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Complex Numbers

INTRODUCTION

Consider a simple quadratic equation x2 + 4 = 0. Clearly

there is no solution of this equation in the set of real

numbers. To permit the solution of such equations the set

of complex numbers is introduced.

The solutions of the above equation are given by x2 = 4

x = - 4 = 2 1 = 2 i.

Swiss Mathematician Euler introduced the symbol i (iota)

-1 .

number.

Now for any two real numbers x and y, we can form a new

number x + iy. This number x + iy is called a complex

number. The set C of complex numbers is therefore defined

by C = {x + iy | x R, y R}

The extension of concept of numbers from real numbers

to complex numbers enabled us to solve any polynomial

equation.

A complex number is deonoted by a single letter such as z,

w etc. Given a complex number z = x + iy, x is called its

Real part and y its Imaginary Part and we denote

x = Re(z) and y = Im (z)

If y = 0, then z = x is a purely real number.

If x = 0, then z = iy is a purely imaginary number.

The complex number 0 = 0 + i0 is both purely real as well

as purely imaginary.

Two complex numbers z1 = x1 + iy1 and z2 = x2 + iy2 are

said to be equal if and only if x1 = x2 and y1 = y2.

NUMBER SYSTEM

A complex number is defined as an ordered pair (x, y) of

real numbers x and y. Thus,

C = {(x, y) | x R, y R}

equivalent to z = x + iy.

Thus, i is equivalent to (0, 1) and z = (x, y).

IMPORTANT RESULTS TO BE MEMORISED ABOUT i

i (greek letter iota) represents positive square root of

1, so, i = - 1 . It is called imaginary unit. We have

1. i 2 = -1, i 3 = -i, i 4 = 1, i 5 = i, ........etc.

Thus for any integer k,

i4k = 1, i4k+1 = i, i4k+2 = 1, i4k+3 = i.

That is if power of i is m, m N , then divide m by 4

and find the remainder.

If the remainder is zero, then im = 1

If the remainder is one, then im = i

If the remainder is two, then im = 1

If the remainder is three, then im = i

2. The sum of four consecutive powers of i is zero, for

example, i12 + i13 + i14 + i15 = 0

a b = ab is

true only if at least one number is non negative or zero.

If both a and b are negative then

a b ab

-a -b = -1 a -1 b = i a i b = - ab

OPERATIONS ON COMPLEX NUMBERS

Suppose that z1 = (x1, y1) and z2 = (x2, y2) be two complex

numbers, that is, z1 = x1 + iy1 and z2 = x2 + iy2

(i) Equality : z1 = z2, if x1 = x2 and y1 = y2

(ii) Addition : z1 + z2 = (x1 + x2, y1 + y2) or equivalently z1 +

z2 = (x1 + x2) + i (y1 + y2)

Ph y si cs

z1 z2 = (x1 x2) + i (y1 y2)

(iv) Multiplication : z 1z 2 = (x 1x2 y1y2, x1y2 + x2y1) or

equivalently z1z2 = (x1x2 y1y2) + i (x1y2 + x2y1)

(v) Division : If z2 0 then

Again let z = x + iy be a complex number. Then the complex

number x iy is called the conjugate of z and is denoted by

z or z*.

Thus, we have Re ( z ) = Re (z) and Im ( z ) = Im (z).

Note :

1. The additive inverse of z is x iy and conjugate

of z is x iy.

2. The multiplicative inverse of a non-zero complex

number z can be given by

z1 x1 x 2 + y1 y 2 y1 x 2 - y 2 x1

=

,

z 2 x 22 + y 22

x 22 + y 22

or equivalently

z1 x1x 2 + y1 y 2

=

z 2 x 22 + y 22

y x - y 2 x1

i 1 2

x 2 + y2

2

2

z -1 =

R then mz = (mx, my) or equivalently if z = x + iy then

mz = mx + imy

ALGEBRA OF OPERATIONS

If z 1, z 2 and z3 belong to set C of complex numbers, then

following properties hold.

z

(1) Closure Property : z1 z2; z1z2 and 1 , z2 0 all also

z2

belong to C.

(2) Commutative Property : z1 + z2 = z2 + z1 and z1z2 = z2z1

(3) Associative Property : z1 + (z2 + z3) = (z1 + z2) + z3 and

z1 (z2z3) = (z1z2)z3

(4) Cancellation Property : z1 + z3 = z2 + z3 z1 = z2 and

z1z3 = z2z3 z3 = 0 or z1 = z2

(5) Distributive Property : z1 (z2 + z3) = z1z2 + z1z3

(6) Existence of Identity : 0 = (0, 0) is additive identity, i.e. 0

+z =z+0 =z " zC

1 = (1, 0) is multiplicative identity, i.e. 1(z) = (z)1 = z " z C

(7) Existence of Inverse : For every complex number z = (x,

y), we may get a unique numberz = (x, y) such that

z + (z) = (z) + z = 0. (z) is Additive Inverse.

For every complex number z = (x, y), z 0 we may get a

unique number z1 or

x

y

1

,

= 2

2

2

2

z

x +y x +y

such that

|z|=

a + b = {Re ( z )} + {Im ( z )}

2

z z = | z |2

or

ABOUT CONJUGATE

(i)

(z ) = z

(ii) z1 z 2 = z1 z 2

z1 z1

, z2 0

(v) =

z 2 z2

(iv) (i z) = -i z

(vii) z - z = 2 i Im(z ) , which is a purely imaginary number..

(viii) z = z if and only if z is purely real.

(ix) z = - z if and only if z is purely imaginary..

(x) If f(z) is a polynomial in a complex variable z, then

are replaced by their conjugate is]

(xi) z1z 2 + z1z 2 = 2 Re( z1z 2 ) = 2 Re( z1z 2 )

a1

a2

(xii) If z = b1

c1

b2

c2

a3

a1

b3 then z = b1

c3

c1

a2

b2

a3

b3

c2

c3

1 1

1

z = z = 1 . is multiplicative inverse.

z

z

z

properties is called a Field.]

(8) The order relations 'greater than' and 'less than' are

not defined for non real complex numbers. The

inequalities like 2i < 0; 1 + 2i > 1; i 1< i are meaning

less.

The Modulus and the conjugate of a Complex Number

Let z = x + iy be a complex number. Then the modulus

(absolute value) of z, denoted by | z | is defined as follows :

1

x - iy

z

=

=

2

2

x + iy x + y

| z |2

ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES

4n +7

1.

ik

is

k =1

(a) 0

(c) 1

(b) 1

(d) i or i, depending on n is even or odd

4n +7

Sol. We have,

k =1

4n + 7

i k = i + i 2 + i3 +

i k = i -1 - i + 0 = -1

k =4

of 4]

Answer (c)

Laws of Motion

2.

(1 + i )x - 2i (2 - 3i ) y + i

+

= i, x , y R , then

3+i

3-i

(a) x = 3, y = 1

(b) x = 3, y = 1

(c) x = 3, y = 1

(d) x = 3, y = 1

(1 + i )x - 2i (2 - 3i ) y + i

+

=i

3+i

3-i

Multiplying both sides by (3 + i) (3 i), we get

[(1 + i)x 2i] (3 i) + [(2 3i)y + i] (3 + i) = (3 + i) (3 i)i

(4x + 9y 3) + (2x 7y 3)i = 10i

4x + 9y 3 = 0 and 2x 7y 13 = 0

Solving these equations, we get x = 3, y = 1 Answer (a)

= x1 ( x2 y3 x3 y2 ) + iy1 ( x2 y3 x3 y2 )

If

= ( x1 + iy1 ) Im ( x2 x3 + y2 y3 ) + i ( x2 y3 x3 y2 )

= ( x1 + iy1 )( x2 y3 x3 y2 )

Sol. We have

3.

If

= A + iB , then

(cot u + i )(1 + i tan v)

(a) A = sinu cosv cos (x + y u v)

(b) B = sinu cosv sin(x + y u v)

(c) A = cosu sinv cos(x + y u v)

(d) B = cosu sinv sin(x + y u v)

Sol. We have,

=

and z3 Im(z 1 z 2 ) = x 3 ( x1y 2 x 2 y1 ) + iy 3 ( x1y 2 x 2 y1 )

5.

Answer (d)

If (x + iy)1/3 = a + ib, where x, y, a, b R, show that

x y

- = -2( a 2 + b 2 )

a b

Sol. (x + iy)1/3 = a + ib

x + iy = (a + ib)3

i.e., x + iy = a3 + i3b3 + 3iab (a + ib)

= a3 ib3 + i 3a2b 3ab2 = a3 3ab2 + i (3a2b b3)

x = a3 3ab2 and y = 3a2b b3

Thus

sin v

cos u

+ i 1 + i

sin

u

cos

v

x

y

= a2 3b2 and

= 3a2 b2

a

b

x y

- = a2 3b2 3a2 + b2

a b

= 2a2 2b2 = 2(a2 + b2).

6.

Solve the equation z2 = z , where z = x + iy

Sol. z2 = z x2 y2 + i2xy = x iy

Therefore, x2 y2 = x

...... (1)

and 2xy = y

...... (2)

So,

(cos u + i sin u )(cos v + i sin v)

[cos( u + v) - i sin( u + v )]

4.

(cot u + i )(1 + i tan v)

cos 2 ( u + v ) + sin 2 ( u + v)

1

2

x2 x = 0, i.e., x = 0 or x = 1.

When x =

Answers (a, b)

If z1z2z3 are there complex numbers then the value of

1

, from (1), we get

2

1 1

3

3

+ or y2 = , i.e., y =

.

4 2

4

2

Hence, the solutions of the given equation are

y2 =

z1 Im ( z 2 z 3 ) + z 2 Im(z3z1 ) + z 3 Im(z 1 z 2 ) is

(a) Re (z1z2z3)

(b) Im (z1z2z3)

(c) Re (z1 + z2 + z3)

(d) 0

0 + i0, 1 + i0,

1

3

1

3

+i

, i

2

2

2

2

4.1

Solve following problems with the help of above text and

examples.

1.

2.

+i

588

+i

+i

584

i

+i

+i

(a) 2

(b) 2

1 + i2 + i4 ... + i2n is

(a) Positive

(c) 0

578

+i

+i

(c) 1

574

The value of

592

582

+i

590

580

586

576

13

3.

(a) i

- 1 is

(d) 1

(b) Negative

(d) Cant be determined

The value of

(i n + i n+1) , where i =

n =1

(b) i 1

- 1 equals

(c) i

(d) 0

n

4.

2i

is a positive

The least positive integer n such that

1+ i

integer is

(a) 2

(b) 4

(c) 8

(d) 16

4

5.

Ph y si cs

The multiplicative inverse of (6 + 5i ) 2 is

11 60

- i

61 61

9 60

- i

(c)

61 61

(a)

6.

7.

(b)

11 60

+ i

61 61

2 11

(a) + i

25 25

2 11

(b) - i

25 25

2 11

(c) - + i

25 25

2 11

(d) - - i

25 25

2. (d)

(c) -

3. (b)

4. (c)

5. (a)

6. (c)

9.

1 9

- i

4 4

1

is

1 - cos q + 2i sin q

(b)

q

2 tan

1

2

+i

5 + 3 cos q 5 + 3 cos q

a - ib = x - iy, then 3 a + ib =

ANSWER KEY

7. (d) 8. (b)

9. (c)

(b) x - iy

(c) y + ix

(d) y - ix

10. (a)

1. | z | 0 , | z |= 0 z = 0 .

2. zz =| z |2 ( majority of the complex equations are solved

using this property)

3. | z |=| z |=| -z |=| -z |

4. | z1z 2 |=| z1 || z 2 || z n |=| z |n

z1

| z1 |

5. z = | z | , z 2 0

2

2

geometrically as a unique point P (x,y) in the xoy plane

with x-coordinate representing its real part and y-coordinate

representing its imaginary part.

The Point (x, 0) on the x-axis represents the purely real

number x. As such x-axis is called the real axis. Similarly,

the point (0, y) on the y-axis represents purely imaginary

number iy. Therefore, y-axis is called the imaginary axis.

The plane having a complex number assigned to each of

its points, is called the complex plane or Argand plane

or Guassian plane. This representation of complex

numbers as points in the plane is known as Argand

diagram.

The distance from the origin to the point P(x, y) is defined

as the MODULUS (or absolute value) of the complex

number z = x + iy, denoted by | z |, thus | z | =

1 9

+ i

4 4

(d) -

(a) x + iy

Q (x,y)

The value of

10. If

P (x,y)

M (x,o)

1 9

+ i

4 4

q

2 cot

1

2

-i

(c)

5 + 3 cos q 5 + 3 cos q

N

(0, y)

(b)

q

2 tan

1

2

(a) 5 + 3 cos q - i 5 + 3 cos q

NUMBERS

1 9

- i

4 4

(a)

3 + 4i

The multiplicative inverse of

is

4 - 5i

8 31

8 31

+ i

- i

(b)

(a) 25 25

25 25

8 31

- i

(d) None of these

(c) 25 25

2-i

is

The conjugate complex number of

(1 - 2i) 2

1. (b)

3 3 + 4i

1

+

is

The value of

1

2

i

1

+

i 2 - 4i

8.

x 2 + y2

the point Q, which is the mirror image of P on the xaxis.

z

z

=1

, is a unimodular complex number

|z|

|z|

6.

( z 0 ).

7. | z1 + z 2 |2 = | z1 | 2 + | z 2 | 2 +2 Re( z1z 2 )

8. | z1 - z 2 |2 = | z1 |2 + | z 2 |2 -2 Re( z1 z 2 )

9. | z1 + z 2 |2 + | z1 - z 2 |2 = 2(| z1 |2 + | z 2 |2 )

10.

| az1 + bz 2 |2 + | bz1 - az 2 |2 = (a 2 + b 2 )(| z1 |2 + | z 2 |2 ),

where a, b R

11. If z1, z 2 0 then | z1 + z 2 |2 =| z1 |2 + | z 2 | 2

purely imaginary.

z1

is

z2

Laws of Motion

POLAR FORM (OR TRIGONOMETRICAL FORM) OF

COMPLEX NUMBERS

y

Let P r epresents the n onzero

complex number z = x+iy. Let the

directed line regment OP be of

length r and makes an angle q with

the positive direction of the xaxis

(q in radians)

P (z)

r=

|z|

p

4

q

O

Case I : If x > 0, y > 0, then the point P lies in the first quadrant

and then q = arg z = a

X

numbers (r, q) called the polar coordinates of the point P. Clearly,

x = r cos q, y = r sin q,

y

x

Thus z=r(cosq + isin q) is the poar from of z. r is the modulus of

the number z and q is called th e ARGUMENT (or

AMPLITUDE) of the number z, denoted by arg (z) or amp (z)

Hence.

so arg( z ) = p -

r= x 2 + y 2 , tanq =

x

z = r(cosq + i sinq) is also written as r cis(q)

Note that q is not defined uniquely, In fact q is the solution

of simultaneous equations

cos q =

x

x 2 + y2

and sin q =

x 2 + y2

If z = 1 + i, r = x + y = 1 + 1 = 2 ;

2

p 2p

=

3

3

y

P

Case III : If x < 0, y < 0 then the point P lies in the third

y

quadrant and then

q = arg z = -(p - a ) = a - p

O

x

For example, if z = -1 - i

a

-1

=1

-1

p p

p

, + 2p,..........., + 2kp, k I

4 4

4

Any two arguments of a complex number differ by a number

which is a multiple of 2 p.

The unique value of q, such that -p < q p is called the

principal value of the Argument.

P(z)

tan a =

y

, x 0, y 0

x

x

O

y

3p

p

so arg(z) = -(p - ) = 4

4

Case IV : If x > 0, y < 0 then the point P lies in the fourth

quadrant and then q = arg z = -a

y

tan a =

-1

=

q

3

3

P

p

so, arg( z ) = y

6

Case V : If y = 0, then z is purely real and P lies on real axis, and

z = x,

so arg (z) = 0 if x > 0; arg (z) = p if x < 0

1

For example arg(3) = 0 and arg - = p

2

Case VI : If x = 0, then z = iy is a purely imaginary number and

P lies on imaginary axis

y

a=q

x

then tan a =

y

p

tan q = = 1 q =

x

4

p

p

4

4

following angles :

ARGUMENT

Let z = x + iy has image P on the argand plane and

3

= 3

-1

p

p

if y > 0 and arg (z) = - if y < 0

2

2

p

p

and arg(-100 i ) = 2

2

Ph y si cs

IMPORTANT RESULTS ABOUT ARGUMENT

1.

arg(z ) = - arg(z )

2.

3.

z

arg 1 = arg(z1 ) - arg(z 2 ) + 2kp

z2

4.

z

arg = 2arg(z) + 2kp

z

5.

7.

| z1 + z12 - z 2 2 | + | z1 - z12 - z 22 | is equal to

(a) | z1 |

(b) | z 2 |

(c) | z1 + z 2 |

(d) | z1 + z 2 | + | z1 - z 2 |

Sol. (Trick ) The nature of the problem suggests at once that

we shold use the formula

| z1 + z 2 |2 + | z1 - z 2 |2 = 2 (| z1 |2 + | z 2 | 2 )

=| z1 + z12 - z 22 |2 + | z1 - z12 - z 22 | 2 +2 | z12 - z12 + z 22 |

value comes out into the principal value region

= 2| z1 | 2 + | z12 - z 22 |2 + 2 | z 2 |2

6.

z2

z1

If arg = q the arg = 2kp - q , k I

z1

z2

7.

arg(z ) - arg(-z ) = p

= | z1 + z 2 |2 + | z1 - z 2 |2 +2 | z1 + z 2 || z1 - z 2 |

p

+ arg(z )

2

| z1 + z 2 |=| z1 - z 2 | arg(z1 ) - arg(z 2 ) = p / 2

= (| z1 + z 2 | + | z1 - z 2 |) 2

8.

9.

2

2

2

2

= 2(| z1 | + | z 2 | ) + 2 | z1 - z 2 |

arg(iz ) =

\ | z1 + z12 - z 22 | + | z1 - z12 - z 22 |

=| z1 + z 2 | + | z1 - z 2 |

8.

EULER'S NOTATION

It can be shown that e iq = cos q + i sin q, e -iq = cos q - i sin q

\ e z = e x + iy = e x .e iy = e x (cos y + i sin y )

Also r(cos q + i sin q) = reiq

Again, cos q =

Sol.

1+ i

The smallest positive integer n for which

= 1 is

1

i

(a) 4

(b) 3

(c) 2

(d) 1

Sol. As a + ib = 1 a 2 + b 2 = 1

(1 + b + ai) 2

a + b + ai

= 1 + b ai = (1 + b ai)(1 + b + ai) =

log of a complex number cannot be unique. In general,

log e (z) = log e | z | +i[2kp + arg(z )], k I

p

ip / 2

= i 2kp + , k I So, i p is

For example, log( i ) = log e

2

p

p

p

p

Also, log(log i ) = log(i ) = log i + log = i + log

2

2

2

2

1+ i

n

\

=1 i =1

1 i

Answer (a)

1 + b + ai

If a + ib = 1. the simplified form of

is

1 + b - ai

(a) b + ai

(b) a + bi

(c) (1 + b)2 + a2

(d) ai

1 + i 1 + i 1 + i 1 + i 2 + 2i 2i

=

=

= =i

1 i 1 i 1+ i

2

1 i2

9.

e iq + e -iq

e iq - e -iq

and sin q =

2

2i

Answer (d)

(1 a 2 ) + b 2 + 2b + 2ai + 2abi

1 + (a + b ) + 2b

2

(1 + b) 2 a 2 + 2(1 + b)ai

(1 + b) 2 + a 2

b 2 + b 2 + 2b + 2ai + 2abi

1 + 1 + 2b

=

= b + ai

1+ b

1+ b

Answer (a)

10. The argument of the complex number 1 + sin a - i cos a is

a p

a

a p

a p

+

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d) +

2 4

2

2 4

2 2

Sol. Let 1+ sina icosa = r(cosq + isinq)

Then r cos q = 1 + sina and r sinq = cosa

r=

a

a

p a

2 cos + sin or 2 cos -

2

2

4 2

a

a

+ sin

2

2

Laws of Motion

- cos a

=

Also, tan q =

1 + sin a

- sin - a

2

p

1 + cos - a

2

Y

P(-4, 4 3)

q

p a p a

- 2 sin - cos -

4 2 4 2 = - tan p - a = tan a - p

=

p a

4 2

2 4

2 cos 2 -

4 2

\q=

a p

2 4

-16 (1 - i 3)

1- (i 3)

X'

Y'

p a

Hence, Modulus = 2 cos - and argument

4 2

a p

= - .

2 4

Answer (a)

11.

-16

-16

Hence, cos q =

1+ i 3

1+ i 3

By squaring and adding, we get

16 + 48 = r2 (cos2 q + sin2 q)

which gives r2 = 64, i.e., r = 8

-16

1+ i 3

1- i 3

1- i 3

-16 (1 - i 3)

= 4 (1 - i 3)

1+ 3

= 4 + i4 3

q=p

3

1

, sin q =

2

2

2p

p

=

3

3

2p

2p

+ i sin

Thus, the required polar form is 8 cos

3

3

axis.

Sol. Let z = x + iy. Then | z2 1| = | z |2 + 1

| x2 y2 1 + i2xy | = | x + iy |2 + 1

(x2 y2 1)2 + 4x2y2 = (x2 + y2 + 1)2

4x2 = 0 i.e., x = 0

Hence z lies on y-axis.

4.2

Solve following problems with the help of above text and

examples.

1. For any two complex number z1, z2

| 1 - z1z 2 |2 - | z1 - z 2 |2 is equal to :

2.

z1

z

numbers, then arg + arg 2

z4

z3

(a) 0

(c)

3p

2

(b)

equals

p

2

(d) p

3. If |b| = 1, then

b-a

is equal to

1 - ab

(a) 0

(b)

(c) 1

(d) 2

4. Let z1 and z2 be complex numbers such that z1 z 2 and

|z1| = |z2|. If z1 has positive real part and z2 has negative

imaginary part, then

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

z1 + z 2

may be

z1 - z 2

zero

real and negative

either zero or purely imaginary

2 z 1 + 3z 2

5z 2

is purely imaginary number then 2 z - 3z is

1

2

7 z1

equal to

5. If

(a)

5

7

(b)

7

9

(c)

25

49

(d) None

Ph y si cs

(a)

(a)

p

2

(c)

9.

p

(d)

4

(b)

2 2

2

1

3

If (a + ib) (c + id) (e + if) (g + ih) = A + iB, then

(b) 0

p

(c) 2

( a 2 + b2 ) ( c2 + d 2 ) ( e2 + f 2 ) ( g + h 2 ) =

(1 + i 3 )

7.

8.

p

p

(b)

6

4

p

(d) None of these

(c)

2

The modulus of the complex number

is

4i(1 i 3 )

(a)

(b) A 2 + B 2

(d) A 4 B4

1

10. If q is real, then the modulus of

is

(1+ cos q ) + i sin q

(a) A 2 B 2

(c) A 4 + B 4

1

q

sec

2

2

q

(c) sec

2

1

q

cos

2

2

q

(d) cos

2

(a)

z = (1 i 3 ) (cos q + i sin q) is

2 (1 i) (cos q i sin q)

(b)

ANSWER KEY

1. (b)

2. (a)

3. (c)

4. (d)

5. (d)

DE MOIVRE THEOREM

These are two statements of De Moivre Theorem

1. (cosq+i sinq)n = cos nq + i sin nq, n I

2.

6. (a)

1

n

\ (z )

p

If n Q n = , q 0, p, q I then cos nq+i sinnq

q

8. (a)

9. (b)

1

n

r

2.

3.

r1 / n and centre origin.

The points representing these roots from the vertices of a

regular polygon of n sides

P2

P3

np

np

- nq

- nq + i sin

= cos

2

2

z = (1)1 / 3 = [cos 2 kp + i sin 2 kp]1 / 3 = cos

1

(z ) n

1

n

=r

1

= [r (cos q + i sin q)] n

k = 0, 1, 2, ......, n 1

2p

2p

and

+ i sin

3

3

4p

4p

- 1+ i 3

- 1- i 3

+ i sin

or 1,

and

.

3

3

2

2

2

2 kp

2kp

+ i sin

, k = 0, 1, 2

3

3

cos

1

n

Pn

P1

2q

q

cos a + i sin a

= cos( a - b) + i sin(a - b)

3.

cos b + i sin b

10. (a)

2kp + q

2 kp + q

+ i sin

cos

n

n

Putting k = 0, 1, 2, ....., n 1, we get n values which represent

nth roots of complx number z

PROPERTIES

1. These n roots always form a G. P. with common ratio ei 2p/

IMPORTANT RESULTS

2

2

7. (c)

-1 + i 3

= - 1 - i 3 and -1 - i 3 = -1 + i 3

As

2

2

2

2

Laws of Motion

So, we denote the non-real roots by w and w2 we write mostly

- 1+ i 3

-1- i 3

and w2 =

2

2

ALGEBRAIC METHOD

w=

2pk

2pk

+ i sin

; k = 0, 1, 2, ........, (n 1)

n

n

= cos

-1 i 3

,the non2

real roots , i.e., w and w2. Clearly, we can always write

i

; k = 0, 1, 2, ...., (n 1)

=e n

2kp

(z 3 - 1) = (z - 1)(z - w)(z - w 2 )

= 1, a, a 2 , a 3 ,...., a n -1 where a = e (i 2 p / n )

IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS OF w

Let z = x + iy and let the square root of z be the complex number

a + ib. Then

1. 1 + w + w = 0

2

2. w = w 2 and (w2 ) = w , so w w = w3 = 1

x + iy = a + ib or

3. | w |=| w2 |= 1

w3k + 2 = w2

7. The cube roots of unity lie on a unit circle and divide the

circumference into three equal parts

8. The points represented by cube roots of unityyform the

vertices of an equilateral triangle.

i

w

9. | wz |=| w || z |=| z |

arg( wz ) =

2p

+ arg( z )

3

1 x

1

w2

i

y

(i)

x 2 + y 2 = ( x + iy)( x - iy)

(ii)

x 3 + y 3 = ( x + y)(x + wy)(x + w 2 y)

4p

or - 2p

4. arg( w) = 2 p and arg(w 2 ) =

3

3

3

10.

(iv) x2 + xy + y2 = (x yw) (x yw2), in particular,

x2 + x + 1 = (x w) (x w2)

(v) x2 xy + y2 = (x + yw) (x + yw2), in particular,

x2 x + 1 = (x + w) (x + w2)

(vi) x2 + y2 + z2 xy xz yz = (x + yw + zw2)

(x + yw2 + zw)

(vii) x 3 + y 3 + z 3 3xyz

= (x + y + z )(x 2 + y 2 + z 2 xy yz zx)

x = a 2 - b2

and y = 2ab

(1)

(2)

Now, a 2 + b 2 = (a 2 - b 2 ) 2 + 4a 2 b 2 = x 2 + y 2 (3)

Solving the equations (1) and (3), we get

x 2 + y2 + x

a=

; b=

2

x 2 + y2 - x

From (2), we can determine the sign of ab. If ab > 0, then a and

b will have same sign. Thus

x + iy =

x 2 + y2 + x

+i

x 2 + y2 - x

If ab < 0, then

x 2 + y2 - x

2

2

x +y +x

x + iy =

-i

2

2

| z | +a

| z | -a

+i

2

2 for b > 0

and

| z | +a

| z | -a

-i

2

2 for b < 0

For example :

1+ i

(i) Square root of i is

, as x = 0, y = 1 > 0 and

2

|i|=1

10

Ph y si cs

1- i

, as x = 0, y = -1 < 0 and | i | =

(ii) Square root of -i is

2

1

5-3

5 - ( - 3)

(iii) Squar e root of -3 + 4i is

+i

2

2

3 -i

; As y = - 3 < 0

(-1 + i 3 )15

13.

(1 - i ) 20

(1 - i ) 20

15

(-2i)

10

(1 + i) 20

-1- i 3

215

215 (w)15

(-1 - i 3 )15

15

-1+ i 3

215

=

2 10

(1 - i)

c + a w + bw 2

(a) 1

1 w3

= =

= w2

w w

10

b + cw + aw

= w2 + w = -1

Answer (a)

a r cos r x , then

r=0

25 (w3 )5

(2i )

2 5

(i )

a + bw + c w 2

b + cw + aw2

(b) 1

(b) a0 = 0

r=0

(c) a6 = 1

(d) a1 = a3 = a5

Sol. [To find the value of cos nx and sin nx in ascending

powers of cos x or sin x we expand (cosx+isinx)n using

De Moivre theorem and Binomial theorem then equate

real and imaginary parts from two expansion to get

the required identity as done for above example].

We have (cosx + i sinx)6 = cos6x + isin6x

...(i)

(Using De Moivre theorem)

Also (cos x + isinx)6

[(1 + i) ]

etc.

w(aw 2 + b + cw)

ar = 1

2 10

c + aw + bw

0

1

2

+ 6 C 5 cos x i 5 sin 5 x + 6 C 6 i 6 sin 6 x

25 (w3 )10

2 5

(i )

Answer (c)

= -2 5 - 2 5 = -64

[You can also convert the numbers into polar form and

apply De Moivre theorem but above approach is better]

14. The value of (2 w) (2 w2) (2 w10) (2 w11) is

(a) 49

(b) 16

(c) 16w

(d) 49w2

10

9

11

9

2

2

Sol. w = w .w = w, w = w .w = w

\ (2 w) (2 w2) (2 w10) (2 w11) = (2 w)2 (2 w2)2

Now x3 1 = (x 1) (x w) (x w2), dividing by x 1

\ x2 + x + 1 = (x w) (x w2)

or (x2 + x + 1)2 = (x w)2 (x w2)2.

Put x = 2, (2 w)2 (2 w2)2 = (7)2 = 49

Answer (a)

15. If w is a complex cube root of unity, then the value of

a + bw + cw 2

w 2 (aw + bw 2 + c)

(a)

is equal to

(1 + i) 20

b + cw + aw2

(-1 - i 3 )15

(-1 + i 3 )15

Let z =

a + bw + c w 2

b

a

w2

+ + c w + b + cw

2

w

w

w

+

=

b + cw + aw2

c + aw + bw 2

16. If cos6x =

3 or

c + a w + bw 2

(a) 132

(b) 64

(c) 64

(d) none

Sol. (Trick :Any complex number z with |Re(z) | : | Im(z) | = 1

:

a + bw + cw 2

2 +1

2 - 1

or

-i

1- 3 i is

2

2

Sol.

= 6 C 0 cos 6 x - 6 C 2 cos 4 x sin 2 x + 6 C 4 cos 2 x sin 4 x -6 C6 sin 6 x

6

5

6

3

3

6

5

+ i[ C1 cos x sin x - C3 cos x sin x + C5 cos x sin x]

From (i) & (ii), equating the real parts we get

+ 6 C 4 cos 2 x sin 4 x - 6 C 6 sin 6 x

6

4

2

2

2 2

= cos x - 15 cos x (1 - cos x ) + 15 cos x(1 - cos x)

- (1 - cos 2 x )3

6

a r cos 6 x

r =0

a6 = 32

6

is

Clearly

(c) a + b + c (d) 0

...(ii)

a r = a 0 + a1 + a 2 + a 3 + a 4 + a 5 + a 6 = 1 .

r =0

Also a1 = a3 = a5 = 0.

Answer (a, d)

11

Laws of Motion

5

a r sin r x , then

17. If sin 5x =

5

(a)

r =0

= -

1

[2 cos 6x - 6 2 cos 4x + 15 2 cos 2x - 20]

64

= -

1

3

15

5

a r cos rx

cos 6 x + cos 4 x - cos 2 x + =

32

16

32

8

r =0

r =0

ar =1

(b) a1 = a3 = a5

(c) a0 = a2 = a4

(d) a1+a3+a 5=a0+a2+a 4

Sol. Solve as above, expand (cos x + i sinx)5 using two theorems

and equate imaginary parts.

Answer (a, c)

18.

If sin 6x

a r cos rx . Then

and a6 = -

r =0

(a) a0 = 0

(b) a1 = a3 = a5

1

2

(d) 2a0 + a1 + 3a2 + a3 + a4 + a5 + a6 = 0

Sol. To express cosnx or sinnx as a series of multiple angles

of cos and sin, we use Euler's representation cosx =

5

15

3

, a = 0, a2 = , a = 0, a4 =

,a =0

8 1

32 3

16 5

We get a0 =

1

.

32

Answer (d)

19. If a, b, g are the cube roots of a negative number p then

(c) a2 + a6 =

e ix + e -ix

e ix - e -ix

and expand cosnx =

and sinx =

2

2i

e ix + e -ix

example.

[Ce

6 6

2 i

6ix

- 6 C5 e ix e -5ix + 6 C6 e -6ix

- 26

[ C (e

6

(a)

- 1- 3i

2

(b) (x + y + z)i

6ix

+e

x y

(d) + i p

2 2

(c) ip

Cube root of p = p1/3 = (q)1/3 = q1/3. (1)1/3

Cube roots of p are q1/3, q1/3w, q1/3w2

Let a = q1/3, b = q1/3w, g = q1/3w2

-6ix

) - C1 (e

+ C 2 (e

6

- 4ix

4ix

+e

2ix

- 2ix

) - C3

+e

\ xb + yg + za =

x (-q1 / 3 w ) + y(-q1 / 3 w 2 ) + z (-q1 / 3 )

x + yw + zw 2

xw + yw + z

2

w 2 ( xw + yw 2 + z )

xw + yw + z

2

= w2 =

Answer (a)

4.3

Solve following problems with the help of above text and

examples.

( 3 + i)

2. Arg

17

(a)

(1 i )50

2p

3

i ( 3 + i )6

4(1 i 3 ) 2

p

3

(c) - 2p

3

(d) None

(c)

is equal to

p

6

(b)

p

6

3p

10

(d)

5p

10

(a)

(b)

- 1 - 3i

2

or -1 + 3i

[Qn C r =n C n - r ]

1. If z =

xa + yb + zg

xb + yg + za

is

e ix - e -ix

sin6x =

2i

12

Ph y si cs

1 - z 2n

equation (x+aw)3 + a3 = 0 are :

8.

is

1 + z 2n

(a) i tan n q (b) i tan n q (c) tan n q (d) i

4. If x = a + b, y = aw + bw2 and z = aw2 + bw, then x3+y3+z3

=

(a) 3 (a3 + b3)

(b) (a + b)3

3

3

2

2

(c) a + b a b ab

(d) None of these

2

5. If 1, w, w are the cube roots of unity then

(1 w + w2)5 + ( 1 + w w2)5 =

(a) 32

(b) 0

(c) 32w

(d) 16w2

2

6. If 1, w, w are the cube roots of unity then

(3 + 3w + 5w2)6 (2 + 6w + 2w2)3 =

(a) 0

(b) 64

(c) 36

(d) 36

(c) 2a, aw2, aw

w is a complex cube root of unity, then :

9.

(a) a 2 + b 2 + g 2 = 8 z1z 2

(b) ab + bg + ga = 3z1z 2

(c) a 3 + b 3 + g 3 = 3( z13 + z 2 3 )

(d) abg = 2(z13 + z 2 3 )

10. The polynomial x 3m + x 3n +1 + x 3k + 2 , is exactly divisible

by x 2 + x + 1 if

(a) m n, k are rational

(b) m, n, k are integers

(c) m, n, k are positive integers

(d) none of these.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

1 2

2

x + x + 1 + i x - x +1

(b) a, 2aw2, aw

(d) a, 2aw2, aw

334

11. If i = - 1, then 4 + 5 - 1 + i 3

1 2

2

x + x +1 - i x - x + 1

365

1 i 3

+ 3 - +

2

2

is

equal to

1 2

2

x - x + 1 + i x + x +1

2

1 2

2

x - x +1 - i x + x +1

(a) 1- i 3

(b) - 1+ i 3

(c) i 3

(d) - i 3

then A and B are respectively the numbers

(a) 0, 1

(b) 1, 1

(c) 1, 0

(d) 1, 1

ANSWER KEY

1. (c)

2. (b)

3. (a)

4. (a)

5. (a)

6. (a)

7. (a)

8. (a)

9. (c)

Y

SECTION FORMULA

As in vectors, we represent a

point by the position vector of the

OP= z

P (z1)

P(z)

orgin O. Similarly the point P can

be repr esen ted by a complex

n umber z, su ch t h at l engt h

R (z)

O

PR m

=

QR n

Q (z2)

complex number z and z is said to be AFFIX or complex

coordinate of the point P.

DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO POINTS

If two points P and Q have affices z1and z2 respectively then

Q (z2) in ratio m:n, then

z=

mz 2 + nz1

mz 2 - nz1

(internally) and z =

(externally)

m+n

m-n

PQ = z 2 z1

z1 + z 2

2

Laws of Motion

ANGLE BETWEEN TWO LINES

(CONCEPT OF ROTATION)

z3 z4

Then z z is purely imaginary..

1

2

R (z3 )

Q (z2 )

z3 z 4

z z4

= 3

z1 z 2

z1 z 2

or alternatively

P (z1 )

q1

(i)

13

z3 z 4

= ik, for some k R - {0}

z1 z 2

z 3 z 4 = ik (z1 z 2 )

(iii) Multiplying a complex number z by i is equivalent to

rotating the image of z in Argand plane by 90 about origin,

q2

Then angle between PQ an PR (counter clockwise)

p

iz

anticlockwise, as |z| = |iz| and arg = arg (i) =

2

z

q = q 2 - q1 = arg( PR ) arg( PQ )

= arg( z 3 z 1 ) arg( z 2 z 1 )

Q (iz)

z z

\ q = arg 3 1

z 2 z1

P (z)

p,

p/

2

z1

i.e.

z 3 z1 z z

= 3 1z

2

z 2 z1 z z

2

1

z3

z1 1

z2 1 = 0

z3 1

If PR is perpendcular to PQ.Then

rotating the image of z in Argand plane by 120 (or 240)

about origin anticlockwise, for |z| = |wz| (|w| = 1) and

2p 4 p

wz

arg

or

= arg (w) =

3

3

z

z z

z z

p

arg 3 1 = 3 1 is puerly imaginary

2

z 2 z1

z 2 z1

That is,

z3 z1

z z

=- 3 1

z 2 z1

z2 z1

P (z)

Q (wz)

2p

3

(ii)

R (z 3 )

P (z 1 )

ANGLES OF A TRIANGLE

C (z3 )

Q ( z2 )

S (z4 )

B (z 2 )

A (z1 )

z1, z 2 , z 3 and z4. As in (i) the angle between SR and QP..

z z4

q = arg 3

z1 z 2

tringle ABC described in counterclockwire sense. Then

If SR and QP be perpendicular, q =

p

2

z 3 z1 CA

=

(cos A + i sin A) or z 3 z1 = CA e iA

z 2 z1 BA

z 2 z1 BA

Similarly relations with other vertical angles can be given.

14

Ph y si cs

IMPORTANT RESULTS ABOUT TRIANGLES

1. centroid z is givn by z =

z1 + z 2 + z 3

3

POINTS Z1 AND Z2

Let variable point z be a point on this line then

z

az1 + bz 2 + cz 3

a +b+c

z1

z2

z ( z1 - z 2 )i + z ( z 2 - z1 )i + i(z1z 2 - z1z 2 ) = 0

(i)

| z1 |2

| z 2 |2

| z 3 |2

z=

z12

z22

z 32

z1 1

z2 1

z3 1

z1 1

z2 1

z3 1

sin 2A + sin 2 B + sin 2C

z2

z3 2

z=

| z1 |2

z1 1

z 2 1 + | z 2 |2

z 3 1 | z 3 |2

z2 1

z3 1

z1 1

z12

z22

z 32

z12

z 1

z1 1 = 0 or z( z1 - z 2 ) + z (z 2 - z1 ) + z1z 2 - z1z 2 = 0

z2 1

It is called the general equation of a straight line

(ii) The complex equation za + z a + b = 0 represents a straight

line in complex plane where 'a' is a complex number and

'b' is a real number. The complex slope of the line is given

a

a

by - .

(iii) The equation of the perpendicular bisector of the line

segment joining the points A(z1) and B(z2) is

OR

z ( z1 - z 2 ) + z (z1 - z 2 ) =| z1 |2 - | z 2 |2

z1 1

z2 1

z3 1

IMPORTANT RESULTS

1. The complex slope of line joing points A (z1) and B(z2)

tan A + tan B + tan C

(a sec A)z1 + (b sec B)z 2 + (c sec C)z3

=

a sec A + b sec B + csec C

5. The centroid G lies on the segment joining the orthocentre

H and the circumcentre O of the triangle and divides

z=

HG 2

=

internally in ratio 2 : 1, i.e

OG 1

z1 - z 2

is define as m = z - z

1

2

if m1 = m 2 and perpendicular if m1 + m 2 = 0

3. The length of perpendicular from a point A(a) to the

line az + az + b = 0 is given by p =

| aa + a a + b |

2|a|

H

G

O

6. Area of the DABC is given by the modulus of

1

4

EQUATION OF A CIRCLE :

z1 z1 1

z 2 z2 1

z3 z3 1

P (z)

r

C (z 0 )

1

1

1

+

+

=0

z 2 - z 3 z 3 - z1 z1 - z 2

z12 + z 22 + z 32 = z 2 z 3 + z 3 z1 + z1z 2

1 z2

1 z3

1 z1

z3

r.

For any point P(z) on this circle CP = r

z1 = 0

i.e. z z 0 = r

z2

.....(1)

Laws of Motion

(1)

by (1).

(2) General equation of a circle

Consider the equation of a circle | z - z 0 |= r

( z - z 0 )( z - z 0 ) = r 2 zz - zz 0 - zz 0 + | z 0 |2 -r 2 = 0

| z 0 | 2 -r 2 =| a |2 -r 2 = b, a constant real number then the

It is called the general equation of circle .

Hence the complex equation z z + a z + az + b = 0

reprectents a circle in complex plane where 'a' is a complex

number and 'b' is a real number. The centre of the circle is

a point with affix 'a' and the radius is given by

b.

(3) (z z1 )(z z 2 ) + (z z 2 ) (z z 1 ) = 0 represents a circle in

the complex plane which is described on a line as diameter

having extremities z1 and z2.

20. Let z1 = 10 + 6i and z2 = 4 + 6i. If z is any complex number

such that the argument of

z - z1

p

is . Then z must lie on

z - z2

4

18

(d) Centre (7, 9); radius 6

Sol. Let z = x + iy

Then

=

6 y - 36

2

x + y - 14 x - 12 y + 76

which is a circle with centre (7, 9)

x 2 + y 2 - 8x - 12 y + 52

..... (i)

7 2 + 9 2 - 112 = 49 + 81 - 112 = 18

Answer (b)

Note : The equation (i) may be converted to complex form as

following :

x2 14 + y2 18y + 112 = 0

(x2 14x + 49) + (y2 18y + 81) + 112 49 81 = 0

(x 7)2 + (y 9)2 = 18 |(x 7) + i (y 9)|2 = 18

|(x + iy) (7 + 9i)|2 = 18

and radius =

|z (7 + 9i)|2 = 18 |z (7 + 9i)| = 18 ,

which is equivalent to |z z0| = r

Hence centre of the circle is z0 = 7 + 9i = (7, 9) radius of

the circle is r =

18

21. Consider the complex number z satisfying |z 5i| 3, then

(a) Value of z having the least modulus is z =2i

(b) Value of z having the greatest modulus is z = 8i

(c) Value of z having the least positive argument is

4

(3 + 4i)

5

(d) Value of z having the greatest positive argument is

z=

z=

4

(-3 + 4i)

5

z - z1 ( x + iy ) - (10 + 6i ) ( x - 10 ) + ( y - 6) i

=

=

z - z2

( x + iy) - (4 + 6i )

( x - 4) + ( y - 6) i

x 2 + y 2 - 14x - 12 y + 76

p

=1

4

x2

(x - 10) + ( y - 6) i (x - 4) - ( y - 6)i

x

(x - 4) + ( y - 6) i (x - 4) - ( y - 6)i

= tan

numbers lying inside or on the circle

| z 5i | = 3

...(1)

Clearly the circle (1) has centre at (0, 5) and radius = 3 Let

us plot this circle on the xy plane.

The given inequation represents the points inside or on the

circle shown in figure.

(a) Centre (0, 0); radius 6

(b) Centre (7, 9); radius

15

C (5i)

(6 y - 36)i

x 2 + y 2 - 8x - 12y + 52

(on simplifying)

z - z1 p

Now given that arg z - z = 4 ;

2

p

6y - 36

Hence tan -1 2 2

=

x + y -14x -12y + 76 4

-1 y

Q arg ( x + iy) = tan x

B

D

b

A

f

a

by the distance of the image of the complex number from

origin. Clearly the point at the least distance from origin is

D and the point at the greatest distance from origin is E.

Hence the affices of D and E give us the complex numbers

of the least and the greatest moduli respectively.

16

Ph y si cs

\ Point D, i.e. complex number with least modulus is 2i

Point E, i.e. complex number with maximum modulus is 8i

Furthermore the argument of a complex number in Argand

diagram is given by the angle that the line joining the origin

to its image forms with positive xaxis. Clearly the two

tangents drawn on the circle from origin, OA and OB

represent the least and the greatest values of this angle

respectively for any point on or inside the circle. Hence,

the affices of points A and B give us the complex numbers

with least and greatest arguments respectively.

Now XOA = a =

and XOB = b =

Clearly cos f =

(c)

Sol. Let a = z1 - z 2, b = z 2 - z 3 and g = z 3 - z1

Then a + b + g = 0

Clearly a + b + g = 0

Let the triangle be equilateral, then

| z1 z2 | = |z2 z3 | = | z3 z1 | = l say

That is | a | = | b | = | g | = l

p

- f, f = AOC

2

Now a a = | a | 2 = l2 a =

p

+f

2

OA

=

OC

OC 2 - AC2

=

OC

1

1

=

z1 - z 2 z 2 - z 3

Similarly, b =

5 2 - 32 4

=

5

5

p

3

r = OA = 4, cos a = cos - f = sin f = ;

5

....(2)

l2

a

l2

l2

&g =

b

g

3

5

....(1)

l2 l2 l2

1 1 1

+

+

=0 + + =0

a

b

g

a b g

1

1

1

+

+

=0

z1 - z 2 z 2 - z 3 z 3 - z1

1

1

1

Conversely let z - z + z - z + z - z = 0

1

2

2

3

3

1

4

sin a = sin - f = cos f = . \ A is 4 (3 + 4i)

5

2

5

Also affix of point B is r(cos b + i sinb)

p

3

r = OB = OA = 4, cos b = cos + f = sin f =

2

5

1 1 1

1

b+g a

+ + =0 = =

a b g

a

bg

bg

from (1)

\a 2 = by | a |2 =| bg || a |3 =| a || b || g |

3

Similarly | b | =| a || b || g | and | g |3 =| a || b || g |

p

4

sin b = sin + f = cos f =

2

5

Hence | a | = | b | = | g | | z1 - z 2 | = | z 2 - z 3 | = | z 3 - z1 | .

That is the triangle is equilateral.

4

(-3 + 4i)

5

Hence, the complex number with least argument is

\ B is

4

(3 + 4i) and the complex number with greatest argument

5

4

(-3 + 4i) .

5

All options (a), (b), (c) and (d) are correct

Note : Student may feel that the solution of this example is

lengthy on the contrary the solution is quite simple and direct

from the figure only.

22. Suppose that z1, z2, z3 represent the vertices of a triangle

taken in order. The triangle is equilateral if and only if

23. The centre of a regular hexagon has affix i. The affix of one

vertex is 2 + i. The affix z of adjacent vertices are

is

(a)

1

1

1

+

+

=0

z1 - z 2 z 2 - z 3 z 3 - z1

(b)

1

1

1

=0

z1 - z 2 z 2 - z 3 z 3 - z1

1

1

1

+

=0

z1 - z 2 z 2 - z 3 z 3 - z1

Sol.

(a) 1 + i (1 3 )

(b) i + 1 3

(c) 2 + i (1 3 )

(d) 1 2i

Laws of Motion

p

Let A be the image of complex number 2 + i, AOB =

3

z-i

Let B (or F) be z, then AOB = arg (2 + i) - i

(refer to angle between two lines in the text)

=

p

3

= 0. The points represented by z1, z2 and the origin form an

equilateral triangle if

(a) p2 > 3q

(b) P2 < 3q

(c) p 2 = 3q (d) p = 3q

2

Sol. Given z1 and z2 are roots of z + pz + q = 0

Hence, z1 + z2 = p (i), z1z2 = q (ii)

We know that if z1, z2, z3 are vertices of an equilateral

triangle

then z12 + z 22 + z 32 - z1 z 2 - z 2 z 3 - z 3 z1 = 0

(see example 16)

z -i

BO

p

p

=

cos i sin

( 2 + i) - i AO

3

3

= cos

17

p

p

i sin

3

3

Here z3 = 0, then z 12 + z 22 - z 1z 2 = 0

[Q AO = BO]

1

3

\ z - i = 2 i z = i + 1 i 3 = 1 + i 1 3

2

2

Answer (a)

24. Let a , b R , such that 0 <a < 1, 0 < b < 1. If the complex

numbers z1 = a + i, z2 = 1 + bi and z3 = 0 form an

equilateral triangle, then values of a and b are

Answer (c)

26.

2 z +1

is 2, then show that the

iz + 1

straight line.

Sol. Let z = x + iy. Then

2 z +1

2( x + iy ) + 1

(2 x + 1) + i 2 y

=

=

iz + 1

(1 - y ) + ix

i ( x + iy ) + 1

(a) a = b = 2 - 3

(b) a = 2 - 3 , b = 2 + 3

(c) a = 3 , b = - 3

(d) None of these

Sol.

=

{(1 - y ) + ix}

{(1 - y ) - ix}

(2 x + 1 - y ) + i (2 y - 2 y 2 - 2 x 2 - x )

1+ y 2 - 2 y + x 2

2z +1 2 y - 2 y2 - 2x2 - x

Thus, Im

=

1 + y 2 - 2 y + x2

iz + 1

2z +1

But Im

= 2 (Given)

iz + 1

z2 - 0

p

p

Clearly from the figure z - 0 = cos + i sin

3

3

1

1

3

1+ i 3

\ z 2 = z1 + i

2

or,, - 1 + bi = (-a + i)

2

a

1

3

3

a

+i = - 2 2

2 2

2 y - 2 y 2 - 2 x2 - x

1 + y 2 - 2 y + x2

= -2

i.e., x + 2y 2 = 0, which is the equation of a line.

27. Let z 1 and z 2 be two complex numbers such that

z1 + i z2 = 0 and arg (z1 z2) = p. Then find arg (z1).

Sol. Given that z1 + i z2 = 0

z1 = iz2, i.e., z2 = iz1

Thus, arg (z1z2) = arg z1 + arg ( iz1) = p

arg ( iz12) = p

arg ( i) + arg (z12) = p

arg ( i) + 2 arg (z1) = p

a

3

+

=1 a = 2 - 3

2

2

1

3

a =b b = 2- 3

2

2

So,

Answer (a)

-p

+ 2 arg (z1) = p

2

arg (z1) =

3p

4

18

Ph y si cs

4.4

Solve following problems with the help of above text and

examples.

1. The points z1, z2, z3, z4, are the vertices of a parallelogram

(in a complex plane) taken in order if and only if

(a) z1 + z 4 = z 2 + z 3

(b) z1 + z 3 = z 2 + z 4

(c) z1 + z 2 = z 3 + z 4

(d) None

2. A square ABCD has its centre at the origin. If A be z1 then

the centroid of triangle ABC is

iz1

(a)

3

6.

7.

(c)

p

3

+ cos 1

2

5

(a)

1

2

3

3

(d) sin 1 cos 1

5

5

In the Argand plane, the area in square units of the triangle

formed by the points 1 + i, 1 i, 2i is

(c)

(d) 2

lie on a

(a) circle

(b) parabola

(c) line

(d) ellipse.

9.

of an equilateral triangle. Let z 0 the circumcentre of the

(a) 1

(b) 1

(c) 0

(d) None of these

10. The complex numbers z = x + iy which satisfy the equation

2p

p

3

3

z 5i

= 1 lie on

z + 5i

amp z is minimum. Then z is equal to

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

24

2 6i

(b)

+

5

5

2 6

24 i

+

5

5

2 6

24i

(c)

5

5

(a)

1. (b)

9. (c)

(b) 1

2p

4p

, r cis a +

(c) r cis a +

3

3

8. (c)

3

(b) p 2 cos 1

5

8.

7. (b)

3

(a) cos 1

5

z1

(b)

3

p

p

p

p

z1

z1

(c) cos i sin

(d) cos i sin

6

6

3

3

3

3

3. If z1 = 1+2i, z2 = 2 + 3i, z3= 3 + 4i then z1, z2 and z3 represent

the vertices of a/an

(a) equilateral triangle

(b) right angled triangle

(c) isoceles triangle

(d) none of these

4. Circumcentre of an equilateral triangle is at the origin and

one of the vertex is r cis a then the other two vertices are at

(a) r cis (-a ), r cis (2a )

If z 25i

the x-axis

the straight line y = 5

a circle passing through the origin

None of these.

ANSWER KEY

2. (a)

3. (d)

4. (c)

5. (a)

6. (b)

10. (a)

1.

with the real axis.

(excluding origin) and making an angle a with the real

axis.

Y

z

a

2.

O

X

O

arg(z - z 0 ) = a, a R represents a line starting from the

z

X

z0

3.

Laws of Motion

| z - z1 |=| z - z 2 | is the perpendicular bisector of the

z - z1

(c) arg z - z = 0 represents the line segment joining

2

B

A

4.

ellipse in complex plane, z1 and z2 are affices of two foci

of ellipse. If 2a = | z1 - z 2 |, then | z - z1 | + | z - z 2 |= 2a

represents the line segment joining z1 and z2

If 2a <| z1 - z 2 |, then the equation does not represent any

curve

5.

z - z1 z1 - z 2 = 2a .where

z - z1

(d) arg z - z = p represents the straight line joining

2

A

B

28. Let z1 = 6 + i and z2 = 4 3i. If z be a complex number

z - z1 p

such that arg z - z = 2 , then z satisfies

2

hyperbola in complex plane, z1 and z2 are affices of two

foci of hyperbola.

If 2a =| z1 - z 2 | , | z - z1 | - | z - z 2 | = 2a represents the

straight line joining A(z1) and B(z2) but excluding the

segment AB

(a) | z (5 i)| = 5

(b) | z (5 i)| =

(c) | z (5 + i)| = 5

(d) |z (5 + i)| =

Sol.

B(z2)

A(z 1)

6.

A(z1)

z z1

= K represents a circle if

The complex equation

z z2

7.

19

P(z)

+ z z2

= K represents

1

2

z1 z 2 , K a real number..

2

Let z1 and z2 be two fixed points and a be a real number

such that 0 a p then

(z2)B

a circle if K

8.

z - z1

p

= a, 0 < a < p, a

represents a

(a) arg

z

z

2

2

p(z)

a

A

z - z1 p

= represent a circle with diameter as

(b) arg

z - z2 2

the segment A(z1) and B(z2).

P(z)

p/2

p/2

P(z)

z - z1 p

Given arg z - z = 2

2

.....(i)

z1 - z

p

or arg z - z = - 2

2

p

. Hence the relation (i)

2

represents the points lying on a semicircle as shown in

figure. Centre of this semicircle is 5 i (mid point of AB)

and radius =

| z (5 i)| =

1

5 = AB . Therefore z satisfies

ALTERNATE :

Let z = x + i y

z - z1

x + iy - 6 - i

Now z - z = 4 - 3i - x - iy

2

=

=

( x - 6) + ( y - 1)i

( x - 6) + ( y - 1)i ( 4 - x ) + ( y + 3) i

=

( 4 - x ) - ( y + 3)i (4 - x ) - ( y + 3)i ( 4 - x ) + ( y + 3) i

[(x - 6) (4 - x ) - ( y - 1) ( y + 3)] + [(x - 6) ( y + 3) + ( y - 1) (4 - x )] i

(4 - x ) 2 + ( y + 3) 2

20

Ph y si cs

z - z1 p

z - z1

Given arg z - z = 2 z - z is purely imaginary

2

2

Sol.

z - z1

Or Re z - z = 0

2

( x - 6) (4 - x ) - ( y - 1) ( y + 3) = 0

x 2 + y 2 - 10 x + 2 y + 21 = 0

...(1)

x = 0

|z (5 i)| =

[( x - 1) + iy][ x + 1 - iy] p

z -1 p

arg

=

=

arg

4

z +1 4

( x + 1) 2 + y 2

( x 2 + y 2 - 1) + 2iy p

=

( x + 1) 2 + y 2 4

Answer (b)

5

29. The complex number z in the argand diagram satisfying

3

7

(3 + 4i) or (3 + 4i )

(a)

5

5

(c) 3 + 4i and 3 4 i

4

where a = 3 + 4i, is

3

y > 0, x 2 + y 2 - 1 > 0,

5

5

(3 + 4i) or (3 + 4i )

(b)

3

7

2y

2

x + y2 - 1

=1

x 2 + y 2 - 2 y - 1 = 0, y > 0, x 2 + y 2 - 1 > 0

z -1 p

=

arg

z +1 4

is the arc ABC of the circle x2 + y2 2y 1 = 0. Solving

with x = 0, we get

Sol.

y=

2 8

= 1 2 , y > 0,\ y = 1 + 2

2

Answer (b)

| z a | = 2 is the circle with centre at a = (3, 4) and radius

= 2.

Clearly XOC = q = tan 1

4

3

3

circle. It must therefore be either point A or B.

Now, OA = OC AC = 5 2 = 3

OB = OC + CB = 5 + 2 = 7

7

B is 7 (cos q +i sin q ) = (3 + 4 i)

5

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Sol.

the straight line joining the points z = 3/2, z = 2/3

a segment of a circle passing through z = 3/2, z = 2/3

a segment of a circle passing through z = 3/2, z = 2/3

2 z 2 - 5z + 3

3z - z - 2

2

(2z - 3)( z - 1) 2z - 3 2 z - 3 / 2

as z 1.

= .

=

(3z + 2)(z - 1) 3z + 2 3 z + 2 / 3

z - 3/ 2

2p

3

\ A is 3 (cos q +i sin q ) = (3 + 4i)

5

Answer (a)

z -1 p

=

30. If z = x + iy such that | z + 1| = | z 1| and amp

z +1 4

then

(a) x = 2 + 1, y = 0

(b) x = 0, y =

(c) x = 0, y =

(d) x =

2 -1

2z 2 - 5z + 3 2p

=

arg 2

3 is

3z - z - 2

z= -

2 - 1, y = 0

2

2p

subtend a constant angle=

at the point z. Thus

3

3

2 +1

z= -

3

. and

2

3

and

2

2

2p

at which the chord subtends an angle=

.

3

3

Answer (c)

Laws of Motion

21

4.5

Solve following problems with the help of above text and

examples.

1. If z = x + iy and w =

1 - iz

, then |w| = 1 implies that, in the

z-i

complex plane.

(a) z lies on the imaginary axis

(b) z lies on the real axis

(c) z lies on the unit circle

(d) None of these.

2. The Points representing the complex numbers z for which

| z + 4 |2 | z 4 |2 =8 lie on

(a) a straight line parallel to x axis

(b) a straight line parallel to y axis

(c) a circle with centre as origin

(d) a circle with centre other than the origin

3. If z1 , z 2 , z 3 are in H.P. they lie on a:

(a) circle

(b) sphere

(c) straight line

(d) None of these

4. The locus of the point Z in the Argand plane for which

Z +1

+ Z 1

(a) circle

(b) parabola

(c) hyperbola

(d) ellipse

The complex number z = x + iy which satisfy the

7.

equation

(d) parabola

2z + 1

5. If the imaginary part of

is 2, then the locus of z in

iz + 1

(a) a circle

(c) a parabola

(d) None of these

z - 5i

= 1 lie on

z + 5i

(c) a circle through the origin

(d) None of these

z-i

= 1 , then locus of z is

z +1

8.

If

9.

(a) x-axis

(b) y-axis

(c) x = 1

(d) x + y = 0

If z = x + iy and a is a real n umber such that

| z - ai | = | z + ai | , then locus of z is

= 4 is a

(c) circle

z+2

is 4, then the locus of the point

z i

(a) x-axis

(b) y - axis

(c) x = y

(d) x 2 + y 2 = 1

(a) a circle

(b) a straight line

(c) a square

(d) None of these

11. If z is a complex number satisfying

|z i Re(z)| = |z Im(z)| then z lies on

(a) y = x

(b) y = - x

(c) y = x + 1

(d) y = - x + 1

ANSWER KEY

1. (b)

2. (b)

3. (a)

4. (c)

5. (b)

6. (a)

7. (a)

8. (d)

9. (a)

1.

Thus z1 - z 2 z1 + z 2 z 2 + z 2

2. - | z | Re( z ) | z |

3. - | z | Im(z) | z |

4. | z | < | Re(z) | + | Im(z) | <

5. If z +

2 |z|

2

2

1

= a , a is positive real number then - a + a + 4 | z | a + a + 4

z

2

2

22

Ph y si cs

1.

iz3 + z2 z + i = 0, then

(a) z lies on a unit circle

(b) Re(z) = Im (z)

(c) | z | = 1

(d) None of these

Sol. iz3 + z2 z + i = 0 i2z3 + iz2 iz + i2 = 0

(Multiply with i)

z3 + iz2 iz + i2 = 0 (i2 = 1)

z(z2 + i) + i (z2 + i) = 0 (z2 + i) (z i) = 0

Either z = i |z| = 1 or z2 = i |z2| = 1 |z| = 1

Hence, |z| = 1, implies that z lies on unit circle.

Answer (a, c)

2. All non zero complex numbers z satisfying the equation

z = iz 2 are

(a) i

(b) i

3 1

3 1

- i

- i

(d) 2 2

2 2

Sol. Let z = x + iy, x, y R

[Note that the problems with lower powers of z can easily

be solved using z = x + iy]

(c)

Then z = iz 2 x iy = i (x + iy)2

x iy = i (x2 y2 + 2ixy) = i (x2 y2) 2xy

Equating real and imaginary parts x = 2xy and

y = x2 y2

Sol.

+ |i z| [since |z| = | z|]

| z + i z | = |i| = 1

\ minimum value of |z| + |zi| is 1

ALTERNATE :

We may obtain the above answer using geometrical

representation. Consider a triangle which has vertices O

(origin) P (z) and Q (z i) then

OP = |z|. OQ = | z i| and PQ | z + iz| = |i| = 1

Now in a triangle sum of two sides third side

That is OP + OQ PQ

[The equality holds, when O, P and Q are collinear]

Thus | z | + | z i| 1

Answer (b)

4.

(a)

1

1

3

3

= x2 - x2 = x =

2

4

4

2

Discording the solution x = 0, y = 0 (for it is z = 0)

We get the solution z = 0 + 1i = i,

3.

3 1

- 3 1

- i and z =

- i Answer (a, c & d)

z=

2

2

2

2

The minimum value of |z| + | z i| is

(a) 0

(b) 1

(c) 2

(d) none

(b)

3 7

4

(c) 2

(d) None

z = i, 1 - i, 1 i

Let A = (0,1), B = (1,1), C=(1, 1),

1

2

If x = 0, from second equation, y (y 1) = 0 y = 0 or 1

1

from second equation

2

3 7

2

x = 2xy x (1 + 2y) = 0 x = 0 or y = -

If y = -

DABC in the Argand plane, then the area of the triangle is

0

1 1

1

1

1 - 1 1 = | - 2 - 2 |= 2

\ D ABC =

2

2

- 1 -1 1

5.

Answer (c)

| z | -4 =| z - i | - | z + 5i |= 0 , is

(b) 2 3 - 2i (c) - 2 3 - 2i

3 -i

Sol. We have two equations

| z | -4 = 0 and | z - i | - | z + 5i |= 0

(a)

(d)

| x + iy |= 4 i.e. x 2 + y 2 = 16

...(1)

and | x + iy - i |=| x + iy + 5i |

or x 2 + ( y - 1) 2 = x 2 + ( y + 5) 2

i.e

y= 2

...(2)

Laws of Motion

\ z = 1 + cos q + i sin q

equations are z1 = (2 3 , - 2) and z 2 = (-2 3 , - 2)

that is, z1 = 2 3 - 2i, z 2 = -2 3 - 2i

6.

If S(n ) = i n + i - n , where i =

-n

n

n

Sol. We have, S( n ) = i + i = i +

( -1) + 1

n

in

- 1 and n is a positive

1

in

in

q 1

q

q

q

\ arg z = = arg(z - 1)

+ 2i sin cos

2

2

2

2 2

Thus, arg(z - 1) = 2 arg z.

Answer (a)

Let z be a complex number having the argument

= 2 cos 2

9.

p

and satisfying the equation | z 3i | = 3.

2

6

is

z

Sol. From geometrical representation we know that the equation

| z 3i| = 3 represents a circle with centre C (3i) i.e., the

point (0, 3) and radius = 3 Clearly, the circle touches the x

- axis at origin O. Let a point P on the circle is the image of

z, which has argument q . hence OAP = q

By property of circle OAP = q .

, n = 1, 2, 3, 4,...

Answer (c)

If z1, z2 , z3, z4 are represented by the vertices of a rhombus

taken in the anticlock wise order, then

(a) z1 + z 2 = z 3 + z 4

q

q

q

q

cos + i sin = 2 cos .e iq / 2

2

2

2

2

q, 0 < q <

i 2n + 1

7.

= 2 cos

Answer (b, c)

(a) 1

(b) 2

(c) 3

(d) 4

23

(b) z1 - z 2 + z 3 - z 4 = 0

z2 - z4 p

z1 - z 2 p

=

(d) amp z z = 2

z1 - z 3 2

3- 4

Sol. Since diagonals of a rhombus bisect each other

(c) amp

z1 + z 3 z 2 + z 4

=

= z 0 (say)

2

2

z1 - z 2 + z 3 - z 4 = 0

Also, since diagonals of a rhombus are at right angles

\

z2

z1

O

z0

z3

\ amp

z4

z + z4

z2 - 2

p

2

amp

=

z1 + z 3

2

z1 2

8.

z 2 - z0 p

=

z1 - z 0 2

amp

z2 - z4 p

=

z1 - z 3 2

If z in any complex number satisfying | z - 1 |= 1 , then

which of the following is correct ?

(a) arg(z - 1) = 2 arg z

(b) 2 arg( z) =

2

arg( z 2 - z)

3

(d) arg z = 2 arg(z + 1)

Sol. Since | z - 1 |= 1

\ z = 6 sin q (cos q + i sin q )

6

1

cos q - i sin q

=

=

= cot q - i

sin q

z sin q (cos q + i sin q)

6

= i

z

10. Find the real part of tan (a + ib)

Sol. We have

\ cot q -

sin( a + i b )

2 sin( a + ib ) cos( a - ib )

tan (a + ib) = cos( a + ib ) = 2 cos( a + ib ) cos( a - ib )

[Multiplying numerator and denominator by 2 cos (a

ib)]

e 2b - e -2b

sin 2a + i

2

sin 2a + sin(2ib)

e 2b + e - 2b

cos 2a +

2 cos 2a + (e 2b + e - 2b )

ei(2ib) - e-i(2ib)

(Euler's rotation)

Note that sin2ib =

2i

-2b 2b

e2b - e-2b

e -e

= i

. Similarly for cos (2ib).

=

2i

2

24

Ph y si cs

2 sin 2 a

\ Real part of tan (a + ib) is 2 cos 2 a + ( e 2b + e - 2b )

1

11. If |z| 3, then find the least value of z +

z

1

= r (cos q + i sin q) + (cos q - i sin q)

r

1

1

r + cos q + i r - sin q

r

r

1

1

1

+

+

= 2w 2

a+w b+w c+w

and

p

)

2

1

- 2 = r -

2

r

\ ( t ) least = r -

r

Now r 3 t least 3 - 1 = 8 .

3 3

1

8

=

z

3

which the equation z + a | z - 1 | +2i = 0 has a solution

Sol. Let z = x + iy

We have, z + a | z - 1 | +2i = 0

x + i( y + 2) + a ( x - 1) 2 + y 2 = 0

1

c + w2

1

1

1

+

+

=2

a +1 b +1 c +1

(a) 1

(b) 2

Sol. Since w 2 =

\ Least Value of t = z +

a+w

b+w

Then show that

2 1

= r + 2 + 2 cos 2 q

r

5

5

5

is ve or a + 2 a - 2 is -ve

5

5

a

2

2

13. If w is complex cube root of unity and a, b, c are three real

numbers such that

1

1

2

2

= r + cos q + r - sin q

r

r

2

(t2)least = r +

4a 2 a 2 - 0

4

2

conclude that a -

1

Let t = z +

z

t2

4a 4 + 20a 2 (1 - a 2 ) 0 -4a 4 + 5a 2 0

(c) 3

(d) None

1

1

and w = 2 the given relation may be

w

w

1

1

1

2

+

+

=

a +w b+w c+w w

rewritten as

and

= 2w

a+w

b+w

c+w

w2

Clearly w and w2 are the roots of

2

1

1

1

2

+

+

=

a+x b+x c+x x

...(1)

or

=

(a + x )(b + x)(c + x )

x

or

y + 2 = 0 \ y = -2 and x + a ( x - 1) 2 + 4 = 0

Now if a is the third root of this equation then sum of the

\ x 2 = a 2 ( x 2 - 2x + 5) or (1 - a 2 )x 2 + 2a 2 x - 5a 2 = 0

roots, a + w + w2 = 0 a = 1

Hence, 1 is the root of equation (1) we get

equation already has solution)

1

1

1

+

+

=2

a +1 b +1 c +1

Answer (b)

Laws of Motion

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

p

If | z | = 2 and arg (z) = then z = .............

4

The greatest and the least absolute value of z + 1 where

| z + 4 | 3 is ............. and .............

In the Argand plane, the vector z = 4 3i is turned in the

clockwise sense through 180 and stretched 3 times. The

complex number represented by the new vector is .............

unity is .............

For any two complex numbers

| az1 bz2 |2 + | bz1 + az2 |2 .............

a + ib

, then (x2 + y2)2 = .............

c + id

6.

If x + iy =

7.

real is .............

8.

If zn = cos

p

+ sin

,

(2n + 1) (2 n + 3)

(2n + 1) (2 n + 3)

n

real is .............

10. If (2 + i) (2 + 2i) (2 + 3i) .... (2 + ni) = x + iy then 4. 8. 13

....... (4 + n2) = .............

9.

11.

True or False

it through a right angle in the anti-clockwise direction.

13. The complex number cos q + i sin q can be zero for some

q.

14. If a complex number coincides with its conjugate, then the

number must lie on imaginary axis.

15. The argument of the complex number

z = (1 + i 3) (1 + i) (cos q + i sin q) is 7p + q .

12

16. The points representing the complex number z for which

| z + 1 | < | z 1 | lies in the interior of a circle.

17. If three complex numbers z1, z2 and z3 are in A.P., then

they lie on a circle in the complex plane.

18. If n is a positive integer, then the value of in + (i)n+1 +

(i)n+2 + (i)n+3 is 0.

25

triangle iff

1

1

1

+

+

=0.

z1 - z2 z2 - z3 z3 - z1

the vector through a right angle in counter clockwise sense.

21. If z1, z2, z3 respectively are affixes of points A, B, C then,

z -z

CBA = 1 2

z3 - z2

22. If three complex numbers are in A.P., then they lie on a

circle in the complex plane.

23. The trigonometric form of the complex number

1

cos

24. The points representing the complex numbers z for which

| z + 1 | < | z i | lie on a circle.

25. If a complex number coincides with its conjugate, then the

number must lie on the imaginary axis.

26. The fourth roots of 1, if plotted, would lie at the vertices

of a square.

27. If the complex numbers z1, z2, z3 represent the vertices of

an equilateral triangle such that | z1 | = | z2 | = | z3 |, then

z1 + z2 + z3 0

28. If in the Argand plane z1, z2, z3, z4 are four points such that

| z1 | = | z2 | = | z3 | = | z4 |, then the four points are the

vertices of a square.

Short Answer Questions

29. If 4x + i (3x y) = 3 + i ( 6), where x and y are real

numbers then find the values of x and y.

30. Express the following in the form x + iy

(i)

5 + 2i

1- 2i

(iii) i35 + i 40

31. If

(ii) - 2 - i

3

(iv)

2-i

(1 + 2i ) 2

- x - iy = (b - ia )

z - 8i

32. If Re

= 0 then show that z lies on the curve

z +6

x2 + y2 + 6x 8y = 0

(3 - 2i ) (2 + 3i )

(1 + 2i ) (2 - i )

26

Ph y si cs

34.

35.

= | z1 | + | z2 |. Then show that arg (z1) arg (z2) = 0

If z1, z2, z3 are complex numbers such that | z1 | = | z2 | = | z3|

36.

37.

1 1

1

+ +

z1 z 2 z 3

(ii) cos 3a + cos 3b + cos 3g = 3 cos (a + b + g)

43.

39.

40.

i -1

in the

p

p

cos + i sin

3

3

44.

45.

If arg (z 1) = arg (z + 3i) then find (x 1) : y, where

z = x + iy

46.

Show that

u v

If (x + iy)3 = u + iv then show that + = 4( x 2 - y 2 )

x y

47.

and radius.

If | z1 | = | z2 | = ....... = | zn | = 1 then show that

42.

1.

2.

3.

4.

z -2

= 2 represents a circle. Find its centre

z -3

| z1 + z2 + .....+ zn | =

1 1

1

+ + ...... +

z1 z2

zn

of a circle of radius 3 unit and centre ( 4, 0) then find the

greatest and least values of | z + 1|.

Find the value of 2x 4 + 5x 3 + 7x 2 x + 41, when

48.

x = -2 - 3i

49.

z + 2 | z + 1| + i = 0

If z and w are two complex numbers such that | zw | = 1

41.

polar form.

38.

p

p

If xn = cos + i sin

n

2

2n

z3 + 2z2 + 2z + 1 = 0 and z1985 + z100 + 1 = 0

If cos a + cos b + cos g = sin a + sin b + sin g = 0 then

prove that

| z | = |w| and Arg z + Arg w = p then z equals

[AIEEE 2002]

(a) w

(b) w

(c) w

(d) w

If |z 4| < |z 2| then its solution is given by

(a) Re(z)>0

(b) Re(z)<0 [AIEEE 2002]

(c) Re(z)>3

(d) Re(z)>2

The locus of the centre of a circle which touches the circle

| z z1 | = a and | z z2 | = b externally (z, z1 & z2 are

complex numbers) will be

[AIEEE 2002]

(a) an ellipse

(b) a hyperbola

(c) a circle

(d) none of these

Let z1 and z2 be two roots of the equation z 2 + az + b = 0

, z being complex. Further , assume that the origin, z1 and

z2 form an equilateral triangle. Then

(a)

a 2 = 4b

(c) a 2 = 2b

(b) a 2 = b

(d) a 2 = 3b

50.

If

p

, then show that z w = i

2

z -1

is a purely imaginary number then show that z lies

z +1

5.

p

zw = 1 and Arg ( z ) - Arg (w ) = , then zw is equal to

2

[AIEEE 2003]

(a) i

(b) 1

(c) 1

(d) i

x

6.

7.

1+ i

If

[AIEEE 2003]

= 1 then

1- i

(a) x = 2n + 1 , where n is any positive integer

(b) x = 4n , where n is any positive integer

(c) x = 2n , where n is any positive integer

(d) x = 4n + 1 , where n is any positive integer..

and arg zw = p. Then arg z equals

[AIEEE 2004]

(a)

5p

4

(b)

p

2

(c)

3p

4

(d)

p

4

[AIEEE 2003]

Laws of Motion

1

8.

9.

x y

If z = x - i y and z 3 = p + iq , then + (p 2 + q 2 )

p q

is equal to

[AIEEE 2004]

(a) 2

(b) 1

(c) 2

(d) 1

2

2

If | z - 1 |=| z | +1, then z lies on

[AIEEE 2004]

(a) an ellipse

(b) the imaginary axis

(c) a circle

(d) the real axis

the equation ( x 1) 3 + 8 = 0, are

11.

1, 1, 1

(d) 1, 1 + 2 w , 1 + 2 w

(a)

17.

18.

to

[AIEEE 2005]

p

2

(b) p

(c) 0

12. If w =

(d)

z

+ . . . . . . . . . +

(b)

(c)

b (1, )

(d) b (0,1)

0

, then H70 is equal to

(a) 0

(c) H2

(b) H

(d) H

2

If z 1 and z is real, then the point represented by the

22.

[AIEEE 2012]

(a) either on the real axis or on a circle passing through

the origin.

(b) on a circle with centre at the origin

(c) either on the real axis or on a circle not passing through

the origin.

(d) on the imaginary axis.

If z is a complex number of unit modulus and

z -1

1+ z

argument q, then arg

equals:

1 + z

[AIEEE 2006]

(a) 18

(b) 54

(c) 6

(d) 12

15. If | z + 4 | 3, then the maximum value of | z + 1 | is

[AIEEE 2007]

(a) 6

(b) 0

(c) 4

(d) 10

[AIEEE 2011]

21.

6 1

z + 6 is

z

b (-1, 0)

H =

0

[AIEEE 2006]

(a) i

(b) 1

(c) 1

(d) i

14. If z2 + z + 1 = 0, where z is complex number, then the value

of

1 2 1 3 1

z + z + z + 2 + z + 3

z

z

b =1

(a)

20.

(b) a circle

(d) a parabola

2kp

2kp

+ i cos

is

sin

11

11

k =1

1

1

(d)

i +1

i 1

The number of complex numbers z such that

|z 1| = |z + 1| = |z i| equals

[AIEEE 2010]

(a) 1

(b) 2

(c)

(d) 0

Let a, b be real and z be a complex number. If z2 + az + b

= 0 has two distinct roots on the line Re z =1, then it is

necessary that :

[AIEEE 2011]

[AIEEE 2011]

(a) (1, 1)

(b) (1, 0)

(c) (1, 1)

(d) (0, 1)

If w 1is the complex cube root of unity and matrix

-p

2

10

1

i +1

[AIEEE 2005]

(a) an ellipse

(c) a straight line

(b)

19.

1

z- i

3

1

i 1

(c)

(a)

1

then that

i 1

[AIEEE 2008]

complex number is

[AIEEE 2005]

(a) 1, 1 + 2 w , 1 2 w 2 (b)

(c) 1, 1 2 w , 1 2 w 2

16.

27

p

q

2

(c) q

(d) p q

If the cube roots of unity are 1, w, w2, then the roots of the

equation (x 1)3 + 8 = 0 are

[IIT 1979]

2

(a) 1, 1 + 2w, 1 + 2w (b) 1, 1 2w, 1 2w2

(c) 1, 1, 1

(d) None of these

(a) q

23.

[JEE M 2013]

(b)

28

24.

Ph y si cs

[IIT 1980]

34.

1+ i

= 1 is

1- i

25.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

z 5i

= 1 lie on

z + 5i

[IIT 1981]

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

36.

[IIT 1982]

by

[IIT 1982]

(a) Re(z) 0

(b) Re(z) < 0

(c) Re(z) > 0

(d) none of these

If z = x + iy and w = (1iz)/ (z1) then |w| = 1 implies that,

in the complex plane,

[IIT 1983]

(a) z lies on the imaginary axis

(b) z lies on the real axis

(c) z lies on the unit circle

(d) None of these

The points z1, z2, z3, z4 in the complex plane are the vertices

of a parallelogram taken in order if and only if

[IIT 1983]

(a) z1 + z4 = z2 + z3

(b) z1 + z3 = z2 + z4

(c) z1 + z2 = z3 + z4

(d) None of these

If a, b, c and u, v, w are complex numbers representing the

vertices of two triangles such that c = (1 r) a + rb and

w = (1 r)u + rv, where r is a complex number, then the

two triangles

[IIT 1985]

(a) have the same area (b) are similar

(c) are congruent

(d) none of these

If w ( 1) is a cube root of unity and (1 + w)7 = A + Bw

then A and B are respectively

[IIT 1995S]

(a) 0, 1

(b) 1, 1

(c) 1, 0

(d) 1, 1

Let z and w be two non zero complex numbers such that

| z | = | w | and Arg z + Argg w = p, then z equals

(a) w

(b) - w

[IIT 1995S]

33.

334

1 i 3

+3 - +

2

2

365

[IIT 1999]

(b) 1 + i 3

(d) - i 3

i 3

If arg(z) < 0, then arg (-z) - arg(z) =

(b) - p

(a) p

(c)

37.

(d) - w

| w | 1 and | z + i w | = | z i w | = 2 then z equals

(a) 1 or i

(b) i or i

[IIT 1995S]

(c) 1 or 1

(d) i or 1

z1 = z2 = z3 =

38.

39.

[IIT 2000S]

p

p

(d)

2

2

If z1, z2 and z3 are complex numbers such that

[IIT 2000S]

(c)

(c)

If i =

(a) 1 - i 3

3 i

3 i

+ +

- , then

If z =

2 2

2 2

1 i 3

- 1 , then 4 + 5 - 2 + 2

is equal to

(a) Re(z) = 0

(b) Im(z) = 0

(c) Re(z) > 0, Im (z) > 0 (d) Re(z) > 0, Im (z) < 0

27.

35.

the x-axis

the straight line y = 5

a circle passing through the origin

none of these

5

26.

[IIT 1996]

(a) n1 = n2 +1

(b) n1 = n2 1

(c) n1 = n2

(d) n1 > 0, n2 > 0

(a) n = 8

(b) n = 16

(c) n = 12

(d) none of these

The complex numbers z = x + iy which satisfy the

equation

1 1

1

+ +

= 1, then

z1 z2 z3

z1 + z2 + z3

is

(a) equal to 1

(b) less than 1

(c) greater than 3

(d) equal to 3

Let z1 and z2 be nth roots of unity which subtend a right

angle at the origin. Then n must be of the form

[IIT 2001S]

(a) 4k + 1

(b) 4k +2

(c) 4k + 3

(d) 4k

The complex numbers z 1, z 2 an d z 3 satisfying

z 1- z 3 1 - i 3

=

are the vertices of a triangle which is

z 2 -z 3

2

40.

41.

[IIT 2001S]

(b) right-angled isosceles

(c) equilateral

(d) obtuse-angled isosceles

For all complex numbers z1, z2 satisfying |z1|=12 and

| z2-3-4i | = 5, the minimum value of |z1-z2| is[IIT 2002S]

(a) 0

(b) 2

(c) 7

(d) 17

Let w = 1

1 - 1 - w2

1

w2

1

3

+i

, then the value of the det.

2

2

1

w2

is

w4

[IIT 2002]

(a) 3w

(b) 3w(w - 1)

(c) 3w2

(d) 3w(1 - w)

29

Laws of Motion

42. If z = 1 and w =

z -1

( where z -1) , then Re( w ) is

z +1

(a) 0

(c)

(b)

z

1

.

z +1 z +12

(d)

1

z +1

[IIT 2003S]

p

in

2

anticlockwise direction on a circle with centre at origin, to

reach a point z2. The point z2 is given by

[IIT 2008]

(a) 6 + 7i

(b) 7 + 6i

(c) 7 + 6i

(d) 6 + 7i

2

z +1

It moves horizontally away from origin by 5 units and then

vertically away from origin by 3 units to reach a point z1.

then the least positive value of n is

[IIT 2004S]

(a) 2

(b) 3

(c) 5

(d) 6

44. The locus of z which lies in shaded region (excluding the

boundaries) is best represented by

[IIT 2005S]

m =1

at q = 2 is

( -1 + 2 , 2 )

A

(1, 0)

C

(1, 0)

( - 1 + 2 ,- 2 )

4

arg ( z) > p

4

3

2

(d)

1

2

w - wz

46. If

is purely real where w = a + ib, b 0 and z 1,

1- z

then the set of the values of z is

[IIT 2006]

(a) {z : |z| = 1}

(b) {z : z = z }

(c) {z : z 1}

(d) {z : |z| = 1, z 1}

47. A man walks a distance of 3 units from the origin towards

the north-east (N 45 E) direction. From there, he walks a

distance of 4 units towards the north-west (N 45 W)

direction to reach a point P. Then the position of P in the

Argand plane is

[IIT 2007]

(a) 3eip/4 + 4i

(b) (3 4i)eip/4

(c) (4 + 3i)eip/4

(d) (3 + 4i)eip/4

z

lie on

48. If | z | = 1 and z 1, then all the values of

1- z 2

(a) a line not passing through the origin

(b) | z | = 2

(c) the x-axis

(d) the y-axis

[IIT 2009]

(a)

1

sin 2

(b)

1

3sin 2

(c)

1

2 sin 2

(d)

1

4 sin 2

integers. Then the area of the rectangle whose vertices are

(b) z : |z 1| > 2 and |arg (z1)| < p/4

(c) z : |z + 1| < 2 and |arg (z+1)| < p/2

(d) z : |z 1| < 2 and |arg (z+1)| < p/2

45. a, b, c are integers, not all simultaneously equal and w is

cube root of unity (w 1), then minimum value of

|a + bw + cw2| is

[IIT 2005S]

(a) 0

(b) 1

(c)

15

Im( z 2m 1 )

[IIT 2007]

3

3

the roots of the equation z z + z z = 350 is[IIT 2009]

(a) 48

(b) 32

(c) 40

(d) 80

52. Let z be a complex number such that the imaginary part of

z is non-zero and a = z2 + z + 1 is real. Then a cannot take

the value

[IIT 2012]

(a) 1

(b)

1

3

1

2

(d)

3

4

(c)

1

lie on circles (x x0)2

a

respectively. If z0 = x0 + iy0 satisfies the equation

2

2 z 0 = r 2 + 2, then a =

(a)

(c)

1

2

1

7

(b)

1

2

(d)

1

3

30

1.

2.

3.

Ph y si cs

z C is

(a) one

(b) two

(c) three

(d) infinitely many

If a and b are the roots of x2 x + 1 = 0, then the equation

whose roots are a100 and b100 are

(a) x2 x + 1 = 0

(b) x2 + x 1 = 0

2

(c) x x 1 = 0

(d) x2 + x + 1 = 0

If z be a complex number satisfying z4 + z3 + 2z2 + z + 1

= 0 then |z| is equal to

1

3

(b)

2

4

(c) 1

(d) No unique value

For a complex number z, the minimum value of

| z | + | z 2 | is

(a) 1

(b) 2

(c) 3

(d) None

The greatest and the least absolute value of z + 1,where

| z + 4 | 3 are respectively

(a) 6 and 0

(b) 10 and 6 (c) 4 and 3 (d) none

(a)

4.

5.

6.

If f(z) =

7-z

1- z2

|z|

(b) | z |

(c) 2 | z |

(d) None

2

Given that |za| = a where z is a point in the Argand plane,

(a)

7.

z - 2a

=

z

(a) i tan (arg z)

(c) tan (arg z)

then

8.

If x + iy =

3

then 4x x2 y2 reduces to :

cos q + i sin q + 2

(a) 2

9.

(d) none of these

(b) 3

(c) 4

(d) 5

50

z1

number lies in the :

z2

(a) first quadrant

(c) third quadrant

(d) fourth quadrant

a - ib

10. The value of Arg i ln

, where a and b are real

a + ib

numbers, is

(a) 0 or p

(c) not defined

p

(b)

2

(d) none of these.

(a) ep/2

(b) ep/2

(c) ep

(d) ep

(a) 3 + i, 3 i

(b) 1 + 3i, 1 3i

(c) 1 + 3i, 1 i

(d) 1 3i, 1 + i

13. If the quadratic equation z2 + (a + ib) z + c + id = 0 where

a, b, c, d are non-zero real number, has a real root then

(a) abd = b2c + d2

(b) abc = bc2 + d2

2

2

(c) abd = bc + ad

(d) none of these.

14. Let l R . If the origin and the non real roots of

2 z 2 + 2 z + l = 0 form the three vertices of an equilateral

triangle in the argand plane. Then l is

2

(c) 2

(d) 1

3

15. Let OA.OB = 1 and let O, A, B, be three collinear points.

If O and B represent the complex numbers 0 and z, then A

represents :

(a) 1

(b)

1

1

(d) z 2

(b)

(c) z

z

z

16. The area of the triangle on the Argand diagram formed by

the complex number z, iz and z+iz is

(a)

| z |2

| z |2

(c)

(d) None

3

2

17. If z, wz ane w z are the vertices of a triangle, then the area

of the triangle will be (where w is cube root of unity) :

(a) |z|2

(a)

(b)

3 | z |2

2

(b)

3 3 | z |2

2

3 | z |2

(d) None of these

2

18. Let z lies on the circle centred at the origin. If area of the

triangle whose vertices are z, wz and z+wz, where w is the

(c)

is :

(a) 1 unit

(b) 2 units

(c) 4 Units (d) none

19. If x = cos q + i sin q , y = cos f + isin f ,

z = cos y + isin y and

x

y

z

= 1,

+

+

y

z

x

(a)

3

2

(b)

3

2

(c) 0

(d) 1

31

Laws of Motion

20. Let z = 1 t + i

(a) a hyperbola

(b) an ellipse

(c) a straight line

(d) none of these.

21. The locus of a point in the Argand plane that moves

satisfying the equation | z - 1 + i | - | z - 2 - i | = 3 :

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

3

is a circle with radius 3 and centre at z =

2

is an ellipse with its foci at 1 i and 2 + i and major

axis = 3

is a hyperbola with its foci at 1i and 2 + i and its

transverse axis = 3

none of the above

(a) a circle of radius 1

(b) an ellipse with foci at (1, 0) and (0, 1)

(c) a straight line through the origin

(d) a circle on the line joining (1, 0), (0, 1) as diameter.

23. The maximum value of |z| when z satisfies the condition

z+

2

= 2 is

z

that z +

1

= 1. Then

z

(a) Im (z) = 0

(b) Re (z) = 0

(d) None of these

(c) amp (z) = p

29. If a, b, g and a, b, c are complex numbers such that

a b c

b

g

a

+

+

= 1 + i and + + = 0, then the value of

b

c

a b g

a

a2

b2

a2

b2

(a) 0

g2

is equal to

c2

(b) 1

(c) 2i

where k is equal to

(a) 1

(b) 2

(d) 2i

y

x

= k ( a2 b2 )

b

a

(c) 3

(d) 4

iA

in A.P. Then the triangle must be

(a) right angled

(b) isosceles

(c) equilateral

(d) None of these

32. The principle value of the arg (z) and | z | of the complex

(a)

3 -1

(b)

3 +1

11p

11p

+ i sin

number z = 1 + cos

are respectively..

9

(c)

(d)

2+ 3

(a)

1

= 2 . Which

z

(a) | z |

2 +1

(c) | z | 4

(b) | z |

(d)

2 -1

2 -1

2 +1

(a) 1 or i

(b) i or i

(c) 1 or i

26. If w is imaginary cube root of unity, then

(d) i or 1

4

3

1

1

3

(b)

(c)

(d)

2

2

2

2

27. If n is a positive integer grater than unity and z is a complex

satisfying the equation z n = (z + 1) n , then

(a) Re(z) < 0

(b) Re(z) > 0

(d) z lies on x =

(b)

7p

11p

, 2cos

.

18

18

(d)

p

p

, 2cos

9

18

(a) circle

(b) sphere

(c) straight line

(d) None of these

34. Let z = log 2 (1 + i), then (z + z ) + i (z z ) =

ln 4 + p

p ln 4

(b)

ln 4

ln 2

ln 4 - p

p + ln 4

(d)

(c)

ln 4

ln 2

35. The number of 25th roots of unity which are also 15th

roots of unity is

(a) 15

(b) 5

(c) 20

(d) 10

(a)

(a)

(c) Re(z) = 0

11p

p

, 2cos

8

18

2p

7p

, 2cos

(c)

9

18

1

2

5p

5p

(a) cos

+ i sin

48

48

29p

29p

(b) cos

+ i sin

48

48

7p

7p

+ isin

48

48

19p

19p

isin

48

48

(c) cos

(d) cos

32

Ph y si cs

z1 + z 2 + ........ z n

(a) 0

1

z1

+

1

(b) 1

1

1

is,

+ ........+

z2

zn

(c) 1

(d) None

A

B

+

= 1.

B

A

Then the origin and two points A and B form a triangle which

is

(a) equilateral

(b) obtuse angled triangle

(c) right angled triangle

(d) None of these

x i

p + 2 tan 1 x, is

i log

x

+

i

(a) 0

(b) 1

(c) 1

2

(a)

1

(cos a + i sin a )

cos a

(b)

1

[cos ( p + a ) + i sin( p + a )

- cos a

a z1 + b z 2 + c z 3 = 0, z1 , z 2 , z 3 are complex numbers

and a + b + c = 0 a, b, c R . Then the points are

(a) collinear

(b) not collinear

(c) linearly dependent

(d) linearly independent

40. If z1 = a + ib and z 2 = c + id are complex numbers such

that z1 = z 2 = 1 and Re (z1z 2 ) = 0 then the pair of

complex numbers w 1 = a + ic and w 2 = b + id satisfy

w1 = 1

(a)

w2 = 1

(b)

(c) Re ( w1 w 2 ) = 0

41. Complex number z satisfies | z a + ia | = 1 and has the

least absolute value. Its absolute value is

(a) a 2 1 (b) a 2 + 1 (c) 0

(d)

42. If ( w 1) is a cube root of unity, then

1

1+ w

1+ w

(a) 0

1+ w

1 + w2

1

1 + w2

1+ w

1

(b) 1

(c) 4

(c)

(b)

x2

y2

+

=1

8

10

(d)

(d) 2

x2

y2

+

=1

9

40

x2

y2

+

=1

3

25

x R so that

sin nq

( x + a) n (x + b) n

=

is

a b

sin n q

(a) cot q 1

(b) cot q + 1

(c) cos q

(d) tan q + 1

2(z - 1)

47. If sin 1

2 is defined for some z, where z is non(

1

+

i

)

real, then:

(a) Re (z) = 1, 1 Im (z) 1

(b) Re (z) = 1, Im (z) = 2

(c) Re (z) = 1, <Im(z)<

(d) Re (z) = 1, | Im(z) | 1

48. Let z1 and z2 be non-zero complex numbers satisfying the

equation z12 2z1z2 + 2z22 = 0. The geometrical nature of

the triangle whose vertices are the origin and the points

representing z1 and z2 is

(a) an isosceles right angled triangle

(b) a right angled triangle

(c) an equilateral triangle

(d) none of these.

(a) | z + z |=

x2

y2

+

=1

25

16

1

[cos ( 2 p + a ) + i sin( 2 p + a )]

cos a

(d) None of the above.

(c)

(a)

(d) 2

1

2

(c) | z + z | =1

(b) z + z = 1

(d) None of these.

having it circumcentre at the origin. If z is the affix of its

orthocentre, then

(a) z1 + z 2 + z 3 z = 0

(b) z1 + z 2 z 3 + z = 0

(c) z1 z 2 + z 3 + z = 0

(d) z1 + z 2 + z 3 + z = 0

51. If z1 , z 2 , z 3 are three distinct complex numbers and a, b,

c are three +ve real numbers such that

a

b

c

=

=

z 2 z3

z 3 z1

z1 z 2

then

Laws of Motion

(a)

a2

c2

b2

=0

z 2 z3

z1 z 2

z 3 z1

(b)

c

a

b

=0

+

+

z1 z 2

z 2 z3

z 3 z1

(c)

a2

b2

c2

+

+

=0

z 2 z3

z 3 z1

z1 z 2

type questions. Each of these questions contains two statements

: Statement-1 (Assertion) and Statement-2 (Reason). Answer these

questions from the following four options.

(a)

(b)

(c)

52. The triangle whose vertices are z1 , z 2 , z 3 and z1 ' , z 2 ' ,

z1

z3

(a) 0

(b) 1

z2 ' 1 is

z3 ' 1

(d) None

regular polygon inscribed in a circle of radius unity then

n 1

i =1

55. If

6i

- 3i

3i

-1

20

(d) 2n

3

4

2

60. Statement 1 : 3 + ix y and x 2 + y + 4i are conjugate

az1 bz 2

+

is a point on the line segment

bz 2 az1

(c) 3

(d)

3 3

2

z+2

z -1

point representing z in the complex plane is

(a) a straight line parallel to x-axis

(b) a straight line equally inclined to axes

(c) a circle with radius 2

numbers is real then they are conjugate

complex numbers.

61. Statement 1 : If z1 and z2 are two distinct points in an

Argand plane. If a |z 1 | = b |z 2 |, then

= x + iy, then

(b) 3 3

x2 + x + 2 = 0

numbers, then x 2 + y 2 = 3

(a) x = 3, y = 1

(b) x = 1, y = 3

(c) x = 0, y = 3

(d) x = 0, y = 0

56. Let A0A1A2A3A4A5 be a regular hexagon inscribed in a

circle of unit radius. Then the product of the lengths of the

line segments A0A1,A0A2 and A0A4 is

(a)

p = a + a 2 + a 4 , q = a 3 + a 5 + a 6 then

the equation where roots are p and q is

1 + a + a 2 + .......... . + a 6 = 0

, is

(a) 2n

(b) n

(c) n

54. Let a complex function be defined as

g (z) = z z . If g(zw) = g ( z w), then

(a) z is purely real

(b) w is purely real

(c) w is purely imaginary

(d) atleast one of (a) or (c) is true.

(d)

Statement -1 is true, Statement-2 is true; Statement -2 is a

correct explanation for Statement-1

Statement -1 is true, Statement-2 is true; Statement -2 is

not a correct explanation for Statement-1

Statement -1 is true, Statement-2 is false

2p

2p

59. Statement 1 : If a = cos + i sin ,

7

7

z1 ' 1

(c) 1

33

1

2

58. For the complex numbers z1 and z2 if

| 1 - z1 z2 |2 - | z1 - z2 |2 = k (1- | z1 |2 ) (1- | z2 |2 )

then k equals to

(a) 1

(b) 1

(c) 2

(d) 2

Statement 2 : When arg (z1) = q and arg (z2) = q + a

\

az1 bz 2

+

= e -ia + e ia = 2 cos a

bz 2 az1

2

27

1 2 1

1

x + + x + 2 + .... + x + 27

x

x

x

is 54.

Statement 2 : w, w2 are the roots of given equation and

x+

1

1

1

= -1, x 2 + 2 = -1, x 3 + 3 = 2

x

x

x

2

2 - 1 , then | z + 2z cos a | is less

than 1.

Statement 2 : | z1 + z 2 | < | z1 | + | z 2 | also | cos a | 1

34

Ph y si cs

This article is taken from :

Laws of Motion

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