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Tribological and Metallurgical Properties of Nitrided AISI 4340

Steel
Nitridng usually improves wear resistance and can be accomplished using a gas or plasma method; it's necessary
to find if there is any difference in surface roughness, wear and/or wear mechanism when choosing between
methods for nitriding. In this study, Ball-on-disk wear test was compared on coupons nitrided with five different
nitriding cycles that processed at temperatures of 500-570°C, with a processing time of 8 - 80 hrs. Different
compound layer thicknesses were formed, (5-8μm), and a minimum of 0.38 mm case depth was produced. Nitrided
samples were also compared to nitrocarburized and the nitrided coupons with a “0” compound layer in a ball-ondisk test. Few selected coupons were post-polished and wear test on ball-on-disk test was compared with the
coupons without post polishing. Optical surface roughness using White Light Interferometry (WLIM) and
metallurgical testing was performed.
It was found that plasma nitrided coupons with post polishing had the highest wear resistance in comparison to the
untreated coupons. Porous compound layer and oxide layer on a nitrocarburized coupon may have contributed to
its wear resistance by retaining lubricant longer.

Outside-Engine Wear Study of Ceramic Coated Cylinder Wall
Tribo-System
This research focuses on study of feasibility of using ceramic oxide coatings on the cylinder wall of hypoeutectic
aluminum silicon alloy engine blocks. Coatings are achieved in an aqueous electrolytic bath and composed of both
alpha and gamma phases of Al2O3 and have shown promising wear resistance. Composition and acidity level of the
electrolyte creates a variation of surface roughness, coating hardness and thickness which has direct influence on
the wear behavior of the sliding surfaces. The effect of load bearing and coating morphology on coefficient of
friction was studied. SEM images of the substrate showed no predominant wear behavior or delamination.
Coefficient of friction and wear rate were also measured. This study shows the importance of surface structure on
oil retention and wear rate. Coarser coatings can be desirable under starved oil condition since they show lower
coefficient of friction. This can be explained due to the oil retention structure of coarse coatings with more
topographical variance.

Effect of Surface Roughness and Sliding Velocity on Tribological
Properties of an Oxide-Coated Aluminum Alloy
Aluminum engines have been successfully used to replace heavy gray cast engines to lighten the car's weight and
reduce the fuel consumption. To overcome the aluminum alloys' poor wear resistance, cast iron liners and thermal
spraying coatings were used as cylinder bore materials for wear protection. A plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO)
technique had also been proposed to produce an oxide coating on aluminum cylinder bore. The oxide coating can
have a low coefficient of friction (COF) and minimum wear shown in the lab tests. To conserve more fuel, the
stopping and restarting system was introduced when the vehicle was forced to stop immediately for a short time.
When the engine was forced to stop and restart, the reciprocating speed of the piston was very slow, and the
friction between the piston and the cylinder was high. In this research, a pin-on-disc tribometer was used to
investigate tribological behavior of the oxide coating on an aluminum alloy. The rotational velocity of the tribometer
was increased stepwise in a low speed range during the tests. The COF and wear of counterface pins were
measured and evaluated corresponding to different combinations of sliding velocities. The results showed that the
COF could be affected by many factors such as coating composition, surface roughness, amount of lubricating oil

the lubricant industry has been trying to formulate biodegradable lubricants with technical characteristics superior to those based on petroleum. another sample of fatty acid methyl ester mahua oil was prepared by two step transesterification process. by acidic catalyzed reaction with glacial acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide. dripping or generates large quantities of after-use waste materials requiring costly disposal. in industrial applications. whereas the wear rate and friction coefficient as the output parameters. It is also very attractive for industrial applications that have potential for environmental contact through accidental leakage. Vegetable oil in its natural form has limited use as industrial fluids due to poor thermo-oxidation stability. trans-esterified mahua oil. A proper combination of coating surface roughness and sliding velocity could provide a significant lower COF and less wear. The wear load was considered as the input parameter. wear tests are relatively expensive and prolonged. non toxic and readily biodegradable nature. . Comparative Tribological Investigation of Mahua Oil and its Chemically Modified Derivatives For the last decade. A renewable resource. With the increase of velocity in the low speed range. in the present paper epoxidation and trans-esterification were employed to overcome the mentioned drawbacks of vegetable oil and explore the possibility of modified mahua oil as lubricant because double bonds present in triacylglycerol structure offer sites for additional functionalization This paper compares the lubricating property and mechanical stability of four samples of epoxidized mahua oil. Simulations using the identified models were compared with experimental results and it was found that the modeling of wear process was satisfactory. The smoother of the coating surface. 0. The epoxidation of mahua oil followed by oxirane ring opening. epoxidized mahua oil and mineral oil based lubricant were tested for their viscosity index. the COF decreased. the less wear of counterface pin. for several years. coefficient of friction and wear tests using four-ball tester. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are one of the most promising candidates of reinforcements used to improve mechanical strength such as wear in metal matrix composites (MMCs). prediction of wear behavior of aluminum (Al) matrix (MMCs) reinforced with different amounts (0. Comparative tests concluded that epoxidized mahua oil and transesterified mahua oil have superior lubricant characteristics with respect to oil and conventional lubricant. in recent years. 1 and 2 wt%) of CNTs was investigated. The wear behavior is the critical factor influencing the product life and performance in engineering components. due to their improved wear resistance in comparison to aluminum alloys. However. The double bonds were epoxidized to improve low temperature and oxidative stability properties of mahua oil. mahua oil. The triacylglycerol structure of mahua oil is amphiphilic in character that makes it an excellent candidate as lubricant and functional fluid. density variation. transesterified mahua oil. provides interesting polyfunctional compounds useful as biolubricant with improved low temperature pour properties. Prediction of Wear Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes Using Nonlinear Identification Aluminum metal matrix composites reinforced with particulates have attracted much attention in the automotive industry. research has been increasingly concentrated on development of wear prediction models. A nonlinear autoregressive exogenous (NARX) model structure was chosen for the modeling. In this study.and sliding velocity. The four samples-mahua oil. Moreover. is good alternative to mineral oil because of its environmentally friendly. Therefore. refined mahua oil and a mineral oil based lubricant. low temperature behavior and other tribochemical degrading processes.5. As a result.

The piston ring coating improves the life of engine as well as fuel efficiency. plates with similar composition as the piston ring material were prepared by the casting process using induction arc furnace and sand mould. This was with a view to exploiting the characteristics of PKS. Current investigation is on field testing and reformulation of the composite for enhanced performance. The wear rate was calculated using mass loss methods on an electronic balance having least count −4 of 1× 10 g. require some form of coating to minimise abrasion and corrosion. whilst. Two sets of brake pads with identical ingredients but using either PKS or asbestos as base material were produced. in terms of wear behavior results of the materials. In this study. The PKS is therefore suitable for use as friction material in automotive brake-pads. the experimental data was also used to model this behavior by identification. Friction and Sliding Wear Characterization of Ion Chrome Coating The functions of a piston ring are to seal off the combustion pressure. following standard procedures employed by a commercial brake pad manufacturer. The measured tangential force was considered as the input . mechanical and the wear characteristics of the PKS-based brake pads were evaluated. 3375 N/s. and phase change at 689. wear rate was 9. The properties of the PKS-based brake pad wholly satisfied the NIS 323 standard.43. A Comparison and Identification Study of Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour of Al/B4CP and Mg/B4CP Composites for Automobile Disk Brakes The brake friction materials in an automotive brake system play an important role in the overall braking performance of a vehicle. 0. to distribute and control the oil. Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) have been widely investigated and applied due to their advantages of improved strength. The physical.17 E-5 g/min and exhibiting a third order polynomial with run-in time. The wear rate of the coating was found to be increased with increase in load as well as sliding speed for the ion plating with the counter body of tungsten carbide but in the case of ion plating with the HCS & MS it is found to be decreased. to make substitution for asbestos which has been found to be carcinogenic. swell and growth. Most piston rings and metallic sealing rings for modern application where running conditions are severe. The coefficient of friction of the experimental brake pad on cast iron was 0. In addition. The PKS based brake pad was characterized by 32. thermal. stiffness and increased wear resistance over the monolithic alloys in automobile industries.5°C. which are otherwise largely deposited as waste from palm oil production.Agro-Waste Based Friction Material for Automotive Application The development of a non-asbestos automotive brake pad using palm kernel shell (PKS) as friction filler material is presented. Wear test of the coating was conducted on pin on disc machine under dry conditions. The microstructure of the worn surfaces of the coating was also examined with optical telescope and no change in microstructure of the coating due to frictional heat was found. In this paper. compared with the values for the asbestos-based brake pads. bonding to back plate. and weighted against established recommendations for friction materials for road vehicle brake pads. physical vapour deposition (ion chrome plating) was investigated.62%.34 Brinell hardness number. to transfer heat and to stabilize the piston. Al/B4CP and Mg/B4CP composites were compared to find a suitable candidate material for automotive disk brake application.

as well as longer isothermal hold studies. Results are presented from both a series of sequential tribology oil studies with and without FMs. high vacuum) or with hard-to-synthesize inorganic-fullerene WS 2nanoparticles. The effect of the mixing process on the morphology of the particles was also reported. Nitro-oxidation of the oils was also studied by tribological methods and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR). developed using a Cameron Plint TE-77 cylinder-on-plate. Mixtures of WS2 nanoparticles and microparticles were also tested to see if a combination of reduced friction and wear would be achieved. This study aimed at investigating the friction and wear reduction of WS2 of nanoparticles and microparticles that can be synthesized in bulk and/or purchased off the shelf. Microparticles and Mixtures Thereof Tribological performance of tungsten sulfide (WS2) nanoparticles. Specifically studied. Previous research showed that friction and wear reduction can be achieved with nanoparticles. In some cases. oxidation. whereas the weight loss as the output parameter. The microparticles showed the largest reduction in coefficient of friction while the nanoparticles showed the largest wear scar area reduction. H. microparticles and mixtures of the two were investigated. The results show the friction reduction retention can vary significantly with friction modifier type. viscosity. the study pointed out that identified models provide a reliable and cost effective tool for wear prediction. N surface active molecular structure. we have developed a series of tribology measurements to measure and understand friction reduction performance retention by extended tribology measurements of the changes in the coefficient of friction (COF) with time. Expanding the Development of More Durable Friction Modifiers with Sustained Friction-Reduction: Extended Tribological Studies and Oil-Aging To gain some insight into friction modifier (FM) performance retention in engine oils. . these tests give us insight into how friction modifiers might perform in real engine operating conditions with typical long oil drain intervals. Comparison of Tribological Performance of WS2 Nanoparticles. Preliminary results of this work showed that B4CPaddition improved wear resistance of both aluminum and magnesium matrix composites. and an experimental organic friction modifier (Exp-OFM1) of a completely ashless (containing no inorganic metals) C. to track induced changes in COF. Often these improvements were mutually exclusive. Molybdenum dialkyldithiocarbamate (MoDTC). were Glycerolmonooleate (GMO). and PCS-Instruments Mini-Traction-Machine ball-on-disk friction instruments. simulating oil aging. or achieved under special conditions (high temperature. Mixtures of nanoparticles and microparticles did not provide the desired combination of significant friction and wear reductions. and nitration. O. after several days of data collection. Additionally.parameter.