Il est sorti.

to disturb

is your

brother?

(gone) out.

Where is your sister ?


She is (gone) out.

Where are your parents


They are (gone) out.
They are away.
They are in the country.

Where are your sisters ?


They are at the seashore.
They are abroad.

Practical French Course

181

Elles sont Berlin.

They are in Germany,


They are in Berlin.

Etes- vous content de moi ?


Je suis trs content de vous.

Are you pleased with me ?


I am very much pleased with

Elles sont en Allemagne.

Etes- vous satisfait de

satisfied with (of) my


progress in French ?
Yes, indeed ; I am very well
satisfied (with it).

Are you

mes

progrs en franais ?
Oui, vraiment

j'en suis trs

satisfait.

Votre

Non,

au collge
en vacances.

fils est-il
il

est

Is your son at college ?


No, he is on his vacation.

Votre petite sur est-elle la

Is your little sister at

maison ?
Non, elle est

No, she

O
O

est la

l'cole.

femme de chambre ?

Elle est en bas.

Il est
Il est

Where

est le concierge ?

Il est

sont dans la rue.


sont dans la cour.

Ils

sont dans le jardin.

is

the janitor ?

Where are the children ?


They are on the stoop.
They are on the sidewalk.
They are in the street.
They are in the back yard.
They are in the garden.

sont les enfants ?

sont sur le perron.


Ils sont sur le trottoir.

Ils

Ils

is at school.

He is in the basement.
He is in the cellar.
He is on the ground floor.

dans le sous-sol.
dans la cave.
au rez-de-chausse.

Ils

home?

Where is the chambermaid ?


Where is the children's maidf
She is upstairs.
She is downstairs.

bonne ?
en haut.

est la

Elle est

you.

Have you had your breakfast ?


Not yet.
I have not had my breakfast.

Avez-vous djeun?
Pas encore.
Je suis jeun.

(I am fasting.)

A propos,

o tiez-vous hier

soir

By

the way, where were you last

night ?

Practical French Course

182
J'tais

/ was

au thtre.

Y avait-il

beaucoup de monde

La

salle tait

Iv.

pice tait-elle intressante

comble.

Was

Oui, en vrit.

J'en viens.

chez

Non,

n'y tait pas.

tait-il

Il tait

son bureau.

Avez-vous vu vos amis ?


ils n'taient pas chez eux.

Non,

taient-ils

Ils taient

Have you been to Mr. X's ?


I have just been there.
Was he

Etait-il

lui

the play interesting ?

Yes, indeed.

Avez-vous t chez monsieur

il

at the theatre.

Were there many people there ?


The house {hall ) zvas crowded.

au thtre.

demain ?
moi toute la

at

home

Have you seen your friends


No, they were not at home.
Where were they ?
They were at the theatre.

Serez- vous chez vous

Will you be at

Oui, je serai chez

Yes,

Je serai bien aise de vous voir.


Je serai bien aise de le voir.
Je serai bien aise de la voir.
Je serai bien aise de les voir.

sera bien aise de vous voir.

Elle sera bien aise de vous voir.


Ils

seront bien aise de vous voir.

Nous serons

I shall

home to-morrow ?
home all (the)

be at

day long.

journe.

Il

No, he was not {there).


Where was he ?
He was at his office.

trs

heureux de vous

I shall be very glad to


be very glad to

I shall

see you.
see

him.

I shall

be very glad to see her.

I shall

be very glad to see them.

He

will be very glad to see you.


She will be very glad to see you.
They will be very glad to see you.

We

will be very happy to see you.

voir.

J'ai t trs occup.


Il

a t trs malade.

Elle a t trs surprise.

Nous avons t trs peines.


Vous avez t trs heureux.
Ils

ont t trs contents.

I have

been very busy.


has been very sick.
She was very much surprised.
We have been very much grieved.
You have been very fortunate.

He

They were very pleased.

Practical French Course


Je serais trs

I should

Il serait

He

heureux de le voir.
enchant de vous voir.
Elle serait trs heureuse de
faire votre connaissance.

Nous

heureux de

serions trs

recevoir votre visite.

183

be very happy to see him.


would be delighted to see you.
She would be very happy to
make your acquaintance.
We would be very happy to
receive your visit.

Restez un peu plus.

Stay a

Je le voudrais, mais je ne puis.


Il faut que je sois chez moi deux

I sliould like to, but I cannot.


I must be {it is necessary that I be)

heures prcises.

Soyez
Soyez
Soyez
Soyez
Soyez
Soyez
Soyez
Soyez

Ne
Ne

at

attentif, (m.)

attentive,

(f.)

prompt.
exact.

ponctuel.

sage

un bon garon
une bonne fille

soyez pas fch


soyez pas de mauvaise humeur.
!

little

home

longer.

at 2 o'clock sharp.

Be attejitive.
Be attentive.
Be prompt.
Be exact.
Be punctual.
Be good ! {of children.)
Be a good boy !
Be a good girl !

DonH

be angry !
Don't be cross ! {in bad humor.)

IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS
FORMED WITH THE VERB
Je n'y suis pour personne.
Madame n'y est pas.

/ am

Vous y tes
Vous n'y tes pas

You have

J'y suis

O en

Je ne sais o j'en suis.


Voulez-vous tre des ntres ?
Si j'tais de vous.
Il

at hoyne to no one.

Madam

n'en est rien.

Je n'en suis plus.


Je suis gn.
Je vous suis redevable.

is

That's not

I have

tes- vous

Etre.

not at home.
it !

{There you are

it !

Where are you

I do

!)

it !

not

{at) ?

know where I am

{at).

Will you be one of us ? {Join us.)


If I were you.
It is nothing of the sort.
I cry off! {I quit f)
I am uncomfortable.
I am indebted to you.

Practical French Course

i84

/ am not in the mood.


I am ill at ease [on thorns.)
I am about to leave.
I shall be with you in a moment.

Je ne suis pas en train.


Je suis sur les pines.
Je suis sur le point de partir.
Je suis vous dans un moment.

It is for you to speak.

C'est vous de parler.

En

tes- vous

encore l
Cela n'est pas
C'en est fait de lui
Nous sommes de moiti
Je ne suis pas dans mon assiette

Do you still believe

It is all over with

bien, soit

Ainsi

soit-il

that

It is not so !

Well, let it be so

So be

him

We go halves !
I am not myself!
!

Amen !

it !

EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION.


FRENCH CONSTRUCTION.

ENGLISH CONSTRUCTION.

1.

2.
3.

4.
5.

your brother married ?


your wife French?
Are my brothers here ?
Are my sisters here ?
Where are your friend's

6.
7.
8.

9.

10.
11.

12.
13.

14.

15.

5.

Where

3.

Was Mr. Smith at home ?


Was Mrs. Smith at home?
*Were your sons at home?
Will your father be at home ?

man very rich ?


not that lady very pretty ?
Are not those boys lazy ?
At what time will you be here ?
Is not that

10.

Is

11.

At what time will your


husband be at home ?
At what time will your
friend's mother be at home?

16.

Do

17.

Is it

not be in such a hurry.

good?

19.

Was it good
What is it ?

20.

Is it correct

18.

4.

1.

2.

parents

brother,

is

wife, is she

are the parents of

your friend ?
Mr. Smith, was he chez lui?
Mrs. Smith, was she chez elle?
Your sons, were they chez eux ?
Your father, will be he chez lui?
That man, is he not very rich ?
That lady, is she notverypretty?
Those boys, are they not lazy ?
At what hour will be you here ?
At what hour your husband
will be he chez lui?
At what hour the mother of your
friend will be she chez elle ?

18.

Be not so hurried.
Is it that it is good ?
Is it that it was good ?

19.

What

16.
17.

Your
Your

he married ?
French ?
My brothers, are they here ?
My sisters, are they here ?

Is

Is

is it

that

it is?

20. Is it that it is correct?

Practical French Course

185

VINGT-HUITIEME LEON.

LESSON XXVIII.
PRACTICAL EXERCISE
on The verb Avoir,

to have.

E SAY IN FRENCH
Avoir
Avoir
Avoir
Avoir
Avoir
Avoir
Avoir
Avoir
Avoir

faim, to have hunger,

for

have thirst,
i,
sommeil, to have sleep,
h,
chaud, to have warmth
froid, to have cold.
peur, to have fear,
honte, to have shame,
raison, to have reason
tort, to have wrong,

for

soif, to

II.

WE

for
for
for
for
for
for

for

To
To
To
To
To
To
To
To
To

be hungry.
be thirsty.

be sleepy.
be

warm.

be cold.
be afraid.
be ashamed.

be right (of people).

be

wrong

(of people),

SAY IN FRENCH

Avoir besoin, to have need,


for
To need.
Avoir soin, to have care,
for
To take care.
Avoir piti (de), to have pity,
for
To pity.
Avoir coutume (de), to have custom for
To be in the habit.
Avoir envie (de), to have desire,
for
To feel like.
Avoir sujet (de), to have subject,
for
To have reason for.
Avoir lieu (de), to have cause,
for
To have cause for.
Avoir lieu, to have place,
for
To take place.
Avoir mal (), to have pain,
for
To have a pain.
Avoir l'air, to have the appearance, for
To look (as if).
Avoir de la chance, to have luck, for
To be lucky.
Avoir bonne mine, to have a healthy appearance,
for
To look well.
Avoir quelque chose, to have something for something to be the matter.

Practical French Course

i86

III.

WE

SAY IN FRENCH:

Moi aussi (7 also). For so have 7, so am 7, so do 7, so did 7, etc.


Ni moi non plus (nor I either), For neither have 7, neither

am 7,

neither do

7, *fc.

PRACTICE.
J'ai faim.

I am

hungry.

J'ai soif.

I am
I am

thirsty.

sommeil.
chaud.

J'ai

J'ai

(I have cold.)
I am cold.
(I have fear.)
I am afraid.
I am ashamed. (I have shame.)
(I have right.)
I am right.
(I have wrong.)
I am wrong.

J'ai peur.
J'ai honte.
J'ai raison.
J'ai tort.

Are you hungry?


Yes, I am.

Avez- vous faim ?

Moi

j'ai

(I have sleep.)
(I have warmth.)

sleepy.

I am warm.

J'ai froid.

Oui,

(7 have hunger.)
(I have thirst.)

faim.

So

aussi.

am

I.

Si, j'ai trs soif.

Are you not thirsty ?


Yes, I am very thirsty.

Moi

So

N'avez-vous pas soif?


aussi.

am

I.

Je n'ai pas sommeil.

I am

Ni moi non

Neither

plus.

not sleepy.

Je n'ai pas faim.

I am

Ni moi non

Neither

Si

plus.

vous avez faim, mangez.

Si vous avez soif, buvez.

Si vous avez sommeil, dormez.


Si vous avez froid, chauffez- vous.
Si vous avez chaud, tez votre

am

I.

not hungry.

Ifyou
Ifyou
Ifyou
Ifyou
Ifyou

am

I.

are hungry, eat.


are thirsty, drink.
are sleepy, sleep.
are cold, warm yourself
are warm, take offyour coat.

paletot.

N'ai- je pas raison


Si,

vous avez parfaitement raison.

Am I not right?
Yes,

you air perfectly

right.

Practical French Course


Ai- je tort

187

Am I wrong ?

Non, vous n'avez pas

tort.

No, you are not wrong.

Avez-vous besoin de quelque


chose ?
J'ai besoin de beaucoup de choses.

Do you

De quoi avez-vous

What do you need ?


I need a hat.
I need a vest.
I need a coat.
I need trousers.
I need a new suit.
I need a pair of shoes.
I need gloves.

J'ai

besoin ?
besoin d'un chapeau.

J'ai besoin

d'un

gilet.

besoin d'un paletot.


J'ai besoin d'un pantalon.
J'ai besoin d'un nouveau costume.
J'ai besoin d'une paire de souliers.
J'ai besoin de gants.
J'ai

Avez-vous tout ce dont vous avez


besoin ?
Oui, j'ai tout ce dont j'ai besoin.

Vous avez bonne mine.


Je

me

Vous avez mauvaise mine.


Vous avez l'air malade.
Je ne

me

sens pas bien.

Qu'est-ce que vous avez?

J'ai

mal
mal
mal
mal

J'ai

un

J'ai
J'ai
J'ai

la gorge.

l'estomac.

aux dents.

mal de

tte.

J'ai la fivre.
J'ai

une

terrible nvralgie.

J'ai pris froid.

J'ai

un gros rhume.

Un rhume

de poitrine.

Un rhume de

cerveau.

Je suis enrhum.

Have you

things.

all you

Yes,

I have

You

look well.

all

need?

I need.

well.

You look bad.


You look ill.
I do not feel well.

What

is

the matter with you ?

I have a headache.
I have a sore throat.
I have a pain in the stomach.
I have a toothache.

la tte.

violent

I need many

Ifeel

sens bien.

need something f

I have a

violent headache.

I am feverish.
I have a terrible neuralgia.
I have taken cold.
I have a severe cold.

A cold in the chest.


A cold in the head.
I have a

cold.

Practical French Course

i88

Je suis enrhum du cerveau.


Ayez soin de vous-mme.

Cet

homme

J'ai piti

sourd et muet.

de la chance.
beaucoup de chance.
Je n'ai pas de chance.

I am
I am
I am

eu de la chance.
eu beaucoup de chance.
Je n'ai pas eu de chance.

I have
I have
I have

J'ai

J'ai

J'ai
J'ai

lieu

head.

He is blind.
He is a cripple.
He is deaf and dumb.

aveugle.

La runion aura

my

Thai man is to be pitied.


Ipity him.
What is the matter with him ?

lui.

Il est estropi.
Il est

cold in

Take {have) care of yourself.

est plaindre.

de

Qu'est-ce qu'il a
Il est

I have a

demain

soir.

lucky.

very lucky.
not lucky.
been lucky.

been very lucky.


not been lucky.

The meeting will take place to-mor-

row evening.

La crmonie aura

lieu ce soir.

The ceremony will take place

this

evening.

Le mariage (or la noce) aura lieu


demain matin.
Le baptme aura lieu dimanche
aprs la messe.

L'enterrement aura lieu


aprs midi au cimetire

cette

The wedding

will take place to-

morrow morning.
The christening will take place on
Sunday after mass.
The interment will take place
afternoon at

this

cemetery.

les obsques)
auront lieu demain matin.

The funeral will take place to-morrow morning.

La runion n'a pas eu lieu elle a


t renvoye dimanche pro-

The meeting did not take place ; it


was postponed until Sunday

Les funrailles (or

next.

chain.

Comment vont les affaires ?


Trs bien, en vrit.
Je n'ai pas lieu (or sujet) de

How is business ?
me

Very good, indeed.


reason for complaining.

I have no

plaindre.

Tant mieux.

So much the

better.

Practical French Course

189

IMPORTANT REMARKS.
I. The English expressions to be good tempered, to be
bad tempered, are rendered in French by avoir bon caractre, avoir mauvais caractre.
Character is, in French, renomme, rputation.

Il

He is bad tempered.

un mauvais caractre.
un trs bon caractre.

Elle a

She

Un homme de mauvaise rputation.

A
A

Une femme de mauvaise

is

good tempered.

man of bad character.


woman of bad reputation.

rputation.

Avoir,

2.

sition

to have,

followed by a noun, takes the prepo-

de before a verb

in the infinitive.

J'ai

envie de fumer.
envie de dormir.

Ifeel like smoking.


Ifeel like sleeping.

J'ai

envie d'aller au thtre.

Ifeel

J'ai

Je n'ai pas le temps de sortir.

Je n'ai pas le temps d'y aller.


J'ai

coutume de me lever de grand

matin.
J'ai l'habitude de

me

coucher trs

l'honneur de vous saluer.

3.

not the time to go {there).


in the habit of rising very

I am

in the habit

of going

I have

to

bed

not the honor of

knowing

you.

I have the honor

to salute

you.

Avoir, to have, requires the preposition before a


in the infinitive.

Qu'avez-vous faire
J'ai

I am

not the time to go out.

at a very late hour.

Je n'ai pas l'honneur de vous


connatre.

verb

I have
I have

early in the morning.

tard.

J'ai

like going to the theatre.

beaucoup

faire.

What have you

I have much

to

to do.

do ?

Practical French Course

190

/ have nothing to do.


I have absolutely nothing

Je n'ai rien faire.


Je n'ai absolument rien faire.

Qu'avez- vous dire

What have you

say?

I have

nothing to say.
You have nothing to say.

Je n'ai rien dire.


Vous n'avez rien dire.

To have something

4.

to

to do.

left is

rendered

in

French by avoir

de reste or rester (the latter used impersonally).


Combien

How much have you left ?


I have twe?ity cents left.
I have nothing left.

avez- vous de reste ?

vingt sous de reste.

J'ai

Je n'ai rien de reste.

Combien vous
Il

me

Il

ne

5.

reste-t-il

How much have you left ?


I have twenty francs left.

reste vingt francs.

me

I have

reste rien.

The age

in

French

is

nothing

left.

expressed with the verb avoir.

In speaking of old people, the adjective g, aged,


respectful than the
Quel ge avez-vous

words vieux

vingt ans.
J'ai un an de plus que vous.
J'ai

Quel ge

a-t-il

a quarante ans.

Il

a trois ans de plus que moi.

J'aurai trente ans demain.

aura quinze ans


prochain.

Mon

Ma

le

premier mai

pre est trs g.

Ma mre
fte

(f.),

is

more

old.

How old are you ?


I am twenty years old.
I am one year older than you.
How old is he ?

Il

Il

(m.), vieille

est trs ge.

de naissance.

He is forty.
He is three years older than
I shall be

He

I.

thirty to-morrow.

will be fifteen on the first of


May next.

My father is very old.


My mother is very old.
My birthday.

Practical,

French

Course;

191

IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS
FORMED WITH THE VERB Avoir.
/ have

Je n'ai pas de quoi.

not the means.


has the means to satisfy his

Il

a de quoi satisfaire ses gots.

He

Il

n'y a pas de quoi.

Don't mention
ing to it.)

tastes.

J'ai

beau

I try

faire.

it.

{There

is

noth-

in vain.

You speak in vain.


You cry in vain.
You would cry in vain.

Vous avez beau dire.


Vous avez beau pleurer.
Vous auriez beau pleurer.

EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION


1.

He

2.

is

was

3-

She

4-

He

5-

6.
7-

8.
9-

hungry.

thirsty.

2.

is

sleepy.

is right.

(*)

What
What

He
He
He

does he need ?
does she need?
looks well.
looks sick.
has a headache.

She

He

has hunger.

3.

had thirst.
She has sleep.

4.

He

5.

6.
7.

8.
9.

has reason.

Of what has he need ?


Of what has she need ?
He has good appearance.

He
He

has the air sick.


has pain in the ( la) head.
She has the fever.
You have (some) luck.

feverish.

10.

11

13-

You are lucky.


You are not lucky.
You have been lucky.

13.

You have no luck.


You have had (some)

14.

At what time will the meeting

14.

At what hour the meeting

10.
11.

12.

is

take place
16.

That boy
That girl

17.

How

15.

old

is

is

is

12.

it

bad tempered.
good tempered.
your boy?

15.
16.

17.

(she) take place

luck.
will

That boy has a bad temper.


That girl has a good temper.
What age has your boy?

(*) In speaking of things, right and wrong are translated idiomatically


by bon, mauvais, correct, bien, mal, juste, convenable. Ex.: C'est

bien, c'est juste, c'est mal, ce n'est pas bien.

We also say idiomatically


L'homme

qu'il faut.

L'endroit d'une toffe.

L'envers d'une toffe

The right man.


The right side of (dry) goods
The wrong side of (dry) goods.

Practical French Course)

192

VINGT-NEUVIME LEON

LESSON XXIX.
REGULAR VERBS.
I.

General

Notions.

French three regular conjugations.


Each conjugation is distinguished by the termination of

There are

in

the verb in the infinitive.

The ist conjugation has the infinitive ending in er, as parler, to speak.
The 2d conjugation has the infinitive ending in ir, as finir, to finish.
The 3d conjugation has the infinitive ending in re, as vendre, to sell.

Two

parts

must be distinguished

in the

French verbs

the radical or essential part, ordinarily invariable, and the


termination or accidental part, generally variable.

The

radical

is

what remains of a verb in the


has been cut ofT.
Thus

after its termination

The
The
The

radical of the verb parler

is pari.

radical of the verb finir

is fin.

radical of the verb

infinitive,

vendre

is

vend.

IMPORTANT REMARK.
For the purpose of simplification, in our table of conjusome tenses and persons of the verb finir are
formed by prefixing finiss, from the present participle
gations,

finissant, finishing.

Practical French Course

193

All verbs of the second conjugation are formed in the

same way, some tenses being formed from the infinitive,


and some from the present participle, as will be readily
seen from the table.

OBSERVATION
Old grammars contain a fourth conjugation comprising
But inasoir, as recevoir, to receive.
much as these verbs are only five in number, namely:

the verbs ending in

apercevoir;

perceive

to

dcevoir,

owe

to deceive

we have

concevoir,

followed the ex-

to conceive

ample

set

by modern grammarians, and placed

among

the irregular verbs.

II.

devoir, to

them

Hints for Conjugating the Regular Verbs.


HOW TO FORM THE

(1.)

The

imperfect

is

IMPERFECT.

formed by adding

to the radical of the

verb the terminations of the imperfect of the verb avoir;


viz.

ais,

ait,

ions,

HOW TO FORM THE

(2.)

The

ais,

simplest

way

iez,

aient.

FUTURE.

of forming the future

is

to

verb in the infinitive the terminations of the


present of the verb avoir;

ai,

viz.

as, ons,
a,

ez,

ont.

add

to the

indicative

practical French Course

194

HOW TO FORM THE

(3.)

The

simplest

way

CONDITIONAL.

of forming the conditional

is

to

add

to

the verb in the infinitive the terminations of the imperfect


tense of the verb avoir

ais,

(4.)

ais,

viz.

ait,

ions,

HOW TO FORM THE

iez,

aient.

FIRST AND

SECOND

PERSONS OF THE IMPERATIVE.


The
are the

first

and second persons,

same

plural, of the imperative

as the corresponding persons of the indicative

present, minus the personal pronouns

Nous
Vous

The second

we speak.
you speak.

parlons,

Parlons, let us speak.

parlez,

Parlez, speak.

person, singular, of the imperative

is

the

same

as the corresponding person of the indicative present, minus

the personal pronoun


Je parle,

/ speak.

Parle, speak (thou).

REMARK,
The

following table

student can

see at a

has

been so arranged that the

glance how,

in fact, the three regular

conjugations may be reduced into one, the terminations


being perfectly alike in most tenses and persons.

Practical French Course


III.

Conjugation

of the

195

Regular Verbs.

MODEL VERBS.
Second Conjugation.

First Conjugation.

Third Conjugation.

INFINITIF PRESENT.
Pari er, to speak,

Fin

ir, to

finish.

Vend

re, to sell.

Vqnd

ant, selling.

Vend

u, sold.

PARTICIPE PRESENT.
Pari ant, speaking.

Finiss ant, finishing.

PARTICIPE PASSE.
Fin

Pari , spoken

i,

finished.

[NDICATIF PRSENT
I finish

I speak,
I am speaking.

/ sell,

/ am finishing

pari e.

Je

fin is.

Je

I am
Je

vend

Tu

es.

Tu

is.

Tu

Il

e.

Il

it.

Il

ons.
ez.

Nous
Vous

ent.

Ils

Nous
Vous
Ils

(*)

ons.
ez.
ent.
Ent

Nous
Vous
Ils

(*)

is silent

when

it

finiss

marks the

selling.

s.
s.

ons.
ez.
ent.

third person plural of a verb.

However, if the next word begins with a vowel, the


and carried over.

final t is

sounded

Practical French Course

196

IMPARFAIT.
/ was

I was finishing, or

speaking, or

used

used

to speak.

I was

selling,

used

to finish.

vend

pari ais.

Je finiss ais.

Je

Tu

ais.

Tu ais.

Tu

ais.

11

ait

11

11

ait.

ions.
iez.

Nous
Vous

aient (ay).

Ils

Je

Nous
Vous
Ils

ait.

ions.
iez.
aient

Nous
Vous
(ay).

Ils

or

to sell.

ais.

ions.
iez.
aient

(ay).-

PASSE DEFINI.
This tense

is

only narrative, and therefore not used

in

ordinary conversation.

I spoke, or

Ifinished, or

did speak.

did finish.

pari

ai.

Je

Tu

as.

Tu

Il

a.

11

Je

Nous
Vous
Ils

mes (ahm).
tes (aht).
rent
(air).

fin is.
is.

it.

Nous
Vous
Ils

mes (eem).
tes (eet).
irent (eer).

sold, or
did sell.

Je vend

is.

Tu

is.

11

it.

Nous
Vous
Ils

mes (eem)
tes (eet).
irent (eer).

FUTUR.
/ shall, or

will speak.

I shall, or im

'Il

finish.

I shall, or

Je parler

ai.

Je

Je vendr

ai.

Tu

as.

Tu

as.

Tu

as.

Il

a.

Il

a.

Il

a.

Nous
Vous
Us

ons.
ez.
ont.

Nous
Vous
Us

finir ai.

ons.
ez.
ont.

Nous
Vous

Us

will

ons.
ez.
ont.

sell.

Practical Frknch Course

197

CONDITIONNEL.
I would, or
should speak.

I would, or
should finish.

I would, or
should

sell.

Je vendr ais.

Je parler ais.

Je

Tu

ais.

Tu

ais.

Tu

ais.

Il

ait.

Il

ait.

Il

ait.

ions.

Nous
Vous

ions.

iez.

iez.

Nous
Vous

aient (ay).

Ils

aient (ay).

Ils

Nous
Vous
Ils

finir ais.

ions.

iez.

aient (ay).

SUBJONCTIF PRESENT.
That I may speak.

Que
Que

es.

Que
Que

e.

Qu'il

je pari e.

tu

Qu'il

Que nous
Que vous
Qu'ils

That I may finish.

ions.
iez.
ent.

Que nous
Que vous
Qu'ils

I may

sell.

es.

Que je vend
Que tu

es.

e.

Qu'il

e.

je finiss e.

tu

That

ions.
iez.
ent.

Que nous
Que vous
Qu'ils

e.

ions.
iez.

ent.

IMPARFAIT DU SUBJONCTIF.
This tense

is

always formed from the past

That I might speak.

Que
Que

je

Qu'il

Que nous
Que vous
Qu'ils

asses.

Que
Que

t.

Qu'il

pari asse.

tu

That I might finish.

assions.
assiez.
assent.
(as)

je

Qu'ils

That I might

isses.

Que
Que

t.

Qu'il

issions.

issiez.

Que nous
Que vous

issent.

Qu'ils

fin isse.

tu

Que nous
Que vous

definite.

(iss)

je

vend

sell.

isse.

isses

tu

t.

Issions.

issiez.

issent
(iss)

Practical French Course

: 98

IMPRATIF.
Pari

e,

speak {thou)

is,
finish (s.)
Finiss ez, finish {pi.)
Finiss ons,let us finish

IV.

The compound
English,

Vend
Vend
Vend

Fin

Pari ez, speak {you).


Pari ons, let us speak.

Compound

s,

sell {s.)

ez,

sell {pi.)

ons,

let

us

sell.

Tenses,

tenses of active verbs are formed, as in

by combining the past

participle with the

dif-

ferent tenses (simple) of the verb avoir, to have.

PASS INDFINI.
This tense being the most used

(it

always replaces the

past definite in ordinary conversation),


it

in full, but will give

only the

first

we

will conjugate

person singular of the

other tenses, as from that the other persons can easily be

formed.
J'ai parl (fini

Tu

/ have spoken

ou vendu).

{finished or sold).

Thou hast spoken.

as parl.

a parl.

He has spoken.

Elle a parl.

She has spoken.

Nous avons parl.


Vous avez parl.

You have

ont parl.
Elles ont parl.

They {m.) have spoken.


They {/.) have spoken.

Il

We have spoken.

Ils

spoken.

PLUS-QUE-PARFAIT.
J'avais parl, etc.

I had spoken or been

speaking.

Practical French

Course

199

PASS ANTRIEUR.
J'eus parl, etc.

I had spoken.

FUTUR ANTERIEUR.
J'aurai parl, etc.

I shall have

CONDITIONNEL PASSE.
J'aurais parl, etc.

/ would have

spoken.

SUBJONCTIF PASS.
Que

j'aie parl, etc.

PIvUS-QUE- PARFAIT

Que

j'eusse parl, etc.

That I may have spoken.

DU SUBJONCTIF.
That

I might have spoken.

INFINITIF PASSE.
Avoir parl.

To have spoken.

PARTICIPE COMPOSE.
Ayant

parl.

Having

spoken.

EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION


FRENCH CONSTRUCTION.

ENGLISH CONSTRUCTION.

1.

Do

2.

Does he speak French ?

2.

3.

Does she speak English ?

3.

speak well?

1.

Is it that I speak well ?


Speaks he French ? (or)
Is it that he speaks French
Speaks she English ? (or)

Is

it

that she speaks English

Practical French Course


4.

Do we speak ?

4.

Speak we ?
Is it that

5.

Do they speak

(m.)

5.

Speak they ?
Is it that

6.

Did

7.

Didst thou speak

8.

Did he speak

9.

Did we

speak

6.

7.

8.

finish

9.

10.

Did she

11.

Did they

12.

do not speak.

12.

did not speak.

13.

finish

10.

(or)

we speak ?

Have

11.

spoken ? (or)
Is it that I have spoken ?
Hast thou spoken ? (or)
Is it that thou hast spoken
Has he spoken ? (or)
Is it that he has spoken ?
I

Have we

finished

Is it that

we have

Has she

finished

Is it that she
sell

(or)

they speak

Have they

(or)

finished

13.

She did not

15.

We

16.

They

17.

Shall I ever speak French?

sell.

15.

did not speak.

19.

Do you like French?


Do you speak to me?

20.

18.

14.

did not finish.

16.
17.

18.
19.

speak to you.

20.

23.

To whom are you speaking ?


To whom did you speak ?
To whom were you speaking ?

24.

At what time did you

21.

22.

finish

21.
22.

23.

24.

has finished ?

sold? (or)

have sold?
speak not.
I have not spoken.
She has not sold.
We have not finished.
They have not spoken.
Shall speak I ever French ?
Like you the French?
(To) me speak you ?
I (to) you speak.
To whom speak you ?
To whom have you spoken ?
To whom spoke you?
At what hour have you
I

finished
25.

26.
27.
28.

29.

Did she speak to you ?


She spoke to me.
I spoke to her.
What are you selling ?
What does he sell ?

30. I

am

through.

(To) you has she spoken


26. She to me has spoken.
25.

her have spoken.

27.

I to

28.

What sell you ?


What sells he?

29.

(or)

Is it that they

14.

30. I

have

ms&v

finished.

Practical French Course

20I

TRENTIEME LEON,

LESSON XXX.
I.

The

Verbs

of the First Conjugation.

following verbs ending in er belong to the

first

conjugation and therefore must be conjugated after the

model verb

parler.

Those governing a preposition before another verb


the infinitive are followed by that preposition

in

Abandonner,

to

Acheter.
Adresser,
Agacer,
Agrer,

to buy.

abandon.

Appeler,

to call.

Appliquer,

to apply.

to address.

Arrter,

to irritate.

Arriver

to stop, to arrest.
(),

to accept.

to arrive,

or

to succeed.

Aimer,

to like

Arroser,

to sprinkle.

Ajouter,

to add.

Atteler,

to hitch

Allumer,

to light.

Attnuer,

to extenuate.

Amener,

to

Attirer,

to attract.

Apporter,

to

Avaler

to

Bouder,
Bouger,

to pout, to sulk.

or to love.

bring {people.)
bring ( things.)
\

up a

swallow.

Badiner,

to trifle, to joke.

Bailler,

to yawn, to

Balayer,

to sweep.

Brider,

to bridle.

gape.

horse.

to stir, to budge.

Baiser,

to kiss.

Briser,

to break (to pieces).

Baisser,

to lower.

Broder,

to embroider.

Bavarder,

to prattle, to gossip

Broncher,

to stumble, to trip.

Bercer,

to rock, to lull.

Brosser,

to brush.

Boucher,

to

Brler,

to burn.

cork

'pottles).

Practical French Course

202

Cacher,
Cacheter,

to hide, to conceal.

Coller,

to paste.

to seal up.

to order.

Cajoler,

to cajole.

Commander (de),
Commencer (),

to begin.

Caresser,

to caress.

Compter,

to count, or

Casser,

to break.

Cesser (de),
Chanter,

to cease.

to implore.

to sing.

Conjurer (de),
Continuer (),

Chtier,

to chastise.

Copier,

to copy.

Chercher,

to look for

Couper,
Cracher,

to cut.

to spit.

Crier,

to cry out, to yell.

to intend.

',

or to try.
Cirer,

to

black {boots).

to continue.

Danser,

to dance.

Dieter,

to dictate.

Dater,

to date.

to

Dboucher,

to

Diminuer,
Discontinuer

Dcacheter,
Dcider,
Dchirer,

to unseal {letters).

Discuter,

to discuss.

to decide.

Distinguer,

to distinguish.

to tear.

Dompter,

Demander

uncork

{bottles).

diminish.

(de), to discontinue

to tame, or
to subdue.

(), to ask.

Demeurer,

to live, to dwell.

Dpenser,

to

Dsirer,

to wish, to desire.

Deviner,

to guess.

Donner

spend (money).

i
j

to

(),

give.

Dorer,

to gild.

Douter,
Durer,

to doubt.
to last.

Ecouter,

to listen.

Encadrer,

to frame {a picture).

Ecraser,

to crush.

to annoy.

Effacer,

to rub out, to efface.

Effleurer,

to

Ennuyer,
Enseigner
Envoyer,

Effrayer,

to frighten.

Epeler,

to spell.

Egarer,

to mislay.

Epouser,

to

Egratigner,

to scratch, to claw.

Epousseter,

to dust.

Embrasser,

to emb-ace.
to take

Essayer (de),
Essuyer,

to try, to

Emmener,
Empeser,

Employer (),

graze.

away

() to teach.

to send.

to

marry,

to espouse.

attempt.

wipe.

{people or animals ).

Estropier,

to cripple.

to starch.

Etouffer,

to choke.

to employ.

away

Emporter,

to carry

Emprunter,

to borrow.

{things).

Etrangler,

to strangle.

Eviter (de),
Exciter (),
Exiger,

to avoid.
to excite.

to exact.

Practical French Course

Fatiguer,

to tire.

Faufiler,

to baste.

Feuilleter,

to

Fermer,

to close tip, to shut.

Fortifier,

203

to fortify,

or

to strengthen.

turn over {pages).

Flageller,

to cowhide.

to whip.
to knock.
Frapper,
Frquenter to frequent.

Flner,

to idle, to lounge.

Friser,

Flatter,

to flatter.

Frissonner, to shiver.

Fouetter,

Forcer (de), to force.


Former,
to form.
Formuler,
to formulate.

to curl.

Fumer,

to

Fusiller,

to shoot,

smoke.

{to

execute militarily).

0.

Gager,

Gagner

(),

to

lay a wager.

Goter,

to taste.

to

gain, to win.

Graisser,

to

grease.

Garder,

to keep.

Gratter,

to scratch.

Gaspiller,

to waste, to squander.

Glisser,

to slip.

Gronder,
Guider,

to

to scold.

guide.

Habiller,

to clothe.

Hriter,

to inherit.

Habiter,

to inhabit.

Hsiter ()
Honorer,

to hesitate.

Huiler,

to oil.

Harnacher, to harness.
to raise, to lift up.
Hausser,

to honor.

Imaginer,

to conceive.

Insinuer,

to insinuate.

Imiter,

to imitate.

Insister,

to insist.

Importer,

to import.

Insulter,

to insult.

Imprimer,

to print.

Intresser,

to interest.

Incorporer, to incorporate.

Indiquer,

to indicate.

Informer,

to

inform.

Jeter,

to

throw.

Jouer,

to

Interroger,

to interrogate.

Inviter,

to invite.

Inventer,

to invent.

Juger,
Jurer (de),

to

play.

Labourer,

to plough.

fcher,

to let go, to release.

judge.

to swear.

L
I

Lever,

to arise.

Librer,

to liberate.

Practical French Course

204
Laisser,

to leave, to let.

Laver,

to

Lecher,

to lick.

wash.

Lier,

to tie up.

Livrer,

to deliver.

Lorgner,

to ogle.

M
Mcher,
to masticate.
Manuvrer, to maneuver.
Manger,
to eat.

Marquer,

to

mark.

Mler,

to

mix

Mener,

to lead, to take to.

Manier,

to handle.

Mriter (de), to deserve.

Manifester,

to manifest.

Modifier,

to

Manquer,

to miss, to fail.

to

Marteler,

to

Monter,
Montrer,

Maugrer

to curse

Marcher,

to

walk.

Murmurer,

Nager,

to

swim,

Notifier,

to notify.

Ngliger,

to neglect,

Noter,

to note.

hammer.
and swear

to

Mouiller,

up.

modify.
go up, to mount.
show.

to wet, to moisten.
to

murmur, to grumble.

Ngocier,

to negotiate,

Nommer,

to

Nier,

to deny,

to knot.

Niveler,

to level.

Nouer,
Noyer,

name,

to iiominate.

drown.

to

o
Objecter,

to object.

Obliger ( or de),
Observer,

to oblige.

Opposer,
Ordonner, (de),

to order.

to observe.

Oser,

to dare, to venture.

Offenser,

to offend.

Oter,

to

Oprer,

to operate.

Oublier (de),

to forget.

{wounds).

to oppose.

take

off.

Panser,

to dress

Plaisanter,

to jest, to joke.

Pardonner,

to forgive.

Pleurer,

to

Parier (de),

to bet.

Plier,

tofold.

Passer,

to pass, to

spend

(time).

ay,

to weep.

Porter,

to carry, to wear.

Poser,

to place.

own

Possder,

to possess, to

Prter,

to lend, to loan.

to think.

Prier (de),

to

to sin.

Priver,

to deprive.

to fish.

Profiter,

to profit.

Prononcer,

to

Patiner,

to skate.

Payer (pour),
Penser ()

to pay (to

Pcher,
Pcher,
Peser

to

weigh.

orfor).

pray.

pronounce.

Practical Frknch Course

money

Quter,

to collect

Quereller,

to quarrel.

(alms).

205

Questionner,

to question.

Quitter,

to quit, to leave.

Ramasser,

to

pick up.

Regretter (de),

Ramer,
Ramener,
Ramper,

to

row

Rejeter,

to reject.

to

bring back (people).

(boat).

to regret.

Remuer,

to stir

to crawl.

Rentrer,

to re-enter.

Rappeler,
Rapporter,
Raser,

to recall.

to repeat.

to shave.

Renvoyer,
Rpter,
Reprocher,

Rciter,

to recite.

Rester,

to

remain, to

Reculer,

to fall back, to recoil.

Retirer,

to

withdraw, or

Redouter,
Refuser (de)
Regarder,

to

to

draw (money).

to

bring back (things).

dread.

Retourner,
Rver,

to refuse.
to

look

at.

to

up.

send back.

to reproach.

to return.
to

stay.

dream.

Saigner,

to bleed.

Saler,

to salt.

Simer,
Soigner,

Saluer,

to salute.

Songer

Sauter,

to jump.

Sonner,

to

Scier,

to

Soulever,

to lift

Secouer,

saw.
to shake up.

Soupirer,

to sigh.

Semer,

to sow.

Suer,

to sweat.

Sparer,

to separate.

Supposer,

to suppose.

Serrer,

to squeeze, to tighten.

Surveiller,

to look after, to

Taquiner,

to tease.

Tirer,

to

pull

(),

Transpirer,

to whistle.

to nurse.
to think.

ring (the
up.

to

perspire.

to shoot.

Travailler (), to work.


Traverser,
to cross.

to turn.

Trembler (de)

(the trigger)

Tourner,
Tousser,

to

Torturer,

to torture.

Tourmenter

to

torment.

Tracasser,

to

annoy.

cough.

bell).

to tremble.

Tricher,

to cheat.

Tromper,

to deceive.

Trouver,
Tuer,

to find.
to kill.

watch

Practical French Course

2o6

V
aim.

watch, to sit up.


to avenge.

Viser,

to

Visiter,

to visit.

Verser,

to pour, to

Voler,

to fly,

Vider,

to

Voyager,

to travel.

Veiller,

to

Venger,

II.

shed

(tears).

empty.

Remarks

on the Spelling

of

or to

Some Verbs

steal.

of the First

Conjugation.

Verbs ending

in the infinitive in cer, as

avancer, take

a cedilla under the before the vowels a, o:


Il

2.

avana, he advanced ; nous avanons, we advance.

Verbs ending

the letter
Il

3.
1

and

g, to

in ger, as

soften

it,

voyagea, he travelled ; nous voyageons, we travel.

The verbs

appeler, to call ; jeter, to throw ; double the

t before a

mute

Je jette, I throw.
Je jetterai, I shall throw.

I call ;
J'appellerai, I shall call ;

J'appelle,

4.

voyager, take a mute e after

before a and o

Verbs ending in yer, as envoyer, to send ; essayer,


change the letter y into i before a mute e
J'envoie, I send ; J'essaierai, I shall try.

to try ;

5.

Verbs having a mute

e in

the penultimate syllable

of the infinitive take a grave accent over that e before a


syllable containing a

Amener,

to

bring

mute

J'amne,

I bring ;

J'amnerai,

I shall bring.

Practical Frknch Course;

207

Verbs having before the final syllable of the infinchange the acute accent into a grave accent before a
syllable beginning with a mute e:
6.

itive

Esprer, to hope ; J'espre,

III.

Verbs

I hope ;

of the

J'esprerai,

I shall hope.

Second Conjugation.

The following verbs ending

belong to the second


conjugation, and therefore they must be conjugated after
the model verb finir:
in ir

Jouir (de),
Danguir,

to

enjoy or possess.

to

languish.

Maigrir,

to get thin.

to act, to do.

Obir,

to obey.

to enlarge.

Plir,

to

Punir,

to punish.

Abolir,

to abolish.

Accomplir,

to accomplish.

Assortir,

to sort, to

Agir,

Agrandir,
Avertir,

to

warn,

match.

inform

to

of.

become pale.

grow young again.

Btir,

to build.

Rajeunir,

to

Chrir,

to cherish.

Rflchir,

to reflect, to think.

Choisir,

to choose.

Compatir,

to

sympathise with.

Remplir,

to replenish, to fulfill.

Russir,

to succeed.

Dfinir,

to define.

Rtir,

to roast.

Dmolir,

to demolish.

Rougir,

to blush.

Dsobir,

to disobey.

Salir,

to soil, to stain.

Emplir,
Gmir,
Grandir,

to fill up.

Trahir,

to betray.

to

groan,

Unir,

to unite.

to

grow,

Grossir,

to

grow

Gurir,

to cure, to recover.

to
to

moan.

grow

stout.

IV. Verbs

The

tall.

Vernir,

to varnish.

Vieillir,

to

grow

Vomir,

to

vomit.

old.

of the Third Conjugation.

following verbs ending in re belong to the third

conjugation, and therefore must be conjugated after the

model verb vendre

Practical French Course

208
Attendre,

Mordre,
Pendre,

to

Perdre,

to lose.

to correspond.

Prtendre,

to pretend.

to corrupt.

Rpandre,
Rpondre,
Revendre,
Rendre,
Tendre,
Tondre,

to spread, to spill.

to shear.

Tordre,

to twist, to wring.

to

wait for, or

to expect.

Confondre,
Correspondre
Corrompre,
Dfendre,
Descendre,
Etendre.
Entendre,
Fendre,
Fondre,

to
,

confound.

to defend, to forbid.
to descend.
to spread, to

expand.

to hear.
to split.

to

melt down.

to bite.

to

hang.

answer.

to sell again.

to render, to give back


to stretch.

V.-Exercises for Translation.

i.

Do you

like

i.

Lit.

Like you

that you like


2.
3-

45-

6.
7-

8.
9-

io.
ii.

12.

Does he like ?
Does she like ?

you find
he buy?
she sing

5-

Is

6.

Sing you ?
Dance you
Play you?

3-

Do they like ?
Do I pronounce
Do you sing ?
Do you dance ?
Do you play ?
Did
Did
Did
Did

4-

Likes he ?
Likes she ?
Like they ?

2.

well?

7-

8.

9-

IO.

ii.

they win

12.

it

( or,

?
?

that I pronounce well

Have you found ?


Has he bought ?
Has she sung ?
Have they won ?

II.

1.

He

2.

She

3.
4.
5.

6.

is

building a

is

growing

new

tall.

punish you.
punish you.
She would punish me.
Why do you blush?
I shall

He

will

theatre.

He

is it

builds a

new

theatre.

She grows (tall).


I you shall punish.
He you will punish.
She me would punish.
Why blush you?

Practical French Course

Do not blush.
Which do you choose ?
Which did you choose ?

7.

8.

9-

Blush not.

Which
Which

enjoy good health.


has cured me.

10.

n.

He

12.

my

have done

209

enjoy of a good health.

He me has

duty.

you?
you chosen?

(m.s.) choose

(f.s.)have

have

cured.

fulfilled

mon

devoi?\

III.

What

1.

are you waiting for

5.

Did you wait for me ?


Do you hear ?
Do you hear it?
Did you not hear me ?

6.

7.

How much

8.

I shall

2.

3.

4.

9.

10.
11.

12.

did you lose

What
Come down

What

is it that you wait (for)?


have you waited (for) ?
Hear you ?
It hear you ?
Me have you not heard ?
I you it forbid.
How much have you lost ?
I you shall defend.
What has he answered ?
Descend
The first book is he finished ?
Yes, he is finished.

Me

forbid you.

defend you.
did he answer

the first book finished


Yes, it is.
Is

MAXIMES ET REFLEXIONS.
1.

du

I^a

corps,

conscience est la voix de l'me; les passions sont la voix


(J. J.

Rousseau)

conscience est un juge plac dans l'intrieur de notre tre.

2.

L,a

3.

I/es conseils

(Sgur)
agrables sont rarement des conseils utiles.

(Massillon)

Ceux qui donnent des conseils sans les accompagner d'exemples,


ressemblent ces poteaux de la campagne qui indiquent les chemins
4.

sans les parcourir.

(Rivarol)

sommes loigns de notre pays, que nous


sentons surtout l'instinct qui nous y attache. (Chateatibriand)
Ceux qui gouvernent sont comme les corps clestes qui ont
6.
beaucoup d'clat et n'ont point de repos.
7.
L,a nature nous a donn deux oreilles et une bouche, afin que
nous coutions beaucoup et que nous parlions peu.
5.

C'est lorsque nous

Practical French Course

210

TRENTE ET UNIEME LEON.


LESSON XXXI.
The Use

THE

I.

verb preceded

of the Tenses.

INFINITIVE.

by another verb is put in the


two auxiliaries avoir and

infinitive present (except the


tre).

Je vais prendre un bain.


Voulez- vous sortir avec moi ?
Je ne peux pas voir.
Je ne

Je

peux pas y

parler,

dsire

comprendre,

crire le franais.

lire

et

2.

The

which

aller.

infinitive

is

I am going to

take a bath.

Will you go out with me ?

I cannot see.
I cannot go there.
I desire to

speak, understand, read

and write the French language.

used in French after certain verbs,

are, in English, joined to other verbs

by the con-

junction and.
Allez chercher le mdecin.
Allez voir un docteur.
Allez me chercher un
Venez me voir.

journal.

Go and bring the physician.


Go and see a doctor.
Go and get me a newspaper.
Come and see me.

Practical French Course


3.

Some

verbs,

which practice

will teach,

211

govern other

verbs in the infinitive with the preposition or de.


J'aime parler franais.
Je

commence comprendre.

Je n'ai rien faire.

J'ai

peur de vous dranger.

Je regrette de vous dranger.


J'ai oubli de prendre mon livre.
J'ai oubli

4.

de l'apporter.

The French

/ like to speak French.


I begin to understand.
I have nothing to do.
I am afraid to disturb you.
I regret to disturb you.
I have forgotten to take my
I forgot to bring it.

book,

prepositions (except en, in) do not gov-

ern the present participle as in English, but the infinitive


present.
Without going out (to go out).
Without running
(to run).
Without laughing (to laugh).
Without joking
(to joke).
Before commencing (to begin).
Before eating
(to eat).
Before drinking
(to drink).
Before going (to go) to bed.
After having (to have) dined.

Sans sortir.
Sans courir.
Sans rire.
Sans plaisanter.
Avant de commencer.
Avant de manger.
Avant de boire.
Avant d'aller au lit.
Aprs avoir dn.

5.

The

infinitive of a verb

tively, as in

is

sometimes used substan-

the following examples

Le lever du soleil.
Le coucher du soleil.
Au lever du soleil.
Le boire, le manger et
sont ncessaires.

The sunrise.
The sunset.

At
le

dormir

sunrise.

Drinking, eating and sleeping are


necessary.

Practical French Course

212

PRACTICE.
Je ne sais que dire.

/ do

Je ne sais que faire.

I do not know what to do.


I do not know what to eat.
I do not know what to drink,
I do not know what to answer,
I do not know what to think.

Je ne sais que

manger.

Je ne sais que boire.


Je ne sais que rpondre.
Je ne sais que penser.
Je ne sais qu'acheter.

Je ne sais lequel choisir.


Je ne sais o aller.
Je ne sais comment faire.

not

know what

to say.

I do

not

what

I do
I do

not

which to choose,
where to go.

know
know
not know
I do not know

what

to buy.

to do.

Je ne puis y aller.
Je ne puis le dire.
Je ne saurais vous le dire, (id.)

1 cannot go

Je n'ose le dire.
Je n'ose le faire.

I dare
I dare

Je ne veux pas le savoir.


Je ne veux pas vous dranger.

I do not want to know it.


I do not want to disturb you.

Voulez- vous prendre un verre


avec moi ?
Trs volontiers.

Will you have (take a glass) a


drink with me ?
Very willingly.

Que

dsirez-vous prendre ?

there.

I cannot say it.


I could not tell you.

What

not say
not do

it.

it.

will you have ?


to take ?)

What

you wish

No

matter what.
The same as you.

N'importe quoi.
Le mme que vous.
Voulez- vous

Avec

fumer un

cigare?

plaisir.

Will you smoke a cigar?


With pleasure.

Voulez-vous me donner du feu,


s'il vous plat?
Certainement.
Merci beaucoup.
De rien, monsieur.

Not

Avez- vous jamais t en Europe

Have you ever

Will you please give


{some fire) ?

me a

light

Certainly.

Thank you very much.


at

all, sir.

been to

Europe ?

PRACTICAI,

Jamais

FRKNCH COURSE

213

Never ; but I hope

mais j'espre y aller

to

go

there

soon.

bientt.

Quand comptez- vous

partir ?

Je compte partir le mois prochain.

When do you expect to leave ?


I expect to leave next month.
When

Quand comptez-vous tre de

do you expect to be back f

retour ?

Je compte tre de retour New


York vers la fin du mois de sep-

tembre ou au commencement

I expect

to be

back in

New

York

by the end of September or the

beginning of October.

d'octobre.

Voulez-vous

sortir et faire une

promenade avec moi ?

with

Je le voudrais, mais je ne puis


j'attends du monde.

Qu'avez- vous faire ?

beaucoup faire.
Je n'ai rien faire.
Je n'ai absolument rien

J'ai

faire.

go
me ?

Will you

I should

out

like to

and take a walk


y

I cannot ; 1

but

expect company.

What have you to do ?


I have much to do.
I have nothing to do.
I have absolutely nothing to

Qu'est-ce que vous avez dire?


Je n'ai rien dire.

What have you to say ?


I have nothing to say.

Parlez- vous franais

Do you speak French ?


I am beginning to speak.

Je

commence

parler.

Aimez- vous parler franais ?

Do you

Oui, je l'aime beaucoup.

Yes,

Qui avez-vous vu ?
vu mon ami.
Il m'a invit djeuner.

J'ai

speak French ?
very much.

like to

I like

it

Whom

have you seen

I have

seen

my friend.

He has invited me

vu mes amis.
m'ont invit dner avec eux.

do.

to lunch.

my friends.

J'ai

I have

Ils

They have invited me

seen

to

dine with

them.

Pourquoi ne venez-vous pas


voir plus souvent ?

me

Why

do you not come

oftener ?

to see

me

Practical French Course

214

I am afraid to

peur de vous dranger.

J'ai

Have you brought your book?


I have forgotten to bring it.

Avez- vous apport votre livre ?


J'ai oubli

de l'apporter.

I beg you

Je vous prie de m' excuser.


Il

Il
Il

Il

me
me
me
me

tarde de vous voir.

to

excuse me.

I long to see you.


I long to dine.
I long to go to bed.
I long to be able to speak French

(*)

tarde de dner.
tarde d'aller au

disturb you.

lit.

tarde de pouvoir parler

franais.

me tardait de fumer.
me tardera de vous voir.

Il
Il

I was longingfor a smoke.


I shall be anxious to see you.

envie de dormir.

J'ai

Je n'ai pas envie de sortir.


J'ai intention d'aller en Europe.

Ifeel like sleeping.


I do not feel like going

I intend to go

out.

Je n'ai pas le plaisir de le


connatre.

Europe.
I have not the honor of knowing
you.
I have not the pleasure of knowing him.

Que me conseillez -vous de faire ?


Je vous conseille d'attendre.

What do you advise me


I advise you to wait.

Je suis oblig de vous quitter.


Je suis oblig de partir sur-le-

I am
I am

Je n'ai pas l'honneur de vous


connatre.

to

to do ?

obliged to leave you.


obliged to leave at once.

champ.
(*)

The personal pronoun

il

in "il

me

tarde "

means

it,

the verb be-

ing used impersonally.

EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION.


FRENCH CONSTRUCTION.

ENGLISH CONSTRUCTION.
1.

Has your husband ever been

2.

Europe ?
Never but he hopes
;

soon.

to

to

1.

go there

2.

Your husband, has he ever been


in Europe ?
Never but he hopes there
go soon.
;

to

Practical French Course


3.

4.

5.

6.

When

When

does he expect to leave ?


Does your brother like to
speak French?
Does not your sister begin to
speak French ?
Has your brother brought his
book?

Your

expects he to leave?

brother, likes he () to

speak French ?

Your

sister,

begins she not ()

French ?
Your brother, has he brought
his book ?
to speak

7.

He

8.

beg you to excuse him.

9.

am

has forgotten to bring

215

He

it.

very glad to see you.


be very glad to see him.

10.

I shall

11.

should be very glad to speak


French.
I am very sorry to disturb

has forgotten of

it

to bring.

you beg of him to excuse.


am very happy of you to see.
shall be very happy of him to
see.

12.

should be very happy of to


speak French.
am very sorry of you to

am

you.
13.

am

disturb.

very

happy

know

to

14.

15.

16.
17.

very happy of you to

know.

you.
I am obliged to go home.
Does your brother speak
French ?
He commences to speak.
Will you please give me a glass

of cold water

am

Your

obliged of to go chez moi.


brother, speaks he

French ?

He commences

() to speak.

Will you, if you please (to) me


to give a glass of water

fresh ?
18.

Will you have the kindness to


give me a glass of ice water ?

Will you

(to)

have the good-

ness of (to)

me

to give a

glass of water iced


19.

Come and

20.

I shall

21.

22.

see us.

go and see you.

long to eat.
long to drink.

Aucun chemin de

Come

20.

I shall

21.

me tarde of to eat.
// me tarde of to drink.

22.

MEMORY
fleurs

Qui veut parler sur

tout,

19.

us to see.

go

(j'irai)

you

to see.

77

EXERCISE.

ne conduit la gloire. (La Fontaine)


souvent parle au hasard. {Andrieux)

translation:

No

flowery path leads to glory.

Who
random.

(he who) wishes to speak on every subject, speaks often at

Practical French Course

216

TRENTE-DEUXIEME LEON.

LESSON XXXII.
The Present

[.

i.

The present

always ends

participle

in,

is

generally invariable, and

is

in ant.

Etant, being.

En,

Participle.

Ayant, having.

Voyant, seeing.

the only preposition governing the present

participle.

En

The

chantant, in singing.

En

pleurant, in crying.

sometimes used adjectively.


agreeing in gender
and number with the substantive to which it refers.
3.

It

present participle

then follows the rules

4.

is

for adjectives,

Ce garon

est trs obligeant,

Cette

est trs obligeante,

fille

The present

participle

is

That boy is very obliging.


That girl is very obliging.

never used,

the auxiliary tre, to express that the action


taneous.
in their

in
is

French, with
or

was instan-

Instead, the indicative present or the imperfect

simple form are used.

Thus we say

Je vais,
Il

I go,

for

he studies, for
tudiait he studied, for

Il tudie,

f am going.
he

is studying.
he was studying.

Practical French Course

However,

if

necessary, the same precision

217

may

be at-

tained as in English by using the following idiomatic form;

(*)
(f)

tudier (or)
tudier (or)

est

en train (f) d'tudier.


en train d'tudier.

II est (*)

Il

Il tait

Il tait

The word occup, busy, is understood,


train de means in the act of.

En

PRACTICE,
Etant

trs press, je

ne puis rester

Being

in a

great hurry, I cannot

stay any longer.

plus longtemps.

I am

A mon

To

Ayant

lu votre annonce dans le


" Herald " de ce jour, et dsr=
ant prendre des leons de franais, voulez-vous avoir la bont
de passer chez moi demain, dans
la matine, ou si vous prfrez,
l' aprs midi ?

Having read your advertisement


in to-day's "Herald,'" and de-

Vous avez dj une bonne con-

You have already a good knowledge of the French language.

grand regret, je suis oblig


de vous quitter.

naissance de la langue franaise.

Vous

vous perfectionnerez en
en crivant, en allant
parmi les Franais, en convers=
ant avec eux, en faisant des exercices, en traduisant, en un mot,
en pratiquant autant que poslisant,

my great regret,
obliged to leave you.

siring to take French

lessons,

will you have the kindness to call

on

me to-morrow

in the

morn-

or if you prefer, in the


afternoon ?

ing,

You will perfect yourself by reading, by writing, by going among


the French, by conversing with

them, by (making) exercises, by


translating, in a word, by practicing as

much as possible.

sible.
L,a

Practice makes perfect.

pratique rend parfait.

En voyageant on apprend
coup.

beau-

In traveling one learns a great


deal.

Practical French Course

218

Le voyage

est

une grande cole.

En dbarquant

au Havre vous

Traveling

On

a great school.

is

landing at Havre you will find

trouverez la bibliothque de la
gare le New York ''Herald,"

the Parisian edition of the New


York Herald at the railroad

dition de Paris.

station bookstand.

En

arrivant Paris, vous serez

une

surpris de trouver
belle, si

propre et

si

ville si

'

' '

'

On

arriving in Paris, you will be


surprised at finding such a beau-

and gay

tiful, clean

gaie.

Aimez- vous les couleurs voyantes?


Non, je ne les aime pas.
Ni moi non plus.

ma lettre en vous em=


brassant affectueusement.

Je termine

Donnez-moi bientt de vos nouvelles, et en attendant, croyezmoi, je vous prie,

Do you

city.

like loud colors ?

No, I do not
Neither do

like

them.

I.

With an affectionate kiss I

my

close

letter.

me hear from you very soon,


and in the meantime, believe me,

Let

Yours truly,
Yours very truly,

Bien vous, (or)


Votre tout dvou (m.),
Votre toute dvoue (f.).

II.The Past Participle.

i.

When

used without auxiliary,

the

past

participle

agrees in gender and number with the noun to which

it

refers, like the adjectives.

The past year ; last year.


The past week ; last week.

L'an pass.
La semaine passe.

La lune

est

comme une lampe

dans l'azur suspendue.

d'or

The moon is like a golden lamp


suspended in the azure vault.

Practical French Course


Iv a

lune est

comme une

pice d'or

dans l'espace par des


amoureux pour acheter le silence
de la nuit.

jete

2.

The

219

The moon is like a piece of gold


thrown into space by some lovers
to buy the silence of the night.

with

past participle, used

the auxiliary tre,

agrees in gender and number with the subject of the verb,


whether the subject be placed before or after it.
Il est

He is dead.

mort.

Bile est morte.

Ce

She

livre est bien crit.

Cette lettre est


Il est

mal

is

dead.

This book is well written.


This letter is badly written.

crite.

He is discouraged.

dcourag.

Elle est dcourage.

She

Mes amis sont dcourags.


Mes surs sont dcourages.

My friends are discouraged.


My sisters are discouraged.

Votre cigare est teint.


Votre cigarette est teinte.

Your cigar is out (the


Your cigarette is out.

Votre gilet est dboutonn.


Votre robe est dcousue.
Votre robe est dchire.
Mes gants sont tachs.

Your vest is unbuttoned.


Your dress is ripped.
Your gown is torn.

Il

ont t pardonnes par

le pr-

sident de la Rpublique.

La porte
Non,

est-elle

elle est

ferme ?

ouverte.

Avez vous vu

le

tombeau dans

lequel sont enfermes les cen-

dres de Napolon I ?

discouraged.

light of).

My gloves are stained.


He has been

a t condamn mort.

Elle a t acquitte.
Ils

is

sentenced to death.

She has been discharged (legally).


They have been pardoned by the
President of the Republic.
Is the door shut ?

JVo

it is

open.

Have you

seen the tomb in which

the remains of
inclosed ?

Napoleon

I.

are

Practical French Course

220

The

3.

past participle, used with the auxiliary avoir,

agrees in gender and number with


object,

when

it

when

its

direct

regimen or

that regimen precedes the participle, but not

follows

it.

Avez-vous ouvert la fentre ?


Oui, je l'ai ouverte.

Have you opened the window ?


Yes, I have opened it.

Avez-vous ferm la porte


Oui, je l'ai ferme.

Have you shut the door ?


Yes, I have closed it.

Avez-vous bross mes habits ?


Oui, je les ai brosss.

Have you brushed my

Avez-vous tudi votre leon

Have you studied your


Yes, I have studied it.

Oui. je

l'ai

Avez-vous reu
Oui, je

l'ai

tudie.

ma

lettre

reue.

Yes,

clothes?

I have brushed them.


lesson

Have you received my letter?


Yes, I have received it.

Oui, je les ai traduits.

Have you translated your exercises?


Yes, I have translated them.

Avez-vous vu vos amis ?


Oui, je les ai vus.

Have you seen your friends ?


Yes, I have seen them.

Avez-vous traduit vos exercices ?

reu et lu avec un extrme


charmante lettre que
vous m'avez crite en franais.
Je suis heureux de dire que je
l'ai parfaitement comprise.

J'ai

plaisir la

I have

received and read with


extreme pleasure the charming
letter which you have written me

I am pleased to say
I have understood it per-

in French.

that

fectly.

EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION.


ENGLISH CONSTRUCTION.
1.

2.
3.

4.

Is your brother married ?


Are your brothers married ?
Is your sister married ?
Are your sisters married ?

FRENCH CONSTRUCTION.
Your brother, is he married ?
Your brothers, are they married?
Your sister, is she married ?
Your sisters, are they married ?

Practical French Course


5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Have you

received the book


which I (to) you have sent ?
Have you received the letter
which I (to) you have sent ?
Have you received the books
which I (to) you have sent ?
Have you received the flowers
wmich I (to) you have sent ?
The book which you (to) me
have sent is very interesting.
The method (f.) which you (to)
me have lent is very inter-

Did you receive the book which


I sent you ?
Did you receive the letter
which I sent you ?
Did you receive the books
which I sent you ?
Did you receive the flowers
which I sent you ?
The book you sent me is very
interesting.

10.

The method you

lent

me

221

is

very interesting.

esting.
11.

Did I show you the bracelet


which my husband gave me
for

12.

bracelet

my birthday ?

(to)

my birthday ?

Have you seen

brother

the rings which

my

husband
from Paris ?

15.

16.

She
She

me

birthday ?

husband

study.

search (for) my gloves.

She
She

leaving.

18.

arriving.

19-

20.

has

16.

MEMORY

me

(to)

17-

my

has given

14.

crying.

In the meantime.

my

(to)

my

shown the

15-

singing.

20.

brought from Paris

is

On
On

has given for

Have you seen the rings which

my

is

19.

18.

13-

me

am studying.
am looking for my gloves.

14.

17.

brought

shown the
husband

my

watch of gold which


for

13

me

that

fte of birth ?
(To) you have

Did I show you the gold watch


which my brother gave me
for

you have

(To)

sings.
cries.

In departing.
In arriving.
In waiting.

EXERCISE.

Ce que l'on comprend bien s'nonce clairement. {Boileau)


(Chateaubriand)
le plus obscur aime la libert.
Le bonheur des mchants comme un torrent s'coule. (Racine)

L'homme

translation:
That which we understand well, we express clearly.
The most humble man loves liberty.
The happiness of the wicked runs away like a torrent.

Practical French Course

222

TRENTE-TROISIEME LEON.

LESSON XXXIII.
I.

i.

The

Thus,
sion,

The

Present of the Indicative.

indicative present has only

speak,

I am speaking, I do

translation, to wit

Etes- vous venant ?

for

Je suis venant.

for

tes- vous allant

speak, have but one

Are you coming


I am coming.

Where are you going ?

for

I am going
What are you doing ?
I am working.

for

Je suis travaillant.

for

The above and all similar phrases must be


manner

Que

Lit.

Je vais

L it.

faites-vous

2.

The

Je travaille.

indicative present

Lit.:

Come you? I come.


Where go yo u? I go
What do you? 1 work.

may be

future to express something that


to be done.

translated in

Je viens.

allez-vous?

for

Je suis allant
Qu'tes-vous faisant?

Venez-vous ?

French.

therefore, be very careful to avoid

such translations as the following

the following

in

Je parle.

The student must,

one form

English modes of expres-

for instance, these three

is

..

used in place of the

going to take place or

Practical French Course

Thus,

for

example

I leave

Je pars ce soir.
Il part demain.
Je suis vous dans

223

un moment.

(shall leave) this evening.

He leaves (will leave) to-morrow.


I am (shall be) with you in a
moment.

PRACTICE.
O
O

es-tu

Je suis

O
O

Where art thou ?


Where are you ?

tes- vous?

I am

ici.

Where art thou going? (goest thou)


Where are you going ? (go you )
I am going out. (I go out. )
I am going (I go) to the park.

vas-tu?
allez- vous

Je sors.
Je vais au parc.

Que

fais-tu

What art thou doing?


What aft thou doing ?
What are you doing ?
What are you doing ?

(or)

Qu'est-ce que tu fais

Que

faites- vous

here.

(or)

Qu'est-ce que vous faites?


Je travaille.

I am work'i7ig:

Je

I am

reading.

I am

writing.

lis.

J'cris.

est votre frre

Il est

Que

(I work.)
(I read. )
(I write. )

is your brother?
downstairs.

He is
What
What

fait-il ? (or)

Qu'est-ce qu'il fait?

He is
He is
He is

Il travaille.

Il lit.
Il crit.

Que cherchez vous ?

he doing ? (does he)


he doing ?
working. (He works.)
reading. (He reads.)
is
is

writing.

(He

writes.)

What are you looking for ?


(search you)

(or)

Qu'est-ce que vous cherchez

mes

(do you)

Where

en bas.

Je cherche

(dost thou)

gants.

What are you looking for ?

I am

looking (I search) for

my

gloves.

O demeurez- vous ? (or)


O est-ce que vous demeurez ?
Je demeure

New York.

Where do you
Where do you

live ?

A ew

Yo7'k.

I live

in

live ?

(live you)

Practical French Course

224

O demeure-t-il ?
O demeure-t-elle ?
O demeure votre ami ?

Where does he live ? (lives he)


Where does she live ?
Where does yourfriend live ?

Pourquoi pleurez-vous ?
De quoi riez- vous ?

Why

De

qui riez-vous

Je ne

ris

de personne.

Que voulez-vous ?

(or)

Qu'est-ce que vous voulez?

Je ne veux rien.

Que

veut-il

Il

(cry you)

What do you want? (want you)


What do you want ?
I do not want anything.

He

veut de l'argent.

Que

ay ?

What does he want ? (wants


What does he want ?

(or)

Qu'est-ce qu'il veut

do you

What are you laughing at ?


(laugh you at)
Whom are you laughing at ?
I am laughing (I laugh) at no o?ie.

wants money.

What

regardez- vous ?

he)

are you looking at?

(look you)

Je regarde la parade.

I am looking (I look) at the parade.

Qui attendez-vous ?

Whom

are you waiting for ?

(wait you)

I am waiting for

J'attends le facteur.

carrier.

Que prenez-vous pour djeuner ?


Je prends du caf au

Parlez-vous franais
Je parle assez pour

lait.

faire

The

speak French ?

I speak enough

to

make myself

understood.

comprendre.

II.

What do you take for breakfast


I take coffee zvith milk.

Do you

me

the letter-

(I wait. )

The

imperfect

Imperfect of the Indicative.

may

be called the progressive or descrip-

tive past tense of the French.

scribe something

It is

used to express or de-

which was accomplished or

still

going on

French Course

Tracticai,

It is also

at the time referred to.

225

used to express repeated

or customary action, being rendered in English by the

words used

placed before the verb.

to,

The imperfect corresponds

to the three

pressing the past in English, to wit

manners of ex-

(I was speaking.
I used to speak.
(/ spoke.

Je parlais

<

PRACTICE.
de

Etiez-vous Paris lors


dernire Exposition ?

la

Were you in Paris at the time of


the last exposition ?

Oui, j'y tais.

Yes,

Etiez-vous dans un htel ?


Non, j'tais dans une pension de

there.

Were you in a hotel?


No, I was in a private boardinghouse.

famille.

Aviez-vous une bonne chambre

Oui, j'avais une trs bonne

chambre

I was

Had you a good room ?


Yes,

I had a

Was

the cooking

very

good room.

L,a cuisine tait-elle

bonne

was

good ?

Elle tait excellente.

It

Quel tait le prix ?


Je payais dix francs par jour.

I paid ten francs a

alliez-vous ce matin, vers les

dix heures ?
J'allais la gare.

Vous marchiez
J'tais

press

manquer mon

trs vite.

j'avais

peur de

train.

N'avez- vous pas vu mon frre ?


Si, je l'ai vu il y a peu prs une
heure.
Etait-il seul

Non.

il

What was

un monsieur.

the cost ?
day.

Where were you going this morning about ten o 'clock.


I was going to the station.
You were walking very fast.
I was in a hurry ; I was afraid I
would miss my train.

Have you not seen my brother?


Yes, I saw him about one hour
ago.

Was he

tait avec

excellent.

alone ?

No, he was with a gentleman.

Practical French Cours ic

226

Comment
habill

ce monsieur tait-il

un

portait

Il

talon

How

was

that gentleman dressed?

un panun chapeau de

paletot bleu,

clair

et

He

wore (he had on) a blue coat,


trousers and a straw hat.

paille.

Have you

Il

crivait.

Il

fumait.

?
seen Mr.
I have.
What was he doing ? (did he)
What was he doing ?
He was reading. (He read.)
He was writing. (He wrote.)
He was smoking. (He smoked.)

propos, o tiez-vous hier soir?

By

Avez- vous vu monsieur


Oui, je

Que

Yes,

vu.

l'ai

faisait-il? (or)

Qu'est-ce qu'il faisait ?


Il lisait.

the way, where were you


night ?
'

J'tais au thtre.

I was

Were there many people there ?


It (the house) was full.
It was packed.
It was jammed.

avait-il

beaucoup de monde?

C'tait plein.
C'tait bond.
C'tait comble.
Il

n'y avait pas un sige de vide.

at the theatre.

There was not one empty

seat.

EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION,


ENGUSH CONSTRUCTION.
I.

He

2.

She

is

hungry.

is thirsty.

FRENCH CONSTRUCTION.
1.

He

has hunger.

3.

She has thirst.


You have reason.

4.

What does your

5.

He

2.

6.

You are right.


What is your brother doing ?
He is smoking.
What is your sister doing ?

6.

smokes.
What does your

7-

She

7.

She dances.

3-

45-

S.

9-

is

Where
Where

IO.

ii.

12.

dancing.
is

is

he going ?
she going ?

was hungry.
was thirsty.
had company.

8.
9.

brother?
sister

Where goes he ?
Where goes she ?

10.

11.

12.

had hunger.
had thirst.
had some monde, (m.)

last

Practical French Course


13.
14.
15.

What was your brother doing?


He was smoking.
What was your sister doing?

17.

She was working.


Where did you live

18.

Formerly,

19.

Did you see your friend?


What was he doing ?
He was working.
He was studying his lesson.
He was reading the newspaper.
He was writing a letter.
Did you see your friends? (m.)
What were they doing ?
They were working.
They were playing.
Where are you going ?
I am going home.

16.

in Paris

15.

What did your brother?


He smoked.
What did your sister ?

16.

She worked.

17.

Where

18.

Formerly,

13.

14.

used to smoke a

227

lived
I

you

at Paris?

smoked much.

great deal.
20.

21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

27.

28.
29.

30.

MEMORY

19.

20.
21.
22.

23.
24.

Have you seen your


What did he ?

He
He
He
He

worked,
read the newspaper.
wrote a letter.

29.
30.

26.

27.
28.

studied his lesson.

Have you seen your


What did they ?
They worked.
They played.
Where go you ?

25.

friend

friends?

go chez moi.

EXERCISE.

I/honnte homme est discret; il remarque les dfauts d'autrui,


mais il n'en parle jamais. {St. Evremond)
Les limites des sciences sont comme l'horizon; plus on en approche,
plus elles reculent.
{Mme. Necker)
Quiconque est capable de mentir est indigne d'tre compt au nombre des

hommes.

(Fnelon)

Fn

toute chose

Iva

moiti des humains vit aux dpens de l'autre.

il

faut considrer la fin.

{La Fontaine)
(Destouches)

translation:

The

(real)

gentleman

is

discreet;

he observes the defects of others,

but never alludes to them.

The

limits of science are like the horizon, the

more they recede.


Whoever is capable of falsehood
(the number of) men.

more we approach

(them), the

is

unworthy

to be counted

In everything we should consider the end.


One half of mankind lives at the expense of the other.

among

Practical French Course

228

TRENTE-QUATRIEME LEON.
LESSON XXXIV.
The Past

I.

The

past indefinite

is

Indefinite.

generally formed, in French, by

combining- the indicative present of the auxiliary avoir

with the past participle of another verb.

/ have

J'ai parl.
Il

spoken.

He has finished.

fini.

She has

Elle a vendu.

sold.

2. The past indefinite is used to express an action accomplished at a period of time entirely elapsed but not

specified.

J'ai

achet un chapeau.
reu un tlgramme.

J'ai

vu mon avocat.

J'ai

3.

The

/ have bought a hat.


I have received a telegram.
I have seen my lawyer.

past indefinite

is

also used, in French, to express

an action done at a time a part of which


as

is

not yet elapsed,

to-day, this week, this month, this year.

Aujourd'hui

j'ai

/ have studied a great

beaucoup

deal to-day.

tudi.

Cette semaine

j'ai

beaucoup

tudi.

Ce mois-ci

j'ai

perdu cent

dollars.

have studied a great deal this


week.
li>st
one hundred dollars this
month.

229

Practical French Course,

The past indefinite is also used in French conversawhen the time is entirely elapsed and specified.
Thus, for instance, we say

4.

tion

J'ai

vu mon ami

hier soir.
I

I saw my friend

last night.

IMPORTANT OBSERVATION.
The

I.

definite

auxiliary tre, to be,

and

all

the other

is

used to form the past

compound

in-

tenses of the follow-

ing verbs of motion:


Aller,

to go.

Retourner,

Partir,

to depart.

Revenir, to come again


Parvenir,
to succeed.

Venir, to come.
Sortir, to

go

Arriver,

out.

to return.

to arrive.

Tomber,

to fall.

Natre,

to be born.

Mourir, to die.
Devenir, to become.

examples:
/ went. (I am gone. )
He came. (He is come.)

Je suis all.
Il est venu.

She went

Bile est sortie.

Nous sommes
Il est

is

gone

out.)

We are arrived.)

He fell. {He is fallen.)

tomb.

Je suis n en i860.

I was

Qu' est-il devenu ?


Il est mort la semaine passe.

He

2.

{She

out.

We arrived.

arrivs.

The English

(I am) born in i860.


What has (is he) become (of

auxiliary did

died (he

is

is

hitn ?)

dead) last week.

replaced, in French,

the auxiliary avoir or tre, according to the above rules.


Avez-vous tudi ?
paye
A-t-elle reu ma lettre?

A-t-il

Ont-ils accept

tes- vous all ?

Did you study ?


Did he pay?
Did she receive my
Did they accept ?
Where did you go ?

letter

by

Practical French Course

230

Where did he go ?
Where did she go ?
Where did they go ?
When did you arrive?
At what time did he leave?

est-il all ?

O est-elle alle ?
O sont -ils alls?
Quand

tes-vous arriv

quelle heure est-il parti?

PRACTICE,
Avez- vous tudi votre leon ?
Oui, je l'ai tudie.

La savez-vous

Je pense que oui.

Avez-vous reu
Oui, je

l'ai

ma

Have you

lettre?

reue.

Yes,

l'ai

comprise.

Yes,

fait ce matin?
une promenade.
fait une promenade en voiture.
fait une promenade cheval.
fait une promenade

Qu' avez-vous
J'ai fait

J'ai

J'ai

J'ai

received

I have

my letter ?

received

Did you understand

L' avez-vous comprise?

Oui, je

Have you studied your lesson ?


Yes, I have studied it.
Do you know it?
I think I do.

it.

it ?

I did.

What have you done this morning ?


I have taken a walk.

I have taken a carriage ride.


I have taken a ride on horseback.
I have taken a bicycle ride.

bicyclette.

Avez-vous crit votre ami?


Oui, je lui ai crit.

Vous

a-t-il

rpondu

Not yet.

Pas encore.
Votre ami vous
Oui,

il

m'a

Have you written to yourfriend ?


Yes, I have.
Has he answered you ?

a-t-il crit

Lui avez-vous rpondu


Oui, je lui ai rpondu.

Has yourfriend

written to you ?

Yes, he has.

crit.
?

Vos amis vous ont-ils crit ?


ils m'ont crit.
Leur avez-vous rpondu ?

Have you answered him


Yes, I have.

Have your friends

written to you,

Oui,

Yes, they have.

Oui, je leur ai rpondu.

Have you answered them ?


Yes, I have.

Avez-vous vu votre ami ?

Have you

seen

your friend?

Practical French Course


Oui, je l'ai vu ce matin.

Lui avez- vous parl ?


Oui, je lui ai parl.

Que

lui avez- vous dit

Je lui ai dit que vous dsirez le

Qu'avez- vous achet?


un impermable.
O l'avez- vous achet ?
Je l'ai achet au " Bon-March.

J'ai achet

Chez qui avez-vous achet votre


chapeau ?
l'ai

avez-vous pass la soire


passe chez mon ami.
Qu' avez-vous fait ?

l'ai

Nous avons chant.


Nous avons dans.
Nous avons jou aux

What did you buy ?

I bought

cartes.

a,

mackintosh.

Where did you buy

I bought

it

At whose

it ?

at the " Bon-March.'

store

did you buy your

hat?

I bought

achet chez Dunlap.

Je

Yes, I saw him this morning.


Have you spoken to him ?
Yes, I have.
What did you tell him ?
I told him that you wish to see

him.

voir.

Je

231

it

at Dunlap''s.

Where have you spent

the evening?

I spent it at my friend''s.
What did you do there?

We sang.
We danced.
We played cards.

Avez-vous gagn ?
Non, j'ai perdu.

Did you win?


No, I lost.

Combien avez-vous perdu ?


J'ai perdu un louis.

How much did you lose ?

Avez-vous reu des nouvelles de

Have you heardfrom your friend?

votre

est votre frre

est-il all ?

Il est all

chez le barbier.

sont vos surs

Elles sont sorties.

(20 francs).

Yes, I heardfrom

him this morning.

Where is your brother ?


went out.
Where did he go ?
He went to the barber's.

He

Il est sorti.

lout's

ami ?

Oui, j'en ai reu ce matin.

I lost one

sont-elles alles

Elles sont alles chez la modiste.

Where are your sisters


They went out.

Where did they go ?


They went to the milliner's.

Practical French Course

232

Votre oncle
Oui,

Vos amis
Ils

est-il arriv

Has your

sont-ils arrivs

uncle arrived ?

Yes, he arrived this morning.

est arriv ce matin.

il

Have your friends arrived?

They have not yet arrived.

ne sont pas encore arrivs.

Je suis arriv la semaine passe.

When did you arrive ?


I arrived last week.

At what

Quand

tes- vous arriv

quelle heure tes- vous parti ?

I left

Je suis parti huit heures.

quelle heure tes-vous retourn

Je suis retourn cinq heures.

j'ai pris le

At what time did you return


I returned at five o'clock.
Did you come on foot?
No, I took the electric car.

Etes-vous venu pied ?

Non,

time did you leave ?

at eight o'clock.

tramway

lectrique.

EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION


FRENCH CONSTRUCTION.

ENGLISH CONSTRUCTION.
1.

Has your brother received

my

Your

my

letter?
2.

Whom did you see

3.

To whom

6.
7.

Did you play

5.

8.
9.

10.
11.
12.

13.

14.

15.
16.

did he answer
did she buy ?

letter

Whom

did you speak ?


did you say ?

What
What
What

4.

brother, has he received

6.

How much did you lose


How much did you win

7.
?

What did I tell you ?


What did he tell you?
What did she tell you ?
What did they tell you?
What did you tell him ?
What did you tell them ?
What have you been doing ?

8.
9.

10.
11.

12.
13.

14.
15.
16.

have you seen ?


To whom have you spoken ?
What have you said?
What has he answered ?
What has she bought ?
Have you played ?
How much have you lost ?
How much have you won ?
What (to) you have I told ?
What you has he told ?

What you has she told ?


What you have they told ?
What X.r him have you told ?
What to them have you told ?
What have you done?

Tracticai,
17.
18.
19-

20.
21.

22.
23.
24.
25.

French Course

Where did you go ?


Where did he go ?
Where did she go ?
Where did they go ?

17.

18.

19.

20.

When did you arrive ?


When did she arrive ?
When did he leave ?
When did they leave ?
When did you return ?

21.

22.
23.
24.
25.

26.

Did you see your friend

27.

29.

Yes, I did.
When did you see him ?
I saw him yesterday.

29.

30.

At what time did you see him ?

30.

31.

saw him at 4
Did you speak

28.

26.
27.
28.

233

Where are you gone ?


Where is he gone ?
Where is she gone ?
Where are they gone ?

When are you arrived ?


When is she arrived ?
When is he departed ?
When are they departed ?
When are you returned ?
Have you seen your friend ?
him have seen.
When him have you seen ?
I him have seen yesterday.
At what hour him have you
Yes, I

seen?
32.
33.

34.

o'clock.

31-

him ?

32.

to

Yes, I did.
No, I did not.

33-

34-

38.

Have you seen your friends ?


them have seen.
When them have you seen ?
I them have seen the week

What day them have you seen ?

35.

Did you see your friends ?(m.)

35-

36.

36.

37.

Yes, I did.
When did you see them

38.

saw them

last

37-

week ?

him have seen at 4 hours.


To him have you spoken ?
Yes, I to him have spoken.
No, I to him have not spoken.
I

Yes, I

past.

39

What day

did you see them ?


40. I saw them on Tuesday.

39-

40.

41.

Did you speak to them ?

41.

MEMORY
Il

est plus

EXERCISE.

glorieux de se vaincre
[Scudery)

autres.

I them have seen Tuesday.


To them have you spoken ?

soi-mme que de vaincre

choses de la terre ne valent pas qu'on s'y attache.


{Nicholas)
meilleure leon est celle des exemples. {La Harpe)

Ives
L,a

les

translation:

more glorious to conquer one's self than to conquer


The things of eanh are unworthy of our attachment.
The best lesson is that of example.
It is

others.

Practical French Course;

234

TRENTE-CINQUIEME LEON.

LESSON XXXV.
The Past

The

Definite.

past definite, which might also be called the his-

torical or narrative tense, indicates

at a time

entirely elapsed.

It

an action accomplished

cannot, therefore, be used

connection with the words to-day, this morning, this

in

week, this months this year

but

it

may

be used

in

speak-

ing of yesterday, last week, last month, last year.

The past

definite

is

particularly used in narratives, but

in ordinary conversation

it is

generally avoided as pedan-

and is always replaced by the past


preceding lesson.
tic,

The

following exercise

is

indefinite, as in the

an excellent illustration of the

use of the definite or narrative past.

Bn

quelle anne naquit George

Washington ?
naquit en 1732.
Bn quelle anne mourut-il
Il mourut en 1799.

ington bo7m ?
was born in 1732.
In what year did he die ?
He died in 179c.

He

Il

Bn

quelle anne naqut


Napolon I. ?

naquit dans

Il

l'le

de Corse

le 15

aot, 1769.

Bn
Il

quelle anne mourut-il

mourut

le

5 mai, 182 1.

sont actuellement les restes de

Napolon premier ?

In what year was George Wash-

In what year was Napoleon I.


born?
He was born in the island of Corsica on the 15th of August, 176c.
In what year did he die ?
He died on the 5th of May, 1821.

Where at present are the remains


of Napoleon the first ?

Practical French Course;


Les restes de Napolon I. furent
ramens en France en 1840, et
dposs dans l'Htel des Inva-

vux:
mes cendres re-

lides^*) Paris, selon ses


dsire que

"Je

posent sur les bords de la Seine,


au milieu de ce peuple franais
que j'ai tant aim."

Napolon sortit sous-lieutenant


de l'cole militaire de Brienne
en 1785.
Il

fut

nomm

capitaine, puis col-

onel en 1793.
Il

5 octobre, 1795,

il

mitrailla les

meutiers devant l'glise SaintRoch, Paris, et reut le commandement en chef de l'arme


d'Italie en 1796.

Aprs de nombreuses et brillantes


victoires, il conclut le trait de
paix qui donnait la France le
Rhin pour limites en 1797.

Aprs

la

gagna

campagne d'Egypte o

il

la glorieuse victoire des

pyramides, il retourna en
France, renversa le Directoire

novembre,

le 5

1799,

et se fit

nommer consul pour dix

(*)

XIV.

ans.

palatial shelter for old

in 1674.

The remains of Napoleon I. were


brought back to France in 1840
and placed in the Hotel des Invalides, in Paris,

in compliance

with his wishes:

"

desire that

my ashes repose

on the banks of
the Seine, among the French peo-

ple

whom I loved so

much.''''

Napoleon left the military school of


Brienne as a Sub-Lieutenant in
1785-

He

was made a Captain, then a

Colonel, in 1793.

reut les epaulettes de gnral


de brigade en 1794, aprs le fameux sige de Toulon o il se
distingua.

Le

235

He was

given the epaulets of a


Brigadier-General in 1794, after

famous siege of Toulon, at


which he distinguished himself

the

On

the jth of October, 1795, he


shelled the rioters in front of the

Church of St. Roch, in Paris, and


was made Commander-in-Chief
of the

'

'

Arme d' Italie

'

'

in 1796.

After numerous and brilliant victories, he concluded the treaty of


peace which gave to France the
Rhine as a boundary in 1797.
After the Egyptian campaign, in
which he won the glorious victory
of the Pyramids, he returned to
France, overthrew the Directory
{Government) on the 5th of October, 1799, and caused himself to
be made a Consulfor 10 years.

and invalid soldiers founded by Louis

236
Il

Practical,

franchit le

gagna

mont

French Course

Bernard,

St.

de Marengo, et
signa la paix avec l'Autriche en
1801, et avec l'Angleterre en
la bataille

1802.

Nomm

consul vie,

il

rouvrit

He crossed the

(M.)

won

St.

Bernard,

Marengo and
of peace with
and with Eng-

the battle of
signed the treaty

Austria in 1801,
land in 1802.

Made

Consulfor

life,

churches

which had been

he reopened

que la rvolution
avait fermes et rorganisa
toutes les branches de l'admin-

closed by the Revolution

istration.

government.

glises

les

Proclam empereur des Franais


le 18 mars 1804, il fut sacr en
grande pompe le 2 dcembre de
la mme anne par le pape Pie
VII., dans l'glise Notre-Dame
de Paris.

commena

Alors

cette srie

de

victoires qui jeta sur son rgne

une

si

grande

dsastreuse

en

Kn

gloire, jusqu' la

campagne de Russie

the

and

re-

organized all the branches of the

Proclaimed Emperor of the French


on the 18th of March, 1804, he
was crowned in great state on
the 2d of December of the same
year by Pope Pius VII, in the
Church of Notre-Dame.

Then began that series of victories


which cast so great a glory upon
his reign, up to the disasttvus
campaign of Russia in 181 2.

1812.

1813,

l'Europe entire se coa-

In

1 81j,

the

whole

of Europe

lisa contre le redoutable vain-

formed a

queur qui abdiqua Fontaine-

formidable victor, who abdicated


at Fontainebleau on the 14th of
April, 1814, and was given the

bleau le 14 avril 18 14, et reut


l'le d'Blbe en souverainet.

coalition against the

sovereignty (of) the Isle of Elba.

Le premier mars 181 5, il reparut


en France et rgna encore pen-

On

the 1st

of March, 181 5, he made

his reappearance in France

and

dant cent jours, mais aprs la


terrible bataille de Waterloo, le
18 juin, il signa, en faveur de
son fils, sa seconde abdication et
rclama l'hospitalit de l'An-

reigned one hundred days, but


after the terrible battle of Waterloo, on the 18th, of une, he signed

gleterre.

tality

his second abdication in favor of


his son, and invoked the hospi-

of England.

Practical French Course;

Le cabinet anglais

le dclara prisonnier et le rlgua SainteHlne, o il mourut le 5 mai


182 1.
(Bnard.)

237

The English Parliament declared

him a prisoner and deported him


to St.

Helena, where he died on

the 5th of May, 1821.

EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION


FRENCH CONSTRUCTION.

ENGLISH CONSTRUCTION.

I.

first leave

the military school

of Brienne

2.

In what year Napoleon first


left he the school military
of Brienne ?

In what year did Napoleon the


?

In what year received he the


epaulets of General of Bri-

In what year was he given the


shoulder-straps of a Briga-

dier-General

3.

4.

gade

did he shell in front of


the Church of St. Roch ?

What

St.

he before the

Roch ?

victory

won he

in

Egypt?

7.

What mountain did he cross


What did he reopen ?
What did he reorganize ?

8.

When was he

5.

Church

victory did he win in

Egypt

6.

Whom shelled

Whom
What

What mount crossed he ?


What reopened he ?
What reorganized he ?

When was

proclaimed an

he proclaimed Km-

Emperor ?
9.

10.

II.

In what year did he abdicate

When

9.

In what year abdicated he

did he reappear in
France, and how long did he
reign ?

When reappeared he in France,

After what battle did he sign

After what battle signed he


his second abdication ?

his second abdication

12.

In what year, and where did

he die ?

and how much


reigned he yet ?

of

time

In what year, and where died

he?

Practical French Course

238

TRENTE-SIXIEME LEON,

LESSON XXXVI.
I.

The

future

shall be

is

The

always used,

Future.

in

or will take place at a

French, to express what

time not yet come.

Therefore, the present tense, which


lish

after

is

often used in

Eng-

an adverb of time, such as when, as soon

must be rendered

in

as,

French by the future, whenever the

adverb points out the relative time of a future action, state


or condition.

Thus,

for

example,
I shall
I shall

must be translated

come when I am ready,


come as soon as I can,

Je viendrai quand je serai prt.

Lit.:

I shall come when I

shall be

ready.

Je viendrai ds que je pourrai.

I shall come as

soon as

shall be

able.

IMPORTANT REMARK.

When

the action depends on the will of the person, or

has not yet been settled, the indicative of vouloir, to be


willing, to wish, followed by an infinitive, must be employed.

Practical French Course

O
O

Where will you go ?


Where will you (do you wish
I shall go to Paris.
I wish to go to Paris.

irez-vous ?
voulez-vous aller ?

J'irai Paris.

Je

veux

aller Paris.

Voulez-vous aller avec moi ?


'accompagner?
Voulez- vous
Voulez-vous venir ?
Voulez-vous me dire quelle heure

il

239

to) go?

Will you go with me ?


Will you accompany me?

Will you come ?


Will you tell me what time

it is

est?

Voulez-vous me donner un verre


d'eau ?
Voulez-vous avoir la bont de me
donner un verre d'eau?

Will you give

me

a glass of water ?

Will you have the kindness


me a glass of water ?

to

give

PRACTICE.
Serez-vous chez vous demain ?
Oui, je serai chez moi toute la

Will you be at
Yes,

journe.

il

lui

Yes, he will (be there).

Votre tante sera-t-elle chez


Non, elle n'y sera pas.

elle

Que ferez-vous aujourd'hui?

ma

leon.

Je prendrai un bain.
Je ferai une promenade.

Je ferai une ou deux visites.


J'irai faire des emplettes.

Qu 'achet rez-vous ?
J'achterai un chapeau.
O irez-vous ce soir ?
Je resterai chez moi.
du monde.
Nous aurons du monde.

J'aurai

Will your brother be at home ?

y sera.

J'tudierai

home to-morrow
home all day

be at

long.

Votre frre sera-t-il chez


Oui,

I shall

Will your aunt be at home


No, she will not {be there).

What will you do to-day ?


I shall study my lesson.
I shall take a bath.
I shall take a walk.
I shall make one or two visits.
I shall go shopping.

What will you buy f


I shall buy a hat.
Where will you go this evening
I shall stay at home.
I will have company.

We

will have company.

Practical French Course

240

demain?
campagne.
quelle heure partirez- vous ?
irez- vous

J'irai la

Je partirai six heures

du matin.

quelle heure retournerez-vous ?

Je retournerai sept heures

du

Where will you go to-morrow ?


I shall go to the country.
At what time will you leave?
I shall leave at six o'clock in the
morning (or a.m.).
At what time will you return ?
I shall return at seven o'clock in
the evening (or p.m.').

Quand

irez-vous en Europe ?

printemps prochain.
Combien de temps resterez-vous
l'tranger?
Environ deux mois.

J'irai le

Quand viendrez-vous me
J'irai

vous voir

la

voir

semaine pro-

will you stay abroad?

About two months.

When will you come to see me?


I shall go and see you next week,

You will be welcome.


You will be welcome.

bienvenu.

le

How long

without fail.

chaine, sans faute.

Vous serez
Vous serez

When will you go to Europe ?


I shall go next Spring.

la bienvenue, (f.)

I will see you to-morrow.

Je vous verrai demain.

II. The Conditional.

The

conditional present

is

used to express what would

take place under a certain condition.


Si j'avais assez d'argent. j'ache=

terais cette maison.

The

conditional past

taken place

have been

if

If I had enough money I would buy


that house.

is

used to denote what would have

the condition on which

fulfilled.

it

depended should

Practical French Course


eu assez d'argent
achet cette maison.

Si j'avais
rais

The verb

j'au-

241

If I had had enough money I would


have bought that house.

following the conjunction

si,

if,

cannot be

used, as in English, in the future or the conditional.

The
ent,

future

is

replaced, in French,

by the

indicative pres-

and the conditional by the imperfect of the

indicative.

Thus, the sentences,


If
If

If

you will permit me I will come,


you would permit me I would come,
you would have permitted me, I would have come,

must be translated
Si vous

me

le

permettez

le

permettiez

Ifyou permit me I shall come.

je

viendrai.

Si vous

me

If you permitted

je

me I would come.

viendrais.

Si vous

me

l'aviez

permis

Ifyou had permitted


have come.

je

serais venu.

When, however,

word

the

si

is

used

in

me I would

the sense of

whether the future and conditional must be employed in


',

both languages.
Je ne sais

s'il

Je ne savais

viendra ou non.

s'il

viendrait ou non.

not know whether he will


{come or not.
come or not.
I did not know whether he would

I do

PRACTICE.
Si vous aviez assez d'argent ache-

teriez-vous cette maison ?


Oui, si j'avais assez d'argent je
l'achterais.

If you had enough money would


you buy that house ?
Yes, if I had money enough I would
buy

it.

Practical French Coursk

242

ma

mer.

my place what would


you do ?
If I were in y our place, this is what
I would do :
I would go and spend a month in
the mountains or at the seashore.

beau temps sortiriez-

If it were fine weather zvould you

vous tiez

Si

place que

f eriez-vous ?

Si j'tais

que

votre place, voici ce

je ferais

passer un mois dans les

J'irais

montagnes ou au bord de
S'il faisait

vous
Oui,

la

go

si

le

temps

tait

beau

je

le

out ?

if the weather were fine

une promenade dans

parc central.

Si vous preniez

{go and) take a walk

Central Park.

une leon chaque

jour, vos progrs seraient beau-

coup plus rapides

vous parle-

couramment

riez bientt

I would

out.

Where would you go

iriez-vous?

J'irais faire

Yes,

would go

sortirais.

Ifyou were in

et cor-

If you would take a lesson every


day, your progress would be
much more rapid ; you would
soon speak fluently and correctly.

rectement.
si je prenais une
leon chaque jour je progrs =
serais beaucoup plus vite, mais

Oui, c'est vrai

je n'ai ni le

temps ni

every day

the time nor the mo?iey.

l'argent.

Pourquoi ne venez-vous pas me


voir plus souvent ?
J'irais vous voir plus souvent si
je le pouvais, mais je ne le puis
je suis occup du matin au soir.
;

Pourquoi n'amenez-vous pas votre


ami?
Je serais trs heureux de faire sa
connaissance.

Pourquoi n'avez- vous pas amen


votre amie ?
J'aurais t trs heureux de faire
sa connaissance.

I took a lesson
I would progress much
more rapidly, but I have neither

Yes, that is so ; if

Why

do you not come to see

me

oftener ?

I would go and see you oftener if


I could, but I cannot ; I am busy
from morning to evening.

Why

do you not bring your

friend ?

I should

be very

happy

to

make

his acquai?itance.

Why didyou

not bring yourfriend?

I should have been very glad


have made her acquaintance.

to

Practicae French Course


N'aimeriez-vous pas
Si, je

Would you

aller Paris?

l'aimerais beaucoup.

Je ferais bien de m'en aller.


Vous feriez bien de vous en

Yes,

Il

On

l'air,

I should

like it

very much.

You had better go.


going to rain.
It is going to storm.

It is

le dirait (or)

a en

not like to go to Paris f

I had better go.


aller.

va pleuvoir.
va faire un orage.

Il

243

It looks like it.

It looks like

(idiom.)

it.

EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION


FRENCH CONSTRUCTION.

ENGLISH CONSTRUCTION.
i.

At what time

will

you be

at

i.
;

home ?
2.

At what time
be at

3.

At what time
be at

4.

2.
\

your

will

sister

3.

At what time your father


be he chez lui ?
At what hour your

home ?

At what time
be at

your father

will

home ?

At what hour will be you chez


vous ?

home

will

be she chez

your parents

4.

sister will

elle f

At what hour your parents will


be they chez eux ?

5.

Will you have company?

Will have you du monde

6.

Where

Where

7.
8.
9.

will

he go ?

When will she leave?


When will they return ?
How long will he stay ?
him to-morrow.

9-

will

will*

go he ?

When will leave she ?


When will return they ?
How much of time will stay he?
him

will see to-morrow.

10.

I will see

11.

he would permit me.


he were in my place what
would he do ?
Where would he go?
Would he come?

14.

he me it permitted.
he was at my place what
would do he ?
Where would go he ?
Would come he ?

15.

Would she come?

15-

Would come she ?

16.

Is it

16.

Is it that it

17.

It

17-

One

12.

13.
14.

10.

If

11.

If

12.

going to rain?

looks like

it.

13-

If

If

it

goes to rain ?

would

say.

Practical French Course

244

TRENTE-SEPTIEME LEON.

LESSON XXXVII.
The Subjunctive Mood.

All the French verbs, regular and irregular (the aux-

i.

iliaries

avoir and tre excepted) end in the subjunctive

present in
e, es, e, ions, iez, ent.

We

2.

will conjugate here in the subjunctive present the

irregular verbs
tion,

namely

in

French conversa-

go.

Aller,

to

Prendre,

to take.

That I may go,

Que
Que

most commonly used

etc.

j'aille.

tu ailles.

Venir,

to

Dire,

to say.

come.

That I may come,

Que
Que

Pouvoir,

to be able.

Faire,

to do.

etc.

je vienne.

tu viennes.

That

Que
Que

I may be able, etc.

je puisse.

tu puisses.

Qu'il aille.

Qu'il vienne.

Qu'il puisse.

Que nous
Que vous

Que nous venions.


Que vous veniez.

Que nous
Que vous

Qu'ils viennent.

Qu'ils puissent.

allions.
alliez.

Qu'ils aillent.

That I may

Que
Que

je

take, etc.

prenne.

tu prennes.

That I may

Que
Que

say, etc.

je dise.

tu dises.

That

Que
Que

puissions.
puissiez.

I may do,

je fasse.

tu fasses.

Qu'il prenne.

Qu'il dise.

Qu'il fasse.

Que nous prenions.


Que vous preniez.

Que nous
Que vous

Que nous
Que vous

Qu'ils prennent.

Qu'ils disent.

disions.
disiez.

etc.

fassions*
fassiez.

Qu'ils fassent.

Practical French Course

245

USE OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE

GENERAL RULE.

When two

verbs are united by the conjunction que, that,

the second must be put in the subjunctive mood, unless the


first expresses something certain,
positive, evident, in
which case the second verb is always used in the indicative mood.
To be more explicit, we will specify and say
:

i.THE

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD MUST BE USED

After verbs expressing a desire, request, doubt, consent,


surprise, regret, fear, apprehension, gladness.
Je dsire que vous veniez.
Je souhaite que vous russissiez.
Je doute qu'il vienne.
O voulez- vous que j'aille ?

Que

voulez- vous que je fasse ?

/ wish you {would) to come.


I wish you may succeed.
I doubt {if) he will come.
Where do you want me to go f
What do you want me to do ?

IMPORTANT REMARK.
Verbs expressing
to

fear ; avoir peur,

hend ; trembler,

fear,
to

apprehension, such as

craindre,

be afraid ; apprhender, to appre-

to tremble,

when used

in the affirmative,

take the particle ne before the subjunctive.

The

subjunctive preceded by ne must also be employed

after the expressions

crainte que,

moins que, unless

de peur que, de

for fear that.


The particle ne is used idiomatically, without any nega-

tive sense.

lest,

Practical French Course

246

Je crains qu'il ne vienne.


J'ai peur qu'il ne soit malade.

Ifear he may corne.


I am afraid he is sick.

De peur qu'il ne pleuve.


Je viendrai srement moins qu'il
ne pleuve.

I shall

Lest

2. THE SUBJUNCTIVE

After the verbs croire,

employed negatively

to

it rains.

surelv

come unless

it rains.

MUST BE USED
when
when em-

believe ; penser, to think,

or interrogatively, but not

ployed affirmatively.
Croyez- vous qu'il vienne ?

Do you

Je ne crois pas qu'il vienne.


Je crois qu'il viendra.

I do not believe he will come.


I believe he will come.

Pensez- vous qu'il pleuve ?

Do you think

Je ne pense pas qu'il pleuve,


Je pense qu'il pleuvra.

I do not think {that)


I think it will rain.

3. THE SUBJUNCTIVE
After impersonal

verbs

unless

believe (that) he will come?

{that) it will rain


it

will rain.

MUST BE USED
they express something

positive, certain, evident.


Il

faut que j'aille chez moi.

/ must go home.

Il est

possible qu'il vienne.

It is possible that

Il est

temps que

It is

je parte.

pas sr qu'elle vienne.


importe que vous y soyez.
Il est bon qu'il le sache.
Il vaut mieux que j'y aille.
C'est dommage que vous ne puis=
siez pas venir.

he will come.
time for me to leave.
not certain that she will come.

Il n'est

It is

Il

It

is

essential that you be there.

It

is

good

that he

It is better that

knows

I go

it.

there.

It is a pity that you cannot come.

4. THE SUBJUNCTIVE

MUST BE USED

After a relative pronoun preceded

by a superlative

phrase having the force of a superlative, as

or

le plus, the

Practical French Course

most;

le

moins, the least;

the best ; le pire, the worst

The

subjunctive

ions before a
II
Il
Il

is

le
;

meilleur, the best; le mieux,

le seul, the only.

also used after the following express-

noun or pronoun

There
There
There

n'y a (or) il n'est


n'y a pas (or) il n'est pas
n'y a que (or) il n'est que

Examples
La plus

femme que

jolie

mais vue de

La

ma

247

j'aie ja-

no

is

not

is

only

......

The prettiest woman

I ever saw

in

my life.

vie.

seule chose que vous

is

ayez

The only thing you have

to do.

faire.

C'est le

mieux que vous puissiez

It is the best that you

can do.

faire.

C'est le meilleur que nous ayons.

Il

n'y a personne qui puisse le

very best

It is the

There

is

zve

have.

no one who can do

it.

faire.

Il

n'est rien qui soit comparable

Il

There

is

nothing

compared with

cela.

n'y a pas de mthode qui soit

There

is

which can be

that.

no easier method.

plus facile.
Il

n'y a que

mon

frre qui puisse

parler anglais chez nous.


C'est le plus
j'aie

beau monument que

jamais vu.

C'est le seul jour o je puisse


aller.

There is only my brother


speak English at home.
It is the most beautiful

that

I have

It is the only
there.

who can

monument

ever seen.

day that

I can go

Practical French Course

248

5. THE SUBJUNCTIVE

MUST BE USED

After the following conjunctive expressions

Avant que.

Suppos que

Afin que.

Soit que.

Pour que.
Pourvu que.
Bien que (cr) quoique.

Quel que.
Qui que.
Quoi que.
Quelque chose que.
Jusqu' ce que (or) que.

En

cas que.

Sans que.

Examples
Avant

vienne.
Afin qu'elle vienne.
Pourvu qu'il ne pleuve pas.
Jusqu' ce que je vienne.
Attendez qu'il vienne.
Soit qu'elle vienne ou non.
En cas qu'il pleuve.
Qui que ce soit.
Quoi que ce soit.
Quel que soit le prix.
Quelque bons amis qu'ils soient.
qu'il

Before he comes.
In order that she may come.
Provided it does not rain.
Until

I come.

Wait

till

he comes.

Whether she conies or


In case it rains.
Whoever it jnay be.

not.

Whatever it may be.


Whatever may be the price.
However goodfriends they be.

PRESENT AND IMPERFECT OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE


The

mood

determined by the
tense of the preceding verb, according to the following
rules

tense of the subjunctive

is

1.THE

PRESENT OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE

IS

REQUIRED

After the present and future tenses of the indicative mood.


faut que j'aille chez moi.
faudra que j'aille Boston.
Je ne pense pas que ce soit
Il

Il

possible.

I must go

home.

I shall have to go to Boston.


I do not think it is possible.

Practical French Course

2.THE

IMPERFECT OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE

249

IS

REQUIRED

After the past tenses of the indicative and after the conditional.
Je ne savais pas qu'il ft mari.
Je ne pensais pas qu'elle et des

/ did not know he was married.


I did not think she had children.

enfants.

Je voudrais que vous vinssiez.

I should like you

to come.

OBSERVATION
In conversation the imperfect of the subjunctive

is

gen-

by the present, the imperfect of the indicaby the conditional. This change has been recently authorized by an official decision of the French
erally replaced
tive,

or

Minister of Public Instruction.

PRACTICE.
PRESENT OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE.

IMPERFECT OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE.

Que voulez- vous que je fasse ?


Que voulez- vous qu'il fasse ?
Que voulez- vous que nous fassions?
Que voulez- vous qu'ils fassent ?

Que
Que
Que
Que

Je ne pense pas qu'il soit mari.

Je ne pensais pas qu'il ft (ou tait)


mari.

Je ne pense pas qu'elle ait des


enfants.

Je ne pensais pas qu'elle et des


enfants.

Je ne crois pas que ce soit possible.

Je ne croyais pas que ce ft

Je ne crois pas que vous puissiez

Je ne croyais pas que vous pussiez


(ou pourriez) le faire.

vouliez- vous que je fisse ?

vouliez-vous qu'il
' '

'

'

ft

que nous fissions ?

vouliez-vous qu'ils fissent ?

possible.

le faire.

Je ne crois pas qu'il vienne.

Je ne croyais pas qu'il vnt (ou


viendrait).

Practical French Course

250

Pensiez- vous qu'il vnt

Pensez-vous qu'il vienne ?

viendrait)

Croyez- vous que ce soit possible

Croyiez-vous que ce ft possible

temps que

J'avais peur qu'il ne ft malade.

peur qu'il ne soit malade.


Je crains qu'elle ne soit malade.

J'ai

Il est

ou

Je craignais qu'elle ne ft malade.

je parte.

Il tait

temps que

je

partisse

(ou parte).
est

Il

Il est

temps qu'il parte.


temps que vous partiez.

C'est le

Il tait

Il tait

mieux que vous puissiez

faire.

temps qu'il partt.


temps que vous partissiez.

mieux que vous pussiez

C'tait le
faire.

C'est le mieux qu'il puisse faire.


Je regrette que vous ne puissiez

pas venir.

C'tait le

mieux

qu'il

pt

faire.

Je regretterais que vous ne pussiez pas venir.

EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION.


FRENCH CONSTRUCTION.

ENGLISH CONSTRUCTION.
i.

Where do you want me

i.

Where

2.

When do you want me to come?

2.

When

to

go

will

will

you that
you that

I
I

may go?
may

come?
4.

What do you want me


What do you wish me

5.

What do you wish him

3.

to take

3.

to sing

4.

What will you that I may take?


What wish you that I may

5.

What wish you

sing?
to

do

that he

may

do?
6.

Where do you want him

to go?

6.

Where

will

you that he may

go?
7.

When

do you want her to

come
8.

When

7.

When

will

come

do you wish us

to

come?

8.

When

wish you that we

come
9.

What do you want me

to do?
speak French.

10.

want you

to

11.

want you

to study.

you that she may

may

9.

What

will

10.

I will

that you

11.

I will that

I may do ?
may speak

you that

French.

you may study.

Practical French Course


12.

13.

want you to sing.


want you to tell me the

12.

I will

13.

that you

will that

may sing.
me may

you

say

la vrit.

truth.
14.

Do you think he

15.

Do you

16.

Do you

17.

Paris

251

will

come ?

15.

Think you that he may come ?


Think you that he may go to

16.

Think you that she may come?

17.

14.

think he will go to

Paris

think she will come


do not think she is rich.

think not that she

may

be

rich.
18.

19.

20. I

do not believe he is in New


York.
do not think she can speak
French ?

18.

at

19.

did not think that he was so

did not think she was


married.

New

20. I

thought not that he might


be so rich.

21.

thought not that she might


be married.

rich.
21.

not that he may be


York.
think not that she may be
able to speak French.

I believe

OBSERVATION.
The

subjunctive

mood being

of very great importance in

French, the pupil should study the above lesson most attentively and familiarize himself thoroughly with the same.

MEMORY

EXERCISE.

vaut mieux hasarder de sauver un coupable que de condamner


un innocent.
Voltaire)
Il

Tous nos jours vont la mort,


L/e remde est parfois pire que

le

dernier y arrive.
(Leno/e)

{Montaigne)

le mal.

translation:
It is better to risk

sparing a guilty person than to

condemn an

inno-

cent one.
All our days travel towards death, the last one arrives at (reaches)
it.

The remedy

is at

times worse than the

evil.

Practical French Course

252

TRENTE-HUITIEME LEON.

LESSON XXXVIII.
The Imperative Mood.

The

imperative

is

employed

express command, ex-

to

hortation, permission, prayer or entreaty.

HOW TO FORM THE

IMPERATIVE.

I. The
second person singular of the imperative is
always the same as the first person singular of the indicative present, minus the personal pronoun je.

Je parle,
Je

finis,

Je vends,
Je viens,

2.

/ speak.
Ifinish.
I sell.
I come.

The

first

Parle,

speak thou.

Finis,

finish thou.

Vends,

sell thou.

Viens,

come

thou.

and second persons plural of the imperative

are similar to the

same persons

of the indicative present,

minus the personal pronouns nous and vous.


Nous parlons,
Nous allons,
Nous partons,
Nous buvons,

we speak.
we go.

Parlons,

let

us speak.

Allons,

let

us go.

we depart.
we drink.

Partons,

let tes depart.

Buvons,

let

Vous parlez, you speak.


Vous allez, you go.
Vous buvez, you drink.

us drink.

Parlez, speak
Allez,

go

ye or you.

Buvez, drink!

Practical French Course

253

EXCEPTIONS.

The verbs

tre,

to

be ;

avoir,

have

to

pouvoir, to be able, and vouloir, to be willing,

imperative

aller,

make

to

go ;

in the

Sois,

be thou.

Aie,

Soyez,

be ye or you.

Soyons,

let

Ayez,
Ayons,

us

be.

Va,

go

have thou.
have ye or you.
let

us have.

thou.

Veuillez, be willing {kindly).

Puissiez-vous

may you

3. The English forms let him, let her, let them, are rendered in French by the third person singular or plural of

the subjunctive present.


Let him be.
Let her be.
Let them be.
Let him go.
Let them go.
Let him come.
Let them come.

4.

That he may be.


That she may be.
That they may be.
That he may go.
That they may go.
That he may come.
That they may come.

Qu'il soit.

Qu'elle

soit.

Qu'ils soient.

Qu'il aille.
Qu'ils aillent.

Qu'il vienne.
Qu'ils viennent.

In the imperative the pronoun or pronouns are placed

after the verb

the verb

when

when

the sentence

the sentence

is

Examples
Parlez-moi.
Parlez-nous.
Parlez-lui.

Parlez-leur.

Dites-le-moi.

Dites-le-nous.
Dites-le-lui.

Dites-le-leur.

is

affirmative,

negative.
:

Ne me parlez pas.
Ne nous parlez pas.
Ne lui parlez pas.
Ne leur parlez pas.
Ne me le dites pas.
Ne nous le dites pas.
Ne le lui dites pas.
Ne le leur dites pas.

and before

Practical French Coursk

254

PRACTICE.
What do yoti want me
what you please
Lay the table-cloth.

Que

voulez- vous que je fasse?


Faites ce que vous voudrez.

Mettez le couvert.
Mettez la table.
Otez le couvert.
Balayez le salon.
Lavez le plancher et les
Lavez la vaisselle.
Essuyez la vaisselle.
Epoussetez les meubles.

Clear the
escaliers.

qu'il fasse

What do you wa?it him to do


Let him do what he pleases.
Let him study his lesson.

Qu'il fasse ce qu'il voudra. (*)


Qu'il tudie sa leon.

voulez- vous qu'elle fasse

What do you want her to do ?


Let her do what she pleases.
Let her study her lesson.

Qu'elle fasse ce qu'elle voudra.


Qu'elle tudie sa leon.

Que voulez-vous

qu'ils fassent

Qu'ils fassent ce qu'ils voudront


Qu'ils tudient.

Qu'ils lisent.

Quand voulez-vous que

je

vienne ?

Venez quand vous voudrez.


Venez quand bon vous fera plaisir.

Quand

voulez- vous qu'il vienne

quand il voudra.
Qu'il vienne quand bon lui

Qu'il vienne

fera

What do you want them to do ?


Let them do what they will.
Let them study.
Let them read.

When do you wish me to come


Come when you will.
Come when you please.

veux

When do you wish him to come


Let him come when he will.
Let him. come when

plaisir.

(*) Je

table.

Sweep the parlor.


Wash the floor and stairs.
Wash the dishes.
Wipe {or dry) the dishes.
Dust the furniture.
Kindle the fire.
Iron my shirt
Study your lesson.
Go and mart this letter.

Etudiez votre leon.


Portez cette lettre la poste.

Que

do ?

Set the table.

Allumez le feu.
Repassez ma chemise.

Que voulez-vous

to

Do

{or) je dsire is understood.

Practical French Course

Quand

255

When do you wish them

come ?

dsirez- vous qu'ils


viennent?
Qu'ils viennent quand ils

Let them come when they

voudront.
Qu'ils viennent quand bon leur

Let them come when they please*

to

will.

fera plaisir.

dsirez- vous

que

Where do you wish me

j'aille?

to

go ?

Allez o vous voudrez.

Go where you please.

Where do you wish him to go


Let him go where he will.

dsirez-vous qu'il aille?

Qu'il aille o

il

voudra.

dsirez- vous qu'ils aillent

Qu'ils aillent o

ils

Where do you wish them to go


Let them go where they will.

voudront.

Que voulez-vous que nous fassions ?


Fumons un cigare.
Chantons une chanson.
Buvons un coup.
Jouons aux cartes.
Dansons.
Amusons-nous.
Allons au thtre.

What
Let
Let
Let
Let
Let
Let

will you have us do ?

us smoke a cigar.
us sing a song.
us have a drink.
is play cards.
us dance.
us enjoy ourselves.

Let us go

to the theatre.

EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION.


FRENCH CONSTRUCTION.

ENGLISH CONSTRUCTION.
i.

What do you want him

2.

study ?
Iyet him study his lesson.

2.

will you that he may


study ?
That he may study his lesson.

3.

What do you want

3.

What

4.

Iyet

to

1.

her to buy ?

her buy a theatre ticket.

4.

What

will you that she may


buy ?
That she may buy a " billet de

thtre."

5.

6.

Where do you want him to go


Let him go to Boston.

5.
6.

Where will you that he may go ?


That he may go to Boston.

256
7.

Practical French Course

When

do you want her

come

to

Let her come to-morrow.

9.

What do you wish her

to

10.

Let her wash the

11.

What do you wish them

do

floor.

will

you that she may

to

8.

That she may come to-morrow.

9.

What wish you

that she

10.

do?
That she may wash the

11.

What wish you

may

floor

that they

may

sing?

Let them sing a song.

13.

What do you wish them

to

do

Let them dance.

MEMORY
Il est

When

12.

14.

7.

come ?

8.

sing

12.

That they may sing

13.

What wish you

14.

do?
That they may dance.

a song.

that they

may

EXERCISE.

plus ais d'tre sage pour les autres que pour soi-mme.

Le moment du

pril est celui

du courage.

{La Rochefoucauld)
{La Harpe)

Jamais nous ne gotons de parfaite allgresse. {Corneille)


Le monde est une figure trompeuse qui passe. {Buffon)
L'harmonie la plus douce est la voix de celle que l'on aime.
{La Bruyre)
Les meilleures harangues sont celles que le cur a dictes.
{Marmonte)
{Fabre d' Eglantine)
L'arbrisseau le pins sain a besoin de culture.
La colre et la prcipitation sont deux choses fort opposes la
prudence. (Fnelon)

translation:
It is easier to

The time

We never

be wise for another than for one's

self.

of peril is the time for courage.

enjoy perfect (unalloyed) happiness.

The world is a deceitful picture which passes before us.


The sweetest harmony is the voice of her whom we love.
The best addresses are those which the heart has dictated.
The healthiest shrub needs cultivation.
Anger and precipitation are two things very much opposed
prudence.

to

Practical French Course

257

TRENTE-NEUVIEME LEON.
LESSON XXXIX.
MISCELLANEOUS RULES

I.

How

to

Render
I

in

COULD,

French the English Form


I

COULD HAVE.

I could and I could have are rendered in French, the former by the conditional present, the latter by the conditional past of the verb pouvoir, either tense followed by a
verb in the

infinitive.

Je pourrais venir.
Je pourrais mourir.
J'aurais pu venir.
J'aurais

The

pu mourir.

I could (to) come.


I could (to) die.
I could have come.
I could have died.

following are these two important tenses

CONDITIONAL PAST.

CONDITIONAL PRESENT.

/ would be

/ would have

able, etc.

Je pourrais.
Tu pourrais.

J'aurais pu.

Il pourrait.

Il

Nous pourrions.
Vous pourriez.

Nous aurions pu.


Vous auriez pu.

Ils pourraient.

Ils

Tu

aurais pu.

aurait pu.

auraient pu.

been able,

etc.

Practical French Course

258

II.

How

to

Render in French the English Form

I SHOULD
SHOULD HAVE

The English

(or) I

(pr) I

OUGHT TO.
OUGHT TO HAVE.

forms I should (or) / ought

have, are rendered in French, the former

to, I ought to
by the conditional

and the latter by the conditional past of the verb


either tense followed by a verb in the
to owe

present,
devoir,

infinitive.

J'aurais

I ought to study.
I s ho uld ha ve studied.

The

following are these two important tenses

Je devrais tudier.
d tudier.

CONDITIONAL PRESENT.

/ ought

CONDITIONAL PAST.

I ought

to, etc.

Je devrais.

J'aurais d.

Tu

Tu aurais

devrais.

to have, etc.

d.

aurait d.

Il devrait.

Il

Nous
Vous

Nous aurions d.
Vous auriez d.

devrions.
devriez.

Ils devraient.

III.

Ils

How

to

Render

in

MAY

MIGHT)

infinitive.

je puis, je
It

may

auraient d.

French the English Form


before a verb.

The English form / may, I


dered by

might, I might have,

be also

is

ren-

by an
translated idiomatically by il est

pourrais, j'aurais pu, followed

Practical French Course


possible que (or)

by a verb

il

se peut que,

il

se pourrait que, followed

the subjunctive mood.

in

Je puis venir (or)


II est
Il

Il

possible que je vienne (or) v

se peut

que

je

vienne.

Il se

come.

possible qu'il vienne (or) y He

may

come.

peut qu'il vienne.

Je
J

pourrais venir
r

Il

se pourrait que je vinsse.)

(or)

>

IT might come.
.

I might have come.

pu venir.
pu venir.
Klle aurait pu venir.
Ils auraient pu venir.

J'aurais

He might have

aurait

come.

She might have come.


They might have come.

AM
Ne

The

/ may

peut venir (or)

Il est

Il

259

NOT TO BE PITIED?

suis- je

pas plaindre ?

passive form, used in English to express that some-

done or undergone, is rendered


by the infinitive, preceded by the preposition .

thing

Il est
Il

is

to be

plaindre.
plaindre.

n'est pas

Ils

Ils

sont plaindre.
ne sont pas plaindre.

Vous
Vous

tes plaindre.

n'tes pas

plaindre.

in

He is to be pitied.
He is not to be pitied.
They are to bej>itied.
They are not to be pitied.

You are
You are

to be pitied.

not to be pitied.

French

Practical French Course

260

Qu'y
Il

a-t-il

faire ?

What is

n'y a rien faire.

There

HOW

is

PITY YOU

there to be done ?

nothing

The adverb how, used as an exclamation,


French either by que or comme.
Que

je

vous plains (or)


vous plains

How I pity you !


How I pity you !

vous aime (or)


je vous aime

How I love you !


How I love you !

Comme je
Que

je

Comme
Que

c'est joli

is

rendered

in

How pretty it is !
How pretty it is !

(or)

Comme c'est joli

to be done.

THINK

CAN DO

IT.

In French two verbs in the infinitive

mood

are often

placed in succession, the second being the regimen of the


first.

I think I can do it.


I thought I coidd come.

Je crois pouvoir le faire.


Je pensais pouvoir venir.

The

expressions

wish

WISH

COUI,D.

I could,

wish

I were,

wish I had,

are rendered in French by j'aimerais pouvoir (or) je voudrais


pouvoir, j'aimerais tre (,or) je voudrais tre, j'aimerais

avoir (or)

je

voudrais avoir.

Practical French Course


J'aimerais pouvoir parler

261

/ wish I could speak

French.

I wish I could speak

French.

franais (or)

Je voudrais pouvoir parler


franais

J'aimerais tre riche (or)


Je voudrais tre riche.

/ wish I were rich (or)


I should like to be rich.

J'aimerais avoir dix ans de


moins.
Je voudrais bien avoir dix ans de
moins.

I wish I were

NOT THAT

I should like

ten years younger.

to be ten

years

younger.

THINK HE

IS

GUILTY.

The word not is sometimes translated


and more emphatically by non pas.

in

Non que je le croie coupable.


Non pas que je le croie coupable.

Not
Not

Assurment non.
Je pense que non.
Je crois que non.

Assuredly not.
I think not.

French by non,

that

I believe him guilty.

that

I believe him guilty.

I believe not.

DO YOU KNOW HOW TO SWIM?

After the verb


in

to

know the adverb how

is

not translated

French.

Savez-vous nager ?

Do you know how to swim ?

Oui, je sais nager.

Yes,

Savez-vous ramer ?
Savez-vous jouer aux cartes

I know how

to

swim.

Do you know how to row f


Do you know how to play cards ?

Practicai,

262

French Course

Savez- vous jouer au billard ?


Savez- vous jouer aux checs ?

Do you know how to play billiards?


Do you know how to play chess ?

Savez- vous compter en franais ?

Do you know how to

count in

French ?

PRACTICE.
Vous devriez prendre une leon

You should take a

lesson every day.

tous les jours.

Vous devriez

faire

de l'exercice.

Vous auriez d apporter votre

You should take

You ought

to

exercise.

have brought your

book.

livre.

Vous auriez d amener votre ami.

You should have brought your


friend.

Vous n'auriez pas d

l'oublier.

Vous n'auriez pas d y

aller.

You should not have forgotten


You should not have gone

Would you

there.

not like to have an

N'aimeriez- vous pas avoir un


(or) une automobile ?
Si, je l'aimerais beaucoup.

Yes,

Savez- vous conduire ?


Savez-vous monter cheval

Do you know how to drive ?


Do you know how to ride on

it.

automobile ?

I should

like

it

very much.

horseback ?

Savez-vous aller bicyclette

n'est pas croire.


Cela n'est pas faire.
Que c'est cher

Ce

Que

c'est loin

Qu'il fait chaud

Pensez- vous pouvoir y aller?


Je pense pouvoir y aller.

Do you know how


It is

to ride

a bicycle?

not to be believed.
is not to be done.

That

How dear it is !
How far it is ! (It is so far!)
It is so

warm !

Do you

think you can go there ?

I think I can go

there.

Practical French Course

263

EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION


FRENCH CONSTRUCTION.

ENGLISH CONSTRUCTION.
1.

2.

You should study the verbs.


You should take exercise.

i.

2.

You ought
You ought

to study the verbs.

to

make some

exercise.
3.

He

should take more exercise.

3.

He ought

to

make more

of

exercise.
4.

She should take three lessons

4.

She ought to take three lessons

a week.

5.

per week.

She may come.

5.

It is possible that

she

may

come.
6.

They may come.

6.

It is possible that

they

may

come.
7.

may go

to Paris.

7.

It is possible

may go

that I

to

Paris.
8.

may

return sooner.

8.

more

13.

How beautiful it is
How dear it is
How kind you are
How pretty she is
How pretty you are

14.

wish

15.

wish

16.

wish

9.

10.
11.
12.

may return

It is possible that I

soon.

13.

How it is beautiful
How it is dear
How you are amiable
How she is pretty
How you are pretty

were in your place.

14.

should like to be at your

could go to Paris.

15.

should like to be able to go

had a million

16.

9.

10.

11.

12.

place.

to Paris.
dollars.

should like to have one


million of dollars.

17.
18.
19.

20.

Do you know how to dance ?


Do you know how to sing ?
Do you know how to play cards?
Do you know how to do it ?

17.
18.
19.
20.

Know you to dance ?


Know you to sing ?
Know you to play at the cards ?
TTnr-ci7
-von it
i+ to
fr do
rlr>?
Know you
?

Practical French Course

264

QUARANTIEME LEON,
LESSON XL.
PRACTICAL EXERCISE
ON SOME IMPORTANT VERBS OF THE FIRST CONJUGATION.

AIMER,

The verb

to love, to like.

aimer, followed by an

infinitive,

generally re-

quires the preposition , but aimer mieux, to like better,

takes no preposition.

M 'aimez- vous

Do you

love

me ?

I love you.

Oui, je vous aime.

Yes,

M'aimes-tu?

Dost thou

Oui, je t'aime.

Yes,

Je l'aime beaucoup.

I am very fond of it.


I am very fond of tht

Je les

aime beaucoup.

I do
I do
I do

Je ne l'aime pas.
Je ne l'aime pas.
Je ne les

aime

I love

pas.

love

me ?

thee.

not like
not like

him or

not like them.

J'aime monter cheval.


J'aime mieux aller en voiture.

I like
I like

Vous ne m'aimez pas


Mais si, je vous aime.
Qui m'aime bien aime mon

You do not like me !

chien.

her.

it.

to

ride on horseback

better to drive.

Why, yes I do.


Love 7ne, love my

do.

Practical French Course

TROUVER,

The verb
O

preceded by the adverb

to like,

avez- vous trouv cela

l'ai

trouv dans

un peu

Comment

Un

ce vin

is

trans-

un peu

I find it a

wine ?

do you like {find) these


grapes ?
Ifind them a little sour (green).

surs.

How did you like {find) Paris?


Ifound it

trs beau.

very beautiful.

A foundling

enfant trouv.

FELICITER,
Permettez-moi de vous

to congratulate.

Allow me

fliciter.

to cotigratulate you.

I congratulate you.
I congratulate you on your

Je vous flicite.

Je vous flicite de votre belle

ful

voix.

beauti-

voice.

I congratulate you on yourprogress

Je vous flicite de vos progrs en

in French.

franais.

Je vous fais

this

little sour.

How

ces

avez- vous trouv Paris

trouv

the street.

How do you like {find)

Je les trouve

l'ai

Ifound it on

aigre.

Comment trouvez-vous

Je

hozv,

Where did you find that ?

la rue.

Comment trouvez-vous
Je le trouve
raisins

to find, to like.

French by trouver.

lated in

Je

265

I compliment you very

mes compliments bien

sincerely.

sincres.

Je vous adresse

mes plus

sincres

I tender you my most

PENSER
In

its

sincere

congratulations.

flicitations.

, to

think

of.

usual meaning, the verb penser requires the pre-

position before the object, but

if it

signifies to

have an

Practical French Course

266

opinion about someone or something

it

takes the prepo-

sition de.

A qui pensez-vous ?
Je pense mon ami.
A quoi pensez- vous?

Of whom do you think ?


I think of my friend.

Of nothing.

What are you thinking off

rien.

Pensez moi.
Avez- vous pens moi ?
Oui, j'ai pens vous.

Think of me.

Did you think of me ?


Yes, I have thought ofyou.
Think of it ; think
I will think of it.

Pensez-y.
J'y penserai.

Y avez-vous pens ?

over.

Did you think of it?


I have thought of it.
I have not thought of it.

J'y ai pens.
Je n'y ai pas pens.

N'y pensez

it

Do not think of it any more.


I do not think of it any more.

plus.

Je n'y pense plus.

Que pensez-vous de moi

What do you think of me ?


(that) you are very

Je pense que vous tes trs


aimable.

I think

Pensez votre avenir.


bonne pense.

Think of yourfuture.
That is a good thought.

C'est une

kind.

DIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS,
Penser mal.
Penser tout haut.

ma

manire de penser.
pense.
Pendant que j'y pense.
Sans y penser.
C'est

A ce que

je

To think wrong.
To think aloud.
Thai is my way of thinking.

To

my mind ;

While

in

my opinion.

I think of it.

Unintentionally.

Practical French Course

PASSER,

to pass, to

Laissez-moi passer.
Voulez- vous me passer cela

O
Je

Will you hand

passe chez

me that ?

You cannot go

that

way ; go

this

way.

ici.

avez- vous pass la soire

l'ai

call upon.

Let me pass.
?

Vous ne pouvez pas passer par


passez par

spend (time), to

267

madame

Where did you spend the evening ?


it at Mrs. JV's.

I spent

N.

Voulez-vous passer chez moi ?


Voulez- vous avoir la bont de
passer chez moi ?
Veuillez passer chez moi.
Je passerai chez vous demain.

Will you call at my house ?


Will you have the kindness to call
on me f
Kindly call on me.
I will call on you to-morrow.

Avez- vous pass chez le docteur?


Oui, j'ai pass chez lui, mais il
n'y tait pas.

Did you call upon the doctor ?


Yes, I called on him, but he was
not at home.

IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS.
That flower is faded.

Cette fleur est passe.


jours sont passs.

Mes beaux

My best days are over.

Cela m'a pass de l'esprit.


Il a t pass par les armes.
Il a t pass au fil de l'pe.
J'ai pass par de rudes preuves.
Cela me passe.

That has slipped my memory.


He was shot militarily.
He was put to sword.

Passez votre chemin.


Passez par dessus ce mur.
C'est pass de mode.

DEMANDER,

to

I have gone through

ask for,

to wish, to

want.

DEMANDER , to ask from or of.


Que demandez- vous ?
Je ne demande rien.

severe trials.

That is beyond my comprehension.


Pass on ; go your way.
Pass over this wall.
It is now out offashion

What do you want ?


Nothing.

Practical French Course

268

Whom

Qui demandez- vous ?


Je

Je
Je
Je

demande
demande
demande
demande

le

la concierge.

demande de

A qui faut-il

demande?

What

He

l'eau chaude.

que

je

cashier.

I want the book-keeper.


I want the janitor.
I want the janitress.

livres.

le concierge.

Qu'est-ce qu'il
Il

teneur de

do you want?

I want the

le caissier.

demande

does he want f
wants some hot water.

From whom must I ask

la

permission ?
the Mayor.

permission ?

From

Demandez-la au maire.

IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS.
Cela

demande du temps

et

de

la

That requires time and patience.

patience.

demande une explication.


demande l'aumne.

Cela

That requires an explanation.

Il

He seeks alms

On vous demande.
On demande une femme

{charity).

You are wanted.

A chamber-maid is wanted.

de

chambre.

On demande un commis

sachant

CHERCHER,

A clerk familiar with French is


wanted.
nothing better.

bien le franais.
Je ne demande pas mieux.

I ask for

to

look for, to search.

Que cherchez-vous ?

What are you looking for ?

Je cherche mes gants.


Que cherche-t-il ? (or)

I a7n {oo king for my gloves.


What is he looking for f
What is he looking for ?

Qu'est-ce qu'il cherche ?


Il

cherche son carnet.

Allez
Allez
Allez

me chercher un marteau.
me chercher un clou.
me chercher un tourne-vis.

He is

looking for his note-book.

Go and bring me a hammer.


Go and bri?ig me a nail.
Go and bring me a screw-driver.

Practical French Course

269

IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS.
Go for a physician.
Sendfor the doctor.
He tries to pick up a quarrel with

Allez chercher un mdecin.

Envoyez chercher

le docteur.

cherche noise tout

Il

monde

le

everybody.

(or)

He

cherche querelle tout le


monde.
Il cherche midi quatorze

Il

tries to

pick up a quarrel with

everybody.

He

looks for difficulties

where

there are none.

heures.

Cherchez

la

femme

Find

the

woman

EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION


FRENCH CONSTRUCTION.

ENGLISH CONSTRUCTION.
1.

2.
3.

4.

Do you like wine ?


Do you like beer ?
Do you like flowers ?
What do you like better

i.

2.

3.

4.

7.

Have you found your gloves ?


Where them have you found ?
How find you New York ?

8.

How have

congratulate him.
congratulate her.

5.

Did you

5.

6.

Where

6.

7.
8.

Like you the wine? (m.)


Like you the beer? (f.)
Like you the flowers ?
What like you better ?

find your gloves ?


did you find them ?

How do you like New York


How did you like Paris

you found Paris ?

9.

him

10.

I shall

10.

her shall congratulate.

11.

have congratulated them.


Give him my compliments.

11.

12.

Make

them have congratulated.


to him my complimentSc

9.

12.

15.

think of you all the time.


have thought of you.
Do you think of me ?

16.

I will

13.

13.

14.

14.

think of you.

17.

Whom

l8.

Ask

19-

He

20.

21.

is

he asking for?

of the janitor.

wanted.
Boy wanted.
What is she looking for ?
is

congratulate.

think to you all the time.


have thought to you.

me ?

15.

Think you

16.

I will

17.

Whom demands he?

to

think to you.

20.

Ask to the janitor.


One him demands.
One demands a boy.

21.

What

18.
19.

searches she ?

Practical French Course

270

QUARANTE ET UNIEME LEON,


LESSON XLI

PRACTICAL EXERCISE
ON SOME IMPORTANT VERBS OF THE FIRST CONJUGATION.

QUITTER,

The verb

quitter

is

to leave, to quit.

used

in reference

to persons

and

places and sometimes to things in the sense of to abandon,

give up,

to

to

remove.
She has left her husband.
She has left her house.
He has abandoned business.
He gave up the game.

Elle a quitt son mari.


Elle a quitt sa maison.
Il

a quitt le commerce.

Il

a quitt la partie.

Take

Quittez vos souliers.

LAISSER,

The verb
ever,

laisser

is

sometimes used

offyour shoes.

to leave, to let.

generally said of things.

persons

in reference to

It

to allow, to let.

O
Je

est votre livre

l'ai laiss

l'cole.

Laissez-moi tranquille.
Laissez-le tranquille.

Laissez cela tranquille.

Where

I left

is your

it

book ?

at school.

Leave me alone.
Leave him alone.
Leave that alone.

is,

in the

how-

sense of

Practical French Course;

271

IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS.
Laissez-moi

faire.

C'est prendre ou laisser.

Vous avez

laiss

tomber quelque

Leave it to me.
Take it or leave it.
You have dropped something.

chose.
Il

He

laisse tout l'abandon.

She

Elle laisse tout traner.

leaves everything in disorder.


lets

everything

lie

about in

disorder.

DESIRER,

to desire, to

wish.

Que dsirez-vous ?

What do you wish

Je dsire vous parler.

I desire

Je ne dsire rien.
Je ne dsire plus rien.
J'ai tout ce que je dsire.

I desire nothing.
I desire nothing more.
I have all I desire.

SOUHAITER,
Je vous souhaite le bonjour.
Je vous souhaite une bonne nuit.

un bon voyage.
une bonne anne.
Je vous souhaite un joyeux Nol.

Je vous souhaite
Je vous souhaite

to speak to you.

to wish.

/ bid you good day.


I bid you good night.
I wish you a pleasant trip.
I wish you a happy 7iew year.
I wish you a merry Christmas.

PORTER and MENER, to carry, to take to a place.


APPORTER and AMENER, to bring.
EflPORTER and EHHENER, to take away
The verbs

porter, apporter

things (except carnages.)

and emporter are used

for

Practical lu bnch Course

272

The

verbs mener, amener and emmener are used for per-

sons and animals.

The verb

porter

is

also used in the sense of to wear, to

have on (clothes.)
Portez cette lettre la poste.
flenez cet enfant l'cole.

Take this letter to the post-office.


Take that child to school.

Apportez votre

Bring your copy-book.


Bring y ourfriend.

Amenez

cahier.

votre ami.

Emportez

ce livre.

Emmenez

votre chien.

Amenez-moi une

voiture dcou-

Take that book away.


Take your dog away.
Bring me an open carriage.

verte.

Amenez-nous une

voiture ferme.

L,e

ce

chemin

ce sentier

vent a emport

closed carriage.

That brings good luck.


That brings bad luck.

Cela porte bonheur.


Cela porte malheur.

O mne
O mne

Bring us a

Where

mon

chapeau.

1/ amour l'emporte souvent sur la

road lead to ?
path lead to f

does this

Where does

this

The wind has blown my hat off.


Love often gets the better of reason.

raison.

Cette considration l'emporte sur


toutes les autres.

That consideration outweighs every


other.

LEVER, to lift up, to raise.


SOULEVER, to lift up, to stir up.
ELEVER, to raise, to erect, to bring
ENLEVER, to carry off, to remove.

Levez la main droite.


Soulevez ce paquet.

up.

Raise your right hand.


Lift up this package.

Practical French Coursic


That child is well-bred.
That boy is ill-bred.

Cet enfant est bien lev.

Ce garon

est

273

mal lev.

Enlevez cela de dessus la table.


Voyez si vous pouvez enlever cette

Take that off the

table.

See ifyou can remove this stain.

tache.

VERSER, to pour, to shed.


RENVERSER, to upset, to spill.
BOULEVERSER, to upset, to unsettle.

Pour me something to drink.


I have shed many tears.

Versez-moi boire.
vers bien des larmes.

J'ai

J'ai
J'ai
J'ai
J'ai

J'ai

J'ai

Il

I have
I have

renvers la cafetire.
renvers la thire.
renvers la soupire.
renvers le sucrier.
renvers le saladier.
renvers la salire.

a t renvers par

Il est

tomb

la

Nous sommes en

une

upset the coffee-pot.


upset the tea-pot.

I have upset the soup-tureen.


I have upset the sugar-bowl.
I have upset the salad-bowl.
I have upset the salt-cellar.
voiture.

renverse.
train de

dm-

He was thrown down by a carriage.


He fell backwards.
We

are

moving our furniture.

nager.

Tout
Tout

est

Everything
Everything

boulevers.

est sens dessus dessous.

OTER,
Otez votre pardessus.
Otez a de l.
Otez- vous du chemin.

to

take

off,

to

is

upset.

is

upside down.

remove.

Take offyour coat.


Take that away from
Stand out of the way.

there.

Practical French Course

274

TRAVAILLER,
Je travaille du matin au
Vous travaillez trop.
Ne travaillez pas tant.
Il

work.

to

/ work from morning


You work too much.
Do not work so much.

soir.

faut que je travaille pour gagner

I have

work

to

to

to night.

my

earn

living.

ma vie.
PESER,
Combien pesez-vous

to

weigh.

How

much do you weigh ?


one hundred and

I weigh

Je pse cent cinquante livres.

fifty

pounds.
C'est

un bon poids.

That

Voulez- vous peser cette lettre


Elle fait plus que le poids.

aime

les

this letter ?

to praise, to rent.

She was very much praised.


She likes praise.

louanges.

House

Maison louer.
Appartement meubl louer.

Chambre garnie

good weight.

It is over-weight.

lle a t trs loue.


Elle

Will you please weigh

LOUER,

is

louer.

EilPECHER,

to let.

Furnished apartment to
Furnished room to let.

let.

to hinder, to prevent.

Vous m'empchez de travailler.


Il m'a empch de sortir.

You hinder me from working.


has prevented me from going

He

out.

Je ne vous

empche pas d'y

Je ne puis l'empcher.
Iv'un

n'empche pas

l'autre.

aller.

I do

not prevent

I cannot

help

you from going.

it.

The one does not preclude the other.

Practical French Course;

ESPERER,

to hope.

DESESPRER,
J'espre que vous russirez.
Je l'espre.

J'espre vous revoir bientt.


J'espre en Dieu.
Je vis d'espoir (or) d'esprance.

de russir.
perdu tout espoir.

J'ai l'espoir
J'ai

275

to

despair.

I hope that you


I hope so.

will succeed.

I hope to see you soon


I trust in God.
I live in hope.
I hope to succeed.
I have lost all he te.

C'est sans espoir.

It is hopeless.

Je suis au dsespoir.

I am in despair.
I despair.

Je dsespre.
Il ne faut jamais dsesprer.
Tant qu'il y a de la vie il y a de

again.

We must

never
While there is life there

is

hope

l'espoir.

REGARDER,
Que regardez- v dus ?
Je regarde cette enseigne.
Cela vous regarde.
Cela ne le regarde pas.
Il m'a regard de travers.

to

look

What are you looking

I am

He looked cross

is

to

at me.

break

is employed in speaking of fragile things


and also for a will and a judgment. The
used in speaking of other things and also in

casser

as glass, china

verb briser

at ?
looking at that sign.

That concerns you.


That does not concern him.

CASSER, BRISER,

The verb

at.

a moral sense.

Practical French Course

276

Who has broken that window-glass?


The will has been broken.
The judgment has been reversed.

Qui a cass cette vitre ?

Le testament a
L,e jugement a

t cass.

c^s.

I am

Je suis tout bris.

Vous me brisez
Cela

me

brise le

Brisons l-dessus

sore all over.

You break my

cur.
cur.

le

heart.

That breaks my heart.


Let us say no more about

(idiom)

it

EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION.


FRENCH CONSTRUCTION.

ENGLISH CONSTRUCTION.

Why did

1.

Why has

Where

2.

Where have you

3.

What

she leave her home ?


did you leave your um-

brella

What

Why

brella

does he wish ?
did you not bring your

friend

Why have you not brought your


friend

Can you

Where do you work ?


Did you work yesterday ?
How much does your brother

Is this

Why
10.
11.
12.

she upset ?
remove you not your coat ?

ther?
14.

How much weighs he ?


How much weighs she?

15.

This house

to

16.

Have you some rooms furnished

from go-

17.

He me

does he weigh ?
does she weigh ?

house to

let

13.

let?

to let

prevented

me

ing out.

hope to see him soon.


Who broke this glass ?
Who broke that chair ?
I

to raise this trunk

Where work you ?


Have you worked yesterday ?
How much weighs your bro-

Have you furnished rooms

He has

What has

did she upset ?


Why do you not take off your
coat ?

How much
How much

Raise the head.

What

weigh

5.

Hold up your head.


Can you lift up this trunk

your um-

4.

book

did you not bring your

left

wishes he ?
Why have you not brought your

book?

Why

she left her house

19.

she to let

has prevented from to

go out.
hope him to see soon.
Who has broken this glass ?
Who has broken that chair ?

18. I

20.

is

Practical French Course;

277

QUARANTE-DEUXIEME LEON.
LESSON XLII
PRACTICAL EXERCISE
ON SOME IMPORTANT VERBS OE THE EIRST CONJUGATION.

PRESENTER,

to

present, to introduce.

Permettez-moi de vous prsenter


monsieur X.
J'ai l'honneur de vous prsenter

madame X.

the

present you Mr. X.

honor of presenting you

Introduce me to yourfriend.
Introduce me to him.
Give him or her my regards.

Prsentez-lui mes respects.

JOUER,
joue bien c'est un bon acteur.
joue fort bien
c'est une
;

Bile

bonne

I have

to

Mrs. X.

Prsentez-moi votre ami.


Prsentez-moi lui.

Il

Permit me

actrice.

to play.

He plays well; he is a good


She plays very well ; she

is

actor.

a good

actress.

Voulez- vous jouer aux cartes


qui est-ce jouer?

Will you play cards ?

Whose turn

is it

to

play t

It is your turn to play.

C'est vous jouer.

IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS.
Touchez- vous du piano

Je joue de la mandoline.

Do you play the piano ?


Iplay the mandoline.

Il

He plays

Il

Let us throw dice.


Play us a tune.
He played 711e a trick.

pince de la guitare.
Jouons aux ds.
Jouez-nous un air.

Il

m'a jou un tour.


joue la hausse.
joue la baisse.

Il

m'a

Il

jou.

the guitar.

He is a bull. (Broker's term.)


"
He is a bear.
He has deceived me.
'*

Practical French Course

278

VOLER,
Il

vole ses clients

un voleur.
c'est une

c'est

Bile a vol une bague


voleuse.

to steal, to rob, to fly.

Cet oiseau est bless il ne peut


pas voler.
Le temps passe bien vite.
;

Le temps vole.

Vous ne
Il

ne

l'a

l'avez pas vol


pas vol

(idiom)

He robs
She

DERANGER,

a ring ; she

That bird

is

thief.

wounded ;

is

Time passes very


Time flies.

di

cannot

You deserve
deserves

quickly.

it

richly !

it

richly !

to disturb.

Est-ce que je vous drange ?


Vous ne me drangez nullement.

Am I disturbing you ?

Je suis fch de vous dranger.

I am sorry to
I am sorry

Je suis fch de vous avoir dran=

fly.

He

his customers ; he is a thief.

stole

You do not

disturb

me

in the

least.

disturb you.

have

to

disturbed

you.
Je vous en prie, ne vous drangez
pas.

GNER,

to

me

gnent.

Je suis gn, (idiom)


Il est sans-gne.

Ne

to

vous gnez pas.

is

no trouble

hurt ^garments, shoes.)

Am lin your
Not

tout.

souliers

There

incommode, to embarras,

Est-ce que je vous gne

Mes

not trouble your-

self.

C'est sans drangement.

Pas du

I beg you, do

at

way?

all.

My shoes hurt me.


I am

He
Do

ill at ease.

does not stand on ceremony.

not stand on ceremony.

Practical French Course

TAQUINER,

279

to tease.

Ne me taquinez pas.

Do not tease

Vous aimez taquiner.


Vous tes un taquin.

You like to tease.


You are a tease.

DEMEURER, HABITER,
RESTER,

to

me.

to live, to dwell, to inhabit.

remain, to stay.

O demeurez-vous ?
O demeure votre frre ?
O demeurent vos parents ?

Where do you live ?


Where does your brother live?
Where do your parents live?

Avez- vous habit l'Angleterre ?


habit l'Angleterre et
l'Allemagne.

Have you lived in England?


Yes I have lived in England and

Cette maison est bien habite.


Cette maison est mal habite.

That house has good tenants.


That house has bad tenants.

Nous sommes voisins.


Nous demeurons porte

We are
We are

Oui, j'ai

porte.

Restez ici.
Restez un peu plus.
O en sommes-nous rests

Combien de temps

neighbors.

next-door neighbors.

Stay here.

Stay a
?

(id.)

tes- vous rest

Paris ?
J'y suis rest prs de deux ans.

PAYER,
me payer ?

Germany.

little

longer.

Where did we leave off?

How

long

did you remain in

Paris ?

I remained nearly two years.

to pay.

Je vous paierai demain.


J'ai pay toutes mes dettes.

Can you pay me ?


I will pay you to-morrow.
I have paid all my debts.

Donnez-moi un reu.
Faites-moi une quittance.

Give me a receipted bill.

Pouvez-vous

Give

me a

receipt.

Practical French Course

28o

IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS.
Payer de belles paroles.
Payer d' audace
Payer en mme monnaie.

To pay with fine words.


To face it out.
To pay in like.

Vous me

/ will be revenged on you.


I will be revenged on him.

Il

me

la paierez

la paiera

TACHER, to try, to endeavor.


ESSAYER, to try, to attempt, to try
Je tcherai de venir.

Je tcherai de

mieux

faire l'ave-

to come.
to

do better in the

ture.

nir.

Essayez
Essayez
Essayez

Try on
Try on
Try on

ce chapeau.
celui-ci.
celle-ci.

FERMER,
Je sens

/ shall try
I shall try

on.

un courant

Fermez
Fermez

this one. (/.)

to shut, to close.

Ifeel a

cold draught.
Shut the door.
Shut the window.

d'air.

la porte.

la fentre.

Fermez les yeux.


Fermez la bouche.
Ferm pour cause de

this hat.
this one. (m.)

Close your eyes.

Close your mouth.


dcs.

Closed on account of death.

IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS.
Fermez
Il

Lock the

la porte clef.

Je lui ai

ferm

la porte

COMPTER,

door.

He closed up his shop.

a ferm boutique.

au

nez.

I shut

the door in his face.

(kng-tay) to count, to intend,

Comptez votre monnaie.


Que comptez- vous faire ?
Quand comptez-vous partir ?
Vous pouvez compter sur moi.
Vous pouvez y compter.

to

depend.

Count your change.


What do you intend to do ?
When do you expect to leave
You can depend upon me.
You can depend upon it.

fu

Practical French Course

CONTER, RACONTER,
Contez-moi cela.
Contez-moi votre affaire.
Racontez-moi votre histoire.
Je vous conterai cela une autre

281

to relate, to tell

Tell

me

that.

Tell nie your case.

Tell

me your

will

tell

story.

you that some other

time.

fois.

CHANTER,

to sing.

He

Il

chante

Il

a une fort belle voix.

trs bien.

He

Elle chante admirablement.

sings very well.


has a very fine voice.

Elle chante ravir.

She sings admirably.


She sings wonderfully well.
She sings ravishing ly.

Chantez-nous quelque chose.

Sings

Je ne sais que chanter.


Chantez la Marseillaise.

I do not know what to

Elle chante merveille.

MANQUER,

tes

Sing the

something.
*
'

sing.

Marseillaise.

'

'

to miss, to lack, to fail.

manqu le train.
manque mon coup.
Ne manquez pas de venir.

J'ai

J'ai

/ have missed the train.


I have missed my aim.

Do

not fail to come.

DIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS.
me manque
manque de tout.
II me manque cinq francs.
J'ai manqu de mourir.
Vous l'avez manqu belle.
L'argent

/ have

II

He is destitute.
I am five francs short.

Il l'a

chapp

belle.

ne

manque

pas d'intelligence.

Il

not the money.

I came near dying.


You had a narrow

escape.

He had a narrow escape.


He is not deficient in intelligence,

Practical French Course

282

Vous avez manqu votre

devoir.

You have failed in your duty.

Manquer l'occasion.
Manquer du ncessaire.
Un peintre manqu.

C'est une affaire

It is a failure.

Il

manque deux

To miss an

occasion.

To want for

manque.
pages.

necessaries.

would-be painter.

There are two pages missing.

EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION

FRENCH CONSTRUCTION.

ENGLISH CONSTRUCTION.
Did you pay him ?
pay him to-morrow.
Did he give you a receipt ?

Him

I shall

Have you

6.

Did you try on your dress ?


Why did you close the door ?
Why do you not close the

7.

Did you count your change ?

1.

2.
3.

have you paid ?


shall pay to-morrow.
(To) you has he given a

him

receipt
4.
5.

9.

10.

11.
12.
13.

14.
15.

Did you pay him?


I will introduce you to
What did he steal ?

her.

He stole a horse.
I am afraid to disturb you.
I am afraid to disturb him.
Why do you tease me
He always teases me.
?

tried your dress?

Why have you closed the door


Why close you not the win-

dow ?
Have you

window ?

8.

14.

counted
your
change ?
Him have you paid ?
I you will present to her.
What has he stolen?
He has stolen a horse.
I have fear of you to disturb.
I have fear of him to disturb.
Why me tease you ?

15.

He me

teases always.

Where
Where

lives

9-

10.

II.
12.

13.

Where does your friend live?


Where did you live before ?

l6.

Did he remain in Paris ?


She sang very well.

18.

19.

19-

Is he remained at Paris ?
She has very well sung.

20.

He

20.

He

16.
17.

18.

sings out of tune.

17-

your friend

lived you before ?

sings faux.

Practical French Course

283

QUARANTE-TROISIEME LEON.

LESSON

XLIII.

PRACTICAL EXERCISE
ON SOME IMPORTANT VERBS OF THE SECOND AND THIRD CONJUGATIONS

CHOISIR,

Puis-je choisir

May I choose ?

Let me

Laissez-moi choisir.
Choisissez.

GRANDIR,

to
to

Il

a beaucoup grandi.

Il

a agrandi son magasin.

blush ?

Do not make me blush.


Do not blush.

grow

get

to blush.

Why do you

Pourquoi rougissez- vous ?

Ne me faites pas rougir.


Ne rougissez pas.

Vous maigrissez.
Vous avez maigri.
Vous grossissez.
Vous avez beaucoup

choose.

Choose.

ROUGIR,

HAIGRIR,

to choose.

grossi.

AGRANDIR, to enlarge.
GROSSIR, get stout.

tall.

thin.

to

He has grown very tall.


He has enlarged his store.
You are getting thin.
You have got thin.
You are growing stout.
You have got very stout.

Practical

284

OBEIR,

to obey.

French Course

DESOBEIR, to disobey.

These verbs are not active

in

French.

They always

take

the preposition before a noun.

Un bon

enfant obit toujours ses

A good child always

parents.
Il

ne dsobit jamais ses matres.

PUNIR,

Si vous n'tes pas sage, je vous


punirai.
S'il n'est pas sage, punissez-le.
Il

JOUIR

This verb

He never disobeys his masters.

to punish.

Ifyou are not good {wise) I shall


punish you.
If he is not good, punish him

He was punished.

a t puni.

is

(de), to enjoy, to possess.

not active in French.

preposition de before a noun. To

rendered

in

French by s'amuser,

Je jouis d'une bonne sant.


Il

obeys his pa-

rents.

jouit d'une grande fortune.

It

always takes the


generally

eiijoy one's self'is

to

amuse

one's self.

I enjoy good health.

He possesses

a large fortune.

Vous amusez- vous?

Do you

m'amuse beaucoup.
Vous tes- vous amus ?

I enjoy myself very much.


Did you e?ijoy yourself ?
I enjoyed myself very much.

Je

Je

me

suis

beaucoup amus.

enjoy yourself ?
'

Practical French Course

QUERIR,
Votre ami
Il est

est-il

guri

to cure, to

to recover.

Has yourfriend recovered?

He has

compltement guri.

REUSSIR,

I wish he may succeed.


Did you succeed?
I did not succeed.

Avez- vous russi ?


Je n'ai pas russi.
to

render\ to give back.

me rendre un service ?
m'a rendu un bon service.
Rendez-moi mon argent.
Votre lettre m'a rendu trs heuVoulez- vous

to succeed.

/ hope you will succeed.

J'espre que vous russirez.


Je souhaite qu'il russisse.

RENDRE,

completely recovered.

He is a very good physician.


He has cured me.

un trs bon mdecin.


m'a guri.

C'est
Il

get cured,

285

Will you do me a favor ?


did me a good service.
Give me back my money.
Your letter made me very

Il

He

reux.
Cela me rend malade.

That makes

me sick.

IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS,

May God reward you.

Dieu vous le rende


Je vous rends grce.
Je suis rendu.
Je vous rends votre parole.

I give you thanks.


I am tired out.
I release you from your

Rendre avec usure.


Rendre compte.
Rendre tmoignage.
Rendre un arrt.
Rendre raison.
Rendre l'me.
Rendre la pareille.
Rendre son dner.

To return with interest.


To give an account.
To bear witness.
To issue a decree.
To account for.
To give up the ghost ; to die.
To return like for like.
To throw off one'' s dinner.

word.

Practical French Course

2 86

ATTENDRE,

to

Qu'attendez-vous ?
Qui attendez- vous ?
J'attends le facteur.
J'attends du monde.

wait for, to expect.

For what are you waiting ?


For whom are you waiting ?

I am waiting for the letter-carrier.


I expect company.

Avez-vous attendu longtemps ?


J'ai attendu plus d'une heure.

I am sorry to keep you waiting.


Have you waited long ?
I have waited over one hour.

Y a-t-il longtemps que vous atten-

Have you

Je regrette de vous faire attendre.

dez
Il

been waiting long ?

y a une heure que j'attends

M 'avez-vous attendu?
Je vous ai attendu jusqu' midi.

Je l'attends tout moment.


Je suis las d'attendre.
Qu'il attende.

I have

been waiting one hour.

Did you wait for me ?


I waitedforyou until twelve o'clock.
I expect him every minute.
I am tired of waiting.
Let him wait.

IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS.

Vous vous
Il se fait

faites attendre.

toujours attendre.

Vous pouvez vous y attendre.


Il fallait s'y

Je

attendre.

m'y attendais.

ENTENDRE,

You keep people waiting.

He

always keeps people waiting.

You can expect it.


It was to be expected.
I expected that.

to hear.

ENTENDRE DIRE or OUR DIRE, to hear something said.


ENTENDRE PARLER, to hear spoken of.
RECEVOIR DES NOUVELLES, to hearfrom.

Practical French Course

287

M'entendez- vous ?

Do you

Je vous entends.

I hear you.

Ne m'avez-vous pas entendu ?

Did you not hear me ?


I heard you.

Je vous ai entendu.
J'ai

Je

entendu dire qu'il est mort.


entendu dire, or

l'ai

Je l'ai ou dire.
Je le sais par ou=dire.
J'ai

entendu parler de

lui.

J'en ai entendu parler.

Avez-vous reu des nouvelles de


Mr. X. ?
J'ai reu de ses nouvelles ce matin.

hear

me

I have heard he is dead.


I heard it said.
I heard it said.
I know it by hearsay.
I have heard of him.
I have heard of it.

Have you heard from Mr. X.


I heardfrom him

this

morning.

IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS.

I understand you.

Je vous entends.
Il n'entend pas raison.
Il n'entend pas raillerie.
Vous n'y entendez rien.
Il n'y entend rien.

Entendons-nous.
Qu'entendez-vous par
C'est entendu.

On ne s'entend pas.
Je m'entends.
Il s'y entend.
Cela s'entend.
Il est trs entendu.

He

does not listen to reason.

He

cannot take a joke.

You know nothing about it.


He knows nothing about it.
Let us come to an understanding.
What do you 7nean by that ?
That

is

understood ; agreed !

One cannot hear another speak.

I know what I mean.

He is an

expert.

as a matter of course.
very skillful in his profession

Of course ;

He is

{medical).

Practical French Course

288

REPONDRE,
Rpondez-moi.
Pourquoi ne rpondez-vous pas

to

answer.

Answer me.
?

Qu'avez-vous rpondu?

Why do you

not answer

What did you answer?

Je n'ai rien rpondu.

I answered nothing.

Je rponds de
J'en rponds.

I answerfor him.
I answerfor it.

lui.

Je m'empresse de rpondre votre


aimable lettre du 3 courant.

DEFENDRE,

I hasten

to

of the 3d

answer your kind letter


instant.

to forbid, to prohibit, to defend.

On me dfend de sortir.
On me l'a dfendu.
Le mdecin m'a dfendu de fumer.
Dfense de fumer (id.)

I am forbidden to go out.
I have been forbidden.
The physician forbade me

to smoke.

No smoking allowed.

Dfendez-moi.

Defend me.

Je vous dfendrai.

I shall defend you.

EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION


FRENCH CONSTRUCTION.

ENGLISH CONSTRUCTION.

1.

2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

7.

Which one did you choose ?


Which ones did he choose?
You are blushing.
She blushed.
He is growing tall.
She is getting thin.
That girl obeys her parents.

2.

Which have you chosen ?


Which has he chosen ?

3.

You

4.

She has blushed.

1.

5.

6.
7.

blush.

He grows

(tall).

She gets thin.


That girl obeys

to her parents.

Practical French Course


8.

That boy disobeys his parents.

8.

289

That boy disobeys to his parents.

9. I

10.

11.
12.

13.
14.

15.
16.

17.

shall punish you.

Did you punish him ?


Did he succeed?
I hope he will succeed.
He enjoys good health.
Did you expect us ?
Why did you not wait ?
I cannot wait any longer.
What did she answer ?

18. I shall

19.

defend you.
you not defend

Why did

22.

23.
24.

me ?

was forbidden.
Did you answer ?
Will you answer him ?
Do not answer him.
How long did you wait ?

20. I

21.

you shall punish.


10. Him have you punished ?
11. Has he succeeded ?
12. I hope that he will succeed.
13. He enjoys of a good health.
14. Us have you expected ?
15. Why have you not waited ?
16. I cannot to wait more long time.
17. What has she answered ?
18. I you shall defend.
19. Why me have you not defended?
9.

23.

One me has forbidden...


Have you answered ?
To him will answer you ?
To him answer not.

24.

How much

20.

21.
22.

waited
25.

27.
28.

29.
30.

Can you

Can you wait ?

25.

cannot wait.
Has your brother recovered
He has recovered.
Who cured him ?
Doctor X. cured him.

26. I

26. I

MEMORY
Nul

of time

to wait

27.

Your brother

He

29.

cannot to wait.

28.

30.

is

is

he cured ?

cured.

Who him has cured ?


The doctor X. him has

mcontent de son

Iv'ignorance toujours est prte s'admirer.

dpend toujours de

soi d'agir

cured.

EXERCISE.

n'est content de sa fortune, ni

esprit.

{Mme.
Il

have you

Deshoulires)

{Boileai)

honorablement.
( Girault-Duvivier)

Ici-bas, tout passe, tout casse, tout lasse.

translation:

No one

is pleased with his fortune, nor displeased with his wit.


Ignorance is always ready to admire itself.
It is always in our power to act honorably.
Here below, all passes away, all is fragile, everything wearies.

Practical French Course

290

QUARANTE-QUATRIEME LEON.
LESSON

I.

How to Form the Compound Tenses


Verbs

of the

The

of

Motion.

following are called verbs of motion

venir, to come ; sortir, to


to

XLIY.

arrive

go

out

retourner, to return

; partir, to

aller,

depart

entrer, to enter

to

go ;

arriver,

tomber,

to fall.

These verbs have

their

compoimd

tenses formed, not with

the auxiliary to have, as in English, but with the auxiliary


to be.

Thus we say

Je suis all,
J'tais all,

Je serai all,
Je serais all,

Que
Que

je sois all,

je fusse all,

Etant

all,

From
formed.

I am gone ;
I was gone,
I will be gone,
I would be gone,
that I may be gone,
that I might be gone,
being gone,

the above

first

for I have gone or I went.


/ had gone.

/ will have gone.


/ would have gone.
that I may have gone.
that I might have gone.
having gone.

persons the others can easily be

Practical French Course

291

PRACTICE.
O
Il

est votre frre


est sorti.

O
Il

est-il all

Where

He

Pourquoi n'tes-vous pas venu ?


Pourquoi n'est-il pas venu ?
Pourquoi n'est-elle pas venue ?
Pourquoi ne sont-ils pas venus ?
Pourquoi ne sont-elles pas venues

brother ?

Where did he go ?

est all Brooklyn.

A quelle

is your

He went out.

heure tes-vous parti

quelle heure est-il parti

went

to Brooklyn.

Why did you not come ?


Why did he not come ?
Why did she not come ?
Why did they (m.) not come ?
Why did they (f ) not come ?
At what time did you leave ?
At what time did he leave f

A quelle heure est-elle partie ?


A quelle heure sont-ils partis ?

At what time did she leave ?

Votre oncle est-il arriv ?


Votre tante est-elle arrive ?
Quand tes-vous arriv ?
Quand sont-ils arrivs ?

Has your uncle ariived ?


Has your aunt arrived ?
When did you arrive?
When did they arrive ?

S'il avait fait

beau temps

je serais

sorti.

seriez-vous all ?

Je serais all faire une


cheval.

promenade

Pensez-vous qu'il soit arriv


Pensiez-vous qu'il ft arriv

At what time did they

leave ?

If it had been fine weather I would


have gone out.
Where would you have gone ?
I would have gone for a ride on
horseback.

?
?

Do you think he has arrived ?


Did you think he had arrived f

Je ne pense pas qu'il soit arriv.


Je ne pensais pas qu'il ft arriv.

I do not think he has arrived.


I did not think he had arrived.

Je suis tomb la renverse.


Il est tomb.

Ifell backwards.

Votre ami est-il retourn (or de


retour) de son voyage ?
Il n'est pas encore retourn.

Has yourfriend returned from his

Qui est venu ?


Personne n'est venu.

He fell ; he has fall

71.

trip ?

He

has not yet returned.

Who

has come ?

Nobody has come.

PRAcriCAi,

292

II.

French Course

Impersonal

Verbs.

The impersonal verbs can only be used in the third person singular. Ex.
Il pleut, it rains ; il pleuvait, it was
:

raining, etc.

PLEUVOIR,

Il

pleut.

Il

pleuvait.

to rain.

PLU,

raining.

rained.

It is raining {It rains).


It

was raining.

It rained.

Il plut.

Il

PLEUVANT,

It will rain.

pleuvra.

pleuvrait.
Qu'il pleuve.

It

Il

would rain.

That

it

may

going

rain.

Il

va pleuvoir.

It is

Il

a plu.

It has rained or been raining.

Il avait plu.
Il

aurait plu.

NEIGER,

It

had rained.

It

would have

That

Qu'il ait plu.

to

snow.

NEIGEANT,

it

rained.

may have

rained.

NEIGE, snowed.

snowing.

snowing {It snows).


was snowing.

Il

neige.

// is

Il

neigeait.

It

Il

neigea.

It snowed.

Il

neigera.

It will

Il

neigerait.

It

Qu'il neige.

to rain.

snow.

would snow.

That

it

may snow.

going

to snow.

Il

va neiger.

It is

Il

It has snowed.

Il

a neig.
avait neig.

It

had snowed.

Il

aurait neig.

It

would have snowed.

Qu'il ait neig.

That

it

may have

snowed.

Practicai,

Remark.

French Course

The verb neiger

is

293

often replaced in ordinary

conversation by the expression tomber de la neige".


Il

tombe de

Il

tombait de

Il

tombera de la neige.
va tomber de la neige.

Il

The

There is a fall of snow.


There was a fall of snow.
There will be a fall of snow.
There is going to be a fall of snow.

la neige.
la neige.

following verbs are conjugated like neiger

Bruiner,
Geler,
Grler,

To drizzle.
To freeze.
To hail.

FALLOIR, to

Grsiller,

Tonner,
Venter,
be necessary.

FALLU,

To sleet.
To thunder.
To blow {to

FALLANT,

be windy).

being necessary.

been necessary.
It is necessary.

Il faut.
Il fallait.

It

was (being)

Il fallut.

It

was necessary.

necessary.

Il

faudra.

It

will be necessary.

Il

faudrait.

It

would be

That

Qu'il faille.

Il

a fallu.

it

necessary.

may

be necessary.

It has been necessary.

Il avait fallu.

It

had been necessary.


would have been necessary.

Il

aurait fallu.

It

Il

va

It is going to be necessary.

falloir.

FAIRE CHAUD,
chaud.
chaud.
Il fera chaud.
Il ferait chaud.
Qu'il fasse chaud.

to be

warm

(to

make warm) of the

makes) warm.
was warm.
It will be warm.
It would be warm.
That it may be warm.

Il fait

// is (it

Il faisait

It

a fait chaud.
avait fait chaud.
Il aurait fait chaud.
Qu'il ait fait chaud.
Il va faire chaud.
Il
Il

weather.

has been warm.


had been warm.
It would have been warm.
It

It

That
It

is

it

may have

going

to be

been warm.
warm.

Practical

294

The

French Course

following are conjugated like faire chaud


To
To
To
To
To
Tb
To
To
To
To
To
To
To
To

Faire froid.
Faire frais.
Faire humide.
Faire lourd.
Faire beau temps.
Faire mauvais temps.
Faire du vent.
Faire du brouillard.
Faire de la poussire.
Faire mauvais marcher.
Faire du soleil.
Faire clair de lune.
Faire des clairs.
Faire nuit.

SEflBLER,

be cold (weather).
be cool.
be

damp.

be sultry.

be fine weather,
be

bad weather.

be windy.
be foggy.

be dusty.
be

bad walking.

be sunny.

be moonlight.
be lightning.
be night.

to seem.

Il

semble

Il

semblait.

It seemed.

Il

semblera.

It will seem.

Il

semblerait.

It

would seem.

Il

a sembl.

It

Il

avait sembl.

It

has seemed.
had seemed.

Il

aurait or

It

would have seemed.

// seems

que...

il

et sembl.

IMPORTER,
Il

importe

Il

importait que....
importerait que.

Il

que....

to matter.

// matters that....
It

It

ETRE TEHPS,
II

est temps.
temps.
serait temps.

that...,

mattered that..,.
would matter that

to be time.

It is

Il tait

It

Il

It

was time.
would be time.

Practical French Course

Y AVOIR,

295

there to be {there to have\.

y a. {Idiomatic.}
y avait.
Il y aura.
Il y aurait.
Qu'il y ait.
Qu'il y et.

There is or there are.


There was or there were.
There will be.
There would be.
That there may be.
That ttiere might be.

y a eu.
y avait eu.
Il y aura eu.
Il y aurait eu.
Qu'il y ait eu.

There has or have been.


There had been.
There will have been*
There would have been.
That there may have been.
There is going to be.

Il
Il

Il

Il

va

Il

avoir.

EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION


FRENCH CONSTRUCTION.

ENGLISH CONSTRUCTION.
1.

I went...

2.

He

went...

I am gone...
He is gone...

3.

We

went...

We are gone...

4. I
5.

arrived yesterday.

We

am

We

arrived last night.

arrived yesterday.

are arrived yesterday eve-

ning.
6.
7.

When did he leave ?


When did your friend

8.

When did

9.

Would you have come

she return

leave

?
?

Why

did not your sister come


n. Did he not fall ?
10.

12. I
13.

entered.

How

is

When is he departed ?
When your friend is he

am entered.
What weather makes it ?
I

the weather

weather.
raining?
not raining.

makes

fine weather.

14. It is fine

It

15. Is it

Is it that it rains

16. It is
17.

Do you think

18. I
19.

it

do not think

Were

20. It is

there

de-

parted ?
When is she returned ?
Would you be come ?
Why your sister is she not come?
Is he not fallen ?

will rain?

it

will rain.

many people ?
me to leave.

time for

It rains not.

may rain ?
it may rain.
There had it many of people ?
It is time that I may depart.

Think you that


It

it

don't think that

Practical French Course

296

QUARANTE-CINQUIEME lEON.

LESSON XLY.
IRREGULAR VERBS.

Verbs which are not conjugated

tenses and

in all their

persons after the model verb of the conjugation to which

they belong are called

The
lar

Ii'i'egular.

irregularity lies chiefly in the three persons singu-

and the third person plural of the Indicative present.

We

will,

give that

therefore,

tense

in

full,

but will

mention only the first person of the other tenses.


From
that the others can easily be formed as their terminations
are, as a rule, regular.

Pupils must not forget that, in conversation, the Past


Definite

is

generally replaced by the Past Indefinite.

ALLER,

to

go.

ALLANT,

going.

OTHER TENSES.

INDICATIVE PRESENT.

Je vais,
Tu vas,
Il

va,

Nous
Vous
Ils

allons,
allez,

vont,

Igo, I am going,
thou goes t.
he goes,

ALLE,

gone.

(1st person.)

J allais,
'

J'allai, (je suis all,)


J'irai,

we go.
you go.

J'irais,

they go.

Va, Allez,

Que

j'aille,

/ was going.
/ went.
I shall go.
I would gc.
that Imay go.
go.

Practical French Course

297

PRACTICE.
Let the pupil answer the following questions
O vas-tu ?
O allez- vous ?
O va-t-il ?
O vont-ils ?
O tes-vous all ?
O est-il all?
O sont-ils alls?
O irez- vous ?
O irons-nous ?
O voulez-vous que

Where art thou going ?


Where are you going f
Where is he going ?
Where are they going ?
Where did you go ?
Where did he go ?
Where did they go f
Where will you go ?
Where will we go ?
Where do you wish me to go ?

j'aille ?

IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS.
Allez au devant de
Allez chercher

Go and meet him.


Go for a physician.

lui.

un mdecin.

Il

va venir.

He

Il

y va de

Life

Cela

me

la vie.

bien.

Aller reculons.

Aller ttons.

Aller de l'avant.
Aller au trot.

Allez toujours.

Va pour du
Allez-y

vin.

(pop.)

come presently.

at stake.

Go there !

Allons donc

Nonsense !

VENIR,

to come,.

VENANT,

Je viens, 1 come I am coming.


viens, thou comest.
Il vient,
he comes.
,

Tu

is

That suits me.


That hat is very becoming to you.
To go backwards.
To grope along.
To go forward.
To trot.
Go on ; do not stop.
All right ; let us have wine.

va.

Ce chapeau vous va

will

coming.

VENU,

come.

I was coming
Je venais,
Je vins, (je suis venu), I came.
I shall corne.
Je viendrai,
Je viendrais,

/would come.

Practical French Course

298

Nous venons,
Vous venez
,

Ils

viennent,

we conte,
you come,

Que
Que

they come.

je vienne,

that

je vinsse,

that

Viens, Venez,

Verbs conjugated
To come again.
To become.
Parvenir, To succeed.
Survenir, To happen unexpectedly.

Revenir,
Devenir,

I may come.
I might

come.

like venir.

To hold, to
To retain.
Dtenir,
7o detain.
Appartenir, To belong.
Tenir,

Retenir,

PRACTICE,
Let the pupil answer the following questions
Venez- vous ?

Are you coming?

Viendrez- vous ?

Will you come?


Will he come ?
Did he come ?

Viendra-t-il ?
Est-il

venu ?

Voulez- vous que je vienne


Reviendra-t-elle ?
Qu'est devenu votre ami ?
Qu'est-elle

devenue?

Tiendrez- vous votre parole ?


A qui appartient cette maison ?

A qui appartiennent ces chevaux ?


Est-ce que ceci vous appartient ?

Do you

me to come ?
come back ?
What has become ofyour friend?
What has become of her ?
Will you keep your word?
To whom does this house belong ?
To whom do these horses belong ?
Does this belong to you?
wish

Will she

IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS
venir Peau la bouche.
qui vient.
Faites venir le mdecin.
Je viens de dner.
Il vient de sortir.
O voulez- vous en venir ?

Cela

fait

I,e voil

Je n'en reviens pas.

Son nom ne me revient

pas.

That makes one's mouth water.


There he comes.

Send for the physician.


I have just had my dinner.
He has just gone out.
What are you driving at?

I am astounded at it.
I do not recollect his

?iame.

Practical,

Frknch

me

tiendrai debout.

Tenez bon
Je tiens
Il tient

299

One dollar is due you (on it).


Stand up.
I will stand up.
Holdfast!
I am anxious to explain (myself).

Il vous revient un dollar.


Tenez-vous debout.

Je

Course:

m 'expliquer.

He

de son pre.

takes after his father.


attached to him.

Je tiens beaucoup lui.


S'il ne tient qu' cela.

I am much

Qu' cela ne tienne.

Never mind that.

Je n'y tiens pas.


Je n'y tiens plus.

I do not care for it.


I can't stand it any

SORTIR,

to

go

out.

If it depends only on

that.

longer.

SORTANT, going out. SORTI, gone

Je sors,
Tu sors,

I go out, lam going out.


thou go est out.

II sort,

he goes out.

out.

I was going oui.


Je sortais,
Je sortis, (je suis sorti,) I went out.
I shall go out.
Je sortirai,
Iwouldgoout.
I may go out.
je sortisse, that I might go out
Sors, Sortez,
go out.
Je sortirais,

Nous
Vous

sortons,

we go

sortez,

you go
they

Ils sortent,

out.

out.

go

out.

Que
Que

Verbs conjugated
Sentir,

To

feel, to smell.

Ressentir, To have a sense of

OUVRIR,

to open.

OUVRANT,

je sorte,

like sortir.

Partir,

Dormir,

opening.

J'ouvre,

I open,

J'ouvrais,

Tu

thou openest.

J'ouvris,

he opens.

J'ouvrirai,

Il

ouvres,

ouvre,

To leave, to depart.
To sleep.

OUVERT,

J' ouvrirais,

Nous ouvrons, we open.


you open.
Vous ouvrez,
Ils

ouvrent,

they open.

that

Que
Que

'

ouvre,

opened.

I was opening.
I opened.
/ shall open.
/ would open.
that I may open.

j'ouvrisse, thai I might open.

Ouvre, Ouvrez, open.

Practical French Course

3oo

Verbs conjugated
Rouvrir, To reopen.

COURIR,

run.

thou runnest.
he runs.

court.

we

Souffrir,

COURANT,

I run.

Je cours,
Tu cours,
Il

to

like ouvrir.

To

suffer.

COURU,

running.

Je courais,
Je courus,
Je courrai,
Je courrais,
Que je coure,

Nous courons,
Vous courez,

you run.

Que

Ils courent,

they run.

Cours, Courez,

run.

je courusse,

Courons,

Verbs conjugated

run.

/ was running.
I ran.
I shall run.
I would run.
that I may run.
that I might run.
run.
us run.

let

like courir.

To run to.
To succor.
Concourir, To concur.

Accourir,
Secourir,

ACQUERIR,

to acquire.

ACQUERANT, acquiring. ACQUIS, acquired.


/ was acquiring.
I acquired.
J'acquerrai,
I shall acquire.
I would acquire.
J acquerrais
Que j'acquire, that I may

J'aquiers,

/ acquire,

J'acqurais,

Tu

thou acquirest.
he acquires.

J acquis,

Il

acquiers,

acquiert,

'

'

Nous acqurons,
Vous acqurez,
Ils

acquirent,

we acquire,
you acquire,

acquire.

Que

j'acquisse, that

I might

acquire.

they acquire.

Acquiers, Acqurez, acquire.

Verbs conjugated
Conqurir,
Reconqurir,
Requrir,

like acqurir.

Tou wr^ncr.
conquer.
reconqu
To reconquer.
To request.

Practical French Course

RECEVOIR,

to receive.

RECEVANT,

receiving.

Je reois,

I receive,

Je recevais,

Tu

thou receivest.
he receives.

Je reus,

reois,

Il reoit,

Je recevrai,
Je recevrais,

Nous recevons,
Vous recevez,
Ils

reoivent,

we receive,
you receive,

Que je reoive,
Que je reusse,

301

REU,

received.

Iwas receiving.

I received.
I shall receive.
I would receive.
that I may receive.
that

they receive.

I might

receive.

Reois, Recevez, receive^ accept.

Verbs conjugated
To collect {taxes).
To perceive.

Percevoir,

Apercevoir,

Remark.

When
When

Dcevoir,

Concevoir,

To
To

deceive.

conceive.

The verb

devoir, which is also conjugated


two meanings
followed by a noun it means to owe.
followed by a verb it means to be obliged to.

recevoir, has

like

like recevoir.

PRACTICE.
Combien vous dois-je ?
Combien vous doit-il ?
Combien vous doivent-ils ?
Combien lui devez- vous ?
Combien leur devons-nous ?

How much do I owe you ?


How much does he owe you ?
How much do they owe you ?
How much do you owe him f
How much do we owe them ?

Je dois le voir demain.


Il doit venir ce soir.

I must see him to-morrow.

Elle doit partir demain.

She

Il

ne doit pas avoir reu ma lettre,


or
Il n'a pas d recevoir ma
:

lettre.

He is to come this evening.


is to

leave to-morrow.

He must not have received my letter.


He must not have received my
letter.

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302

POUVOIR,

to be able.

POUVANT,

Je peux, or je puis, I can.


Tu peux,
thou canst.
Il peut,
he can.

Nous pouvons,
Vous pouvez,
Ils

being

PU, been

able.

Je pouvais,

/ was

J'ai pu,

7"

able.

able.

have been

able.

Je pourrai, 1 shall be able.


Je pourrais, I would be able.

we can.
you can.

Que je puisse, that I may be able.


Que je pusse, that I might be able.

they can.

Puissiez- vous,

peuvent,

may you

be able.

PRACTICE.
Puis-je vous

Que

demander une faveur ?


pour vous ?

puis-je faire

Pouvez- vous venir?


Pourrez- vous y aller
Avez- vous pu

lire

ma lettre ?

May I ask you

a favor ?

What can I do for you ?


Can you come ?
Will you be able to go there ?
Have you been able to read my
letter ?

Pensez- vous qu'il le puisse


Pourriez- vous

me

Do you

think he can do

Could you

dire...

it ?

tell me...

IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS.
I am

Je n'en puis plus.


Je n'en peux mais.
Je n'y puis rien.
Cela se peut.
Cela se pourrait.

VOULOIR,

to will or

tired out.

I am

not the cause of it.


I cannot help it.
It

It

may be.
might be.

want VOULANT,

willing.

Je veux,
veux,
Il veut,

/ will or want.

Je voulais,

thou wiliest.
he wills,

J'ai voulu,

Nous
Vous

we will,
you will,

Tu

voulons,
voulez,

Ils veulent,

they will.

Je voudrai,
Je voudrais,

Que

je veuille,

VOULU,

willed.

I wanted.
I have wished.
I shall wish.
I would wish,
that I may wish.

Veuillez... be willing, {kindly).

Practical French Course

33

PRACTICE.
Que
Que
Que
Que

voulez- vous
veut-il

What do you want ?


What does he want ?
What does she want ?
What do they want ?

veut-elle

veulent-ils

IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS.
Que

voulez- vous dire

What do you mean

Qu'est-ce que a veut dire

What does

voulez- vous

Je vous en veux.
Veuillez-vous asseoir.

SAVOIR,

know

Kindly be

{things).

SACHANT,

/ know.

Je sais,

Tu

to

savez,

Ils savent,

seated.

knowing. SU, known.

Je savais,

thou knowest.
he knows.
Il sait,
Nous savons, we know.
sais,

Vous

mean ?

Ifyou consent to it.


Are you angry with me ?
I am angry with you.

Si vous voulez bien.

M'en

that

J'ai su,

Je saurai,
Je saurais,

I knew.
I have known.
I shall know.
/ would know.
that I may know.

you know.

Que

they k?ww.

Sache, Sachez, know.

je sache,

PRACTICE.
Savez- vous nager ?
Savez- vous le latin

Je ne sais que faire.


Je le savais.

Que

sais- je

Qu'en savez- vous

Je n'en sais rien.


Je vous en saurai gr.

Pas que je sache.


Faites-le

moi

savoir.

Je vous le ferai savoir.

savoir.

Savoir-faire, savoir vivre, (subst.)

Do you know how to swim ?


Do y ou know Latin ?
I do not know what to do.
I knew it.
What do I know ?
What do you know about it ?
I don't know anything about it.
I will be grateful to you for it.
Not that I know.
Let me know it.
I shall let you know it.
Namely.
Good manners,

tact.

Practical French Course

3<>4

VOIR,

to see.

VOYANT,

seeing.

Je vois,

I see.

Je voyais,

Tu

Je

Il voit,

thou seest
he sees.

Nous voyons,
Vous voyez,

we see.
you see.

Je verrais,

they see.

Vois, voyez,

vois,

VU,

/ was seeing.
I saw.
I have seen.
I shall see.
I would see.
that I may see.

vis,

J'ai vu,

Je verrai,

voient,

Ils

Que

seen.

je voie,

see.

PRACTICE.
Que

What do I see ?

vois- je ?

Venez nous
vous

J'irai

Come and see us.


I will go and see you.
I will see you to-morrow.

voir.

voir.

Je vous verrai demain.

Il

IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS.
He receives no company.
voit personne.

ne
ne

Ils

se voient pas.

Nous ne nous voyons

pas.

C'est pour se faire voir.

MEMORY
1.

Les

hommes ne

They do not visit each other.


We do not visit each other.
It is to

show

off.

EXERCISE.

sont constants ni dans l'amour, ni dans la haine;

ne sont constants que dans l'inconstance.


2.
La vertu est prfrable aux richesses, l'amiti l'argent et l'utilit aux plaisirs.
L'ducation est l'esprit ce que la propret est au corps.
3.
4.
La modestie est au mrite ce que les ombres sont aux figures
dans un tableau.
5.
La simplicit de la nature est plus belle et plus aimable que tous
les embellissements de l'art.
6.
La physionomie est le miroir de l'me.
Regardez comme un ami sr l'homme sincre qui vous avertit
7.
de vos fautes, et non pas celui qui approuve tout ce que vous dites et
tout ce que vous faites.
8.
La libert est le plus grand de tous les biens.
ils

Practical French Course

305

QUARANTE-SIXIEME LEON.

LESSON XLVI
IRREGULAR VERBS.
(CONTINUED.)

PRENDRE,
Je prends,
prends,
Il prend,

Tu

PRENANT,

to take.

prennent,

Je prendrais,

I would take.

Que

that

Je pris,
J'ai pris,

they take.

again.

je

prenne,

I may

Prends, Prenez, take.

to understand.
to take

taken.

Je prendrai,

Je prenais,

Verbs conjugated
Comprendre,
Reprendre,

PRIS,

I was taking.
I took.
I have taken.
I shall take.

/ take.
thou takest.
he takes.

Nous prenons, we take.


you take.
Vous prenez,
Ils

taking.

like prendre.

Apprendre,
Surprendre,

to learn,
to surprise.

PRACTICE.
Que prenez-vous ?
Qu'avez- vous pris ?
Que prendrez- vous ?
Qu'avez- vous appris?
'avez- vous compris ?

What do you take ?


What have you taken ?
What will you take ?
What did you learn ?
Did you understand me ?

Practical French Course;

306

IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS.
Prendre
Prendre
Prendre
Prendre
Prendre
Prendre
Prendre
Prendre

To
To
To
To
To
To
To
To

l'air.

mouche.

la

la fuite.

en flagrant

dlit.

cong.
les devants.

chemin de l'cole.
son mal en patience.

le

take an airing.

take offense easily.

run away.
be caught in the

act.

take leave.
set out before.

take the longest way.


bear one'' s misfortune patiently

Je prends part votre douleur.


Je vous y prends.

You misconstrue my words.


You begin badly.
I took a liking to him.
I sympathize with you.
Now I have caught you.

Cela prend forme.


Ce cheval a pris le mors aux dents.

That is coming into shape.


That horse ran away (took the

Vous prenez mal mes paroles.


Vous vous y prenez mal.
Je

l'ai pris

en amiti.

etc.)

On ne m'y reprendra

plus.

Klle se prit pleurer.

Je

DIRE,

to say, to tell.

I say.

Tu

thou sayest.
he says.

dis,

Il dit,

to cry.

Do

pas moi.

Je dis,

be caught at

She began

I will

m'en prendrai vous.

Ne vous en prenez

I will not

saying.

disons,

J'ai dit,

dites,

Ils disent,

we say.
you say.

Je dirais,

they say.

Dis, Dites,

Que

me for it.
DIT,

said.

I was saying.
I said.
I have said.
I shall say.
I would say.
that I may say

Je disais,
Je dis,

Je dirai,

Nous
Vous

again.

lay the blame on you.

not blame

DISANT,

it

je dise,

say or

tell.

PRACTICE.
Je ne sais que dire.
Je n'ose le dire.

Ne

le dites

personne.

Je ne le dirai personne.

/ do not know what


I dare not say it.

Do
I

not

tell

will tell

anybody.

7io

one.

to say.

bit

Practical French Course

Que

dites- vous

What do you say ?

Qu'est-ce qu'il dit


Qu'a-t-il dit

307

What does he say ?


What did he say ?
What did she tell you ?
What did they tell you ?
What did you tell him ?
What did you tell them ?

Que vous a-t-elle dit ?


Que vous ont-ils dit ?
Que lui avez- vous dit ?
Que leur avez -vous dit ?

Dites ce que vous voudrez.


Qu'on dise ce qu'on voudra.

him or her to come.


kim to come in.
Say what you please.
Let people say what they please,

Dites la vrit.

Te yl the

Dites-lui de venir.

Tell
Tell

Dites-lui d'entrer.

Ne

Do

mensonge.

dites pas de

truth.

not tell

lies.

IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS.
That

is nothing to the purpose.


that by the way.
He finds fault with everything.
Ifyou have a mindfor it.
That goes without saying.
It is saying all.

Cela ne dit rien.


Cela soit dit en passant.
Il

But

trouve redire tout.

Si le

cur vous en

dit.

Cela va sans dire.


C'est tout dire.
C'est dire.

Pour

That is to say.
So to speak ; as

ainsi dire.

On dirait que...
On le dirait.
On et dit que...
Au dire de tout le monde.
Kst-ce dire que.

. .

Ce n'est pas dire

FAIRE,

to do,

One would have thought that...


According to what everybody says.

Does

que...

It does not follow that...

or make.

FAISANT,

itfollow that...

doing.

I do, I make.

Je faisais,

Tu

thou doest.

Je

he does.

J'ai fait,

Il fait,

were.

It looks like it.

Je fais,
fais,

it

It looks as though...

FAIT, done, or made.

fis,

Je ferai,

Nous faisons, we do.


Vous faites, you do.

Je ferais,

Ils font,

Faites,

they do.

Que

je fasse,

/ was doing.
I did or made.
I have done*.
I shall do.
I wotdd do.
that I may do.
do or make.

Practical French Course

3 o8

Verbs conjugated
undo.

like faire.

Dfaire,

to

Satisfaire,

to satisfy.

Refaire,

to do again.

Surfaire,

to overcharge.

Contrefaire,

to counterfeit.

Forfaire,

to forfeit.

PRACTICE.
Que
Que

faites-vous

Qu'est-ce qu'elle fait

Que

What are you doing ?


What is he doing f
What is she doing ?

f ait-il ?

font-ils

What are they doing ?


What have you done ?
What do you want me to do
What will you do ?
What would you do ?
What are you going to do ?
What have you to do ?

Qu'avez- vous fait ?


Que voulez- vous que je fasse
Que ferez- vous ?
Que feriez- vous ?

Qu'allez- vous faire ?


Qu'avez- vous faire?

IDIOMS.

Faire payer,
Faire penser,

one know
to show.
to charge for.
to remind.

Faire attention,

to pay attention

Faire une visite.

to pay

Faire savoir,
Faire voir,

to let

Faire des emplettes, to

visit.

make pur-

chases.
to give pleasure.

Faire plaisir,

improve.

Faire des progrs,

to

Faire semblant,

to feign.

Faire

faillite,

to cook (something).
to boil.

Faire la cuisine,

to cook.

Faire griller,
Faire du feu,

to

du
Faire du
Faire

bruit,

Faire l'aumne,

to

give alms.

make faces.

Faire relier, to get {a book) bound.


to court ladies.

Faire des courbettes,

to flatterfor

gain.

to roast.

to broil.

to

make afire.
make a noise.
make a noise.

tapage, to
Faire la moue,
to pout.
Faire prsent de., to present with..

Faire le malin,

to fail in business.

Faire des grimaces, to


Faire la cour,

Faire cuire,
Faire bouillir,
Faire rtir,

to

try to be cun-

ning.

Faire le malade,

to feign to be

Faire un procs,

to sue {legally).

Faire son droit,

to study law.

Faire bon accueil,

to

Faire sa malle,

to pack

welcome.
up.

Faire del' escrime, tofence.

ill.

Pkacticai,

French Course

turn a
deaf ear.
un costume, to have a
suit made.

Faire la sourde oreille,


Faire faire

to

309

Faire une bvue, to make a blunder.


Faire face (), to face.
Faire la planche, to float (swim).
Faire faire, to order (garments).

OTHER IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS.


Faites

mes amitis ...


mes amitis.

Give

N'y

pas attention.

faites

Faites-moi ce plaisir.
Je vais faire

un

tour.

Cela vous fait honneur.


Cela me fait peur.
Qu'est-ce que a fait

Cela ne fait rien.


Faites en sorte qu'il vienne.

mon

possible.

mon

Qu'y

Que

faire

mieux.

voulez- vous que j'y fasse?

J'ai fort

faire.

Une bonne

my

regards to.
best regards.
.

That frightens me.


What does it matter ?
It makes no difference.
Try to have him come.
all you can.

I shall do

all

I can.

Do your best.

Faites de votre mieux.


Je ferai de

best

Do not mind it.


Allow me that pleasure.
I am going out for a stroll.
That is an honor to you.

Do

Faites votre possible.


Je ferai tout

my

Give him

Faites-lui

I will do my best.
What is to be done ?
How can I help it ?
I have a great deal to

do.

A servant of all work.

tout faire.

Je n'en ferai rien.

I have no use for him.


I have no use for it.
I do nothing but sneeze.
I will do nothing of the kind.

Cela fait trs bien.


faites pas cas.

Make

C'est bien fait pour vous.

That serves you right.

Je n'ai que faire de lui.


Je n'en ai que faire.
Je ne fais qu'ternuer.

That looks very well.


light of it.

N'en

Vous

feriez

Comment

mieux

You had

de...

se fait-il que.

better.

How is it that...

Practical French Course

3io

Vous-avez beau

me

Je

Do what you
I am getting

faire...

fais vieux.

may...
old.

Il se fait tard.

It is getting late.

J'y suis fait.


"Jamais'', fit-elle, en pleurant.

I am used to

HETTRE,

to

put, to put on.

Je mets,

I put.

Tu mets,

thou puttest.
he puts.

Il

met,

METTANT, putting. MIS, put.

Que
Que

they put.

mettent,

I was putting.

Je mettais,
Je mis,
J'ai mis,

Iput.
I have put.

Je mettrai,
Je mettrais,

Nous mettons, weput.


you put.
Vous mettez,
Ils

it.

"Never", said she, crying.

je mette,
je misse,

Mets, Mettez,

Verbs conjugated
Permettre,
Promettre,

to

to

permit.
promise.

CONNAITRE,

to

like

{people).

put.

mettre.

Remettre,
Soumettre,

know

I shall put.
I would put.
that I may
that I might

to deliver
to

submit.

CONNAISSANT, knowing.

CONNU, known.

Je connais,
Tu connais,
Il

connat,

I know,
thou knowest.
he knows.

Je connatrais,
Que je connaisse,

/ used to know.
I did know.
I have known.
I shall k?ww.
I would know.
that I may

Que

that 1 might

Je connaissais,
Je connus,
J'ai

connu,

Je connatrai,

Nous connaissons,
Vous connaissez,

we know.
you know.

Ils connaissent,

they know.

je connusse,

Connais, Connaissez,

know.

Practicai,

VIVRE,

to live, to be alive.

French Course
VIVANT,

living.

311

VECU,

lived.

Je vis,

I live.

Je vivais,

I used

Tu

thou livest.
he lives.

Il vcut,

he lived {narrative).

vis,

Il vit,

J'ai vcu,

Je vivrai,

Nous
Vous

vivons,

we

vivez,

you

Ils vivent,

Je vivrais,

live.

Que
Que

live.

they live.

je vive,
je vcus

Vive, long

The verbs

revivre,

to

live

again,

to live,

I have lived.
I shall live.
I would live.
that I may live.
e, that I might
ve

Vivez, live.

and survivre,

to

survive, are conjugated like vivre.

ECRIRE,

to write.

ECRIVANT,

writing.

J'cris,

/ write,

J'crivais,

Tu

thou writest.
he writes.

J'crivis,

cris,

Il crit,

ECRIT,

J'ai crit,

J'crirai,

Nous
Vous

crivons,
crivez,

Ils crivent,

we write.
you write.
they write.

J'crirais,

Que
Que

j'crive,

j'crivisse,

Ecris, Ecrivez,

written.

/ was writing.
I wrote.
I have written.
I shall write.
I would write,
that I may
that I might
write.

Conjugated like crire, are the verbs dcrire,


and souscrire, to subscribe.

scribe,

to

de-

Practical French Course

312

LIRE,

to read.

LISANT,

Je Ms,

I read I am reading.

Tu

thou readest.
he reads.

lis,

11 lit,

Nous
Vous

lisez,

J'ai lu,

Je

lirai,

lirais,

read.

Je

you

read.

Que
Que

Ils lisent,

they read.

je lise,

je lusse,

read.

Lis, Lisez.

Conjugate
lire, to elect,

SUIVRE,

like lire, the

verbs

and

to reelect.

rlire,

relire,

Je suis,

Ifollow.

Tu

thoufollowest.

Je suivais,
Je suivis,

Il suit,

he follows.

J'ai suivi,

Nous
Vous

suivons,

we follow.

Je suivrais,

suivez,

you follow.

Que

they follow.

Suivez,

suis,

read over again,

to

SUIVANT, following.

to follow.

SUIVI, followed.

I was following.
Ifollowed.
I have followed.
I shall follow.
I wouldfollow.
that I may

Je suivrai,

Ils suivent,

CRAINDRE

:,

to fear.

Ifear.

Tu

thou fearest.

crains,

Il craint,

je suive,

CRAIGN>^NT, fearing.

Je crains,

he fears.

follow.

CRAINT, feared.

Je craignais,
Je craignis,
J'ai craint,

Je craindrai,

Nous
Vous

craignons,
craignez,

Ils craignent,

we fear.
you fear.
they fear.

Je craindrais,

Que
Que

read.

/ was reading.
I read.
I have read.
I shall read.
I would read.
that I may
that I might

Je lisais,
Je lus,

we

lisons

LU,

reading.

je craigne,

je craignisse,

Crains, Craignez,

I was fearing
Ifeared.
I have feared.
I shallfear.
I would fear.
that I may
that 1 might

fear.

Practical French Course

Verbs conjugated

313

like craindre.

Contraindre,

to constrain.

Peindre,

to paint.

Feindre,

to feign.

Plaindre,

to pity.

Atteindre,

to attain.

Eteindre,

to extinguish.

Geindre,

to

Enfreindre,

to infringe.

moan.

CONDUIRE,

to conduct.

CONDUISANT,

CONDUIT,

/ conduct,

Je conduis,
conduis,

Tu
Il

thou conductest.
he conducts.

conduit,

Nous conduisons, we cotiduct.


Vous conduisez, you conduct.
Ils conduisent,

they conduct.

conducting.

conducted.

/ was conducting.
I conducted.
I have conducted.
I shall conduct.
Je conduirai,
I would conduct.
Je conduirais,
Que je conduise, that I may
Que je conduisisse, that I might
Je conduisais,
Je conduisis,
J'ai conduit,

Conduis, Conduisez, conduct.

Verbs conjugated

like conduire.

Construire,

to construct.

Luire,

Cuire,

to bake, to smart.

Nuire,

to

harm.

Dduire,
Dtruire,

to deduce.

Produire,

to

produce,

to destroy.

Econduire,
Enduire,

to

to plaster.

Reconduire, to accompany
Reproduire, to reproduce,
Rduire,
to reduce,

Induire,

to induce.

Reluire,

to glitter,

Introduire,

to introduce.

Sduire,

to seduce.

Instruire,

to instruct.

Traduire,

to translate.

show

out.

to shine,

Practical French Course

3i4

RIRE,

Je

ris,

Tu

ris,

Il rit,

RIANT, laughing.

laugh.

to

/ laugh.

Je

riais,

thou laughest.
he laughs.

Je

ris,

rions,
riez,

Ils rient,

je rie,

/ was laughing.
I laughed.
I have laughed.
I shall laugh.
I would laugh.
that I may

je risse,

that I might

J'ai ri,

Je

Nous
Vous

RI, laughed.

we laugh.
you laugh.

rirai,

Je rirais,

Que
Que

they laugh.

BOIRE,

to

drink.

BUVANT,

Je bois,

I drink.

Tu

thou drinkest.
he drinks.

bois,

Il boit,

drinking.

BU, drank.

I was drinking.
I drank.
I have drunk.

Je buvais,
Je bus,
J'ai bu,

je boive,

I shall drink.
I would drink.
that I may

je busse,

that I might

Je boirai,

we

Nous buvons,
Vous buvez,

you drink.

Ils boivent,

they drink.

drink.

Je boirais,

Que
Que

Bois, Buvez,

CROIRE,

to believe.

CROYA NT,

Je crois,

I believe.

Tu

thou believest.
he believes.

crois,

Il croit,

Nous croyons, we believe.


Vous croyez,
you believe.
Ils croient,

they believe.

CRU,

J'ai cru,

Je croirai,
Je croirais,
je croie,

Crois,

Croyez

believed.

I was believing
I believed.
I have believed.

Je croyais,
Je crus,

je crusse

drink.

believing.

Que
Que

laugh.

Ris, Riez,

I shall believe.
I would believe.
that I may
that I might

believe.

Pracicai,

SUFFIRE,

Je

suffis,

Je

suffisais,

J'ai suffi,

to suffice.

Je plais,
Je plaisais,
J ai plu,
'

Il

est n,

Elle est ne,


Ils

sont ns,

Ils

He was

She was born.


They were born.

lam
we

dying.
dying.

are dying.

they are dying.

COUDRE,
Je couds,

is

to sew.

I sew.

Nous cousons, we sew.


I was sewing.
Je cousais,
I have sewed.
J'ai cousu,

HORT,
he

mort,

mourut,
Je mourrai,
Je mourrais,
Il

COUSANT,

born.

born.

dying.

Il est

NE,

being born.

Elle naquit.

he

meurent,

/ was born.

MOURANT,

I shall please.
/ would please.
that I may

Je naquis.

to die.

I may

PLU, pleased.

je plaise,

NAISSANT,

Ils naquirent.

Nous mourons,

je suffise, that

Je plairais,

Que

sufficed.

I shall suffice.
I would suffice.

Il naquit.

MOURIR,
Je meurs,
Il meurt,

suffirais,

Je plairai,

to be born.

or

suffirai,

PLAISANT, pleasing.

to please.

Je
Je

315

SUFFI,

sufficing.

Que

I please.
I was pleasing.
I have pleased.

NAITRE,

Je suis n,

SUFFISANT,

I suffice.
I was sufficing.
I have sufficed.

PLAIRE,

French Course

sewing.

dead.

is

dead,

he died.

I shall die.
I would die.

COUSU,

sewed.

Je coudrai,
Je coudrais,
Que je couse,

I shall sew.
I would sew.
that I may sew.

Cousez,

sew.

Practical French Course

316

QUARANTE-SEPTIEME LEON.
LESSON XLVII.
REFLEXIVE VERBS.

GENERAL RULES.
I.

Reflexive verbs are conjugated after the model verb

of the conjugation to which they belong.

2.

The

reflexive pronouns, in French, precede the verb.

3.

The

reflexive verbs, in French,

have

tenses formed with the auxiliary tre,

to be.

pronoun

is

compound
The objective

their

always placed before the auxiliary.

MODEL VERB.
FIRST CONJUGATION.

SIMPLE TENSES.

OTHER TENSES

INDICATIVE PRESENT.

I rest
Je

Tu

myself,

me repose.
te reposes.

se repose.
Elle se repose.
Il

etc.

To rest one's self.


Resting one's self.

se reposer.
se reposant.

INFINITIVE PRESENT.
PARTICIPLE PRESENT.

me reposais.
me reposai.
Je me reposerai.
Je me reposerais.
Que je me repose.

(1st

person sing.)

Je

/ was

Je

I rested myself.
I will rest myself.
I would rest myself.
that /may rest myself.

resting myself.

Practical French Course

Nous nous
Vous vous
Ils

me

reposons.

Que

reposez.

Reposez-vous.
Reposons-nous.
Qu'il se repose.

se reposent.

Biles se reposent.

je

317

That

reposasse.

I might

Rest yourself
Let us rest ourselves.

Let him

rest himself.

COMPOUND TENSES.
INFINITIVE PAST.

s'tre repos.

To have rested one's

PARTICIPLE PAST.

s'tant repos.

Having

self.

rested

him-

self.

PAST INDEFINITE.

/ have
Je

Tu

me

rested myself,

etc.

Nous nous sommes reposs.


Vous vous tes reposs.

suis repos.

t'es repos.

sont reposs.

Il s'est repos.

Ils se

Elle s'est repose.

Elles se sont reposes.

OTHER TENSES
Je m'tais repos.
me fus repos.

Je
Je

me serai repos.
me serais repos.
Que je me sois repos.
Que je me fusse repos.

Je

(ist

person sing.)

I had rested myself.


L had rested myself
L will have rested myself
L would have rested my self.
That L may have rested myself.
That I might have rested myself.

OBSERVATION.

From

the

first

easily be found.

person of the above tenses the others can

Practical French Course

318

PRACTICAL EXERCISE
ON THE REFLEXIVE VERBS MORE COMMONLY USED IN CONVERSATION.

Pourquoi
pas ?

Vous devriez vous reposer.


Je n'ai pas le temps de me reposer.
Je vais me reposer.
Vous tes-vous repos
Je

me

Why

ne vous reposez-vous

You ought

I am going to
Did you rest ?
I have rested.

suis repos.

A quelle heure vous couchez-vous


A quelle heure vous tes-vous

couch

coucherez-

vous ?
Allez vous coucher.

me

go

rest.

to bed.

At what time do you go to bed?


At what time did you go to bed ?

A quelle heure vous levez-vous


A quelle heure se lve-t-il
A quelle heure s'est-il lev

to

me

lve de

go

to

bed

to bed.

get up.

At what time do you get up ?

Get up

faut que je

time will you

At what time does he get up


At what time did he get up ?

L,evez-vous

At what

Go to bed.
I am going

coucher.

SE LEVER,

Il

to

to rest.

quelle heure vous

Je vais

to rest.

I have no time

SE COUCHER,

do you not rest f

bonne

I must get up early.

heure.

S'EVEILLER,

to

awake.

Je m'veille de bonne heure.

Je
Je

me
me

suis veill tard.


suis rveill

deux

fois.

SE REVEILLER,

to

awake again.

I awake very early.


I awoke late.
I awoke twice.

Practical French Course;

REMARK.

Used as an

awaken some one

rveiller

319

means

active verb, veiller

means

to

sleep.

Wake me up at five o'clock.


Do not forget to wake me up.

Kveillez-moi cinq heures.

N'oubliez pas de

Vous m'avez

m 'veiller.

SE RAPPELER,
Vous rappelez- vous
Je

me

me

Do you remember ?
I remember.
I do not remember.

rappelle pas.

Vous rappelez- vous Mr.

me

Vous

Do you remember Mr.

rappelerez-vous

Will you remember

Je me le rappellerai.
Rappelez-vous.

I will remember

trompe.
trompe.
Vous vous trompez.
Je me suis tromp.
Il s'est tromp.
Nous nous sommes tromps.

Je ne

me

tes- vous

Ne vous trompez
Je

ne

me

pas tromp

suis pas tromp.

pas.

tromperai pas.

it

it.

to be

mistaken.

/ am mistaken.

me

He is mistaken.

Il se

Ne vous

Remember.

SE TROMPER,
Je

/ remember him.

le rappelle.
le

tip.

remember, {governs a direct regimen.}

to

rappelle.

Je ne

Je

You woke me

rveill.

You are mistaken.

I was

mistaken.

He was mistaken.
We have made a mistake.
?

to

interrupt some one's

Have you not made a mistake


I have not made a mistake.
Do not make a mistake.
I will not be mistaken.

Practical French Course

320

SE FACHER,
Ne vous fchez
Je
Je

me
me

to

Do

pas.

suis fch.

He will get angry.


He got angry.

Il se fchera.
Il s'est fch.

tort

You are wrong

de vous fcher.

S'ENRHUMER,
Vous
Je

me

allez

suis

SE MOQUER,

to

make fun of;

to

laugh

at.

Are you laughing at me t


I am not laughing at you.

Vous moquez- vous de moi ?


me moque pas de vous.
On s'est moqu de lui.
Je m'en moque

He was laughed at.


What do I care for

SE PROMENER,
Je vais me promener.
Nous allons nous promener.

to

it !

take a walk.

/ am going

to take a walk.
are going to take a walk.
He wentfor a walk.
Go and take a walk.

We

promener.

Allez vous promener.

SE DPCHER, SE HATER,
Dpchez-vous, or htez- vous
Dpchons-nous htons-nous.
Qu'il se dpche.

Qu'elle se hte.

to catch cold.

I have caught cold.

Je ne

to get angry.

to catch cold.

You are going

vous enrhumer.
enrhum.

Il est all se

not get angry.

I will get angry.


I got angry.

fcherai.

Vous avez

get angry.

to

hurry up.

Hurry up !
Let us make haste.
Let him hurry up.
Let her hurry up.

Practical French Course

SE SOUVENIR

Je

me
me

Je

m'en souviens.

Je

(de), to

remember, {governs an indirect regimen.)

I remember him.
I remember that.
I remember it.
Remember me.
I will remember you.
Remember it !
I will remember it.

souviens de lui.
souviens de cela.

Souvenez-vous de moi.
Je me souviendrai de vous.
Souvenez-vous-en
!

Je

321

m'en souviendrai.

SE REJOUIR

(de), to rejoice at.

Je me rjouis de votre succs.


Rjouissez-vous

I rejoice at your success.


Be joyous !

R j ouissons-nous.

Let us

SE SERVIR
m'en servir?
Vous pouvez vous en
Je ne m'en sers pas.

(de), to use, to help one's self

May I use

Puis- je

On ne s'en

servir.

Il s'est

endormi

endormi.

Ne vous endormez

not use

it.

Je m'endors trs vite.


Je ne puis m' endormir.
suis

I do

?
it.

of use.
Help yourself

S'ENDORMIR,

me

it

You can use


It is out

sert plus.

Servez-vous.

Je

rejoice.

pas.

to fall asleep.

Ifall asleep very quickly.

I cannot go to
Ifell asleep.

sleep.

He fell asleep.
Do not fall asleep.

Practical French Course;

322

SE REPENTIR
Vous repentez-vous

me

Je

Do you

Vous vous en

You will repent

repentirez.

He

s'en repentira.

Je m'en suis repenti.

/ have

to

stand up.

complain,

grudge.

He grudges himself nothing.


They grudge themselves nothing.

rien.

SB PLAIRE

to

Of what do you complain ?


I am not complaining.
I have no cause for complaining.

Je n'ai pas lieu de me plaindre.


Il ne se plaint rien.

(), to

taquiner.

Vous plaisez- vous New York ?


Je m'y plais beaucoup.

Ma femme

to

it.

Stand up.

Je ne

Il se plat

it.

I cannot stand up.

SE PLAINDRE,

ne se plaignent

noticed

/ will stand /p.


I stood up.

Tenez-vous debout.
Je ne puis me tenir debout.

Ils

repented.

has noticed it.


She will not fiotice

me tiendrai debout.
me suis tenu debout.

quoi vous plaignez- vous


me plains pas.

it.

it.

He

SE TENIR DEBOUT,

De

it?

(de), to perceive, to notice.

Je m'en suis aperu.


Il s'en est aperu.
Klle ne s'en apercevra pas.

Je

will repent

I have

S'APERCEVOIR

Je

repent ?

I repent.
Are you sorry for
I am sorry for it.

repens.

Vous en repentez-vous
Je m'en repens.
Il

(de), to repent, to be sorry

s'y plat beaucoup.

Nous nous y plaisons beaucoup.

take pleasure

in.

He likes to tease.
Do you like to live in New
I like

My wife likes it very


We

York

living there very much.

like it very

much.

much.

Practical,

French Course

SE FAIRE HAL,

me

Il

ne

I hurt myself.
Did he hurt himself?

suis fait mal.

S'est-il fait

s'est

mal

pas

fait

He

mal.

SE TAIRE,
Voulez- vous vous taire

to

keep

me taire.

veux pas

still

I do

He

Il se tut.

S'ASSEOIR,

Ne

voulez- vous pas vous asseoir

did not hurt himself.

or

silent.

Will you please keep


Keep still.

Taisez-vous,
Je ne

self.

You are going to hurt yourself


You will hurt yourself.
Did you hurt yourself ?

Vous allez vous faire mal.


Vous vous ferez mal.
Vous tes-vous fait mal ?
Je

hurt one's

to

323

not

want

to

to sit

Will you not

sit

veux pas m'asseoir.


Asseyez-vous sur le gazon.

Sit

ne

s'est

pas

assis.

S'EN ALLER,

Il

faut que je

m'en

Je m'en vais.
Il s'en va.

I do

not want to

down on

down ?
sit

aille.

to

go away.

/ must go away.
I am going away.

Il

s'en est all.

He is going away.
He went away.

Je

m'en

I will go away.

irai.

Allez- vous-en.

Allons-nous-en.

down.

the grass.

She sat down.


He did not take a

Elle s'est assise.

silent.

down.

Please be seated.

Il

keep

remained silent.

Veuillez vous asseoir.


Je ne

silent.

Go away.
Let us go away.

seat.

Practical French Course

324

OTHER REFLEXIVE VERBS,

To dress one's self.


To undress one's self.
To shave one's self.
To get chaved.
To get accustomed to.
To get accustomed to.
To apply to.
To take off one' s shoes.
To trust.
To distrust.
To mistrust.
To go near.
To meddle with.
To warm one's self.
To go away.
To amuse one's self

S'habiller.

Se dshabiller.
Se raser.
Se faire raser.
S'habituer

().

S'accoutumer
S'adresser

().

().

Se dchausser.
Se fier ().
Se dfier (de).
Se mfier (de;.
S'approcher (de).

Se mler (de).
Se chauffer.
S'loigner.

S'amuser.

REMARKS ON THE PRONOMINAL FORM,

I.

The

article

le, la, les,

the,

is

used,

in

French, in-

stead of a possessive adjective before a regimen

sense already indicates


is

who

then used reflexively.


Je

me

Il se

Je

lave les mains,

lave la figure,

me

suis

coup

le doigt,

cass la jambe,
suis foul la cheville,

Il s'est

Je

me

Lavez-vous les mains,


Chauffez- vous les pieds

the possessor

Thus we say
instead of

is.

when the
The verb

Je lave mes mains.


lave sa figure.

Il

J'ai
Il

coup

mon

doigt.

a cass sa jambe.

J'ai foul

ma

cheville.

Lavez vos mains.


Chauffez vos pieds.

Practical French Course

The

2.

reflexive or

pronominal form

French, instead of the passive form so

Thus, we say idiomatically

On

4.

que

The

English,

d'un plus

soi.

often
in

used, in

English.

is

seen every day.

is

understood.

is

said publicly

is

not said.

That may be.


That cannot be.
That is not to be

eaten, or eatable.
That article sells well.
That is not to be refused.

one's self, is

soi.

a souvent besoin

petit

That
That
That
That

indefinite

Cela va de soi. (idiom)

Chacun pour

is

common

Cela se voit tous les jours.


Cela se comprend, or s'entend.
Cela se dit publiquement.
Cela ne se dit pas.
Cela se peut.
Cela ne se peut pas.
Cela ne se mange pas.
Cet article se vend bien.
Cela ne se refuse pas.

3. The pronoun soi,


and has commonly an

325

used in a general sense

pronoun

for correlative.

That is a matter of course.


Every one for himself.
We have often need of one more
humble than ourselves.

idea of a reciprocal or mutual affection which, in

is

expressed by adding the pronouns each other


is rendered in French, by the
by means of two pronouns of the

or one another to the verb,


reflexive form, that

is,

same person placed before the verb.


Nous nous aimons.
Vous vous aimez.
Ils

s'aiment.

We

Thus, for instance

love each other.

You love each

other.

They love each

other.

Practical French Course;

326

OBSERVATION.

To

avoid ambiguity,

for

the above examples might

we love ourselves, you love yourself they love


themselves,
we add the pronouns l'un l'autre, or les uns
les autres, when the action is reciprocal, and the pronouns
be translated

nous=mmes, vous=rnme, vous=mmes, eux=mmes,


mmes, when the action is reflexive.
Examples
Nous nous aimons nous=mmes.
Vous vous aimez vous=mme.
Ils s'aiment eux=mmes. (m.)
Elles s'aiment elles-mmes,

(f.)

Nous nous aimons l'un l'autre.


Nous nous aimons les uns les

We

love ourselves.

You love yourself.


They love themselves.
They love themselves.

We love each
We love one

other.

another.

autres.
Ils

s'aiment l'un l'autre.

Nous devons nous aimer

les

uns

They love each other.


We must love 07ie another.

les autres.

QUARANTE-HUITIEME LEON
LESSON XLVIIL
FRENCH PROVERBS.
1.

Il

n'y a pas de rgle sans exception.


There is no rule without exception.

2.

Il

n'y a pas de rose sans pine.


There is no rose without a thorn.

elles=

Practical Frknch Course


3.

4.

5.

n'y a pas de fume sans feu.


There is no smoke without fire.

Il

Charit bien ordonne commence par soi-mme.


Charity begins at home.

Un

A
6.

7.

327

tiens vaut

mieux que deux tu


is worth two

bird in the hand

l'auras.

in the bush.

Quand le chat n'y est pas les souris dansent.


When the cafs away, the mice will play
Mieux vaut

tard que jamais.

Better late than never.


8.

Iv a nuit

porte conseil.

A dvise
9.

with your pillow.

faut battre le fer

Il

Make hay
10.

Il

quand

il

est chaud.

while the sun shines.

faut garder une poire pour la soif.

Put

by something for a rainy day.

11.

Les petits ruisseaux font les grandes


Many a little ?nakes a mickle.

12.

Il

n'a pas invent la poudre.

He
13.

will not set the river afire.

Tomber de Charibde en Scylla.


Out of the frying pa?i into the fire.

14.

Un malheur ne

15.

vient jamais seul.


Misfortunes never come singly.

quelque chose malheur est bon.


is an ill wind that blows nobody good.

It

16.

rivires.

Loin des yeux, loin du cur.


Out of sight, out of mind.

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328
17.

C'est une conomie de bouts de chandelle.

Penny-wise and pound-foolish.


18.

Tout nouveau tout beau.


A new broom sweeps clean.

19.

Tout ce qui brille n'est pas d'or.


All that glitters is not gold.

20.

L'habit ne fait pas le moine.


// is not the cowl that makes the friar.

21.

A bon chat bon

rat.

Tit for tat.


22.

Fin contre

fin.

Diamond cut diamond.


23.

24.

Honni
Evil

It

is

mal y pense.

that evil thinks.

bon d'avoir deux cordes son arc.


wise to have two strings to one'' s bow.

Faire d'une pierre deux coups.

To
27.

him

Chacun son mtier.


Every one to his trade.

25. Il est

26.

soit qui
to

kill

two birds with one stone.

Pierre qui roule n'amasse pas mousse,

A rolling stone gathers no moss.


28.

Qui ne hasarde rien n'a rien.


Nothing venture nothing win.

29.

Toute mdaille a son revers.


There are two sides to everything.

30.

Ce sont deux ttes dans un mme bonnet.


They are hand and glove together.

Practical French Course


bonnet blanc et blanc bonnet.
Six of one, and half a dozen of the other.

31. C'est

32.

Plus on est, plus on rit.


The more, the merrier.

33.

Rira bien qui rira le dernier.


He laughs best who laughs last.

34. Tel pre, tel

fils.

Like father,

35.

36.

like son.

Qui se ressemble s'assemble.


Birds of a feather flock together.

l'impossible nul n'est tenu.

There

is

no doing impossibilities.

37. Aide-toi et le ciel t'aidera.

The Lord helps


38. 1/ apptit

those

appetite.

Qui dort dne.


Sleeping

40.

help themselves

vient en mangeant.

Eating brings an

39.

who

is

as good as eating.

Dis moi qui tu liantes, je te dirai qui tu es.


man is known by the company he keeps.

41.

42.

Rome n'a pas t btie en un jour.


Rome was not built in a day.
En

forgeant on devient forgeron.


Practice makes perfect.

329

Practical French Course

330

QUARANTE-NEUVIME LEON
LESSON

LXIX.

READING AND MEMORY EXERCISES.

SHORT ANECDOTES.

Dolabella disait Ciceron: "Savez-vous bien que je n'ai que trenteans?" "Je dois le savoir, rpondit Cicron, car il y a plus de dix ans
que vous me le dites.
'

'

II

Un

prdicateur avait

batitudes.

Une dame

avait oubli une.

ennuy son auditoire en prchant . sur

lui dit

malignement, aprs

Laquelle? reprit le prdicateur.

le

les

sermon, qu'il en

Celle-ci, ajouta

la

dame: Bienheureux ceux qui n'taient pas votre sermon.

III

La reine Elisabeth-? tant alle voir le chancelier Bacon 2 dans une


maison de campagne qu'il avait fait btir avant sa fortune: 'D'o
"Cen'est
vient, lui dit-elle, que vous avez fait une si petite maison?"
pas moi, Madame, rpondit le chancelier, qui ai fait ma maison trop
petite, c'est vous qui m'avez fait trop grand pour ma maison."

IV
tomb de cheval en entrant dans l'Afrique o il
pour la conqurir: C'est bon signe, dit-il, que l'Afrique soit
sous moi; ce n'est point une chute, c'est une prise de possession.
Jules Csar tant

tait all

Elisabeth, reine d'Angleterre,

morte Eondres en

fille

de Henri VIII., ne Greenwich en

1533,

1603.

2 Bacon, chancelier d'Angleterre, clbre


janvier 1561, mort le 9 avril 1626.

philosophe, n Londres

le 32

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331

V
fille du grand Scipion et femme du consul Sempronius,
dans une compagnie de dames romaines qui talaient leurs pierreries, leurs bijoux et leurs ajustements. On demanda Cornlie de
montrer aussi les siens. Cette sage romaine fit aussitt approcher ses
enfants qu'elle avait levs avec soin pour la gloire de la patrie, et dit,
en les montrant: "Voici ma parure, voici mes ornements."

Cornlie,

tait

VI
Monsieur le rgent,^ par ordre duquel Voltaire tait la Bastille
lorsqu'on reprsentait l'dipe de ce clbre auteur, en fut si content,
Voltaire alla sur-le-champ requ'il rendit la libert au prisonnier.
mercier son Altesse qui lui dit: "Soyez sage, et j'aurai soin de vous."
"Je vous suis infiniment oblig, rpondit le pote, mais je supplie
votre Altesse de ne plus se charger de mon logement."

VII

Un homme qui avait mauvaise rputation avait crit la porte de sa


maison ces mots: Que rien de mauvais n'entre ici. Un philosophe
allemand demanda, en voyant cette inscription: Par o donc entre le
matre de la maison ?
VIII

Un bourgeois de Plaisance, trs pauvre, trouvant de nuit des voleurs


dans sa maison, leur dit, sans s'mouvoir: Je ne conois pas ce que
vous cherchez dans ma maison pendant la nuit, puisque moi-mme je
n'y trouve rien dans le jour.
IX
Si quelqu'un parle mal de moi, il faut
1/ empereur Titus 2 disait
bien se garder de le punir: s'il a parl par lgret, il faut le mpriser;
si c'est par folie, il faut avoir piti de lui; si c'est une injure, il faut lui
:

pardonner.
7 1/a rgence de Philippe, duc d'Orlans, commena au leudemain de la
mort de t,ouis XIV. (1715) et prit fin en 1723, la dclaration de maiorit de
Ivouis XV.
2 Titus, empereur romain, n en 40, mort ea 81 de l're chrtienne.

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332

Bautru,^ tant

en Espagne,

alia visiter la fameuse bibliothque


trouva un bibliothcaire fort ignorant. Le roi
l'interrogea sur cette bibliothque. Elle est trs belle, lui dit-il, mais
Votre Majest devrait donner celui qui en a le soin l'administration
de ses finances. Et pourquoi? dit le roi. C'est, rpondit Bautru, que
cet homme ne touche pas au dpt qui lui est confi.

de l'Escurial, o

il

XI
Quelqu'un demandait Caton? pourquoi, ayant si bien mrit de
on ne lui avait point lev de statues: J'aime mieux,
rpondit-il, qu'on me fasse cette question, que si on me demandait
la rpublique,

pourquoi l'on m'en a rig.

XII
Pierre le Grand, empereur de Russie, voyant en Sorbonne le tombeau du cardinal Richelieu, s'cria: O grand homme! si tu vivais
encore, je te donnerais la moiti de mon empire pour que tu m'apprisses gouverner l'autre.

XIII
Ivouis XIII., 3 auparavant duc d'Orlans, tant sollicit de venger

qu'on lui avait faites avant qu'il montt sur le trne,


rpondit que le roi de France ne devait pas venger les injures du duc

les injures

d'Orlans.

XIV
On demandait un boiteux qui allait l'arme comme fantassin
pourquoi il ne s'tait pas mis dans la cavalerie. "C'est, rpondit-il, que
je ne vais pas l'arme pour fuir."
1 Bautru, chancelier de Gaston, duc d'Orlans, puis introducteur des ambassades chez le roi pote et membre de l'Acadmie franaise n Angers en
1588, mort Paris en 1665. Il dut sa fortune son esprit satirique et vif qui
;

amusa Richelieu

Mazarin.
2Caton, clbre censeur romain. Il voulait la destruction de Carthage et
ne terminait jamais un discours sans ajouter: "En outre, je pense qu'il faut
dtruire Carthage. Delenda est Carthago."
3 Louis XIII, fils de Henri IV, roi de France de 1610 1643, eut pour ministre
le cardinal de Richelieu.
et

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333

XV
Un gnral franais, jaloux et flatteur, disait au duc d'Enghien,
"Que
qui venait de remporter la clbre bataille de Rocroi en 1643:
pourront dire maintenant les envieux de votre gloire?"
"Je n'en

sais rien, rpondit-il; je pourrais

vous

le

demander."

XVI
Waller, pote anglais, fit en trs beaux vers latins un excellent
pangyrique de Cromwell, tandis qu'il tait Protecteur. Charles II.
ayant t rtabli en 1660, Waller lui prsenta des vers qu'il avait faits
sa louange. Le roi, les ayant lus, lui reprocha qu'il en avait fait de
meilleurs pour Olivier. Waller lui rpondit: Sire, nous autres potes,
nous russissons mieux en fictions qu'en vrits.

XVII
Le duc du Maine, 2 encore enfant, faisait beaucoup de bruit.
Le
grand Cond qui tait dans le mme appartement, se plaignit de ce
bruit: Plt Dieu, monsieur, lui dit l'enfant, que j'en fisse autant
que vous.

XVIII
fils Alexandre, en lui donnant Aristote pour pr"Apprenez, sous un si bon matre, viter les fautes dans

Philippe dit son


cepteur:

lesquelles je suis

tomb."

XIX
Les Franais assigeaient une place: l 'officier qui les commandait
proposer aux grenadiers une somme considrable pour celui qui, le
premier, planterait une fascine dans le foss expos tout le feu des
ennemis. Aucun des grenadiers ne se prsente. Le gnral tonn
Nous nous serions tous offerts, lui rpondit
leur en fait des reproches.
un de ces braves soldats, si l'on n'avait pas mis cette action
fit

prix d'argent.

en

Duc du Maine, second enfant de Eouis XIV.


mort en 1736.

1670.

et de

Mme. de Montespan

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334

XX
Un paysan coupait un arbre au bord d'une rivire; par malheur, sa
cogne tomba dans l'eau et il ne put la retrouver. Mercure lui apparut:
Est-ce l ta cogne, brave homme? en lui en montrant une d'or
Non, cette cogne n'est pas la mienne C'est peut-tre celle-ci? en lui
en prsentant une autre d'argent Non, ce n'est point encore celle qui
m'appartient C'est donc celle-ci? en lui en prsentant une de fer, qui
tait rellement celle qu'il avait perdue
Voici vraiment la cogne
dont la perte m'afflige Prends celle-ci, et encore les deux premires
que je t'ai montres reois-les pour prix de ta bonne foi.

La probit

est la meilleure politique.

CINQUANTIEME LEON
LESSON

L.

CLASSICAL DEFINITIONS, ETC.

Qu'est-ce que^ la grammaire?

1.

Iva

grammaire

est l'art

de parler

et d'crire

correctement.

Qu'est-ce que l'article?

2.

V article

est

se place ordinairement devant les noms


indiquer qu'ils sont employs dans un sens d-

un mot qui

communs pour
termin.
Il

a,

en franais,

trois sortes d'articles: l'article dfini, l'article

indfini et l'article partitif.

en franais, s'accorde en genre


auquel il se rapporte.

L'article,

nom

en nombre avec

le

is translated in French by Qu'est-ce que


or Qu'est-ce que
What is
Thus, for instance, one may sa3' Qu'est-ce que la grammaire?
que
Qu'est-ce que c'est que la grammaire What is grammar ?

1
c'est

or

et

Practical French Course;


3.

Qu'est-ce que 1'adjectif


L'adjectif est
fier
Il

ou

le

335

un mot que

l'on joint au substantif pour le quali-

dterminer.

y a deux sortes d'adjectifs:

les adjectifs

qualificatifs et les

adjectifs dterminatifs.

4.

Qu'est-ce que le

pronom?

Le pronom est un mot qui tient la place du nom. Il y a cinq


sortes de pronoms en franais: les pronoms personnels, dmonstratifs, possessifs, relatifs et indfinis.

5.

Qu'est-ce que le verbe?

Le verbe

est

un mot qui exprime une action ou un tat sous une


les dispositions du sujet parlant.

forme variable, suivant


6.

Qu'est-ce que l'adverbe?

L'adverbe est un mot invariable qui sert modifier un verbe, un


ou un autre adverbe.
Ex.: Parlez peu, rflchissez
Dieu est infiniment parfait. Le temps passe trs
beaucoup.
rapidement.

adjectif

7.

Qu'est-ce que la prposition?


prposition est un mot invariable qui tert unir deux mots
en marquant le rapport qu'ils ont entre eux.

La

8.

Qu'est-ce que la conjonction

La conjonction est un mot invariable qui sert joindre entre


elles les propositions ou les parties essentielles d'une mme
proposition, et

9.

marquer

le

rapport qui existe entre elles.

Qu'est-ce que l'arithmtique?

L'arithmtique est la science des nombres, ou l'art de calculer.


10.

Qu'est-ce que l'algbre?

L'algbre est une science qui a pour but de simplifier


gnraliser les questions relatives au nombre.

et

de

Practical French Course

336

11.

Qu'est-ce que

la

trigonomtrie?

La trigonomtrie

est le calcul des lments des triangles dfinis


par des donnes numriques suffisantes.

12.

Qu'est-ce que la gomtrie?

La gomtrie
l'tendue

et,

est une science qui a pour objet la mesure de


plus gnralement, l'tude de l'espace et de ses

proprits.

13.

Qu'est-ce que la physique?

La physique

est

une science qui a pour objet l'tude des pro-

et des lois qui tendent modifier leur


ou leur mouvement sans modifier leur nature.

prits des corps

14.

tat

Qu'est-ce que la chimie?

La chimie est une science qui a pour but la connaissance de la


nature et des proprits des corps, de l'action de ces corps, les
uns sur les autres, des combinaisons dues cette action.

15.

Qu'est-ce que l'histoire naturelle?


L'histoire naturelle est l'tude des divers tres qui sont dans la

nature.

16.

Qu'est-ce que la botanique?

La botanique

est la partie

de

l'histoire naturelle qui a

pour objet

l'tude des vgtaux.

17.

Qu'est-ce que la zoologie?

La

zoologie est la partie des sciences

naturelles qui traite des

animaux.

Qu'est-ce que la gologie?

La gologie est une science qui a pour but


structure du globe terrestre et l'histoire de

la connaissance
la terre.

de

la

Practical French Course;


19.

Qu'est-ce que la cosmographie?


Iva

20.

337

cosmographie

Qn 'est-ce que

du monde physique.

l'astronomie?

Vastronomie
les

est la description

est

astres, leur

une science qui a pour objet de

faire

connatre

constitution, leurs positions relatives et

les lois

de leurs mouvements.

21.

Qu'est-ce que la gographie?

gographie est une science qui a pour but la description


sonne de la terre, l'explication des formes du sol et des
frents aspects de la vie la surface du globe.
Iva

22.

Qu'est-ce que la rhtorique?


Iva

rhtorique est

un

art qui

pour parler loquemment;

23.

rai-

dif-

donne

pour bien
de l'loquence.

les rgles

c'est la thorie

dire,

Qu'est-ce que la philosophie?


Iva

philosophie est la science gnrale des tres, des principes et

des causes.

24.

Qu'est-ce que la politique?

La

politique est l'art de gouverner

traite

25.

de

la formation,

Qu'est-ce que la religion


Iva religion est le culte

26.

un Ktat.

de l'organisation

et

La

science politique

des fonctions de l'tat.

qui se rend la Divinit.

Qu'est-ce que la France?


Iva

France

civilis

ternit.

les

grande et noble nation qui a donn au monde


immortels principes de libert, d'galit et de fra-

est cette

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338

27.

Qu'est-ce que la langue franaise?


L,a langue franaise est l'instrument le plus parfait sur lequel
on puisse jouer la divine musique de la pense humaine. {R. D.)

28.

Qu'est-ce que

l'homme?

Born dans

L'homme

sa nature, infini

est

dans ses vux,

un dieu tombe qui

se souvient des cieux.

{Lamartine)
29.

Qu'est-ce que la vie?


L,a vie est

un combat dont

Iya vie est

Un peu
Un peu
F*t

puis

vaine

d'amour,
de haine,
bonjour!

la

palme

est

aux cieux.

L,a vie est

Un peu
Un peu
Et puis

brve

{Corneille)

d'espoir,

de rve,
bonsoir

{Dt Maurier)