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Politics Identified

Politics originates from Greek word polis which means city.

Politics study of city.
Science dealing with form, organization and
Oxford English Dictionary
administration of state, or part of one and with
regulations of its relations with other states.
Viewed politics primarily in terms of moral purposes
Plato & Aristotle
that decision-makers ought to pursue.
Any persistent pattern of human relationships that
involves to a significant extent, power, rule or authority.
Dahl (liberal pluralist thinker)
Criticises the idealised Aristotelian notion of selfsufficiency of the state for pursuing good life.
See politics as a set of human interactions (like Dahl)
but limits by emphasising authoritative allocations for
Focuses attention, not only on goals of policy-makers
trying to alter the distribution of scarce resources or
values in society but also on authority or power
relationships involved in it.
Focus attention on entire political system.
Defines politics as being concerned with who gets
what, when and how.
Contains both authoritative relationships and
implication of power and conflict in distribution process.
Focus on individuals with power
Politics refer to all activity whose main purpose is one
or more of the following:
o To reshape or influence governmental
structures or processes.
o To influence or replace governmental officeholders
o To influence formation of public policies
o To influence implementation of public policies
o To generate awareness and response to
governmental, processes, personnel and
o To gain a place of influence or power within
Common qualities in definition:

Politics everywhere involves conflict which inherent in human nature itself.

Most political conflict is group conflict.
Study of politics involves understanding how people govern themselves and consequences of
political process.

Manifestation of Politics
1. Political Behaviour

Have 2 dimensions psychological and social.

Psychological behaviour
o Is found in thought, perception, judgement, attitudes and beliefs.

o Responses of people to different issues of society and policies of government.

o Images and silent attitude of people indicate their political views.
Social behaviour
o Is found in action such as strike, demonstration, election campaign.
o According to Guy, social behaviour is often revealed as aggression, cooperation, compromise, negotiation, posturing, decisiveness, assertiveness,
dominance and virtually any human strategy that leads to decisions that have
social impact.
Party conventions are the ideal places for observing psychological and social
determinants of political behaviour.

2. Political Culture

Is a pattern of individual beliefs and attitudes that relate to political system and to political
According to Sidney Verba, political culture is a system of beliefs about patterns of
political interaction and political institutions.
Main components of culture
o Political customs
Conventions and practices which have remained in practice in political
o Political beliefs
Integrated coherent convictions of improvable assertions.
Symbolized through flag, national anthem, and monument for martyrdom.
o Political expectations
Imply certain common expectations of people from government.
o Political symbols
o Political attitudes
Preconceived positions of people on political issues, events, leaders and
o Political values
Value judgement, whether right or wrong.
o Political traditions
Long and continued practices in political realm.
Political cultures differ from one system to another:
o Participant culture
System that allows its citizens to actively participate in political process
o Subject culture
System that allows its citizens to participate in restricted political system.
o Parochial political culture
People have neither opportunity nor interest in political process.
Regional political culture a set of values, beliefs, and attitudes which residents of a
region share and which to a great or lesser extent, differentiate them from the residents of
other regions.
3 common qualities of political culture:
o Politics and political system are widely accepted and consequently citizens
comply with rules and regulations of the system.
o People are aware of rules and policies of political system they are governed by.
o People expect certain behaviour to be appropriate or in appropriate from their

3. Political Values
Values in society provide people with way of judging whether they are satisfied or not

satisfied with the performance of the government.

Main political values are:




Used to judge the worth of the government.

People evaluate whether power is used or misused.
Used to judge the worth of government.
People offer value judgement whether the resources of country are
properly and carefully utilised.


People expect good health care.

People expect equal opportunities in education.
People expect guaranteed jobs after completion of education
In everyday life, people expect justice and the rule of law.

4. Conflicting Interests

Politics is heavily manifested in activities of pressure groups.

These groups organise themselves freely and press for concrete demands as well as
opposing intended policies of government which they feel not reasonable.

4 main types of groups:

o Associational groups (Trade unions and Chambers of Commerce)
Representing the expressed interests of particular group
o Non-associational groups (Ethnic, regional and occupational groups)
Whose activities are not well organised and episodic
o Institutional groups (Bureaucracy and military)
Characterised by formal and strong organisational base
Attached to institution of government
o Anomic groups
Born spontaneously
5. Levels of Government
3 levels of government:
o Local
o Provincial
o National
Nature of politics is different at all levels.

Transmission of Politics
1. Family
Most natural and least formal institution which introduces people to wider aspects of
social life.
First window to the outside world for child.
2. Educational Institutions
Influenced by teachers and peers.
Individual changes his/her opinion as he/she goes through higher education.
College graduates are found to be more tolerant and open-minded than high school
3. Employment
Work place is a very important forum for public opinion because employees talk about
socio-economic and political issues during coffee break and lunch hour.

4. Religious Institutions
People talk about relevant issues when they go to mosque, church and temple.
5. Clubs
Various clubs cross cutting social classes such as sports clubs, cultural clubs,
entertainment clubs and youth clubs or old age clubs.
People have opportunity to meet each other across social classes based on their
6. Political Party
Political party has offices and branches throughout the country.
Members and commoners who attend meetings listen to their leaders who frequently visit
from head office to gets a sense of what is going on in the country.
7. Mass Media
Perhaps the most important medium for political socialisation.
Television, in particular is gaining severe influence on the minds of people all over the
8. Legislature
An important institution in modern democratic political system.
Debates various pressing issues of the nation in which citizens react to these issues
either negatively or positively.

Politics in Communist System

Communist system:
o There is an official undisputed ideology that covers all aspects of human life.
o There is a single mass party led by a core dedicated persons who are committed to
o No opposition exist.
o All means of communications and media are dedicated to regime and ideology.
o Mass media is the monopoly of the state.
o Weapons are the monopoly of the state.
o State is governed according to the principle of command economy which implies
that the means of production are under the control and ownership of the state.

Politics in Islamic System

Politics is central to Islam when defined in realist perspective struggle for power.
o To profess faith in Allah and to proclaim tawhid
Jihad fi sabil Allah (utmost exertion in the way of Allah) is but another name for attempt to
establish Divine Order.
Power is sought in Islam neither for own sake nor personal or collective aggrandisement.
It is not end an end but a means to serve Allah to earn blissful eternal life and thus source of
mercy and justice for humanity.
Shariah (Islamic Law) incorporates temporal with spiritual.
Major concerns of politics
o Striving to control state structure.
o To wrest power for righteous.
o To root out evil and bring about the good life are all relevant to and encouraged by
Muhammad Iqbal puts Islam is a single, unanalysable reality which is one or the other, as
your point of view varies.


Definition of Political Science

Aristotle political science cover all institutions including national polities, municipal and
international polities...
As state activities became restricted, political science was redefined as the science of state
or branch of social sciences dealing with theory, organization, government and practice of
the state.

Bluntschli (Swiss scholar)

Paul Janet (French scholar)

Willoughby (British scholar)

Austin Ranney

Harold D. Lasswell

Political science is the science which is concerned with the
state, which endeavours to understand and comprehend the
state in its fundamental conditions, in its essential nature, its
various forms of manifestation, its development
Political science is that part of science which treats the
foundations of the state and the principles of government.
Political science is the science which has for its object the
ascertainment of political facts and arrangement of them in
systematic order as determined by the logical and causal
relations who exist between them.
Political science as the study of the process of making public
decisions and of the individuals and the institutions that
participate in this process.
Political science is the study of who gets what, when, how.
Who political leader, parties, interest groups and voters
What what government does as result of public policy
How activities like voting, campaigning and lobbying

Political science studies not only the state but also the society as a whole in which they are
related to various institutions of state

Scope of Political Science

1. Political Theory
Refers to the history of political ideas beginning with ancient Greeks and extending to

present day political thinkers.

Includes political philosophy which deals not only with matters of fact but also matters of
Includes empirical theory in which researchers develop propositions about political
relationships which subjected to empirical test by collecting information that can be

2. International Relations

Focus on such topics as foreign and national security policies, diplomacy and rivalry,
cooperation and warfare among states.
Also includes study of international law and international and regional organizations.
Examine reasons that motivate states to act
Study causes and consequences of war.

3. Comparative Politics and Government

Studies similarities and differences among states as regards their executive, legislative
and judicial bodies, constitutions, laws, administrative organizations, foreign policies,
political parties and processes, economic, social and political functions, and their cultures
and traditions.

Try to explain why one country has many political parties while others only few.
Try to explain why some countries are democratic and others are not.

4. Public Administration

Deals with methods of managing and administering government.

Concern with execution of public policy.
Evaluate various types of public policy and analyse the process of policy making that
leads to policy decision and its implementation.
Brings forth a fountain of knowledge on techniques and methods of managing and
administering government.

Political Science and Other Disciplines

1. Political Science and Philosophy

Political theories relate the origin of the state, individualism, democracy, communism,
separation of governmental powers.
Political philosophy presented to man alternative visions of state.

2. Political Science and History

Study of political institutions depends on history in knowing states origin, its growth and
development and its institutions.
Knowledge of historical foundations of state help political thinkers in analysing and
describing present political phenomena and consequences enable them to provide
through lessons of the past the directions to future.
Historians study one particular event or phenomenon
Political scientists compare and contrast various cases and look for generalizations.

3. Political Science and Economics

Able to gains insight into the economics conditions of the state.

Learn how government shapes and determines economic policies on the use of
resources in order to achieve the best of national goals.

4. Political Science and Sociology

Students have clear understanding of how the state exercises its power and authority
over its citizens and why such an exercise is balanced by citizens and other groups of

5. Political Science and Psychology

Explanations of poitical phenomena with reference to psychological attributes of individual

or communities.
Contributed to phenomena such as nationalism, revolutionary leadership, voting
behaviour and causes of war.

6. Political Science and Law

Jurisprudence is a sub-division of political science as it is the state that creates and

maintains the conditions of law.

Is Political Science a Science?

o Political science deals with dynamic human beings and not with static things

found in science.
People do not behave like atoms.
Political behaviour, in historical sense is unique and not recurring.
People are not mechanical responses that can be reproduced in laboratory.
Human behaviour is complex but such behaviour follows regular patterns.

Behaviour patterns or regularities can be discovered and verified through careful,

systematic observations.
Laws can be formulated on how politics operates.

o Political science cannot be as precise and certain as those in natural science.
o Political science is not a science of certainty of mathematics but is a science of

Facts and Values in Political Analysis

Fact something that exists in real world.

A persons values will definitely influence the topic chosen for research, the facts collected
and information analysed.

Value set of mental preferences.

Value judgements on questions must be based on facts presented by researchers but
analysis remains neutral.

Approaches to the Study of Politics

1. Political Philosophy

Deals largely with normative questions like how should humans live?.
Put great emphasis on ethics in making political choice.
Teaches people to use logic to find out results of some political act and to anticipate
likely outcomes of social choice.

2. Political Behaviour

More empirical and less normative.

Interested in how people actually behave.
Employs various research techniques and statistical analyses using computer to
study similarities and differences in political behaviour in different countries and

3. Public Choice

Has 2 assumptions
i. Assumes political actors are rational and they calculate costs and benefits of
their actions and choose one that leads to best outcome.
ii. Assumes institutional setting within which an individual acts influences those
costs and benefits.
Use abstract models, assumptions about human behaviour, and logical deductions
based on models and assumptions Rational choice model.

Goals and Uses of Political Science

Primary objective citizenship training


Aim to equip students to discharge the obligations of democratic citizenship.

Aim to better the condition of human beings by helping them to realise their rights and
Enables students to understand the process and institutions of societal decisionmaking.

Uses of political science


Students can use their knowledge to teach civics and politics in schools, colleges and

Can work within government bureaucracies such as ministry or state department

dealing with public planning, national integration, political development......


R.H. Tawney- The capacity of individual, or group of individuals, to modify the conduct of other
individual or groups in the manner in which he desires


1. Power is social context/social relationship between individuals & group.
2. Power is transitive in nature especially when exercised( subject & object/Leaders & followers)
3. Two views of power
One seen from the viewpoint of the power holder/authorities.
Perspective of those to whom power is applied.
4. Power is situational/ depends on situation and position


1. Coercion
Physical force
2. Inducement
o Psychological
o Material
o Economic
o Political
3. Persuasion
Argument ( Advice/lies)


The coercive power(Force)

The Reward power(Wealth)
The Expert power(Expertise)
The Legitimate power(Position)
The Referent power(Popular Support)


Power process affecting policies of others with of severe deprivations for non-conformity with the
policies intended. (Threatened)
Power rests on the ability to manipulate positive or negative sanctions, influence does not


Auctor / Auctoritos means council or advice. Can be defined as Legitimate

exercise of power.
Voluntarily accept by others/without force.


Max weber
o Traditional (Ancient customs/traditions)
o Charismatic
o Legal Rational


1. Ancient
2. Medieval
3. Modern



Platos republic
Aristotles Politics
Machiavellis the Prince
Rosseaus Social Contract


1. Plato (Republic)
Republic: greatest work deals with politics, education, philosophy and ethics). Ideal state based on
concept of justice, education and communism. The book stated, the state must include 3 classes of

Producers (Body) Supply physical need to people.

Warriors (Spirit) Defend the State.
Guardians (Mind) Reason to rule/welfare.

2. Aristotle
Student of Plato


1. Western Political Thinkers
St. Augustine
Believe that best state governed by Pope. Believe that church need hold that power, not
state. He stated human live in 2 cities (City of God & City of earth) that both part of divine
universe. City of God (peace, harmony and justice) whereas City of Earth (Imperfect &

St. Thomas Aquinas

Agreed with Augustine. He combined both reason & faith in his ideas which called
Scholasticism. He stated that human beings are guided by 4 kinds of law (Universal,
Eternal, Natural & Human)
2. Eastern Political Thinkers
o Abu Al Hassan Al-Mawardi (Book: The ordinances of Government)
o Al Ghazali (Right proportion in Belief & The Revival of the Sciences of
o Al Farabi (Book on civic administration)
Historical Theory

Ibnu Khaldun (Muqadimmah, Prolegomena)


Nicolo Machiavelli (Father modern political science)

Thomas Hobbes
Government not comes from god, but from men. Believed power of sovereignty
cannot be shared with the people.


1. Behaviorism
Study of political phenomena through behavioral method. Replace by post behaviorism
because people concerned with the technique not with social problems
2. Post Behaviorism
Different system approach.
Structural functionalism
o Input (non-government)
o Output (Government)
Political Culture
o Parochial Political Culture
People have little awareness of their political system. They do not expect that
politics will bring any significant changes in their lives.

Subject Political Culture

Citizens aware of the outputs of the government but they play no part in the
inputs. Not participate because they feel their participation will have no

Participant Political Culture

Found in highly developed societies. Take part in political life

Political Socialization
One aspect of the general process of socialization which every person to some
degree undergoes. Process of teaching and learning about all aspects of the
political system.


5.1 Definition of the state

Systematic treatment of the nature of state began with Aristotle, is by nature a political being;
it his nature to live in a polis.
Consequently, the focus has shifted from morality and virtue to power and authority.
Karl Marx and Max Weber assumed population, territory, government and sovereignty as selfevident features of the state.

1. Plato
-state existed for the purpose of seeking common good and moral perfection
-state was not merely political association but served as a religious community and a
agency.2. Karl Marx
-state is the product of class contradictions and class struggle and is controlled by the
economically dominant class.
3. Max Weber
-state is a human community that claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical
violence in a given territory.
4. -Robert Dahl
- state as a collection of individuals occupying role positions and acting as a group to govern.
5. -Giddens
- state as a political organisation whose rule is territorially ordered and which is able to
mobilise the means of violence to sustain that rule.

5.2 Elements of the state



-consist of 2 groups:
- citizens (persons formally recognized under law as having membership in the state)
- aliens (inhabitants who arent the citizens of the state at the time of residence)
citizen can be acquired by :
- Jus soli or law of the soil
o Any person born on the soil of the stateis automatically entitled to citizenship.
- Jus sanguinis or law of the blood
o Citizenship is consider as inheritance and at birth a person acquires citizenship of
the parents.
- Naturalization
o Individual state also establish the rules for naturalization, the legal process by
which a person not originally entitled to citizenship may become a citizen.

Territory includes the geographical limits of the state, its rivers, lakes, natural resources and
the air space above.


Max Weber: A government is an agency that has a monopoly of the legitimate use of physical
force within a given territory.


Most essential and distinguishable feature.

Refers to fount of authority in society.
Sovereignty belongs to the body which has the right to make laws for a country.
Eg: parliament in Malaysia.
internal and external sovereignty;
o Internal sovereignty: right of state to make laws applying within its boundaries.
o External sovereignty: recognition in international law that a state has jurisdiction over
a territory.

5.3 Nation, State and the Nation-State


Nation means born in Latin

Gives the term racial or ethnic meaning
Generally used to describe an ethnic, linguistic or cultural community or even a race.
Refers to a large group of people welded together by ties of blood relationships, a common
language and literature, a common tradition and history.
People psychologically bound together with a common will to live together.


State is a people organised for law within a definite territory, exercising both internal and
external sovereignty.
Political unit that has the responsibility for conducting its own affairs.
A state is political unit while nation is a cultural and psychological entity.
A state is characterised by sovereignty, a nation may or may not enjoy sovereignty.
Eg: Palestine is a nation but not a state since its lack sovereignty.

Nation State

Nation state refers to a political institution that combines the concept of nation with state.
Refers to a state inhabited by people who identify themselves as a nation because of sharing
culture, history, language ethnicity or other factors.
Eg: In Africa & Asia the two (nation & state) do not generally coincide due to state boundaries
were drawn by colonial powers to suit their interest. As consequences, many nationalities
reside in one state, and one nation has been divided into many states.
Multi-cultural or multi-national states have lesser chance of maintaining democracy and
stability (due to desire of the nations to form their own state).
Leader of multi-cultural states instill sense of nationhood among the people and tried to link
concept of state and nation together and promote feelings of common nationhood among
citizens to see their states transform into citizens to see their states
transform into nation-states.

5.4 The origin of the state

Theory of Divine Origin

oldest and simplest explanation

argues that:
o The state is created by God
o The rulers are appointed by God and are accountable only to God
o Ruler of the King must be obeyed as a religious duty
o Disobedience to rulers command is a sin and would invite divine punishment
ruler combine spiritual & temporal power
this theory advocate theocracy
supported by most religion including Christianity
Led to conflict between church and state in Europe, lost much of its support with emergence
of secularism.
Islam dont subscribe to theocratic state (every human being, not the ruler alone is described
as vicegerent of God), hence some call it theo-democracy.

The Force Theory

State come to existence through brute force.

argue that:
o Force is an essential feature of the state.
o The states were born of force
o Force is used as the instrument to maintain internal order & to secure it from external
Scholars believe that the force may be essential to maintain law, order, but it is definitely not
the basis of the state.

The Social Contract Theory

state came into existence through a contract or agreement among the people
o People originally lived in a state of nature.
o It was not an organized society
o To escape from unsatisfactory and intolerance condition, people entered into a
contract with their fellowmen.
o Covenant or agreement among people in a civil society was established where the
laws of the state prevailed.
However this theory has been criticized as being unhistorical, illogical and fallacious.

Historical or Evolutionary Theory

Divine Origin,force and social contract theory are speculative, only historical or evolutionary
has received some acceptability from scholars.
The story argues that the state come into existence as the result of natural evolution.
Evolved gradually as the result of the need of men for order and protection.

Ibnu Taymiyyah

Argues that there is a natural propensity inherent in man who drives him to cooperate with his
fellow creatures for common with his fellow creatures for common well-being and happiness.

Western Political Thinkers

Human beings are by nature social animals.

The state is the product of growth, a slow and steady evolution.
Family was the earliest form of society and kinship or blood relationship was the basis of the

Families expanded into clans, clans into tribes, and tribes into larger society. Religion is the
basis of the social organization.
War and migration played important role in formation of state.
Political consciousness played most important role in building up the state.

State has evolved through the following stages over history.

Tribal state, oriental empire, Greek city state, Roman Empire, feudal stage and nation state.

5.5 State in Islam

Concept of nation-state, Arabic equivalent to dawlah.

Nation state system is generally linked to the treaty of Westphalia (1648)
Concept of sovereignty was first systematically enunciated by Jean Bodin (1576)
Early Fuqaha used khilafah or Imamah to denote the idea of political order.
Term state or polity dont occur in the Quran.
Quran refers to a set of principles or functions that either imply the existence of socio-political
o Ahd (contract)
o Amanah(trust)
o Itaah (obedience)
o Hukm (adjudication)

5.6 State in the west

Treaty of Westphalia (1648) and French Revolution (1789) are two historical events which marked the
beginning of a new period in the formation of the states.
1. Treaty of Westphalia (1648)
o Began the era of the territorial state in which people shifted their loyalties from the
ideal of a universal Christian commonwealth to the fatherland.
2. French Revolution(1789)
o Began the era of the national state in which the state became identified with a
particular nationality group, and nationalism became the dominant belief system in
the world.

5.7 State under Communist Ideology

Basic political philosophy of the communist state is Marxism-Leninism, which claims to have a
coherent and comprehensive theory of the state.
Reject divine right, social contract and force and violence theories of the origin of the state.
Believe that humanity is bound by laws of social development and that human society is
progressing through 5 stages (epochs) of development.
o Primitive-communal epoch
o The slave epoch
o The feudal epoch
o The capitalist epoch
o Social-communist epoch (divided into 2 parts)
Socialist state is a transitional organization preparing for the classless
Full-fledged communism, the state will wither away. With the
establishment of classless
Society & abolition of prvate property the state will become unnecessary.

Rejected nationalism but recognized its existence.

5.8 State in the Muslim World

Muslim world is represented by Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC) composed of 57

mostly Muslim majority states.
Among OIC member state, there are monarchies,Islamic republics, democratic republics and
socialist republics.
Currently , Muslim world is confronted with the following problems
o Border disputes due to artificial boundaries created by colonial.
o Inaccurate statistics about the population in each state.
o Most of the government are not effective.(people abide rules of groups/tribes/castes
compare to rule set by governments)
o Most states are economically and military dependent upon the western states who
constantly undermine their sovereignty.


6.1 Requirements of a Good Classification

3 basic requirements
o clear criterion
o mutually exclusive
o jointly exhaustive

6.2 Traditional Typology of Political Systems

o Developed classification regimes
o Adopted the criterion of how many people welded political authority in the state.
Government by one person
Government by few
Government by many


Ruled by


o One person rule.
o most efficient and just way of ruling
o modern eg: Great Britain, Sweden and Denmark
Constitutional Monarchy
o The monarchs reign rather than rule and the primary function of the monarch are
o eg: Netherlands, Japan and Malaysia
Past Monarchy that have been eliminated
o Due to royal authority unable or unwilling to alter its political functions along with
political changes.
o Russia, Germany and Hungary
o From Greek word aristos means rule of the best.
o Government by elite of the society that has high social status, wealth and political
o Status, wealth and power are inherited.
o rule of many in the interest of all and the best form of government
o this system in the contemporary period is called constitutional democracy
Montesquieu (French Political Philosopher)
o Identify 3 types of government:

6.3 Modern Typology of Political Systems

Most common modern classification in Western political science consists of the distinction


liberal-democratic (emphasizing liberty above equality)

totalitarian democratic ( organizing people in its support and justifying its disregard for
civil liberties by reference to the will of the people)
autocratic (rules in a highly arbitrary as well as oppressive)

6.4 The Liberal-Democractic System

Refers to a political system in which democracy or the rule of the people prevails.
Government run by representatives of the people who are accountable to the people for their
policies and actions.
Its characteristic:
o More than one political party competing, regular elections to determine who run the
o Popular participation is further encouraged and facilitated
o Freedom to form voluntary associations
o Power of central government is limited and regulated by the law.
o Extent of political control over the social and economic spheres of life is relatively
o Liberal democracies are ruled by civilians, who compete with each other for political
power in and open and non-violent manner.

6.5 The Islamic Political System

A state may be defined as Islamic in which Islam is expressly or implicitly declared to be the
religion of the state and policies and administration are conducted in accordance of Quran
and Sunnah.
Its characteristic:
o Sovereignty is nominally vested in God and man acts only as His vicegerent.
o Sytem is based on the principles of consultative decision making within the confines
of Shariah.
o Prevails justice, equality freedom and rule of law.
o System based upon overlapping executive, legislative and judicial branches of
government. May also based upon separation of power.
o Periodic elections conducted.
o Recruitment to positions of political power is relatively open.
o Limited control over the economy.

6.6 The Totalitarian System

Authority of government is total and absolute claiming jurisdiction over the whole of a mans
Its characteristic:
o All aspects of individual and social life are considered to be political concern of the
government\t and fit for regulation.
o One party is politically and legally dominant.
o There is an official ideology which is upheld by the ruling single party.
o Judiciary and the mass media are rigidly controlled by the government.
o Terror is used, where necessary to enforce obedience and suppress criticism.

6.7 The Autocratic System

Does not encourage or even allow mass political participationthruogh either political party or
voluntary associations.

Does not possess sufficiently effective means of mass control to be able to regulate social life
very effectively or to direct a centrally controlled economy.
Different from totalitarian system:
o Absence of dominant political ideology.
o Absence of effective mass party or ideology, hence open force and coercion is use to
enforce political obedience.
o Political power is less institutionalized.
o Civil liberties are weakly supported and the mass media and judiciary are more
directly controlled by the government.
o Rule is arbitrary and often highly personalized with little respect for the law or legal


Horizontal expression of power refers to necessity of ensuring that power is the state is
transmitted to every port of the territorial society.
Territorial division depends on:
Size of the state
Physical geography
Similarity of cultures

1. All sovereign power resides in the central or national government.
2. Features of the unitary government:
Formal powers and authority is located at the national centre
Local or regional unit of gov exercise powers and authority
Central gov may at any time redraw or ablolish the boundries
- homogenous
- possibility of uniform application of laws
-provide a relatively simple org or no
duplication of service
- no conflict of authority btwn diff level of gov
-less wasteful than others

- tends to leave the responsibility for deciding
local affairs
- tend to overcrowd the agenda
-delay attention, local popu feel neglected
-loss of local initiative to desire politics

1. Federal means league
2. exist at least two set of government and division of government power between national
3. Features of the federal state:
Two set of government : central national government and provincial, regional or unit
Division between central and regional government
Constitution is supreme law at land and legislation not in conformity
4. Origin:
Unitary state dividing up into several component
Decision in favour of tighter links taken by state

Capable to unity diff units-giving -diverse
units the opportunity for local selfgovernment
Include many cultural
Benefit military and eco mobilisation on
large scale
Provide magnificient laboratory
Produce health local intercut

Often have duplication
Lead to great extension in gov
Absence of uniform policy
Not have clear constitution no
mans land

1. People grant politic powers over certain in concern to government of the component part of
political system.
2. Grant no political power directly to central government, central government depends on
government of component part, national government is depends upon component

3. Features:
Right of component gov to withdraw voluntarily from the lager union
Requirement all component part of union changes
4. Objectives
Common defence
Common postal services and communication links
Common commercial practices

1. The Quran and Sunah are also silent as to the form of gov, unitary, federal or confederal.
2. Constitution of Madinah opted for federal structure
3. Tribes function given autonomous gov within the framework of federal structure.



Democracy means demos (people) and kratia (connotes rule)

Abraham Lincoln the gov of the people, by the people and for the people
Four feature
- Ultimate power to make political decision
- one person, one vote
- Public policies are made after get wished of people
- All political decision made according to wishes of majority

1. Direct democracy
Defined people rule themselves directly w/o intermediaries
o popular participation
o majority rule
o political quality
Unusual circumstance
o No of citizen must be small
o Poverty n wealth distribute equally
o Society must culturally homogenous
o laws must be allowed to funct independently
2. Representative (indirect) democracy
Elect their representatives to run the gov on their behalf.
Common things:
o citizen are at least one place removed
o elected representatives stand in place
o free competitive elections
o elections as an efficient and effective way of organising
3. Passing laws method : initiative, referendum and recall
4. Case and For against representative democracy
Representative does not reflect popular opinion
o actions to accord with the wishes of the voters
o not equally open or responsive to all kinds of individual and group
o makes the rule of the few possible
Principle of competitive election, popular participation and major rule ensure greater
degree of efficiency.
Greatest influence most people have on decision is exercised through their choice of
candidates for public.



Peaceful evolution
Socio-economic pluralism
High level of economic development and modernisation
Ethnic group cleavages
Leaders commitment democracy



Defined as representative system, that features fusion rather than separation of executive
and legislative institution and power.
Executive divided into : dignified and efficient
The head of state (monarch or president) appoint head of gov
Head of gov (prime minister or premier) appoint head the ministry
System based on fusion powers
Minister member of parliament head gov give advice head of state
Gov is collective body an responsible to assembly
Gov indirectly responsible to electorate
Headed by:
- State: nominal paramount ruler or king, gov: Prime minister
- Bicameral parliament: non-elected Senate or Dewan Negara and Dewan Rakyat
Great Britain
-constitution unwritten; partly statues, partly common law and practice
-head of state: Monarch, head of gov: Prime minister
-bicameral parliament: House of lord and House of commons
-House of lord is highest court
-head of state: Monarch (Governor General), head of gov: Prime minister
-bicameral parliament: Senate and House of commons
- Governor General is highest court
-head of state: Emperor, head of gov: Prime minister
-bicameral parliament: Diet or Kokkai
- Supreme Court is highest court
-head of state: President, head of gov: Prime minister
-bicameral parliament: Council of states or Rajya Sabha
- Supreme Court is highest court
Organised according to the principle of separation of powers.
Few institutional channel for communication between legislative and executive branches
Executive is a president elected by the people
Head of gov is the head of state
President appoint head of department who responsible to the president
Assembly ultimately supreme over other gov
Division gov power among co-equal exec, legislative and judicial
Executive is directly responsible to electorate
No focus of power in political system
United States of America
- Head of state and gov: President
-bicameral parliament: Senate
- Supreme Court is highest court
- Head of state and gov: President
-bicameral parliament: Senate or Senado and House of Representative
- Supreme Court is highest court
Federal Republic of Nigeria
- Head of state and gov: President
-National Assembly (Senate and House of Representative)
- Executive arms: President, Vice President and members of Federal Executive


American Presidential System

British Parlimentary system


-head of state: President, head of gov: Prime minister
-bicameral parliament: Senate and National Assembly
- Supreme Court of Appeals is highest court

-head of state: President (elected by Parliment), head of gov: Prime minister (elected
by PM)
-bicameral parliament or Majlise-Shura: Senate and National Assembly
- Supreme Court of Appeals is highest court


1. it is u tp the mislims of every age to find one that suits them
2. Category by itself- theo-democracy that say a divine democratic gov
3. Shura system which incorporate some healthy features from existing models


o The way of life in the state chosen itself
o E.g. Politeria basically any form of government
o Collection of principles according to which the powers of the government, the
rights of the
governed and the relationship between the two are adjusted.
o The complex totality of laws embodying the principles and rules through which the community
is organized, governed and held together
o System of fundamental institution.
K.C Wheare
o Selection of the legal rules which govern the government of that country and which have been
embodied in a document.
o A document that spells out the basic elements of government, the power of each elements,
requirement holding national office and numerous rights and privileges of citizens.
o The assemblage of laws, institutions and customs, derived from certain fixed principles of
reason that compose the general system, according to which the community hath agreed to
be governed.
In general
o Constitution is body of fundamental rules which determines the organization or structure of
the government, distributes powers and determines the relations among the organs of the
government. It is also dictates rights and duties of the citizens of the country.


1. Kings Decree
o Monarch agreed to exercise his/her power in accordance to certain principles and rules.
o E.g. Napoleon of France 1799, Nicholas Czar of Russia
2. Evolution
o Britain unwritten constitution
o emerge as results of gradual evolution of the constitution
3. Revolution
o Constitution aftermath of major revolution
o E.g. USSR 1917, Egyptian Constitution 1954, Iranian Constitution 1979
4. Constituent Assembly
o Created after the establishment of new state usually after independent.
o Assembly member were elected
o E.g. Canada, India, Malaysia, US.

A. Written or Unwritten
o Written down in a document or series of document.
o E.g. Malaysia, Canada and Bangladesh
o Contains the fundamental principles concerning legislature, the executive and
judiciary and their powers, the fundamental rights of the citizens and even the
procedure for amending the constitution are clearly written down in a document.



Most fundamental rules and regulations regarding the structure of the

government or fundamental rights and liberties are not written down in document.
The constitution may not be in one single document and may be scattered in
various documents or found in usages, customs tradition and conventions of the
Reason for formal constitutions:
o Needed when nation makes a fresh start with their institution
o Country may contain groups of people distinct from each other through
race, religion and language.
o In large countries people in different parts may have particular interests
and needs which they feel cant be adequately provided for by a
government in remote capital.
Every written constitution has some unwritten elements and vice versa.
Advantages of written constitutions:
o Certain, definite and distinct. Therefore not easy to violate.
o Citizen can read and know the provision of institution
o Limits the power of government.

B. Rigid or Flexible
o Rigid
- cant be changed easily like passing an ordinary law
- There is a separate and distinct method or procedure for amending the
constitution which is very complicated and rigorous not limited to the authority
of legislature alone.
o Flexible - can be changed easily by legislature like passing an ordinary law.
- Power of parliament is supreme




Government cant simply change the
Stable in nature
Limited possibility of conflict between
national government and provincial
Rights of citizens well guaranteed
Society is not static but dynamic
If flexible, constitution can be
changed to avoid constitutional
Too much power for the judiciary to
decide validity of law.

1. Dynamic
2. Revolution can be avoided

1. Government or party in charge can
change constitution at their needs.
2. Rights of citizen might be unprotected


A constitution should be definite and clear.

A constitution must be written.
A good constitution should be comprehensive.
A constitution should incorporate all fundamental rights of the people.
A constitution should limit the power of government.
A constitution should be amendable legally without too much difficulty.

7. A constitution should correspond to the actual conditions of state.

1. Constitutionalism
o Modern concept that desires a political order governed by laws and regulations
o System of divided power
o Fredrich Constitutionalism by dividing power provides a system of effective
restraints upon governmental action.
To limit the arbitrary action of the government to guarantee the
rights of the governed and to define the operation of the sovereign
2. Constitutional Government
o A constitutional government means a limited government.
o Constitutional government must have the provision for:
o Fundamental freedoms
o Democratic rights
o Mobility rights
o Legal rights
o Equality rights
o Right to educations



Legislature occupies the superior place since the function of executive and judiciary are based on
laws passed by legislature.
Legislatures are official government agencies
They are multi-numbered, they are directly elected by citizens, their members are formally equal,
and they arrive at decisions by deliberating on alternatives and the register decision by counting
the votes of their members.



Unicameral one house in the system of the organization

Bicameral two house upper house and lower house
Method of unicameral legislature and the lower house of bicameral legislature is almost uniform
and simple.
Members are elected by the people election based on principle of adult suffrage.
Upper house composition varies from country to country
Most cases members are either nominated or in some directly or indirectly elected.
In UK, house of lords is hereditary.
US, Australia and Switzerland directly elected. Canada nominated by Executives.
Malaysia indirectly elected or partly appointed by head of state.
Most scholar against hereditary and nominated, the best way is elected either by member of lower
house or by people.



Single chamber
Permit speedy action
Avoids obstruction of the will of the
Permits clarity of the people responsibility
of cabinet.
Reduces duplication
Avoids conflict between chambers.
Less Expensive
Popularly elected by the people.
Maintains uniformity in the country.


Two chambers.
Provide a check on hasty and illconsidered registration.
Avoid despotism of a single chamber.
Help public opinion to crystallize by
interposing delay.
Reflects people will.
Helps divide the workload.
Dies useful and careful revision.
Allows representation to different classes
and groups.
Accounts for their necessity in a



The size in most cases is determined by constituency representation.

Some countries use a method of functional representation where by people are elected on the
basis of occupation.
In most cases, the size is determined by population or by territory.
Length of tenure also differs from country to country.
In many political system, upper chambers do not have the same length of term due to divergent
systems of representation and also different methods of selecting representatives for the upper
and lower house.

1. Law Making

2. Representation

3. Supervision

4. Financial
5. Electoral
6. Judicial

7. Inquest and
8. Amending the

Make laws or to amend or replace old laws.

Laws are introduced in the form bull by minister or member of
Represent people in the government
Representative in the public
Checking and supervising the executive branch of government
Legislation initiated by executive, but legislature has the power to
reject bills.
Control and regulate the national finances
Determine the sources of income and expenditure
As an electoral college to elect top executive.
In many countries the parliament has judicial power.
UK, House of Lords is the highest court of appeal.
US parliament, sits as court impeachment for trial of president and vice
In Malaysia, it has the power for the vote of no-confidence to remove
minister in cabinet.
Makes inquiries into matter of interest
Often appoint commission of inquiry
Making and amending the constitution



The legislature is losing power to the executive.

Reason of declination
o Legislature has no time to discuss all the issues, some of them are delegated to the
executive delegated legislation.
o Fundamental laws are decided by the legislature, the appropriate department is given the
authority to apply the law according to the situation
o Extension of social services, the executive has acquired many powers administrative
o Few members of legislature has technical expertise.
o Members frequently absent during session.



Originate within a constitutional framework but functions quite differently.

They are elected, meet regularly, make speeches, vote on proposed legislation and formally
enact laws.
But the legislature is nothing but an institution legitimizing the policies and rules of the
They are the subordinate of the communist party.
Members are elected with no competition, election to legislature is meaningless.
Members are handpicked from the communist party.
Cant legislation contrary to the ideology of communist party
There is no opposition party.



A shura must exist.

Khalifah must consult shura in decision making.
Shura has the power to dismiss or impeach khalifah
Muhammad Iqbal the legislative must have the right to interpret and apply the ijtihad which
would then constitute the authoritative consensus of community (ijma).

Muslim scholars conceive legislature in terms of Ahl al-Hall wal al-Aqd and Shura.
These two institutions occasionally merged to perform certain function such as electing the caliph.
Scholars argue that legislature should be composed of representatives and majority of them
should be elected by the people.
The legislature must contains experts in Shariah and modern jurisprudence.
Fundamentally. Legislature is to enact the explicit directives o fth shariah and formulate laws in
conformity with the shariah.


The oldest of all organs of government

Existed even 5000 years ago.
No separate legislature or judiciary in ancient time.
All power in the hand of monarch.
Monarch was assisted by a council of advisors.
Monarch plays all roles as top executive, legislator as well as the judge.
There was centralization of power.

Who are the Executives?

Executives being in charge of the execution of policies and determination of the general rules.
Executives are the top administrator of any government offices.
Executives mean all government official except those who are involved in legislative and
It does include heads of government and the entire staff of officials, high and low, connectd
with the administration of public affairs of the state.
Known as civil servants.
Political executives are either elected for a certain number of years(US) or remains in office
as long as the party in which they are belong can command majority in
legislature(Malaysia,Canada, UK).

Types of Executives
1. Nominal and Real
2. Parliamentary and Presidential
3. Singular and Plural or Collegial
Nominal and Real Executives

A nominal executive is a man either heredity as King of Malaysia or elected as President of

Bangladesh is the head of executive theoretically.
In reality, the head of executives is exercised by the Prime minister and the member of

Parliamentary and Presidential Executives

Power is vested in the office of prime minister.

Presidential Executive the real executive power lies in the office of the president who is
directly elected by the people.
Known as Prime Ministerial system and Presidential system.
In each system, there is a Head of State who is Chairman of advisory board while Head of
Government is the chairman of active party.
For example: Malaysias Head of State is King and Head of Government is Prime Minister.
Parliamentary executive have to
o Secures harmony and cooperation between the executive and legislature.
o Be in constant touch with legislature, where opposition party review every policy of
the government carefully.
o Make sure government not being despotic by adopting a policy which will be disliked
by the public.
Weaknesses of Parliamentary Executive
o The life of this executive post is uncertain.

The government will always adopt a policy that will benefit the party and its
Advantages of parliamentary Executives
o Free from control of legislature.
o Free to adopt reasonable, continuous and consistent policy for the welfare of people.
o The tenure of the office of the President makes the political system more efficient,
independent and bold enough for any measures which are good for the country.
System weaknesses
o Lack of cooperation between the office of president and legislature.
o Possibility of dictatorship.

Single and Plural or Collegial

Single executives is the executive power is vested in one person and having undivided
responsibility (President of US).
Plural or Collegial Executives is the executive power vested in a council of member.
The power is divided among the number of people. (Swiss federation was exercise by a
commission of seven person which known as Bundesrat)
Single executive advantages
o Secure the unity and integrity in the system.
o Decision making is easy and prompt
However, concentration of power in one hand may give rise to despotism.
Advantages of Plural executive
o No danger of one man autocracy and dictatorship.
o Save the nation from tyranny.
o Wisdom lies in multitude of counselors.

Mode of Choosing Executive


Hereditary Principle
Direct popular election
Election by Electoral College
Indirect election by legislature

Hereditary Principle

Associated with monarchical governments

The result of historical conditions rather than choice of people.
The executive is free from party strife
Provides more stability, permanence and continuity to the system.
No certainty that a competent person will be secured as the head of executive.
Example : Saudi Arabia, UK

Direct Popular Election

Top executive elected by people.

o Essentially democratic
o Imparting political education to voters
o Ordinary people may not be able to me the right decision.


Electors can be easily influenced by the demagogues.

Electorates can easily be misguided.
Creates political tension, bitterness and political rivalry
Chief Executive may fail to keep neutrality which is essential effective and efficient

Election by Electoral College

Chief executives elected by Electoral College, elected by the people.

Choice of executive is left in the hand who are better qualified.
The selection likely to be intelligent.
Example : US

Election by Legislature

Top executive is elected by legislature.

A type of indirect election.
o Member of legislature likely can make a better selection.
o Free from the evils of popular election such as excitement and bitterness.
o Create close relationship between executive and legislature.
o Member of legislature are not free from party politics.
o Executive cannot exercise his independent authority.
o Interfere with the normal function of legislature.
Example: Swiss, France, India, Bangladesh

Nominated Executive

Exists in most cases in the colonies of some great power.

Example: Governor General of Canada, Governor General of Australia.

Function of Executives

Internal Administration
External administration
Military function
Legislative function
Judicial function

Internal Administration

Ensure law and order in society

Maintain internal peace and security
Executives rely on the huge number of civil servants and police officials.

External Administration

Ensuring mutual interaction among states for peace and security.

Responsibility lies on Ministry of Foreign or External Affairs.
The conducts of foreign relation are:
o Sending and receiving diplomats
o Recognizing a new state
o Establishing or withdrawing diplomatic relations

o Determining and implementing foreign policies.

o Negotiating treaties and agreements.
Example: Falkland war of 1982, Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, The French Constitution of

Military functions

To secure territorial of the state

To protect the country from external aggression and if necessary to wage war.
Exercised by the Department of Defense and War.
Executive appoint the commanders in the Army, Navy and Air Force

Legislative Functions

Summons, adjourns and prorogues the session of its legislature.

Promulgates orders and ordinance.
Furnishes the necessary information to legislature regarding the needs of the state and send
usages to it.
Initiate every bill before being discussed in legislature for becoming law.
The increase of range of activities of the state has forced parliaments to delegate wide
legislative power to the executive which is called Delegated Legislation.

Judicial Functions

Executive is required to keep an eye on the administration of courts and guarantee its citizens
fairness and impartiality in justice.
Head of Executive appoints the judges in the most countries.
Exec has two important judicial powers:
o Granting pardon
o Granting amnesty

Other Functions

The various department and agencies offer service and licensing function to the people.
Top executive is the symbols of unity in the country.
o Open session for the parliament
o Administer the oath of the elected exec.
o Attends public function.
Political exec head is at the centre of the functional leadership in all political system.

Executive in a Communist System

Led by a party
Interlocking of power of the communist party with the bureaucracy of the state which is
reflected in the politburo, presidium and council of state.

Executive in Islamic Political System

Executive branch is the nucleus of authority in a state

Designated in the Quran and Hadith as Ulul-Amr and Umara.
Headed by Amir
Elected from among the most respectable and most pious persons.
Highest position in Islamic political system is Khalifah
Amir or Khalifah is who accountable for the Shura
Concept of Khalifah:

o A man is Khalifah over himself

o He is a vicegerent towards others
o Governs under the command of Allah.
Characteristic of Khalifa
o A true muslim prepare in all faculties, spiritually and physically
o Have enough knowledge to make his judgement
o Follow the rules of Allah
Important duties of Khalifah
o Enforce shariat of Allah
o Eradicate any type of thaghut
o Convey the teaching of islam to people
o Lead strong islamis nation economically, socially and politically.


Growth of Bureaucracy

India, china and Egypt had developed strong bureaucratic structures long before Europe.
In Europe, a complete model of democratic was first developed in Prussia in the 18 th century.
Organized by Frederick Williams
Est. universities to train the public servants.
Introduced system of competitive examination for recruiting public servants.
In Britain a system recruiting public servant through competitive examination was developed
and introduced to its colonies like India, Malaya, Nigeria and Ghana.
Canada used during the reign of Mackenzie King.
Bureaucracy comes from French words bureaus, meaning offices.

Who are Bureaucrats?

Refer to a professional body of officials, permanent, paid and skilled.
Have a permanent status and tenure
Civil servant are career non-political officials
o Cannot go politics during their tenure
o Supposed to be non-partisan
o Have to work under different minister
o Ought to be to be in a position of work with loyalty, consistency and sincerity,
regardless of any party.
Remain in post until die, resigned, retirement or removed.

Characteristic of Bureaucracy

Specialized with their job.

Organized hierarchically, which means under supervision of a higher official.
Operates through formal written rules.
Hired through based on technical qualification rather than partisanship.
Have a fixed salary according to rank.
Does not own him or her job.
Subject to control and discipline. Promotion based on superiors judgement.

Function of Bureaucrats
1. Administration
a. Execute and enforce the law enacted by the legislature.
b. Implementation of Public policy
c. Two general patterns of administration from the west
i. Anglo-American type (emphasis on the accountability of civil servant through
executive and legislative control)
ii. Continental European type (mostly used mixed type of administration)
d. Unitary system like Great Brittain
e. Federal system like Malaysia, USA, Canada, Germany and Australia has
decentralized administration system.
2. Policy Formulation
a. Policies are made by legislature but formulated by bureaucrats.
b. Bureaucrats devise proposal within the framework of the policy of the government.
c. Bureaucrats provide the details information to the minister.
3. Regulating

a. Government generates plethora of regulation and update it annually.

b. Regulation was updated by civil servant.
c. The civil servant can issues cease and desist order
4. Licensing
a. Enables the government to control illegal activities.
5. Servicing
a. Civil sectors involve in offering of services to citizens.
b. The quality of service is depending on the country wealth
c. For example Israel spent 27% of its GDP on defense and 4.5% on health, while
Germany spent 3.5% on defense and 24% on health and welfare.
6. Gathering Information
a. Gather vast information from various sources.
b. Information is essential for making policy decision.
c. Civil servants are considering being neutral and protectors of national interest.

Dangers/ Problems with Bureaucracy

1. Involves officialism and departmentalism.
2. Bureaucracy and corruption are interwind.
3. Bureaucratic agencies know about our life histories, financial affairs, credits rating, house,
schooling and etc.

How to Control Bureaucrats?

Executive control by the Prime Minister as it depends on the approval of government.
Administrative control by internal coordination, self-discipline, and hierarchical structure.
Legislative control can form parliamentary commission to conduct inquiry on specific matter
such as abuse of the authorities.
Judicial controls on the performance of bureaucrats.
Constitutional controls where it enlist the fundamental rights and directive principle of state
The office of Ombudsman to hear the complaint from citizen. (contribution from Sweden)
Informal controls such as through mass media and pressure group.


Main significance of the judiciary is to apply the law of the land objectively and impartially.

What is Law?

Physical science: Law means the sequence between cause and effect
Social science: Law means rules and regulations for controlling human activities
Rules, norms, and folkways are not laws if they are violated, the violator cannot be legally
Laws the rules behind which there is a sanction of punishment or reward by the state
(supreme society)
Definition of law:
o Hoebel the aspect which employs the force of organized society to regulate
individual and group conduct and to prevent redress or punish deviations from
prescribed social norms
o Holes the prophecies of what the courts will do in fact, and nothing more
pretentious, are what I mean b law
4 elements of law:
o Normative law sets a standard of conduct for improving human behavior and public
o Regularity the sets of conduct are made and applied universally
o Administering the courts will objectively apply and administer these sets of conduct
o Legitimacy these sets of conduct are enforced by a recognized legal authority

Sources of law
1. Custom
o Originated either in a conscious effort or in the gradual formation of habits in peoples
o Once the state came into existence, was transformed into law in most countries
enforced by the legitimate political authority
o Eg. Common laws of United Kingdom are mostly customs accepted by the court
2. Religion
o In the west, governments have enacted many laws which are rooted in the Bible or on
Protestant ethics
o Laws for Muslim are rooted in Quran e.g Islam prohibited the drinking of alcohol
o Later on, many Muslim states have transformed this principle into law by passing the
rule through legislature

3. Adjudication
o Means judge-made laws
o Judge has the authority to make laws for cases which are not covered by existing
o Becomes precedent for subsequent judges as case laws in similar cases
o The decision of judges adds to the total body of laws
4. Jurists
o Based on writings of jurists and scholars
o Great Britain jurist e.g. Coke, Blackstone and Hale
o Muslim jurist: Fuqahas (law-giver in Islam)

However, the writing of these scholars do not by themselves become law only
become laws by recognition from sovereign legitimate political authority

5. Legislation
o Most important direct source of law
o Legislature is the legitimate authority of a state to enact law in most legal systems
o Constitutional laws may be there, but to suit the needs of the time many of them
require amendment through the legislature
o Judge-made laws do not even obtain absolute legality until it is endorsed by

Types of Law

Two categories: National & international law

National law

laws passed by a legitimate sovereign authority and are applied within the jurisdiction of the
e.g. constitutional law(written in constitution)
general law (passed by the legislature on a regular basis)
can be interpreted only by courts

General laws

Deal with all kinds of human behavior

E.g. public law (legal principles which govern the relations of citizens with the state)
private law (concern the legal rights, duties & obligations of individuals - e.g. law of contract,
law of torts, land laws, law of trusts)

Administrative laws

sometimes, law passed by legislature do not go into details

administrative officials, when they implement a particular law in a particular situation, have to
go into details
come up with an interpretation of the original law

General public law

laws that determine a states relation to its citizen

e.g. Civil & criminal
Civil law - concern with legal rights & duties e.g. law of contract, property, successor, family
law & law of trust
Criminal law concern with offences against the state, person, property etc, which the state
seeks to prevent for the protection of its citizens

International Law

The rules which aim at regulating the conduct of the states in their dealings with one another
Based on agreements, treaties, customs, etc, signed by nation states
Subject to the application of UN & International Court of Justice
Its legitimacy is based on the consent of international community
Important to maintain international peace & security

Principal sources of international law

1) Roman law jus gentium was to regulate behavior of citizens based on justice & equality
2) Works of eminent writers writers analysed & interpreted information & documents relating
to wars, diplomacy, treaties, conventions and alliances
3) International treaties contracts entered into by states which agree to observe given rules
of conduct in their relationship with each other
4) Decisions in international cases decisions offered by international court (sometimes by
international conferences) are accepted as precedents & become part of international law
5) Diplomat & statesmen correspondence between government & its diplomatic agents
accredited to other states

Legal Systems

Legal system body of rules & regulations, enacted by the legitimate authority
Western civilization
o Common Law
Originated in Great Britain & remain prevalent in most of former British
colonies e.g. Malaysia, Canada, Australia, India & Nigeria
3 features of common law according to Roskin Case law (individual legal
decisions), Judicial decision, Stare decisis (precedent)
o Civil law
Made by Roman, and later incorporated in French Legal System and its
colonies e.g. Quebec province of Canada
Derived by judicial interpretation & precedent
Apply abstract principles to the settlement of disputes
Communist system
o Single Communist party rules law enforcement are controlled by the party
o Law derived from Karl Marx, Lenin & Mao Zedong
o Harsh punishment for anti-state agitation
o Judges are usually members of Communist party
o Was prevalent in former Soviet Union & Eastern European
o Now only China & Cuba apply Communist Legal System
Islamic legal system
o Quran and Sunnah constitute foundation of Islamic Legal System called Shariah
o Secondary sources:
Qiyas analogical reasoning
Ijma consensus of Ummah (Muslim nations)
Istihsan juristic preference
Istislah public good of a course which considered best interest in
Istishab continuance or permanence
Urf customs or usages of a particular society which conform to Shariah
Combined legal system
o Some African countries have mixed common law, civil law & Islamic law
o Bangladesh & Malaysia have mixed British common law & Islamic law
o Argentina, Brazil & Mexico are influenced by American practices
o Philippines cite legal precedents in Spanish & American courts

The Courts

Courts all over the world are organized on ascending scale

Courts of Original Jurisdiction

o Initial trial start

o Plaintiff or prosecution submits evidence to support the facts of the case
o After arguments by respective lawyers, court renders decision
Courts of Appeal
o If either party is not satisfied with decision from courts of original jurisdiction, they can
o Will examine whether the law has been correctly applied rather than concrete merits
of the immediate controversy
Supreme Court
o Power of revision
o Annulling the decision of a court or judicial tribunal
In some countries, the judges of the higher courts are appointed by government, while in
others they are elected or co-opted by fellow judges

Functions of Judiciary/Courts
Purpose of courts to ensure administration of justice

Establishing facts the court formulates a set of rules to govern the parties in producing
witness and subjecting them to interrogation
Interpreting laws to apply the law to the facts which have already been found by
investigation and then render decisions
Creating laws the court has to create new law if existing law is not consistent with present
Upholding the Constitution neither the national nor the state government can pass a law
repugnant to the constitution
Preventing Infraction of law citizens can approach the court for protection before the
actual violation occurs e.g restraining orders or injuctions
Judicial Review the court has power to declare any act of the legislature or the executive
null and void, and consequently invalid if they are found to be in conflict with the constitution

Independence of the Judiciary

Judicial independence is the freedom and independence of judges in discharging their duties.
Fundamental condition of the Rule of Law

Appointment of judges

Judges should be appointed on the basis of merit, but by no criteria of ascription

3 methods to appoint judges
o Election by legislature not good as judges will be elected on political considerations
o Election by people worst because judges will be highly politicized
o Appointment by executive most appropriate method to judge the qualities

Judicial Tenure

Judges should hold office until their term is over unless they are involved in corrupt or
immoral activities


Seniority, ability and legal eminence should be the basis of promotion

Should be done by the executive on the recommendation of the committee of judges


Judges must be given adequate salary to avoid corruption & bribery

Non-interference of the Executive

The will of the judges should not be bound by the desire of the executive

The Judiciary in Islamic System

Judiciary (called Qada) is independent of the executive and is to adjudicate in strict

accordance with the Shariah
The scope of its adjudicative function is so wide as to include all organs and functionaries of
E.g. the chief executives, like everybody else, is liable to be called upon to appear in a court
of law as a plaintiff or a defendant
The function of judiciary includes inter-alia, settlement of disputes, prevention of wrongful acts
and issuing of declaratory judgements.


The Western World

Military is considered to be a political

Civil-military relations are characterized by civilian control and supremacy
Western political systems are primarily dominated by politicians who come to power through
an elaborate competitive struggle along party lines for a certain period of time
Western scholars believe that the factor contributing to the distinct separation of power
between civilian and military authorities originates from religious traditions that advocate the
Western historical preference for a democratic political system
Majority of people in the West are rooted in Christianity the norms of secularism developed
the Church and State separation
Political developments in the West have contributed to the liberal democracy
The primary purpose of the military, which is to win wars, has remained the same but the
means to obtain its purpose has changed
Complex technological requirements of defense and warfare in the modern age, have
increased the bargaining power of the military elite grant veto power

The Communist World

in Communist political system, the army is very dominant

During institutional and economic crises, the military directly intervenes in politics
In 1991, the military took over the direct supervision of economic sector in Poland
In 1991, the USSR was losing its control politically within the Republics and any of its allied
East European countries
There was a group of army officers made an attempt for coup detat led by the Minister of
Defense but failed because it was initiated and supported by small segment of army

The Muslim World

Majority of Muslim countries have remained under military control

Shariah enjoins the Ummah to render obedience to Imam or Khalifah
Imam must be obeyed if he fulfills his mandate by enforcing laws and justice to people
Coup detat by military commanders is not recognized by the Shariah as lawful
the institution of kingship or a military regime is not consistent with the basic political concepts
of Islam
final power of decision making lies with the community
Islam allows neither the use of force no interference by the army in neither civil administration
nor an army takeover of power

Causes of Military Intervention in Third World Politics

Real causes of military intervention lie in their colonial roots, leading to:

Overdevelopment of military
o During colonial rule, the colonial government trusted only the army, which was vital
for its own stability and order
Erosion of colonial bargaining strategy
o Power elites inability to secure stability through bargaining with the diverse groups
within the country
Undermining interests of the Army


The civilian leaders underestimate the amount of force that is required to maintain the
colonial state
Military was given lower priority than other categories in the national budget
especially in some Muslim state


Greek, eidos = word , logos = knowledge , words of knowledge

To Antoine Louis Claude Destutt de Tracy, ideology was a study of the process of forming
ideas to improve human life.
H.M. Drucker, famous political scientist support the definition of ideology.
L.T. Sargent An ideology is a value system or belief system accepted as fact by some

1. Comprehensive: include ideas about many great matters, such as the place of
human beings in the world, relationship with God and achieving highest social and
political goals.
2. Pervasive: Ideology shaped the political beliefs and actions of people.
3. Extensive: Ideologies are directed towards the masses. A set of idea is held by large
number of people and plays significant role in political affairs.
4. Intensive: Ideology commands a strong commitment from many influences.


Vision of the
Ideal Polity


Strategy of

Conception of
the Human


1. Addresses and satisfy basic human psychological needs (safety, freedom etc.)
2. Provides its believers with a sense of understanding history and societies amd with clues about
what kind of things they should pay attention to or ignore.
3. Ideology is essential, act as reference point.
4. Provides inspirations


Liberalism came from latin liber which means free.

Thomas Jefferson, that government is best that governs least

In political science, liberalism refers to certain values such as the commitment to individual
1. Individual Freedom
2. Rationality
3. Progress
4. Limited Government
5. Economic Freedom
o French word conservateur
1. Irrational impulses
2. Order and Stabulity
3. Gradual Change
4. Common Sense and Pragmatism
5. Necessity of Government
Classical liberalism faced strong criticism
Marxists (socialist lead by Karl Marx) who argued for the overthrow of the capitalist
Marxism can be defined as a theory of human development that aims at explaining all
history on the basis of economic laws of determinism.
Marxism is based on certain ideas :
1. Historical Materialism
2. Surplus Value
3. The Class Struggle
4. Revolution
5. The Classless Society
Edward Bernstein (1850-1932) was the founder of revisionist school of socialist
Produced Evolutionary Socialism, challenge Marxists, concluding that Marx has been
wrong about the necessity for collapse of the capitalist system and socialist
Bernstein was assisted by French socialist, Jean Jaures.
Characteristic of Revisionism :
1. Economic Determinism
2. Advancing Capitalism
3. Evolutionary Socialism
4. Pragmatism
Marxism-Leninism is one of the three variants of Marxism with the key figure of
Russian Intellectual, Lenin.
Principle proposition of Marxism-Leninism

Revolution in a
backward country

Lenin argued that proletarian revolution can take

place in backward country
Backward countries are ripe for revolution

Communist party

to promote the cause of revolution

Democratic centralism

Dictatorship of

Transition to

moving from capitalism to communism

to turn over power entirely and exclusively to
working class

to construct socialism to pursue national


Some ppl disagree because ideology is man-made while Islam is divine.
Islam is a religion approved by God and it is based on the Quran (word of God)
They also argue that ideologies are transient whereas Islam is permanent.
Some major characteristic of Islam:
Simplicity, Rationalism and Practicality
Unity of Matter and Spirit
A Complete Way of Life
Balance between the Individual and Society
Universality and Humanism
The Economic System of Islam
o Comes from Latin Fasces means bundle
o Fascism originated In Italy and popular in 1919 with the emergence of Benito
Mussolini (Spain) and Antonio Salazar (Portugal).
o Nazism under Adolf Hitler In Germany as an example of Fascism (dictatorship).
o Features of Fascism:
Totalitarianism Belief in the absolute and totalitarianism state
Antiliberalism reject the notion of democracy and constitutional
Militarism and Violence Glorify war and violence, as morally necessary
Leadership utmost regard to leaders



o Carlton Hayes : modern emotional fusion of patriotism and nationality
o Hans Kohn : it is a state of mind, an act of consciousness, the individuals
identification with the we-group
o Distinctively modern.
o Nationalism emerged from the mixture of ideas and events in Europe, began with
French Revolution and encompassed both Napoleons imperial conquests and his
final defeat by anti-French European powers.
o The revolutionary regime believed that the principle of sovereignty resides essentially
in the nation.
o This idea frighten the monarchs of Europe led by Autrian Hapsburg and threatened
the regime.
o Mazzini founded Young Italy, a revolutionary organization committed to achieve a
united and independent Italian Republic.
o Mazzini claimed that humans are too many and God divided us into nations and
o He urged many Europeans to be aware of their unity and destiny, throw off alien
monarchies and create free government and work in harmony.
o Mazzini reject all forms of individualism.

The belief that people should be governed only by rulers of the same ethnic group.
Is the claim that and ethnic group is a nation with its own right to political selfdetermination.
Ethnonational conflicts sometimes severe and violent, have wrecked a majority of
Nationalism as important ideological weapon in competitive struggles among ethnic
groups for power and resources.

Both are diametrically opposed to each other.

Islam deals with man as man, represents to all mankind a social system of justice and
piety based on creed and morality and invites all towards it.
ISLAM aims to destroying all chains of racial and national prejudices and unites all
mankind on the basis of equal opportunities for all.
Friendly cooperation btwn people so that they might mutually assist and contribute
moral good to one another.
NATIONALISM represent parallel ideology to that of Islam.
Nationalism is a form of glorified tribalism.
Nationalism is based on linguistic , geographical, cultural, racial and etc.
In contrast with Quranic conception.


Promotes loyalty to nation

Promotes loyalty to Ummah

Consider the nation and its institutions as the

Consider Shariah as ultimate source

source if sovereignty and legitimacy

Based upon ethnic, linguistic , racial and etc

Based upon belief in Tawhid, the unity and

sovereignty of Allah (SWT)

Demarcates artificial territorial boundaries

Destroys contrived divisions

Destroys bonds btwn human beings

Promotes universal brotherhood

Dismembered the Ummah into nation-stated

Promotes the unity of the Muslims world into one



Nationalism creates spirit of intolerance ( French and Germans)

Internationalism is the feeling that the individual is not only a member of his state but
also a citizen of the world. Promotes peace.

Implies an international society where the nation-state live in relative harmony and
peace with each other.

International cooperation and coordination on political, economic and cultural


Critics pointed out that internationalism cannot prosper as long as nation-states


Internationalism is emerging as powerful force in the world.


Feminism: Generally used for the womens right movement, which campaign for complete political,
social and economic equality between women and men.

Core Feminism/Core Feminist Theory: United by the idea that men and women should be
equal politically, economically and socially.

1. The Liberalists on Feminism
Marry Wollstonecraft


First known feminist in history

A Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792) She challenges the conventions of the
day that the sole purposes of women were to bear and raise children and to please
She demanded equal rights for women in education, employment and in
Ideas became popular only in the 19th century in the writings of Harriet Taylor and
John Stuart Mill.

Harriet Taylor

Enfranchisement of Women (1851) - argued strongly in favor of married women

having a life and career of their own.
Contended that it would be preferable if women both earned and had right to
possess, a part of the income of the family.
Proposed that once women were given full civil and political rights, there would be no
necessity of marriage.

John Stuart Mill


Believed in the male-female friendship of marriage which were not only desirable for
emotional satisfaction but also essential for the progression of human society.
The Subject of Women (1869) the legal subordination of one sex to the other is
wrong in itself.
Protest against the traditional practice of denying women the equal moral
right of all human beings to choose their occupation according to their own
On Liberty(1859) concerned about value of individual freedom
Strongly argued giving voting rights to women and equal rights in the areas of
education and occupation.
The treatment of women as equal would be beneficial for the happiness and
advancement of humanity.

Brian Friedan

The Feminine Mystique (1963) Pointed to womens frustration with social norms
that were prejudiced against them and that conditioned them to passively accept
male domination.
Women should receive fair treatment from society because, while there are important
differences between the sexes, women have a right to be treated without prejudice.

The Marxist on Feminism


Contrary to the liberals, the Marxist insists that the state as an institution is an instrument of
the dominant class to exploit the subordinate classes in society.
Believes that the state in class societies serves the interest of the dominant class.
They consider gender status to be the outcome of economic factors rather than cultural
Sexual asymmetry is explained by the different relationships of men and women to the means
of production.
The only solution to end the sexual asymmetry is to bring women back into the sphere of
social production.

Critics Arguments

Marxist assume that with the abolition of the fundamental distortion of class rule, the problem
of stable representation of diverse group interests resulting from the division of labour will be
easily solved.
The idea of women as passive victims of class society is not acceptable.
Although gender inequality may be biologically determined, biological differences between
sexes are by no means unchangeable.

The Islamic School and Feminism

1. Against Western Feminism
o Vehemently against the position of Western theorists and so offers an alternative
o They consider western feminism to be a poor example that has nothing to give to the
women in Third World countries. They consider them to be one of the many
instruments of colonialism.
o They disagree with the kind of freedom offered to women under western patriarchy.
o By concentrating on labor market analysis and offering the experiences of a minority
of white affluent middle-class women as a norm, western feminists have developed
an analysis which is all but relevant to the lives of the majority of women all over the
world , Afshar.
o Argues that Western-style feminism struggles have liberated women only to the
extent that they are prepared to become sex objects and market their sexuality as an
advertising tool to benefit patriarchal capitalism.
o They fail to alter the labour market to accommodate womens needs and at the same
time have lost benefits that women had once obtained in matrimony.
o Women as a permanent second-class citizen.
2. Islamic Believes
o Women could benefit by returning to the original sources of Islam.
o The Muslim feminists are asking for a return to the original source, the Quran, on the
ground that it is a progressive document geared toward social change.
o Men and women are created as equal human beings though obviously not identical.
o Under Islamic Law, a woman is vested with all the rights which belong to her as an
independent human beings.
o Women has the basic freedom of choice and expression based on the recognition of
her individual personality.
o A womans right to her money, real estate, or other properties is fully acknowledged.
o NO decree is Islam which forbids woman from seeking employment whenever there
is a necessity for it, especially in positions which fit her nature in which society needs
her most.

3. Shariah
o Emphasize the role of the extended rather than the nuclear family as the unit of
o Prescribe a much stronger participation of the family in the contracting and
preservation of marriages.
o Islam and Muslim woman generally advocate moulding of individual goals and
interest to accord with the welfare of the larger group and its members.
o Islam specifies a differentiation of male and female roles and responsibility in society.
o The Quran and the Shariah categorically demands a separate legal status for women.


Principles of Environmentalism by Lester Milbrath

High value on nature

Compassion toward other peoples, generations and species
Planning to avoid technology that is sensitive to environment
Limit on economic growth
A new social paradigm
Greater participation, simpler living, and cooperation of the people.
Public rather than private solutions to many issues
A greater emphasis on worker satisfaction.

Addition of the principles by Robert Paehlke


Recognition of human beings as part of a global ecosystem

Political decentralization and participation
Emphasis on non-material values
Less concern with technical solutions
Concern with the future

Origins of Environmental Movement

Back into the 18th century.
1739, some residents of Philadelphia petitioned to the State Assembly of Pennsylvania to
stop dumping wastes from commercial districts and around the city.
1. Henry David Thoreau
o Walden (1854) - living simple in natural settings
o Created the Sierra Club, and lobbied the Congress for the creation of a preserve of
o Started a Preservation Environmental movement.
2. Gilford Pinchot
o Advocated a conservation strategy where natural resources are used rather than
being abused.

Thus, creating two subgroups of environmentalist


Conservation and Preservation

Principles of Deep Ecologists


The well-being and flourishing of human and non-human life on earth have value in
Richness and diversity of life forms are values in themselves and contribute to the fluorishing
of human and non-human life on earth.
Humans have no right to reduce this richness and diversity except to satisfy vital needs.
Present human interference with the non-human world is excessive, and the situation is
rapidly worsening.
The flourishing of human life and cultures is compatible with a substantial decrease of the
human population. The flourishing of non-human life requires such decrease.
Significant change of life and conditions for the better requires change in policies.

The ideological change is mainly that of appreciating life quality rather than adhering to a high
standard of living. There will be a profound awareness of the differences between big and
Those who subscribe to the foregoing points have an obligation directly or indirectly to
participate in the attempt to implement the necessary changes.

The US Green Party 10 Principles;


Grassroots democracy
Social justice and equal opportunity
Ecological wisdom
Community-based economics and economic justice.
Feminism and gender equity
Respect for diversity
Personal and global responsibility
Future focus and sustainability

Canada Green Party Principles;


Ecological wisdom
Social justice
Participatory democracy
Respect for diversity

Islamic Concerns for Environment


According to the Quran, God created nature in balance and mankinds responsibility is to
maintain this balance through wise governance and sound personal conduct.
The Quran describes the believing men and women as those who walk on Earth in humility.
Interpreted as Muslims are to protect natures many bounties given to them by the Almighty.
Enjoins the Muslim to respct and revere the environment
Quran declares that the variety in creation points to the unity in the divine plan
God gave humankind spiritual insight so that it should be able to understand nature.
Human are responsible for maintaining the unity of His creation, the integrity of the Earth, its
flora and fauna, its wildlife and natural environment inclusing water, soil, air, plants, and


Definition of Political Parties

An association of individuals with common set of beliefs and political goals, sharing desire to
take control of the government by constitutional means.

Growth of Political Parties

emerged in the 19th century

2 general explanations of emergence of parties:
1. Institutional theories that focus on evolution of parliamentary bodies
2. Historical crisis theories that focus on certain problems(movement for
independence and problem associated with modernisation)
Maurice Duverger (French PS) pointed out that political parties begins as a political club and
other organised groups within legislature.
Members of parliament began to organised themselves into group (factions) which shared
similar view on important issues.
Not all parties created internally. Some created outside parliament such as trade union which
become the British Labour Party.
Organized by small group of men to influence colonial parties.
To demand independence or autonomy.
Results of social modernisation of the country (to established order).
Example: Accion Democratia in Venezuela, Institutional Revelutionary in Mexico

Function of Political Parties

1. Link between people and government :
Mechanism which the citizens need and wishes are communicated to government.
2. Aggregation of interest:
Help interest group moderated their demand, cooperate and work for the good of
3. Political socialization:
Learn to speak in public, conduct meetings and door to door campaign.
4. Mobilisation of voters
To arouse voters interest and induce them to vote
5. Forming a government
Recruit winning candidate and fill important position in government.
6. Viable opposition
Oppose to check on arbitrary exercise of power by the winning party.

Party Systems

Interactions of parties with each other and with overall political system:

1. Single Party
Parties in power dominates opposition under the names of unity and development.
Example: Nazi German, Communist Russia
2. The dominant party system
Parties which win 60% or more
Example: Barisan National (BN) even though has lost some seats but the opposition
has generally too fragmented to win.

3. Two party system

Only two parties share major part of electoral vote and exercise political control
The two parties alternate in exercise of power.
4. The multiparty system
Three or more parties competing
Form coalition to form government
5. The two plus party system
Two large parties with one or more relevant parties

Parties in Democracy
1. Centralisation
Give the party coherence, discipline, and ideological consistency
2. Setting government policy
Responsible party government is to what extent the party can enact its legislative
3. Party participation in government
Allow clear cut accountability and voter choice.

Parties in Communist State

1. A single party that attempts to control everything important in society.
2. Does not rule directly; supervises, monitored and control personnel and economic structures

Parties in the Muslim World

1. Principe of consultation, freedom, equity and equality
2. Opposition involves correcting mistake, suggesting alternatives and working together within
the principles of Shariah.


Definition of pressure/interest groups

Any collection of people organized to promote a goal they share or resist some objective of
government or other group that somehow relates to the political process.
Have formal structure
Able to aggregate and articulate interest
Influence public policies
Influence power instead of taking responsibility of a government

How Does An Interest Group (IG) Different From Political Party (PP)?
1. Goals

PP: acquire power through election

IG: concerned with specific programme and issues and rarely presented in the formal
structure of the government.
2. Nature of membership
PP: collect support to win election
IG: Selective membership; for a specific problem or issue
3. Almost unlimited number
PP: no of political parties is limited
IG: no functional limit on no of IG

Types of Pressure Groups

1. Associational pressure group
Use effective procedure for pursuing their interest; Business, industrial, trade
association, labour union
2. Non-associational Pressure group
Dont have name or formal structure but share same characteristic and interest
Example: unemployed individual, member of religious ethnic group.
3. Institutional groups
Exist within government; members of armed forces, members of parliament.
4. Anomic groups
Without any preplanning or organization when the people want to show
disappointment about a particular government policy

Role/ Contribution of Pressure Groups


Mechanism for political representation

Allow political process to be more responsive
Role of mediator; link between government and people
Supplement the government agencies
Demands are better if given in an association
Prevents concentration of power

Methods of Influence, Strategy and Tactics

1. Direct method
Seeking election like representatives
Seeking access to public official

Mounting mass media campaigns

2. Indirect method
Member of parliament is member of groups
Spouses are a member
Representatives who have access to political representatives
Retired bureaucrats join NGO but have connection with junior bureaucrats

Appraisal of Pressure Groups

Pressure group are undesirable because:

Individuality is lost
Some populations does not belong in the group
Iron law of oligarchy
All group not equally treated
Narrow interest get priority over national interest


Functions of Elections
1. The means to render governments accountable to the governed.
The last elections decide who will govern; they thought of the next election determines how
they do so.
2. The means to choose those who will guide and direct affairs of the government.
3. Elections provide legitimacy of the government.
4. Closely related to the legitimising function is the demonstration effect that elections are
expected to have abroad.
5. Elections serve the function of mobilisation.

Free and Fair Elections


The right to vote for every adult citizen (usually 18 above).

Equal opportunity to vote for every adult citizen. All votes should worth the same.
Voting must be in secret.
Citizens should have full freedom to form political parties, to contest in elections, and to
nominate candidates.
5. Candidates must have equal opportunities to publicise their names and policy positions so
that voters can understand and choose among candidates and policies.

1. Elections to be held at regular interval (usually once every 4-5 years).
2. Votes to have equal access to polling places and they must be able to vote without fear,
coercion, or subsequent reprisals.
3. Votes must be counted accurately and results must be published as soon as possible.
4. All candidates to be given equal budget and time to make their views known.
5. The process to be administered and monitored by an impartial body of electoral specialist.

Types of Elections
1. Normal Election
Expresses the balance of long-term party loyalties in the electorate as a whole.
The election results show that people who have associated themselves mentally with
one party over many years have voted the same party which won the elections.
2. Deviating Election
Winning majority party loses the election due to short-term factors such as candidate
3. Realigning or Critical Election
Shows a major shift in the distribution of party loyalties in the electorate.

Elections and Referendums

1. People are given the power to exercise the right to vote and to choose directly their own
representatives (Direct method).
2. People exercise their right to vote to elect some persons who as a body are generally known
as the Electoral College. This body then elects the actual representatives (Indirect method).
1. A method of election which allows voters to decide on a policy or constitutional issue by
means of a popular vote at the request of a government or legislature.

Electoral System
An electoral system may be defined as a set of rules for conducting an election. Two broad types of
electoral system in use in almost all democracies.
1. Single-Member District Plurality System (SMDP System)
A single member is elected from each district by a plurality of vote.
The candidate with the largest number of votes in a particular area wins election.
First past the post the candidate who wins a plurality of support does not necessarily
command the majority of vote cast in the constituency.
The system favours large parties and hurts small ones.
Another variant of the SMDP system is the alternative vote (AV):
Voters rank candidates in order of preferences by placing numbers.
2. Proportional Representation System (PR System)
Proportional representation allows a political party to win seats in a legislative assembly in
proportion to its share of popular votes.
Two variants of proportional representation: The List System and The Single Transferable
The List System:
o The total number of votes won by a party determines how many candidates are
elected from that list.
Single Transferable Vote:
o Allow voters maximum choice of the candidates and also guarantees that all votes
will be used to select representatives.

Elections in the West

Elections are the predominant formal mechanism of political participation and a means for smooth
transfer of power from one party to another.

Elections under Communist Rule

Elections under communist rule were essentially non-competitive.

Election in the Muslim World

Elections carry less weight in the Muslim world. For most of the countries in the Muslim world, the
electoral process is extremely difficult.


What is Public Opinion?
Public opinion is the expression of all those members of a group who are paying attention in any way
to a given issue. In other words, a public opinion represents the collective opinions of individuals of a
designated public.

Characteristics of Public Opinion


Public Issues
Salience (how much the people care about the issue)

Agencies of Public Opinion


Educational Institutions
Religious Institutions
Political Party
Mass Media

Mass Media and Politics

The media influences politics in numerous ways.
1. The media is formidable.
It has power to shape public consciousness by conveying certain images and interpretation
and excluding others.
2. The mass media have greatly expanded the means of information exchange between political
3. New technologies in mass media have opened the possibility of electronic democracy.
4. The candidates of an election will give speeches, advertisements and commercials via mass
Government controlled mass media:
1. Every media needs licences form the government. This is called legal filter.
2. Reporters have no access to information other than what they can obtain from government
3. The government has censorship on the media.
Private controlled media:
1. Any news going before going in the air must be carefully read by the managers in the office
(management inspects the news first).
2. Profit-based media. Any news that is not profitable will not be published.
3. Ideology bias.

Can Polls or Opinions Influence Politics?

Three types of public:

1. A general public of a majority who do not know or care about much about their immediate
2. An attentive public of minority who are among the better-educated and who follow more
abstract political concerns, such as foreign policy.
3. A policy and opinion elite of a few highly influential people who are involved in politics, often
People can influence politics if (1) more people participate in politics and (2) there is equality of
opportunity for effective participation. However, these are not easily available due to:

Political Incompetence
Rational Disengagement
Elite Manipulation
Public Contentment



What is Political Violence?

Common means used by people and governments around the world to achieve political goals
Used in political systems by groups and individual to achieve their political objectives
Used by citizens, groups or governments in different context eg. Military seize control of
government in their country.

2.0 Types of Violence

1) Primordial: occur among different tribes, religious or ethnic communities. Example: conflict
between Serbians and Muslims in Bosnia, conflict in Rwanda.
2) Separatist: occur due to the belongingness to an ethnic group or to a Region. Example:
Mindanao movement in Philipines, Free Acheh movement in Indonesia, IRA in Britain,
Basque movement in Spain, Bangladesh in 1971.
3) Coup detat: sudden overthrow of a government by usually small groups of person in Army.
Some country remained under military rules for decade: Burma, Indon, Pakistan called as
4) Revolutionary: over throwing of existing government through revolutionary such as guerilla
war. Example: Vietnamese fought against Americans to establish communism, Chinese
Communist Party led by Mao Zedong against nationalist government in China, Bolshevik
Revolution in Russia against Czarist regime.
5) Protests: initially appear in form of protest, turn into violent. Example: mass rally and protest
against American Invansion in Iraq in 2002 turned into violence in many places, protest
against Vietnam War triggered polices to attack protesters.
6) Revolution:

3.0 What is Revolution?


Phenomenon that brings about a quick and dramatic change

Fundamental change in existing system
A military government cannot be called as revolutionary government

The causes of Revolution

1) Injustice
2) Gap between expectation and achievement : when people observes government is weak
and cannot meet their demands which been promised before election, people try to overthrow
government through revolution
3) Relative deprivation : feeling of being deprived and deceived from their due rights


Stages of Revolution

The old regime decays

Organizing revolution
Moderates take over
Extremist take over
A Thermidor ends the Reign of Terror : Thermidor is a term which indicates the ened of
6) Terrorism

6.0 What is Terrorism?

Use of force designed to bring political change

Conjure emotional response in victims and practitioners

7.0 Objectives of Terrorist



8.0 Reasons becoming a Terrorist


Oversimplification of issue: have no interest in debate

Orientation toward risk taking
Social isolation
Need to be noticed
Taste for blood

Countering Terrorism


Usual method are not effective:

o When terrorist arrested, publicity of the trial of terrorist attracts attention to the cause
of terrorist group
o If there is any irregularity in conduct of trial, it become blessing in disguise for terrorist
o If the government makes any concessions to the moderates, terrorist will claim they
were due to their violent campaigns and attacks.
Best method is self-policing: creation of rival ethnic groups from same community which
identifies ostracises and suppresses radicals.

Islam and terrorism

Terrorism is not specifically a Middle Eastern or Islamic Problem.
Islam permits to use force when:
1. Muslims not allowed to practice their faith, when freedom is threatened
2. People oppressed and subjugated
3. Peoples land forcibly taken



What is Civil Society?

A peculiarly modern concept, emerged between 17th and 19th centuries

Factors that made civil society popular: 1) emergence of grassroots organization in European
communist countries notably Solidarity in Poland and variety opposition in Hungary. 2) Rise of
NGO movement.
Can be defined as sphere of institutions, organizations, and individuals located between
family, state and market
Sphere of voluntary associations and informal networks in which individuals and group
engaged in activities of public consequence

2.0 Characteristic of Civil Society

1) Voluntary and Autonomous : strong element of voluntary participation
2) Public ends : concern public rather that private ends
3) Pluralism and diversity: groups organize and compete freely and no one group is able to
4) Partial and non-holistic : represent different interests and objectives at times may oppose
each other, only concerned with some special interest
5) Link with the state: ask the state to provide legal and regulatory framework
6) Civility: courtesy, good manners and respect for dignity of fellow members of society

3.0 Civil Society and Democracy


Essential to establish to consolidate and maintain democracy: 1) instill their members the
spirits if collaborations so vital for public affairs 2) play important role in public
informational activities 3)act as instrument for containing the power of the government
and check their potential abuses and violations of the law. 4) help in forming a link
between the people and the government
However, political scientist warn that civil society should not be glorified blindly
Civil society can be dangerous if it does not bridge but perpetuates societal cleavages.

Civil Society in Islam

Islam is not against civil society but Islamic civil society is centered around the axis of Islamic
thinking and culture wherein personal or group dictatorship has no place.
Civil society is very much part and parcel of Islam. However, this concept which has been
associated with the European experience and its liberal democratic tradition must be placed
within an Islamic framework.




History of international relation:

Beginning of Sumerian: no rules framework of international relation, they were guided

by aggression and a certain kind of exchange on a very limited scale
Indian and Chinese: they were some contact between them
Greek: travelled and explored, do the trades with the government of the other state
and brought 3 ingredients of international relations:
Recognition to the independence and sovereignty of other states
Standard procedure for declaring war
Arbitration and conciliation through third parties; diplomatic bargaining
Greek collapse -> Roman born -> Roman decline -> territories divided into western
and eastern
Western: divided into number of political units which were dominated by
Christian, later came under control of 5 dynasties (Great Britain, Russia,
Austria, Spain, and France)
Eastern: two different group, Byzantine (Greeks) and Arabs (Islam spreads to
the other part of the world), later taken over by Ottoman Turks.
Western dynasties start to colonize countries. Balance power developed through
Treaty of Westphalia. Later this balance power broken by the Napoleons territorial
expansion (Napoleon violated the Treaty agreement and wanted to conquer the
whole Europe) but then it defeated by the European powers. All the dynasties then
met and establish Concert of Europe through the Congress of Vienna.
1870s: during industrial revolution, the small states began to secede from the 5
dynasties. The small states begin to take revenge.
The Europe then divided into 2: Triple Alliance (German) and Triple Entente (Britain)
1914: World War I The League of Nations is the attempt of international peace
3 new forces appeared Fascism, Nazism and Communism
1939: World War II major powers realize there is need to stop of colonization.
Asia and Africa begin to independent. Rules of diplomacy, foreign policy etc. begin to
emerge in international relations.

2) Key Concept of International Relations


National Interest
National Power
Foreign Policy
Economic Instrument of National Policy
National Security
International Peace

a) National Interest
i. Nation pursue what is good for their nations (self-interest) as a whole in a
world affairs
ii. Role of state in a global politics selfish
iii. Every country see things in international politics from its own perspective.

i. Vital vs secondary: vital seriously threaten the life of the nation which
could lead to a war while secondary something which is not urgent (can
negotiate or compromise).
ii. Temporary vs permanent: temporary means last for a fixed time
(American occupation in Iraq) while permanent last for centuries
(America hegemony all over the world).
iii. Specific vs general: specific refers to single area (sanction on Iraqs)
while general means deals with numbers of issue (universal declaration
of human rights)
iv. Complementary vs conflicting: complimentary mean nations have
common goals (participating in movement against terrorism) while
conflicting is when there is conflict of goals (questions of going to war
with Iraq).
b) National Power
i. Historically: being an attribute i.e., possession of strength
ii. Modern: term of relationship
iii. Lerche: capacity of a state to exert coercive influence upon other states
and to be able to resist such influence exerted by the other states upon it
iv. Padelford: the sum total of strength and capabilities a state harnessed and
applied to the advancement of its national interest and the attainment of its
national objectives.
Geography (Location,
Size or territory indicate power, Mountain
(Permanent) size, topography,
area less vulnerable compare to flat country
Most people not necessary most powerful, it
is essential to have healthy, well-trained,
well-fed, well-informed population
Natural resources
Possession, iron mostly available at great
power country
Industrial capacity
Must enough to utilize those mineral or
Military organization
Number of soldiers, great performance of
soldiers, equipment and armament, and fund
spent on defense is the strength of the
military organization.
Effectiveness in
Great power has powerful leaders
(Temporary) leadership
Stability and social
Stable political system need a long-term
national economic plan in order to be selfsufficient.
High quality will bring the end and means of
foreign policy into harmony

c) Foreign Policy
i. Roseanau: set of administrative decisions, taken in the name of state that
are intended to achieve certain goals in international arena.
ii. Foreign: applies to anything beyond the legal boundaries of a particular
iii. Policy: a guide to action intended to realize the goals a state has set for
i. Primitive: extension of territory and survival

ii. Middle ages: together with the religious and territory

iii. 18th century: dynastic, commercial and colonial expansion
iv. Contemporary:
Core self-preservation of political unit, to defend the
neighbouring countries, to defend strategic vitally important
areas, and to support own ethnic, linguistic and religion groups in
the globe.
Middle range improvement of economics situations, increasing
national prestige, and self-extension achieved through occupying
a territory or seeking entry into the procurement of raw materials
of other country.
Long range maintain ideology solidarity, to support arm control,
to establish new economics order.
i. Isolation: low level of involvement in most international issue, low level of
diplomatic and commercial transaction, self sufficient
ii. Non-alignment: not self-sufficient and depends on foreign aid or
iii. Coalition: share common economic values, usually form allies.
i. Structure of international system or the position of the state in the
international system
ii. The economic needs of the state, in term of raw materials
iii. A perceived threat
iv. The geographic location of the country
v. Leadership
i. Decisions: pragmatic decisions (longrange detailed information), crisis
decisions (during time of great threat) and tactical decision (lead to change
in pragmatic decision)
ii. Variables: idiosyncratic (decision maker), role, bureaucratic, national and
i. Political
ii. Economic
iii. Propaganda
iv. military

d) Diplomacy
i. Art of conduction negotiation in the process of implementing foreign policy
ii. Interchangeably with foreign policy involving the entire foreign relation
iii. Process or method the government used to pursue foreign policy
iv. Satow: application of intelligence tact to conduct the official relations
between the governments of independent states.
v. Nicholson: being implementation of foreign policy through negotiation
Origin (4 different stages):
i. Bilateral: diplomat is the agent of the king , took place between two states
ii. Multilateral: involving more than 2 states
iii. Conference: involving a large number of countries, establishment of
iv. Personal diplomacy: the heads of states or leader make direct
negotiation, meet and discuss problem
Mission (head):

i. Heads: 1) Ambassador / High Commissioners; 2) Ministers: and 3)Charges

d affairs
ii. Diplomat Privilege: 1) diplomat always considered as if they are on their
native soil; 2) privilege offer the diplomats freedom to perform their
iii. Immunities: 1) prosecution; 2) police cannot arrest them; 3) local lawenforcing agent cannot enforce the premises and residences of an
embassy; 4) taxes
Function of Diplomats
i. Protecting nationals (Birth, death, marriage, passport etc.)
ii. Representation
iii. Reporting (intelligence)
iv. negotiation

e) Economic Instrument of National Policy

Tariffs: imposed taxes on foreign-made product to raise revenue and to protect
domestic producers from foreign competition.
Quotas: to control imports of certain commodities from certain countries.
Boycott: to eliminate the import of either a specific commodity or the total range of
export products sold by the country against which boycott are organized.
Embargo: prohibit its own business from concluding any transaction with business
organizations in that country against which embargo is organized.
Blacklist: to identify commercial organizations that are conducting business with the
target company.
Licensing: export and import licenses are required for business transaction and they
can be granted or denied.

Freezing Asset: froze assets as hostages.

Dumping: government sell their products in foreign country in less than cost prices of
the products in order to meet the competition.
Pre-emptive Buying: government buy the whole quantities of a particular products
from a country in order to deceive target enemy economy from having those product.
Suspending Aids: Donors Company can manipulate the quantities and types of
foreign aid and he granting military materials for political purposes which can have
critical impact on one states ability to defend itself.

Name calling: propagandist attaches as emotion-laden symbol to a person or
Glittering Generality: used to describe and idea or policy rather than individuals
Transfer: propagandist try to equate on idea or person with something which is
disliked by the target people.
Plain Folks: propagandist try to be close as much as possible with the values and
style of life of the target.
Selection: present selected facts required to prove predetermined objectives.
Bandwagon: appeals to a mass of people rather than single one or institution
Frustration Scapegoat: to create hate among the masses
Fear: raise the consciousness of a target audiences when they are made aware of an
impending or imminent threat to their lives and welfare.

g) National Security
i. The guarantee of territorial integrity and sovereignty of a state.
ii. Quincy: Any armed conflict between two or more nation states is a war
iii. Charles: Use or organized armed forces against a state for achieving its
end is war

iv. Struggle among political units, within and between states involving
organized fighting forces, and resulting in a sizable number of war related
Causes of War:
i. Human aggression: selfish and aggressive
ii. Elite and popular fatalism and misperception
iii. Small group conspiracy
iv. Economics imperialism
v. Nationalist expansionism and irredentism
vi. Systemic inadequacy
vii. General cycles of history

h) International Peace
Peaceful settlement:
i. Negotiation: direct discussion
ii. good offices: assistance of third party, channel of communication
between conflicting parties
iii. Mediation: suggestion of term of settlement
iv. Inquiry
v. Conciliation
vi. Arbitration: applying legal principles to a controversy within limits
vii. Adjudication: judicial settlement.

Islamic framework of International Relation

Islamic Framework:
i. Pax islamica: Millah religious society
ii. Liberty: Inherent right of individuals
iii. Openness: there should not be restriction to the human movement
iv. Egalitarianism: equality
v. Universalism: eliminate parochial nationalism based on race or ethnicity
Basic principle:
i. Tawhid: existence, openness and uniqueness of Allah
ii. Justice: fairness
iii. Peace and Cooperation: against those element that are disruptive
iv. Al-Jihad (self-exertion): holy war
Basic Islamic values:
i. No aggression
ii. No Tyranny
iii. No Corruption
iv. No Excesses



International Organizational Definition

Quincy Wright international organizational is the art of creating and administering general
and regional societies composed of independent states to facilitate in realizing common
purposes and objectives
Organizations between or among two or more states to facilitate or regulate their mutual
Modern defined both from the point of view of purposes and nature of institution.


Nature of

Regulation or resolution of conflict through peaceful means

Minimization of conflict of war
Promotion of cooperation and development activities
Collective defense against any threat
Global membership with general purposes The UNO
Organizations (IGO) Global membership with limited purposes The World Bank
with the involvement of Limited membership with general purposes ASEAN, OIC
Limited membership with limited purposes NAFTA
International Red Cross of Society, International Postal
(NGO)- Union, International Chamber of Commerce.
necessarily involved

2) International Organizational Development


Charter of Madinah (Dustr al-Madinah)

The League of Nations
The United Nation Organizations (UNO)
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC)
European Union (EU)
Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN)

a) Charter of Madinah (Dustr al-Madinah)

Written and promulgated by Prophet Muhammad for the mutireligious 10000 strong
citizens of the city-state of Madinah in 622 A.D.
First document describing the major principle of an international organizations.
Charter for conducting relations between and among different tribes. (while UN charter
for conducting relations and among nations)
Provided the people of the world a central public institution for seeking justice which
brought an end for all times to the chaos of tribalism and which laid the basis for wider
Principles that adopted by the UNs Charter:
Brief Description
23 and 42 In future, if there were conflicts, that must be referred to Allah and
Muhammad Rasulullah
15, 17, 19 All parties would be treated equally
and 45
Provisions dealing with the questions of retaliations for killings
Prohibition against sheltering criminals
Liability for those who committed crime
Preclusion of individuals from concluding separate peace with the enemies
of state

In the name of God the Compassionate, the Merciful.

(1) This is a document from Muhammad the prophet (governing the relations) between the believers and
Muslims of Quraysh and Yathrib, and those who followed them and joined them and labored with them.
(2) They are one community (umma) to the exclusion of all men.
(3) The Quraysh emigrants according to their present custom shall pay the bloodwit within their number and
shall redeem their prisoners with the kindness and justice common among believers.
(4-8) The B. Auf according to their present custom shall pay the bloodwit they paid in heatheism; every
section shall redeem its prisoners with the kindness and justice common among believers. The B. Sa ida, the B.
l-Harith, and the B. Jusham, and the B. al-Najjar likewise.
(9-11) The B. Amr b. Auf, the B. al-Nabit and the B. al-Aus likewise.
(12)(a) Believers shall not leave anyone destitute among them by not paying his redemption money or
bloodwit in kindness.
(12)(b) A believer shall not take as an ally the freedman of another Muslim against him.
(13) The God-fearing believers shall be against the rebellious or him who seeks to spread injustice, or sin or
animosity, or corruption between believers; the hand of every man shall be against him even if he be a son of
one of them.
(14) A believer shall not slay a believer for the sake of an unbeliever, nor shall he aid an unbeliever against a
(15) Gods protection is one, the least of them may give protection to a stranger on their behalf. Believers are
friends one to the other to the exclusion of outsiders.
(16) To the Jew who follows us belong help and equality. He shall not be wronged nor shall his enemies be
(17) The peace of the believers is indivisible. No separate peace shall be made when believers are fighting in
the way of God. Conditions must be fair and equitable to all.
(18) In every foray a rider must take another behind him.
(19) The believers must avenge the blood of one another shed in the way of God.
(20)(a) The God-fearing believers enjoy the best and most upright guidance.
(20)(b) No polytheist shall take the property of person of Quraysh under his protection nor shall he intervene
against a believer.
(21) Whoever is convicted of killing a believer without good reason shall be subject to retaliation unless the
next of kin is satisfied (with blood-money), and the believers shall be against him as one man, and they are
bound to take action against him.

Consist of 47 clauses.

(22) It shall not be lawful to a believer who holds by what is in this document and believes in God and the last
day to help an evil-doer or to shelter him. The curse of God and His anger on the day of resurrection will be
upon him if he does, and neither repentance nor ransom will be received from him.
(23) Whenever you differ about a matter it must be referred to God and to Muhammad.
(24) The Jews shall contribute to the cost of war so long as they are fighting alongside the believers.
(25) The Jews of the B. Auf are one community with the believers (the Jews have their religion and the
Muslims have theirs), their freedmen and their persons except those who behave unjustly and sinfully, for
they hurt but themselves and their families.
(26-35) The same applies to the Jews of the B. al-Najjar, B. al-Harith, B. Sai ida, B. Jusham, B. al-Aus, B.
Tha'laba, and the Jafna, a clan of the Thalaba and the B. al-Shutayba. Loyalty is a protection against treachery.
The freedmen of Tha laba are as themselves. The close friends of the Jews are as themselves.
(36) None of them shall go out to war save the permission of Muhammad, but he shall not be prevented from
taking revenge for a wound. He who slays a man without warning slays himself and his household, unless it be
one who has wronged him, for God will accept that.
(37) The Jews must bear their expenses and the Muslims their expenses. Each must help the other against
anyone who attacks the people of this document. They must seek mutual advice and consultation, and loyalty
is a protection against treachery. A man is not liable for his allys misdeeds. The wronged must be helped.
(38) The Jews must pay with the believers so long as war lasts.
(39) Yathrib shall be a sanctuary for the people of this document.
(40) A stranger under protection shall be as his host doing no harm and committing no crime.
(41) A woman shall only be given protection with the consent of her family.
(42) If any dispute or controversy likely to cause trouble should arise it must be referred to God and to
Muhammad the apostle of God. God accepts what is nearest to piety and goodness in this document.
(43) Quraysh and their helpers shall not be given protection.
(44) The contracting parties are bound to help one another against any attack on Yathrib.
(45)(a) If they are called to make peace and maintain it they must do so; and if they make a similar demand on
the Muslims it must be carried out except in the case of a holy war.
(45)(b) Every one shall have his portion from the side to which he belongs.
(46) The Jews of al-Aus, their freedmen and themselves have the same standing with the people of this
document in purely loyalty from the people of this document. Loyalty is a protection against treachery. He
who acquires ought to acquire it for himself. God approves of this document.
(47) This deed will not protect the unjust and the sinner. The man who goes forth to fight and the man who
stays at home in the city is safe unless he has been unjust and sinned. God is the protector of the good and
God-fearing man and Muhammad is the apostle of God.

b) The League of Nations

After the World War I, the realization came that no final peace can be achieved without
the international organization.
1916: International organizational has been proposed by the American President,
Woodrow Wilson but not much attention was paid during the war.
1919: Allied power met in Paris peace Conference, they accepted the proposal but they
waited until the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in January 1920.
The League of Nations formally establish in January 10, 1920.
The Leagues constitution came to be known as the Covenant.
Has 4 purposes:
Nations will follow a policy of cooperation instead of war and conflict.
Nation states will settle their disputes through the League and not by
Nation states may engage in war only three months after Leagues decision
Sanction will be employed, both economic and military, if Leagues decision
is no obeyed.
Has 59 members:
Primary (states with allied forces or at least not join the defeated forces
World War I
Secondary (defeated forces such as USSR and Germany)
United States of America did not join because the American Senate did not
Approve the proposal of the President.
Has 3 major organs:
The Assembly
Largest organ
All member states are member of assembly
One session a year (each session member states send 3 representative
bur had only one vote)
decision has to reach unanimously except for the case of accepting,
expelling and suspending any member states, which required 2/3
Function: 1) to discuss any matters of common concern; 2) to pass the
annual budget of the League; 3) to elect non-permanent member of the
Council; and 4) Elect the Secretary General for five years ahead it.
The Council
Most effective organ
Member: 1) permanent (British, France, Italy, Japan and US) 2) nonpermanent (initially 8, gradually become 12)
The Council would meet at least once a year at the Seat of League
(Geneva) or any place as may be decide upon.
The Council could deal at its meeting with any matter within the sphere of
action of the League or affecting the peace of the world.
Any member that did not represented on the Council could be invited to
send Representative to sit as a member at any meeting during the
consideration of matters, especially those effecting the interest of the
member. Each member of the League represented on the Council, had
one vote.
Function: 1) to discuss and settle any international disputed and to
implement sanction against any member who violet the decision of the
League; 2) approve the appointment of the Secretariat and staff
Secretariat by the Secretary General.
The Secretariat
Administrative organ of the League.

The Secretary General used to act in that capacity at all meetings of the
Assembly and of the Council.
Function: 1) to organize meeting and seminars; 2) to look after the
administrative matters of the League; 3) responsible for preparing the
annual budget and annual report of the League.
!st Secretary General is Eric Drummond, a British Civil Servant.
Born with enthusiasm with the hope that would resolve conflicts and avoid war.
1920-1930: period of success because at least 60 issues brought before the League,
many of them were resolved.
1930s: the involvement of the major powers; Japan (attacked Manchuria) and Italy
(invaded Ethiopia) became the aggressors in conflict.
1939: World War II broke out and the League failure to prevent the war.
Caused of The Leagues failure:
General causes
The idea of suppressing Germany was not good. Since Germany was not
given proper treatment, it was getting ready for the revenge
1930s: None of the states were interested in giving up their own interest.
This was because the world going through a period of depression and the
states has their own problem in their countries
The League had a week beginning. The USA never accepted the
membership of the League. Germany and USSR were not initially
allowed to join the League.
The League had no military of its own to implement its decisions
The League has not independently born. It was a part of Treaty of
Article 12 Covenant: War was not prohibited. Any state could engage in
war again after 3 months of Leagues decision.
In the League, the decision must be unanimous which almost impossible
The League could interfere in the affairs of any state even of the state is
not a member of the League.
Classification of member; Primary and secondary
The defeated originally not allowed to be a member of the League. Later
they join as a secondary member. They did not see the League as an
objective institution. Germany join the League only to destroy it.
The League is not exactly the international institution in the sense that
none of the country outside the Europe, except Japan was member of the
League. It was primarily the European organization.

c) The United Nation Organizations

New international organizations to correct the deficiencies of the League. Started during
the World War II.
The official attempts went through 8 stages:

London Declaration
Declared for durable international peace

Atlantic Charter
7 principle: 1) principle of right of self-government; 2) sovereignty and
equality of all states; 3) peaceful settlement of all disputes; 4) socioeconomic cooperation; 5) disarmament; 6) fixation of territorial boundary
of every states; and 7) opposition to any kinds of aggression.

Moscow Declaration
Outlined out for a new international organizations.

Teheran Declaration
Approved Moscow Declaration

Bretton-Woods Conference
Meeting at New Hampshire to discuss the financial reconstruction after
the war, especially for developing countries.
Idea of International Monetary Fund (IMF), General Agreement on Tariffs
and Trade (GATT) and World Bank emerged.

Dumbarton Oaks Conference

To draft the constitution of the proposed international organization.

Yalta Conference
To discuss the leftover issues regarding the organizations.
Proposed Security Council of UNO, 5 major powers will have veto power,
Ukraine and Byelorussia will be give separate membership.

San Francisco Conference

UN Conference was held on April 25, 1945.
50 states participated and signed the constitution, the Charter of the UN.
Objectives and Principals:
i. To maintain international and peace security
ii. To guarantee the right of self determination
iii. To maintain socioeconomic cooperation among states
iv. To promote respect for human rights for all people.
v. Sovereign equality of all members
vi. Settlement of international disputes through peaceful means
vii. Collective in the enforcement of UN actions
viii. Non-interference in the internal affairs of any states
ix. Equal right of men an women

The organs of UN

The League of Nations VS UN

d) North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

Alliance of 26 countries of North America and Europe.
All member countries that participate in the military aspects of the Alliance contribute forces
and equipment.
i) Fundamental role is to safeguard the freedom and security of its member countries by
political and military means. Article 5 of North Atlantic Treaty stated that its primary
aim is deterrence against the use of force against member of the Alliance. It
embodies the principle that an attack against any one of them considered to be and
attack against all. NATO playing an important role in crisis management and keeping
ii) The role of integrated military structure is to provide the organizational framework for
defending the territory of member countries against threats to their security and
iii) NATO will deter any potential aggression against any member state by stopping and
aggressors advance as far as possible.
iv) NATO must also be prepared to contribute to conflict prevention and to conduct nonarticle 5 crisis response operation. The Alliances forces have essential roles in
fostering cooperation and understanding with NATOS partners and other states,
particularly in helping partners to prepare for potential participation in NATO-led
e) The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC)
Established on 25th September 1969 in Rabat, Morocco
To unite Islamic Nation, 57 states come forward
Has 2 main bodies:
i) The Conference of Kings and Head of States of Government @ OIC Conference:
take place every 3 years.
ii) Conference of Foreign Minister: meet once a year, main decision making and
implementing body.
i) To strengthen the Islamic solidarity among the member states.
ii) To strengthen the cooperation in the political, economic, social, cultural and scientific
iii) To strengthen the struggle of all Muslims to safeguard their dignity, independence
and national rights.
iv) Coordinate action to safeguard the Holy Places.
v) Coordinate action to support the struggle of Palestinian people and assist them in
receiving their rights and liberating their occupied territories.
vi) Work to eliminate racial discrimination and all forms of colonialism.
vii) Work to create a favourable atmosphere for the promotion of cooperation and
understanding between member states and other countries.
i) Total equality among member states.
ii) Respect for the right of self-determination.
iii) Respect for the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of each member
If the member not happy with the OIC was operating, there will be a call to reform of the
body. The OIC 10 year Programme of Action was launch to:
i) Uphold transparency and accountability in governance
ii) Protect the rights of women, children and minorities
iii) Promote sustainable development
iv) Assist the least developed states to deal with various diseases.
Involve in socio-economic front project which related more and less to the United Nations
Millennium Development Goals.


European Union (EU)

Association of European Countries.
Decision of on specific matters of joint interest can be made democratically at the
European level.
The historical roots lies in the World War II, this idea of European integration is to prevent
another great war.
9 May 1950, birthday of EU, celebrate annually as European Day.
i) Initially 6 countries (Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the
Netherland), then followed by Denmark, Ireland, UK, Greece, Spain, Portugal,
Austria, Finland, Sweden and at 2004, another 10 new countries join EU.
ii) Early days, EU deals with the trade and economy, but now EU also deals with many
other subjects of direct important in everyday life such as citizens right; ensuring
freedom, security and justice; job creation, regional development, environmental
protection and making globalization work for everyone.
Has 5 organs:
i) European Parliament: elected by the people of member states
ii) Council of EU: representing the government of member states
iii) European Commission: driving force and executing body
iv) Court of Justice: ensuring compliance with the law
v) Court of Auditors: controlling sound and lawful management of the EU budget
Assisted by 5 bodies:
i) European Economic and Social Committee: economics and social issue
ii) Committee of the Regions: regional and authority issue
iii) European Central Bank: monetary policy and managing Euro
iv) European Ombudsman: citizen complaint
v) European Investment Bank: financing investment project
i) Extend economic cooperation among the member countries
ii) Resolve regional issues and disputes
iii) Free trade among member countries.

g) Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN)

Establish on 8 August 1967 in Bangkok by 5 member Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines,
Singapore and Thailand. Followed by Brunei, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar, and Cambodia.
i) To accelerate the economic growth, social progress and development in the region
through join endeavours in the spirit of equality and partnership in order to strengthen
the foundation for a prosperous and peaceful community of SEA Nation.
ii) To promote original peace and stability through abiding respect for justice and the
rule of law in the relationship among countries in the region and adherence to the UN
Principles (The Treaty of Amity and Cooperation, TAC signed at the first ASEAN
i) Mutual respect for the independence, sovereignty, equality, territorial, integrity, and
national identity of all nations.
ii) The right of every state to lead its national existence free from external interference,
subversion or coercion.
iii) Non-interference in the internal affairs of one another.
iv) Settlement of differences or disputes by peaceful manner.
v) Renunciation of the threat or use of force.
vi) Effective cooperation among themselves
i) Highest decision making organ ASEAN Head of States and Government Meeting


ASEAN Summit is convened every year.

The ASEAN Ministerial Meeting (Foreign Minister) is held on annual basis.
Ministerial Meeting of several other sectors are also held.
29 committees of senior officials and 122 technical working group support the
vi) Committee composed of head of diplomatic missions in certain capital: to support
conduct of ASEANs external relations.
vii) The Secretary General (5 year-term) of ASEAN is appointed on merit and accorded
ministerial status: to initiate, advice, coordinate, and implement ASEAN activities.
viii) The principle of appointment of the member of professional staff of the ASEAN
Secretariat are based on the open recruitment and region wide competition.
Achievement (Political Accord):
i) ASEAN Declaration, Bangkok, 8th August 1967.
ii) Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality Declaration
iii) Declaration of ASEAN Concord
iv) Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia
v) ASEAN Declaration on the South China Sea
vi) Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone.
Functional Cooperation:
i) ASEAN Plan of Action on Social Development
ii) ASEAN Plan of Action on Cultural and Information
iii) ASEAN Plan of Action on Science and Technology
iv) ASEAN Strategic Plan of Action on the Environment
v) ASEAN Plan of Action on Drug Abuse Control
vi) ASEAN Plan of Action on Combating Transnational Crime.


Socio-economic challenges:

Environmental degradation
Nuclear & weapons proliferation

Cause of poverty: excessive population growth
Necessary steps:
1. Developing countries must pay attention to
Accelerating economic growth
Improving the distribution of income & wealth
Accelerating social development
2. Developed countries, NGOs, international donors & agencies support financially,
technologically and expert advisors
3. NGOs & agencies must monitor progress on outcomes; surveys & data analysis
The increasing integration of nations which affects a wide range of issues (economic,
cultural & political affairs)
Supporters claim;
1. Can remove the barriers to free trade (international trade left to its natural
course without tariffs, quotas, or other restrictions.)
2. Promotes sustainable growth
3. Increases employment
4. Provides higher standard of living
Critics claim;
1. The benefits are only for shareholders of the multinational corporations
2. free trade system = free ride system
3. Causes harm to the society by pollution, crime, unemployment escalating social
costs, etc.
4. Globalization = Shareholder Protectionism
Causes of climate change & ozone layer depletion;
1. Results of unsustainable lifestyles
2. Unhealthy patterns of development
Root causes of environ. crisis;
1. Eurocentric views of progress
2. Outdated economic thinking
3. Excessive focus on economic growth
4. Neo-liberalism and trade


AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

HIV: human immunodeficiency virus
Key preventions;
1. Regular risk reduction counseling
2. STD screening

Nuclear countries:
USA, USSR, France,
India, Pakistan
China, Britain

Why other countries start building their own nuclear programs?

USA pursues the pre-emption against the threat and proliferation of weapons of
mass destruction.

Conventional war vs. Terrorist war:
Intense & concentrated
Battle lines, battle fields, trained
military pros. fight one another
Has a beginning, middle and end

Iran, North Korea

Random acts of violence against
a. To coerce a group into granting
certain demands
b. To extract revenge for a
perceived wrong

Weapons of destruction;
1. Biological & chemical easy to manufacture for small groups
2. Nuclear materials
3. Letter bombs use the normal postal to deliver bombs
4. Bombs made of common fertilizer and gasoline


Narco-terrorist org.: An organized group that is complicit in the acts. of drug trafficking
to fund premeditated, politically-motivated violence perpetrated against non-combatant
targets with the intention to influence
Groups with different objectives;
Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK)
Revolutionary Armed Forces of
Colombia (FARC)
Politically-motivated group use drug
To continue the ideological struggle
trafficking to support terrorist activities
Elements to attack narco-terrorism:
1. Law enforcement efforts
2. Intelligence gathering
3. International cooperation