10 views

Uploaded by vgmanjunatha

Image compresssion

save

- Central-Maine-Power-Co-Prescriptive-Compressed-Air
- [IJCST-V4I5P25]: Yashodha Devi, Er. Priyanka Mehta
- Continuous History Recorder A
- LizSu
- JPEG 2000
- RGB Image Compression Algorithm using Error Tolerant 2D Discrete Cosine System
- Manual de operación FOCUS
- 26SPIHT
- OCP-UGrad-2008
- 04136914
- Er 36881887
- ADABAS Curso de Performance
- Tuturiais GIMP
- Unit 5 Cp7004 Question Bank
- Perceptually Optimized Coding of Color Images for Band-Limited Information Networks
- Energy-Efficient Image Transmission over OFDM Channel Using Huffman Coding
- Ja 2415771582
- Text extraction
- Minggu3-Lesson03_2
- Two-dimensional Block of Spatial Convolution Algorithm and Simulation
- Widelink Report
- ICT2105_summary.pdf
- 29Modified Anti-Forensic Technique For
- 1589-4565-1-PB
- 07-Audio Compatibility Mode
- [Tanmoy_Kanti_Das_and_Subhamoy_Maitra]_Das_Maitra_(BookFi).pdf
- An Updated Data Compression Algorithm for Dynamic Data
- Reversible Color Image Watermarking in YCoCg Space
- Lossless Image Compression Using Super
- Empirical and Statistical Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Four Lossless Data Compression Algorithms
- Application of Temperature Compensated Ultrasonic Ranging for Blind Person and Verification Using
- cwe 4w twef ewf rdsf er
- Modbus_enfd
- New Text Document (2)
- New Text Document (2)
- New Text Document (2)
- New Text ewfsdfds(2)
- New Twdwfewext Document (2)
- New Text Document (2)sdvdsvdsv c vx
- New Text Document (2)
- Report Fin 2
- Patient Vital Signs Monitoring via Android Application
- New Text Document (2)
- New Text Document (2)
- New Text Document (2)
- sdkjnvks c kcklamsopw
- New Text Document (2)
- Nedknsjkcndsjknvw Text Document (2).txt
- New Text Document (2)
- New Text Document (2)
- New Text Document (2)
- knsjkn kjsjk dksdjk
- New Text Document (2)
- vjkdsvnkdsjcvnjkdsnjkdsnvjksnckds
- New Text Document (2)
- New Text Document (2)
- New Text Document (2)
- New Text Document (2)
- New Text Document (2)
- New Text Document (2)

You are on page 1of 25

Chapter: I

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Data compression is a technique of reducing the redundancies in data and represents it in

shorter manner. Image compression is the application of data compression. Image

compression can be lossy or lossless. For high value images such as medical images

where loss of critical information is not acceptable, lossless or visually lossless

compression is preferred. In addition, in many countries lossy compression is forbidden

by law for medical images when they are used for diagnosis purpose .

Medical images are widely used for surgical plan and diagnosis purposes. They include

human body pictures and are being present in digital form. Imaging devices improve

everyday and generate more data per patient. In the field of profiling patient’s data,

medical images need long-term storage . Therefore, images need compression. For such

purpose compression ratio is important. However, in real time processes such as

telemedicine and online diagnosis systems which need hardware implementation,

simplicity of compression algorithm plays an important role. It can accelerate

computation process.

As can be seen in Fig .1, lossless compression consists of two major parts: transformation

and coding. Input image goes through transformation and encoding steps and form in a

shorter manner as a compressed bit-stream. Mostly, in lossy compression quantization

adds to this flowchart.

Fig 1. Flowchart of Lossless Compression.

**Lossless JPEG, JPEG-LS and lossless version of JPEG2000 are lossless methods
**

introduced

by JPEG committee and are widely used in the world . Huffman coding,

**Golomb-Rice and Arithmetic coding are used in these standards. The output of
**

Dept. of ECE, SJBIT

Page 1

LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION AND TRANSFORMATION FOR RTA

**transformation step is the input of these encodings. Transformation decorrelate input
**

image and reduce entropy value. Entropy value is a measure for possibility of

compression which is obtained by encoding. Entropy indicates require bit per pixel

amount and is calculated as:

**1.1.1 Objective of the Project
**

1. To study and develop a MATLAB code for the JPEG encoding scheme.

2. To utilize the property of DCT, zig-zag encoding for JPEG image compression.

3. To obtain the parameters like compression ratio for different images.

**1.1.2 Approach and Implementation
**

1. Literature Survey: - Study of Encoding Standard adopted by a JPEG committee, a

study of other compression technique for image, Study of Discrete Cosine Transform,

Study the need for zigzag in the context of image compression.

2. Implementation of the DCT, Quantization and Zigzag encoding to get the compressed

image.

3. Development of software involves the coding the JPEG encoder using the MATLAB

editor and evaluating the code with respect to the quality metrics.

1.3 Probable Approach:

Dept. of ECE, SJBIT

Page 2

LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION AND TRANSFORMATION FOR RTA

**Figure 2. Block Diagram of New Transformation Method
**

input image is divided by n and keep rounded quotient in Quotient, and remainder of division in

Remainder. This paper chose divisor in a fashion that sum of quotient depth and remainder depth

is equal to input image depth. Therefore, divisor is power of two and smaller than biggest

possible intensity value.

n = 2^m

m = 1,2,…,k-1

**For a specific n of (3) quotient and remainder are:
**

q(i,j) = floor ( I(i,j) / n )

r(i,j) = I(i,j) mod n

Chapter: II

Image compression:

2.1

Introduction

Image compression is minimizing the size in bytes of a graphics file without

**degrading the quality of the image to an unacceptable level. The reduction in file size
**

Dept. of ECE, SJBIT

Page 3

LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION AND TRANSFORMATION FOR RTA

**allows more images to be stored in a given amount of disk or memory space. It also
**

reduces the time required for images to be sent over the Internet or downloaded from

Web pages.

The image audio and video requires sufficient storage, space and large

transmission bandwidth and long transmission time to store, process and transmit. At the

present state of technology the only solution to compress the multimedia data before its

storage and transmission and decompress it at the receiver for playback.

A common characteristic of the most images is that the neighboring pixels are

correlated and therefore contains the redunded information. The foremost task then is to

find less correlated representation of the image. Two fundamental components of

compression are redundancy and irrelevancy reduction. The redundancy reduction aims at

removing the duplication from the signal source. Irrelevancy reduction omits the parts of

the signal that will not be noticed by the signal receiver, namely the Human Visual

System. In general three types of redundancy can be identified:

Spatial redundancy: Neighboring pixels are not independent but correlated each other.

Spectral redundancy: Correlation between different color planes or spectral bands.

Temporal redundancy: Correlation between the adjacent frames in a sequence of images

(Video application)

Image compression research aims at reducing the number of bits needed to

represent the image by removing the spatial and spectral redundancy as much as possible.

Since we are focusing on still image compression, we are not interested in temporal

redundancy.

**2.2 Different classes of compression techniques
**

Two ways of classifying the compression techniques are:

Dept. of ECE, SJBIT

Page 4

LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION AND TRANSFORMATION FOR RTA

Lossless Compression

Lossless image compression as their name implies, involve no loss of

information. If the data have been lossless compressed, the original data can be

reconstructed exactly from the compressed data. Lossless compression is used for the

application that does not tolerate any difference in the original and reconstructed data.

Text compression is an area that comes under lossless compression. It is very

important that the reconstruction is identical to the text original.

Lossy Compression

Lossy compression techniques involves some loss of information, and the data

that is compressed using the lossy algorithms generally cannot be recovered or

constructed exactly In return for accepting the distortion in the reconstruction we can

obtain the high compression ratio. In many applications, this lack of reconstruction is not

a problem. For example the speech, image, and video.

2.3

2.3.1

Different methods of compression for image:

Differential Encoding:

In this method the difference between the actual value of a sample and a

prediction of those values is encoded. It is also known as predictive encoding. Example

of technique include: differential pulse code modulation, delta modulation and adaptive

pulse code modulation -- differ in prediction part.

This method is suitable where successive signal samples do not differ much, but

are not zero. E.g. Video -- difference between frames, some audio signals. Differential

pulse code modulation (DPCM) simple prediction scheme we use in differential

encoding which predicts the current value based on the previous actual value:

fpredict(ti) = factual(ti-1)

Dept. of ECE, SJBIT

Page 5

LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION AND TRANSFORMATION FOR RTA

**If the source is highly correlative (As most of the images are)simple Markov
**

model can be used where current estimated is used to predict the next value. So we

simply need to encode:

2.3.2 Arithmetic coding:

Arithmetic coding is a form of variable-length entropy encoding used in lossless

data compression normally, a string of characters such as the words "hello there" is

represented using a fixed number of bits per character, as in the ASCII code. When a

string is converted to arithmetic encoding, frequently used characters will be stored with

fewer bits and not-so-frequently occurring characters will be stored with more bits,

resulting in fewer bits used in total. Arithmetic coding differs from other forms of entropy

encoding such as Huffman coding in that rather than separating the input into component

symbols and replacing each with a code, arithmetic coding encodes the entire message

into a single number, a fraction n where (0.0 ≤ n < 1.0).

Normally arithmetic coding is employed for the Lossless image compression.

**2.3.3 Sub-band coding: (SBC)
**

It is form of transform coding that breaks a signal into a number of different

frequency bands and encodes each one independently. This decomposition is often the

first step in data compression for audio and video signals.

So simply put, Subband Coding is an approach to compression which relies on

separating the source output into different bands of frequencies using digital filters. Each

Dept. of ECE, SJBIT

Page 6

LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION AND TRANSFORMATION FOR RTA

**of these constituent parts are encoded using one or more of the methods. Since we are
**

using digital filters in the case of subband coding. The subband coding mainly deals with

the filter design-analysis filter and synthesis filter. The scheme is shown below.

Figure-2.1 Filter Bank used in Sub Band Coding

2.3.4 Transform coding:

Transform coding is a type of data compression for "natural" data like audio

signals or photographic images. The transformation is typically lossy, resulting in a lower

quality copy of the original input.

In transform coding, knowledge of the application is used to choose information

to discard, thereby lowering its bandwidth. The remaining information can then be

compressed via a variety of methods. When the output is decoded, the result may not be

identical to the original input, but is expected to be close enough for the purpose of the

application.

The transforms of interest for image compression are K L transforms, Discrete

Cosine Transforms (DCT), Discrete Sine Transforms, and Discrete Walsh Hadamard

Transform (DWHT).

**2.3.5 Wavelet based compression
**

Dept. of ECE, SJBIT

Page 7

LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION AND TRANSFORMATION FOR RTA

**In Fourier transform (FT) we represent a signal in terms of sinusoids. FT
**

provides a signal which is localized only in the frequency domain. It does not give any

information of the signal in the time domain. Basis functions of the wavelet transform

(WT) are small waves located in different times. They are obtained using scaling and

translation of a scaling function and wavelet function. Therefore, the WT is localized in

both time and frequency.

In addition, the WT provides a multiresolution system. Multiresolution is useful in

several applications. For instance, image communications and image data base are such

applications. If a signal has a discontinuity, FT produces many coefficients with large

magnitude (significant coefficients). But WT generates a few significant coefficients

around the discontinuity. Nonlinear approximation is a method to benchmark the

approximation power of a transform. In nonlinear approximation we keep only a few

significant coefficients of a signal and set the rest to zero. Then we reconstruct the signal

using the significant coefficients. WT produces a few significant coefficients for the

signals with discontinuities, thus we obtain better results for WT nonlinear approximation

when compared with the FT.

Most natural signals are smooth with a few discontinuities (are piece-wise

smooth).Speech and natural images are such signals. Hence, WT has better capability for

representing this signal when compared with the FT. Good nonlinear approximation

results in efficiency in several applications such as compression and denoising.

2.4

**Typical Image Coder
**

A typical lossy image compression system is as shown in the figure 2.4.1.It

consists of three closely connected components namely source encoder, Quantizer and

entropy encoder. Compression is accomplished by applying a linear transforms to decorrelate the image data, quantizing the resulting transform coefficient and entropy

coding the quantized values.

Dept. of ECE, SJBIT

Page 8

LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION AND TRANSFORMATION FOR RTA

Figure 2.2 Typically Lossy Image Encoder

Source Encoder:

There are different kinds of linear transforms that have been developed which include

Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFT), Discrete Sine Transforms (DST), Discrete Cosine

Transforms (DCT), Discrete Wavelet Transforms and many more, each with its own

advantage, disadvantages and applications.

Quantizer:

A quantizer simply reduces the number of bits needed to store the transform coefficient

by reducing the precision of those values. Since this is a many to one mapping it is a lossy

process and is the main source of compression in an encoder. Quantization can be performed

on each individual coefficient, which is called as scalar quantization. Quantization can also

be performed on the group of coefficients together; this is known as vector quantization.

Entropy encoder:

An entropy encoder further compresses the quantized values losslessly to give better

overall compression. It uses a model to accurately determine the probabilities for each

Dept. of ECE, SJBIT

Page 9

LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION AND TRANSFORMATION FOR RTA

**quantized values and produces an appropriate code based on this probabilities so that the
**

resultant output code is smaller than the input stream. The most commonly used entropy

encoder a arithmetic and Huffman encoder although for applications requiring the fast

execution zigzag encoding is proven more effective

It is important to note that a properly designed quantizer and entropy encoder are absolutely

necessary along with optimum signal transformation to get the best possible compression.

Chapter: III

**JPEG Lossless Image Compression and Transformation
**

Introduction

3.1.1 Transformation

Transformation is used to decorrelate the input image and transform image into

another domain. Transformation tries to concentrate the energy of the input image into

comparatively few coefficients [7]. Important attributes of a good transformation are

energy compaction, computational complexity and receiver complexity [8]. Therefore,

the objective of transformation is to transform image into coefficients matrix to be an

appropriate input for coding step. One of objectives of transformation is to reduce the

entropy value of input image. Thus, it is a measure of goodness for any transformation.

3.1.2

Dept. of ECE, SJBIT

General Block Diagram of the DPCM

Page 10

LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION AND TRANSFORMATION FOR RTA

**Fig 3. General Structure of DPCM
**

In first step, image pixels are predicted from their neighbour pixels by one of the prediction

models of Table 1. Neighboring positions is shown in Fig. 3 Further, subtracting predicted image

from input image will give prediction error which is transformed image.

Fig 4. Neighbor Pixels for Predicting Pixel X.

**Table 1 illustrates predictors and their equivalent hardware requirement. Since hardware
**

optimization is important, it is better to include simplicity in spite of efficiency in predictor

selection. In order to have equal situation the same predictor is used in comparison step.

Dept. of ECE, SJBIT

Page 11

LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION AND TRANSFORMATION FOR RTA

**Fig 5. a) 512×512 Grayscale Lena Image. b) Original Image
**

Histogram. c) DPCM Transformed Image Histogram

3.1.3 NEW METHOD

Our new transform method engine is illustrated in block diagram form in Fig. 6. Division is first

applied on the input image. Then, quotients of division are being predicted by one of the

prediction equations of Table 1. Further, predicted matrix is rescaled in multiplication step. By

adding predicted matrix with remainders of division step, predicted image is produced.

Subtracting predicted image from original image produces the transformed image. When

intensities of an image are in the range of [0, 2k-1], the image is of k-bit depth. Typical grayscale

images are of 8 to 16 bit depth . RGB images are consisting of three matrixes of R, G and B that

each one has similar depth to grayscale. In this paper, grayscale images with 8-bit depth are

focused.

Dept. of ECE, SJBIT

Page 12

LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION AND TRANSFORMATION FOR RTA

**As it shown in Fig. 6, input image is divided by n and keep rounded quotient in Quotient, and
**

remainder of division in Remainder. This paper chose divisor in a fashion that sum of quotient

depth and remainder depth is equal to input image depth. Therefore, divisor is power of two and

smaller than biggest possible intensity value.

n = 2m m = 1,2,…,k-1 (3)

For a specific n of (3) quotient and remainder are:

q(i,j) = floor ( I(i,j) / n ) (4)

r(i,j) = I(i,j) mod n (5)

For input image I(i,j) intensities are in following interval.

0 _ I(i,j) _ 2k – 1 (6)

Therefore, from (4) and (5), quotients and remainders are in the range of:

0 _ I(i,j) / n _ (2k – 1) / n

0 _ q(i,j) _ (2k – 1) / 2m

0 _ r(i,j) _ 2m

Then, as a result:

q(i,j) = [0, 2k-m-1] (7)

r(i,j) = [0, 2m] (8)

It is almost certain from (7) and (8) that q(i,j) has (k-m)-bit depth and r(i,j) has m-bit depth. If the

depths of q(i,j) and r(i,j) add together, total depth will be k which is equal to input image depth.

Another advantage of n to be power of two is in hardware implementation point of view.

Because, it change division process to m-bit right shifting which is easily implement by using a

shift register instead of divisor.

Dept. of ECE, SJBIT

Page 13

LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION AND TRANSFORMATION FOR RTA

**In proceeding, the reason of intensities division before prediction is analyzed. Quotients of
**

division step are the input of prediction part. As it will prove in continue, if we divide image by

n, probability of correct prediction will increase n times. Assume using a linear prediction model

such as prediction number five of Table 1 (X = B), then, probability of correct prediction is the

probability of that intensity value which is shown in (9). Rr is the number of repetition of

intensity r in an M×N image, and Pr is the probability of r. Therefore, in this case Pr will be the

probability of correct prediction.

Pr = Rr / M×N (9)

We have q(i,j) from (4), which is obtained by dividing each pixel of input image by n. Hence,

probability of correct prediction for q(i,j) is:

Pq = Rq / M×N where q = 0,1,…,(2k-1) / n (10)

Rq is the number of repetition of the new intensity values (q) in divided image.

When only one number is consider instead of a series of values in an interval, the total number of

repetition would increase. For example, if input image is divided by 32 all the values betweens 0

to 31 will become 0. Therefore, number of repetition of 0 will increase. From (10), new values

of repetition Rq and probability Pq are:

Rq = d × Rr (11)

Pq = (d × Rr) / M×N

= d × Pr (12)

As can be seen from (12), probability of better prediction increases. In other sight, it is obvious

that probability of correct prediction in a smaller interval is higher than bigger interval. Hence,

better prediction will achieved. The objective of our method is to estimate prediction error, so it

would be necessary to have a predicted image. Next step will be rescaling of predicted matrix of

prediction step. For this goal, this paper multiply predicted matrix by n and add remainder to

protect the accuracy of prediction. Hence, predicted image is calculates as follow:

P(i,j) = qp(i,j) × n + r(i,j) (13)

In which qp(i,j) is predicted matrix or output of prediction step.

Prediction error or transformed image T(i,j) is obtained by:

T(i,j) = I(i,j) - P(i,j) (14)

Dept. of ECE, SJBIT

Page 14

LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION AND TRANSFORMATION FOR RTA

**Transformed image by this method has less intensity distribution compare to DPCM. Therefore,
**

more energy compaction will take place. This happens because transformed image values have

less variety than output of DPCM. Actually, as you can see from mathematical proof variety of

transformed image values of this method is n times smaller.

Similar to (13), I(i,j) calculated as follow:

I(i,j) = q(i,j) × n + r(i,j) (15)

r is equal in both (13) and (15). Hence, can say:

I(i,j) - q(i,j)×n = P(i,j) – qq(i,j)×n

I(i,j) - P(i,j) = n×( q(i,j) – qq(i,j) ) (16)

From (14) and (16), we have (17) for transformed image.

T(i,j) = n×( q(i,j) – qq(i,j) ) (17)

As a result of (7):

0 _ qq(i,j) _ 2k-m – 1 & 0 _ q(i,j) _ 2k-m - 1

0 _ | q(i,j) - qq(i,j) | _ 2k-m – 1 (18)

So all possible prediction error values Tv(i,j) for our transformation is calculated as:

Tv(i,j) = n × V where V = 0,1,…, 2k-m – 1 (19)

In DPCM all possible value for prediction errors are in the range of [0, 2k-1]. According to (19),

variety of outputs for this method is n times smaller. So energy compaction is n times better,

which is a good attribute. All outputs of the method are coefficients of n. For example, this paper

applied this method with n equal to 32 on 512×512 Barbra image with 8-bit depth and compare

it’s histogram to histogram of lossless JPEG transformation output in Fig. 7. From (19) variety of

prediction error values are computed as:

Tv(i,j) = 32 × V

V = 0, 1, …, 23-1

So, there will be only 8 different possible values for prediction error which are [0, 32, 64, …,

224]. Negative values of these numbers can be included which obtain to 16 values, but this paper

shift them to have only unsigned integer in output. In the other hand, DPCM outputs have variety

in range of 0 to 255. As can be seen from Fig. 7, the new method causes less variety in output

and as a result, more energy compaction and more entropy reduction.

Dept. of ECE, SJBIT

Page 15

LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION AND TRANSFORMATION FOR RTA

Dept. of ECE, SJBIT

Page 16

LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION AND TRANSFORMATION FOR RTA

Chapter 4

Design and Implementation

4.1 Introduction

The JPEG Algorithm was implemented by writing a MATLAB code to compress the grey

scale image. The code is written to compute the 2-D DCT, divided method encoding for

Store /Transmit.

The flow of the developed code is as follows

We incise a 3×3 part of Barbra image and show all the steps of the new method in Fig. 8.

n is equal to 8 for this example and prediction number one (X = (B+D) / 2) is used. As

can be seen in Fig. 8, all prediction error values are factors of 8. So all the energy will

compact into 32 different

values which are:

Tv(i,j) = 8 × V

Where V = 0,1,…,2^5-1 (= 31)

It is almost clear from numerical example that keeping remainder helps a lot through this

energy compaction. Also it should be noted that good predictor gives better result.

Dept. of ECE, SJBIT

Page 17

LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION AND TRANSFORMATION FOR RTA

**Entropy value decreases by enhance energy compaction, and better entropy value cause
**

more compression. Therefore, by transforming image with more energy compaction

better compression will obtained. Assume an image with equal probability distribution for

all intensities. According to (1) and for such image entropy value is:

E= - M×N ( log2(1/L) / M×N )

= - log2(1/L) where L = 2k (21)

Where L is the number of intensities. For an 8-bit image, L is equal to 256. Therefore,

entropy is equal to k for described image. For a specific n, intensity values decrease n

times and then from (3) and by division:

Ln = 2k-m

= L/n (22)

Ln is the number of intensities for divided image. From (21) and (22) for an image

transformed by the new method, the new entropy value is:

E = - log2(1/Ln) = - log2(n/L)

= k-m (23)

It means that required bit per pixel or entropy decreases which leads to more

compression. For example, for Barbra image with different intensity distribution, entropy

values of different methods are calculated as Table 3.

**It is almost certain from Table 3, bigger n causes more entropy reduction as this paper
**

expected from the equations. Therefore, the new method reduces entropy value and

intensity distribution which cause better compression and shows the efficiency of

introduced method in compression.

Dept. of ECE, SJBIT

Page 18

LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION AND TRANSFORMATION FOR RTA

**4.2 Challenges considered in a lossless compression
**

A. Computational Complexity

Computational complexity is another factor that determines the efficiency of a method. It

can be the number of CPU cycles, number of hardware gates or it can be memory

bandwidth and etc [5]. These are dependent on target application. As a rough indication

this paper is compared consider operations and order for transformation. This algorithm

has less computational complexity than transformation of JPEG2000, because it does not

need any filter banking or convolution, but it has higher computational complexity than

lossless JPEG. On the other hand higher computational complexity of the new method is

caused by having two more shift processes and one more addition compare to

transformation of lossless JPEG. On the other hand, as mentioned before, complexity is

less than JPEG-LS.

Since no hierarchical loop add to older DPCM algorithm, the order of algorithm is O(n)

in which n is the number of pixels or M×N. It should be noted that choosing a less

complex predictor such as X=B, can decrease the total computational complexity and

accelerate the transformation process. For example, predictor X=(B+D)/2 needs a one bit

shift register and an adder block, but X=B can implement only with one selector.

However, predictor must have good entropy reduction either. For CT image compression,

X=B is an efficient predictor.

B. Lossless Transformation

Lossless compression of medical images was our main purpose for introducing this

method. Hence, for lossless implementation of this method we have to prevent losing

information. Thus, n=2 must be picked. Therefore, the only possible values for remainder

would be 0 or 1 and there would be no loss of critical information in reconstruction

phase. In images reconstruction one failure in intensity value estimation (e.g.

reconstructing 201 beside 200) cause about 0.39 percent of intensity change. This change

can be disregarded. Another way to ensure that the method is lossless is to save or send

Dept. of ECE, SJBIT

Page 19

LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION AND TRANSFORMATION FOR RTA

**remainders with transformed image. When we divide image by two, remainders can be
**

saved by one bit. Therefore, the size of remainder matrix will be 1/8 of original image.

Hence, in the case of crucial lossless compression, the remainders can be sent and it is

still acceptable compression. Calculating remainder in an intelligent manner in

reconstruction that would be our future work is another solution for lossless compression.

For less complex lossless scheme, this paper used shift with carry. As a result, the

remainder of dividing process saved in carry. Further, in the rescaling process one left

shift with carry adds remainder to predicted matrix. Therefore, adding process eliminates

and computational complexity decreases.

Therefore, lossless transformation of this method is achieved by adding two shift

registers to previous DPCM of lossless JPEG. As a result, complexity stays low.

**C. Near-Lossless Transformation
**

For near-lossless or visually lossless transformation n is equal to 4. It causes at most 1.56

percent intensity changes in reconstruction of transformed image. For critical images with

large amount of detail, this paper suggests to use lossless scheme for important parts and

near lossless for other parts. Region of interest (ROI) can be considered for near-lossless

scheme.

D. Lossy Transformation

Lossy compression is achieved by applying bigger n for division step. If we pick a very

big n like 64, we may lose lots of information and predicted image do not have an

acceptable quality and as a result reconstructed image will not have a good quality

respectively. Therefore, it depends on importance of required quality for picking divisor.

Dept. of ECE, SJBIT

Page 20

LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION AND TRANSFORMATION FOR RTA

E. Error

Another way to measure the goodness of method is calculating root mean square error

(RMSE) which estimates by (24) between input image and predicted image [9].

Inasmuch as RMSE is dependent on prediction error, better prediction cause less error.

Root mean square signal to noise ratio (SNRrms) is another error estimation which

calculates by square of mean square signal to noise ratio (SNRms) [9]. SNRms is shown

in (25).

In experimental results which are in next Section, error and signal to noise ratio are

compared.

Final implementation to DCT:

Encoding

using DCT

Dept. of ECE, SJBIT

Page 21

LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION AND TRANSFORMATION FOR RTA

Chapter 5

Simulation and Results

5.1 Measurement Parameters:

In our project the MATLAB code has been written to compress and store the image after

the encoding of any grey scale images. Any image that is compressed will be evaluated on the

two parameters-PSNR and Compression Ratio (In our project we have evaluated compression

ratio).

**5.1.1 Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio
**

It is the term defined as the ratio between the maximum possible power of the signal and the

power of the noise that affects the fidelity of its representation. Dynamic range PSNR is usually

expressed in terms of the logarithmic decibel scale. The PSNR is most commonly used as a

measure of the quality of the reconstruction of lossy compression codecs. The signal in this case

is the original data, and the noise is the error introduced by the compression. When comparing

compression codecs it is used as an approximation to human perception of the reconstruction

quality, therefore in some cases one reconstruction may appear to be closer to the original than

another, even though it has a lower PSNR (A higher PSNR indicates the reconstruction is of

higher quality).It is most easily defined via the Mean Squared Error (MSE). Typical values of the

PSNR in the lossy image and video compression are between 30 dB and 50 dB.

Acceptable values for wireless transmission quality loss are considered to be 20 dB to 25 dB.

When the two images are identical, the MSE value is zero. For this PSNR is undefined.

Dept. of ECE, SJBIT

Page 22

LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION AND TRANSFORMATION FOR RTA

**5.1.2 Data Compression Ratio:
**

It is a term used to quantify the reduction in the data representation size produced by data

compression algorithm. The data compression is defined as the ratio of number bits used to

represent the data before compression and number of bytes of data required to represent the data

after compression.

5.2

Results:

Simulation Results

5.2.1

Lena Image

Figure 8 Simulation Results for Lena fighter image

Chapter 6

Dept. of ECE, SJBIT

Page 23

LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION AND TRANSFORMATION FOR RTA

CONCLUSION

As it has been proved and illustrated by simulations, our new method causes more energy

compaction compare to lossless JPEG and as a result more entropy reduction. Its entropy

reduction is even better than DWT step of JPEG2000 about 4 percent in spite of its low

computational complexity. Hence, it is an efficient method for lossless or near lossless

transformation of medical images when real time applications and hardware simplicity is of

interest.

In

addition,

the

new

method

can

accelerate

transmission

time

in

telemedicineteleradiology and in online diagnosis applications.

References:

[1] S. Burak, C. Tomasi, B. Girod and C. Beaulieu. "Medical Image Compression based on

Region of Interest with Application to Colon CT images.", Proc. of 23rd Int. Conf. of the IEEE

Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2453-2456, Istanbul, Turkey, 2001.

[2] R. Starosolski, "Simple fast and adaptive lossless image compression algorithm", SoftwarePractice And Experience, Wiley InterScience, pp.37-56, 2007.

Dept. of ECE, SJBIT

Page 24

LOSSLESS IMAGE COMPRESSION AND TRANSFORMATION FOR RTA

**[3] A. Savakis and M. Piorun, "Benchmarking and Hardware Implementation of JPEG-LS,"
**

ICIP'02, Rochester, NY, Sept. 2002.

[4] R. Calderbank, I. Daubechies, W. Sweldens, and B. L. Yeo. "Lossless image compression

using integer to integer wavelet transforms", In Proc. ICIP-97, IEEE International Conference

on Image, volume 1, pp. 596–599, Santa Barbara, California, Oct. 1997.

[5] T. Ebrahimi, D. Santa Cruz, J. Askelöf, M. Larsson and C. Christopoulos, “JPEG 2000 Still

Image Coding Versus Other Standards", SPIE Int. Symposium, Invited paper in Special Session

on JPEG2000, San Diego California USA, 30 July - 4 August 2000.

[6] F. Dufaux, G.J. Sullivan, and T. Ebrahimi, "The JPEGXR Image Coding Standard" IEEE

Signal Processing Magazine, pp. 195-204, Nov, 2009.

[7] H. Foos, E. Muka, Richard.M. Slone, B.J. Erickson, M.J. Flynn, D.A. Clunie, L. Hildebrand,

K. Kohm and S. Young, "JPEG2000 Compression of medical imagery", DICOM SPIE MI,

vol3980, San Diego, 2000.

[8] T. Bose, Digital Signal and Image Processing, pp. 541-644, JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC,

2003.

Dept. of ECE, SJBIT

Page 25

- Central-Maine-Power-Co-Prescriptive-Compressed-AirUploaded byGenability
- [IJCST-V4I5P25]: Yashodha Devi, Er. Priyanka MehtaUploaded byEighthSenseGroup
- Continuous History Recorder AUploaded byWeerayuth Yurasri
- LizSuUploaded bysfofoby
- JPEG 2000Uploaded bychepimanca
- RGB Image Compression Algorithm using Error Tolerant 2D Discrete Cosine SystemUploaded byIJRASETPublications
- Manual de operación FOCUSUploaded byicki_twilight_654490
- 26SPIHTUploaded byrnagu1969
- OCP-UGrad-2008Uploaded byJason C
- 04136914Uploaded byb756
- Er 36881887Uploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- ADABAS Curso de PerformanceUploaded byalbaherrera70
- Tuturiais GIMPUploaded bymini998
- Unit 5 Cp7004 Question BankUploaded bysenthamil
- Perceptually Optimized Coding of Color Images for Band-Limited Information NetworksUploaded bySEP-Publisher
- Energy-Efficient Image Transmission over OFDM Channel Using Huffman CodingUploaded byInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development - IJSRD
- Ja 2415771582Uploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Text extractionUploaded byVivek Singh
- Minggu3-Lesson03_2Uploaded byIka Juniar Kristiani Hutapea
- Two-dimensional Block of Spatial Convolution Algorithm and SimulationUploaded byAI Coordinator - CSC Journals
- Widelink ReportUploaded byRicha Chauhan
- ICT2105_summary.pdfUploaded byZack Chong
- 29Modified Anti-Forensic Technique ForUploaded byjagadeesh jagade
- 1589-4565-1-PBUploaded byMuhammed Huzaifa
- 07-Audio Compatibility ModeUploaded bycyrexzumn
- [Tanmoy_Kanti_Das_and_Subhamoy_Maitra]_Das_Maitra_(BookFi).pdfUploaded byRoberto Huesca
- An Updated Data Compression Algorithm for Dynamic DataUploaded byseventhsensegroup
- Reversible Color Image Watermarking in YCoCg SpaceUploaded byIndrajeet Saravanan
- Lossless Image Compression Using SuperUploaded byKalyan Sundaram
- Empirical and Statistical Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Four Lossless Data Compression AlgorithmsUploaded byNigerian Journal of Technological Development

- Application of Temperature Compensated Ultrasonic Ranging for Blind Person and Verification UsingUploaded byvgmanjunatha
- cwe 4w twef ewf rdsf erUploaded byvgmanjunatha
- Modbus_enfdUploaded byvgmanjunatha
- New Text Document (2)Uploaded byvgmanjunatha
- New Text Document (2)Uploaded byvgmanjunatha
- New Text Document (2)Uploaded byvgmanjunatha
- New Text ewfsdfds(2)Uploaded byvgmanjunatha
- New Twdwfewext Document (2)Uploaded byvgmanjunatha
- New Text Document (2)sdvdsvdsv c vxUploaded byvgmanjunatha
- New Text Document (2)Uploaded byvgmanjunatha
- Report Fin 2Uploaded byvgmanjunatha
- Patient Vital Signs Monitoring via Android ApplicationUploaded byvgmanjunatha
- New Text Document (2)Uploaded byvgmanjunatha
- New Text Document (2)Uploaded byvgmanjunatha
- New Text Document (2)Uploaded byvgmanjunatha
- sdkjnvks c kcklamsopwUploaded byvgmanjunatha
- New Text Document (2)Uploaded byvgmanjunatha
- Nedknsjkcndsjknvw Text Document (2).txtUploaded byvgmanjunatha
- New Text Document (2)Uploaded byvgmanjunatha
- New Text Document (2)Uploaded byvgmanjunatha
- New Text Document (2)Uploaded byvgmanjunatha
- knsjkn kjsjk dksdjkUploaded byvgmanjunatha
- New Text Document (2)Uploaded byvgmanjunatha
- vjkdsvnkdsjcvnjkdsnjkdsnvjksnckdsUploaded byvgmanjunatha
- New Text Document (2)Uploaded byvgmanjunatha
- New Text Document (2)Uploaded byvgmanjunatha
- New Text Document (2)Uploaded byvgmanjunatha
- New Text Document (2)Uploaded byvgmanjunatha
- New Text Document (2)Uploaded byvgmanjunatha
- New Text Document (2)Uploaded byvgmanjunatha