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Andrew Rosen

Stream Drainage System:
- The main stem is the principal channel in a drainage
- A drainage system is the pattern formed by the
streams, rivers, and lakes
- Dendritic drainage: Formed by homogeneous material
- Parallel drainage: Formed when there are slopes in
- Trellis drainage: Formed by folded topography
(mountains). Synclines are down-turns where the main
channel resides
- Rectangular drainage: Formed by regions that have
faulting. Streams follow paths of least resistance and
are concentrated where exposed rock is weakest
- Radial drainage: Formed around a central point.
Sometimes volcanoes.
- Centripetal drainage is the opposite of radial and
flows down a central depression
- Deranged or contorted drainage is formed from
disruptions of pre-existing drain patterns
- A tributary is a stream or river which flows into a
main stem river (doesn’t flow directly into a sea,
ocean, or lake)
- Tributaries serve to drain the surrounding drainage
basin of its surface water and groundwater by leading
the water out into an ocean or other large body
- V-shaped valleys are formed by strong streams
through downcutting
- A drainage basin is where a stream receives runoff,
throughflow, and groundwater
- Drainage basins are separated from each other by
- Watersheds represent all of the stream tributaries
that flow to some location on a channel
Channel Type:
- A stream is a body of water that transports rock
particles and dissolved ions and flows downslope on a
path called a channel
- The deepest part is where the velocity is highest
- A straight channel is straight
- A meandering channel is curved
- A braided channel has islands
- Knickpoint: Change (rapid) in slope
- Laminar flow is when all water travels along similar
parallel paths
- Turbulent flow is when they take irregular paths
- Streams erode because rock fragments are
- Turbulent flow keeps fragments in suspension longer
- Streams may erode by undercutting the banks
River Valley Forms and Processes:
- Long profile is a plot of elevation vs. distance
- Long profiles show a steep gradient near the source
of the stream and a gentle one towards the mouth
- If there is a dam, velocity decreases upstream so that
deposition of sediment occurs causing the gradient to
become lower
- Base level is the limiting level below which a stream
cannot erode its channel
- For streams that empty into oceans, base level is sea
- Local base levels can occur where streams meet a
resistant body of rock or artificial dam

- As streams overtop banks, velocity will be high but
then decrease
- Because of this, the coarser grained suspended
sediment will be deposited along the riverbank to
make a natural levee
- Terraces are exposed former floodplain deposits that
result when the stream begins down cutting into its
flood plain (regional uplift of lowering the regional base
- Alluvial fans are deposits formed due to
gradient/velocity changes like that of mountain
streams that enter flat valleys
- When a stream enters a standing body of water,
there is a decrease in velocity, and the stream deposits
sediment in a delta (finger-like projections)
Stream Flow:
- Manning’s Equation:
(left) and Chezy
Formula (right)

- Stream discharge: Q = A x V
- As the amount of water in a stream increases, the
stream must adjust its velocity and cross sectional
area in order to form a balance
- Discharge increases as more water is added to the
- As discharge increases, depth and velocity increase
- The rock particles and dissolved ions carried are the
- Suspended load are particles carried in the main part
of the stream
- Bed load is with coarse an ddense particles on the
bed of the stream but move by saltation (jumping) as a
result of collisions
- Dissolved load is when ions have been introduced by
weathered rocks
- Floods occur when the discharge is too high, the
stream widens, and the flooded areas are known as
- The surface below which all rocks are saturated with
groundwater is the water table
- Rain falls on the surface and seeps into the soil into a
zone called the zone of aeration (unsaturated zone)
where pores are filled with air
- They are eventually filled up to form saturated zones
- Porosity is the percent of volume of the rock that is
open pore space
- Well rounded, coarse sediments have high porosity
while fine sediments don’t (basically how much water
can fit between the rocks)
- Poorly sorted sediments have low porosity because
fine granules fill spaces
- Porosity is low in igneous and metamorphic rocks
because the minerals are intergrown unless they’re

Marshes form near ponds and lakes (reeds/grasses/soft-stemmed plants) .Karst springs occur where groundwater flow discharges from a conduit or cave (can discharge lots of water) .A groundwater divide is formed by glacial moraines . runoff.Unconfined aquifers have recharge areas (areas where water enters the saturated zone) usually occurring in high areas .Dams can change temperatures and thus insect development .If the size of interconnections is not as large as the zone of molecular attraction. Sufficient input of water to keep the basin at least partially filled.A rift lake is a lake formed as a result of subsidence related to movement on faults within rift zones (area of externsional tectonics on continental) and are sometimes bounded by large cliffs . the water can’t move .Lakes are found in abundance in high latitudes where glaciers were .Movement of Earth’s crust (fault lines) .Ionic charges on the surface of rocks attract a think layer of water (force of molecular attraction) . A natural basin with a restricted outlet. will become saline. groundwater flows. stream. • The origin of most lakes is not related to stream activity. sometimes combined with springs and seeps from below the lake surface.Output: Evaporation.Coarse rocks are usually more permeable than fine grained rocks and sands are more permeable than clay . • Conditions necessary for the formation and continued existence of a lake: 1.Permeability is the degree to which the pore spaces are interconnected. nearshore currents. either as a surface stream or as a sustained subsurface flow.Sinkholes are funnel shaped and open upward .Damns can cause enhanced clarity and reduced variability due to periphyton abundance .Input: precipitation. • Less than 1% of Earth’s surface waters are found in rivers and streams at any moment in time.Dams isolate ecosystems and prevent migration of anadromous and catadromous species Hydrologic Cycle: .Thermoclines are layers of changing temperature per depth .Solution valleys (Karst valleys) are the remains of former surface stream valleys whose streams have been diverted underground . • The water balance of most lakes is maintained by surface inflow. • Most of the world’s lakes contain fresh water.Cavern formation: 1) initial excavation (dissolving and creation of voids) 2) Decoration stage (water leaves behind compounds in solution) Lake Formation: .Shorelines change: Tides. or spring (biotic and abiotic factor) . .An aquifer is a large body of permeable material where groundwater is present in the saturated zone (good aquifers have high permeabilities) . • Lakes are most common in regions that were glaciated within the relatively recent geologic past because glacial erosion and deposition have deranged the normal drainage patterns and have created innumerable basins.Waves: wind speed..changes in storage Pollution: .A lotic ecosystem is the ecosystem of a river.Vesicular volcanic rock has a high porosity and low permeability because of the bubbles inside .Streams flowing along the surface may enter a sinkhole as a disappearing stream and flow underground and then reappear .The rate at which groundwater moves through saturated zone depends on the permeability and hydraulic gradient (difference in elevation divided by the distance between two points on the water table) .Grabens are formed when adjacent plates separate at fault lines (oldest/deepest) .Lakes eventually fill with sediments to form terrestrial ecosystems Lake Features: .Kettle and Finger lakes were formed by sediment damming .Acid rain forms from sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxide Lakes: • A lake is a body of water completely surrounded by land. Lakes and rivers have small SA so they don’t have big waves Wetlands: . channels and aquifers. sea level changes.Bogs begin as shallow ponds that fill with rotting leaves and plants . and artificial sources .There is little air under the mat of plants so it takes long for things to rot Effects of Land Use: . distance of wind blow. Less than 40% of lake waters are salty. and sediments .Runoff = precipation – evaporation +/.Discharge areas are areas where groundwater reaches the surface Karst Features: Karst topography: a distinctive landform assemblage developed as a consequence of the dissolving action of water on carbonate bedrock . 2. • Any lake that has no natural drainage outlet.Lakes formed by volcanoes are small . • More than 90% of Earth’s surface waters are contained in lakes. and the size of these interconnections . artificial extraction .

B. ~ 15% to 20% of rain normally ends up as surface runoff in rivers II. Outflowing streams cut channels that progressively deepen and drain lakes. When a stream goes around a curve. E. a stream usually flows within a broad. VIII. Erosion and deposition A. the bottom of the channel is called the stream bed. A ripply.• The series of large lakes in eastern and central Africa is due to major crustal movements and volcanic activity. A drainage basin is a ridge or strip of high ground dividing one drainage basin from another. geologically speaking. Discharge = width x depth x velocity. the region of maximum velocity shifts to the outside of the curve. good for agriculture. B. B. 2. A stream is a body of running water confined in a channel and moving downhill under the influence of gravity. Softer rock erodes more easily thus widening the channel and slowing the water which. x 6’/sec = 9000 cubic ft/sec D. I. Hydraulic action is the ability of flowing water to pick up and move rock and sediment. Flooding A. from a trickle to a huge river. The stream channel is surrounded by a flood plain of sediment deposited by the stream. IX. C. Example: 100 ft. a lake. • Other lakes Science Olympiad participants may wish to research include kettle lakes. Inflowing streams bring sediments to fill them up. 2. Hard. but bad for cities. Flood deposits are usually silt and clay. • Dry lake beds located in desert regions are called playas. • Lakes may affect climate and weather. flat-shaped valley. The mouth is where a stream enters the sea. B. Stream erosion A. an increase in plant growth accelerates the process of infilling. Friction near a stream’s banks and bed slows the water. Upstream dams 2. The sides of a channel are called its banks. J. Small tributaries flow into larger streams. 3. E. Flood erosion is caused by the high velocity and large volume of waters in a flood. The discharge of a stream is the volume of water that flows past a given point in a unit of time. 1. Water flows out of the ground into the river through the streambed. Streams can flow rapidly over a smooth channel. The shape of the channel controls stream velocity. called rills. D. It is generally more humid around lake areas. wavy sand bottom is rougher than a smooth sand bottom. Because water warms and cools more slowly than land. A drainage basin can be outlined on a map by drawing a line around the region drained by all the tributaries to a river. moraine lakes. can produce sheet erosion. III. B. C. Channel shape and roughness A. Stream gradient refers to the downhill slope of a bed. Discharge (cfs) = channel width in feet x average channel depth in feet x average velocity (feet per second) C. B. VII. G. . 3. Hydrologic Cycle A. merge to form small streams. A. A drainage basin is the total area drained by a stream and its tributaries. 2. Geologists use the term “streams” for any body of running water. x 15 ft. The cross profile of a stream in steep mountains is usually a V-shaped valley cut into solid rock. in turn causes the deposition of sediments. along with the impact of raindrops on the land surface. Flood control structures 1. oxbow lakes and man-made reservoirs. D. Channel flow A. • Permanent desert lakes are nearly always products of either subsurface structural conditions that provide water from a permanent spring or of exotic streams that have their source in nearby mountain. C. transport or deposit. H. • Thousands of small lakes in Florida were formed by sinkhole collapse where rainwater dissolved calcium from massive limestone bedrock. C. ~ 50% of rain returns to the atmosphere through evaporation or transpiration from plants B. so a stream may have a narrow channel in such rock resulting in more rapid flow. Gradient A. temperatures near lakes are generally milder than temperatures at the same latitude but more distant from lakes. D. Stream velocity is the speed at which water travels in a stream. Discharge increases downstream 1. F. 2. Velocity is the key factor in a stream’s ability to erode. Near its mouth. 3. A recurrence interval is the average time between floods of a given size. resistant rock is difficult to erode. Water may run off as sheetwash. • Most lakes are very temporary features in the natural landscape. Artificial levees that are embankments built along the bands of a river channel. Channelization refers to artificially steepening a gradient to increase the speed of runoff to help control flooding and improve navigation on a river. Rivers: I. VI. Tiny streams. a thin layer of unchanneled water flowing downhill. A tributary is a small stream flowing into a larger one. Sheetwash. IV. Discharge A. V. 1. Headwaters are the upper part of a stream near its source in the mountains. Few have been in existence for more than a few thousand years. A boulder-strewn channel creates more friction causing water flow to slow. D. Riprap is protective walls of stone constructed along riverbanks. Roughness of the channel 1. C. When temporarily filled by intermittent streams these bodies of water are called playa lakes. or a larger stream. A stream reaches its maximum velocity near the middle of a channel. As lakes become more shallow. B.

E. describes the movement of water through the hydrosphere. Valley development A. mass wasting. B. Once precipitation reaches the ground some of the water will become run-off and flow to a river or other body of water. XII. Rectangular patterned tributaries have frequent 90° bends and tend to join other streams at right angles. Saltation refers to short leaps or bounces off the bottom. Stream Drainage: Streams follow a general pattern based on topography. and sheet erosion. These becomepoint bars. B. Deltas or alluvial fans are deposits of sediments near the ends of streams. A suspended load is sediment light enough to remain lifted indefinitely above the bottom of a stream by water turbulence. Deltas A. C. XV. Water may slowly dissolve rocks. Stream transportation of sediment A. Braided streams form particularly well in streams laden with sediments. some water will infiltrate the ground and become groundwater. Flood plains A. shorter channel across the narrow neck of a meander. XVI Alluvial fans A. mainly their leaves. XI. The cutoff meander becomes an oxbow lake. D. For those streams that reach the ocean. Stream deposition A. meaning it changes from a liquid to a gas. Dendritic Drainage occurs where a region is above a single type of bedrock (homogeneous). deposits are graded in size within the fan. C. C. Distributaries are small. Meanders are formed by fine-grained silt and clay. An alluvial fan is a large fan-shaped or cone-shaped pile of sediment that usually forms where stream velocity decrease as it emerges from a narrow mountain canyon onto a flat plain. Graded streams exhibit a delicate balance between its transporting capacity and the sediment load available to it. which is the loss of water from parts of plants. On large fans. a network of interconnected rivulets around numerous bars. where it returns to a liquid state and forms clouds. Low velocity on the inside of a curve promotes deposition. Dendritic patterns resemble branches of a tree or the veins in a leaf. B. Flood plains may be composed almost entirely of horizontal layers of finegrained sediment interrupted by coarse-grained channel deposits. better known as the water cycle. with the coarsest sediments dropped nearest the mountains and the finer materials deposited progressively farther away. B. XIII. A floodplain is a broad strip of land built up by sedimentation on either side of a stream channel. B. Braided streams A.B. B. Other flood plains are dominated by meanders shifting back and forth. conical-shaped mountains. C. Another important way that water vapor can enter the atmosphere is through transpiration. water evaporates. Meanders develop because a stream’s velocity is highest on the outside of curves where erosion is promoted. XIV. B. B. Deltas are bodies of sediment deposited near the mouths of rivers. The easiest place to begin is with evaporation. D. and enters the air. Bed load is large or heavy sediment particles that travel near or on the streambed. Hydrologic Cycle: The hydrologic cycle. Dendritic patterns develop on uniformly erodable rock. where it can replenish aquifers. shifting channels that carry water away from the main river channel and distributes it over the surface of a delta. base level is close to sea level. XVIII. A meander cutoff is a new. These form on high. C. B. As the sun heats up the Earth's surface. Downcutting is the process of deepening a valley by erosion of the streambed. C. Meandering is more common in the lower reaches of a river where sediments tend to be finer. Lateral erosion widens a valley by undercutting and eroding valley walls. Traction refers to rolling. Once water vapor is in the atmosphere it goes through the process of condensation. Drainage Channels form where runoff cuts into the ground. Eventually the water will again evaporate and the cycle will continue. Once water droplets in the clouds become large enough they will begin to fall to the ground as precipitation. Most tributaries will join a larger stream at an acute angle. Bars may divert stream flow to cause a stream to widen. Also. Bars are ridges of sediment deposited in the middle or along the banks of a stream. 1. Trellis patterns are formed by parallel main streams with short tributaries meeting at right angles. Radial patterns resemble the radiating spokes of a wheel. X. Base level is the theoretical limit for erosion of the earth’s surface. . Dendritic Drainage is the most common and looks similar to a tree. Abrasion is the grinding away of a stream channel by the friction and impact of the sediment load. especially limestone. Which gives the entire area a similar resistance to erosion and therefore a seemingly random placement of tributaries. B. Headward erosion slows uphill growth of a valley above its original source through gullying. Meandering streams and point bars A. The dissolved load is the soluble products of chemical weathering processes. XIX Drainage patterns A. 2. XVII. Graded streams A. Many such diversions may create a braided stream. sliding or dragging.

The origin Is at the highest Elevation. in fact. the faster the water will flow 2. This is what makes a waterfall appear to “retreat”. or sea level. It all depends on the rock layers. the slower the water will flow 3. Downcutting helps a river in its descent to Ultimate Base Level Now. the unsupported hard layer above collapses. we can determine a definition. the base level at Point “A” on our graphic could be different to the Base Level of point “B”. Look at this example on the next page: This picture shows what downcutting looks like on a normal river. nothing impedes downcutting. we can witness downcutting happening before our very eyes. At point “A”. a delta or Mouth of the river at sea level Is indeed a "Base Level". tributaries enter the main Stream at near right angles. downcutting is almost nonexistent. in order to understand this. the river is slowing down some. so downcutting is considerably slower here than at Point “A”.Parallel Drainage generally form where there is a large hill. the water that flows over the falls erodes the softer layer at the base. A Waterfall is a morphological feature defined by water flowing over a hard rock layer. The amount of downcutting on a river is dependent on where on the river it forms. There Is a higher stream gradient the closer to the origin you go 6. Look at this graphic of a waterfall: By looking at the graphic. or a General Profile of a river as compared to Distance and Elevation. This picture shows a Longitudinal Profile. So how does this work into waterfalls? Let me show you with another concept: Downcutting! Downcutting is the deepening of a river channel relative to its surroundings. This is where we get into the final focus point. Geologically speaking. Trellis Drainage Patterns form where there is a folded topography like the Appalachian mountains. Sediment will be deposited at the lower elevations 5. That is essentially what a waterfall is. As you can see on this picture. So how does this fit into river morphology? It acts like a new point of origin. we can make some general assumptions: 1. Once it erodes enough. In the case of most waterfalls. At point “B”. we have to add a little onto our definition of a base level. Radial Drainage Profile Upon that thought. At any one time. so it downcuts at a steady rate. How then can a waterfall be a base level? Well. The closer to the mouth you are. and at Point “C”. an agent of downcutting. the river is very fast moving and at a higher elevation to that of sea level. As natural examples tell us. By looking at this graphic. if Downcutting doesn’t always continue to sea level. However. at our timescale. science has shown us that downcutting does not continue down to sea level at the same speed in all cases. The closer to the origin you are. rock layers can dictate base levels. In other words. Sediment will be scoured closer to the higher elevation 4.They develop in areas with parallel regions of rock that are harder to erode. Base Level is the closest to sea level a river can flow at any one location. sea level itself is considered the "Ultimate Base Level". what blocks its path? Well. and is getting closer to sea level. many of you are probably thinking the mouth of a river. in real time. However. Let’s review what we have determined so far: Base Level is the closest to sea level a river can go. In the case for large rivers. You would be absolutely correct. some wonderfully drawn pictures (/sarcasm) should give some light on it. how far does it dig into the ground. There is a lower stream gradient the closer to the mouth you go. That is. This is where we dive into the base level features. while the mouth is at the Ultimate Base Level. Look at this final graphic to the right: .

Partial is meromictic .Glaciers retreat and sediments accumulate from tributaries (organic material from watershed and aquatic plant/algae) . Natural Levee A natural levee is formed when sediment(alluvium) is deposited along the edge of the stream forming a ridge A Point Bar forms where the water going through a meanders drops alluvium on the inner bank The Neck is the point of land between the two edges of a meander. that act as a mini origin.Lakes fed primarily by inflowing stream are drainage lakes .Lakes with two mixing periods like above are dimictic as opposed to polymictic .Groundwater makes up about 1% of the water on Earth. other rivers.The nonmixing bottom layer is called the monimolimnion and the one that mixes completely is the mixolimnion . Diatom abundance/composition is also used. restarting the morphological process. Lakes. As a flood increases the rivers size it slows the river down causing it to drop sediment which in turn allows for very fertile soil.Spring turnover. winter stratification .Fetch is the exposure of lake to win and effects mixing (size does too) .Used for dating (Pb-210 and C-14). It has these stair steps. hopefully you can see what I’m trying to get across. and hypolimnion from top to bottom . this is what a longitudinal profile looks like.Formation of Lakes: . even man made dams have this kind of effect. summer stratification. These don’t have to be waterfalls. The surface below which all rocks are saturated with groundwater is the water table Light Variability: . but is usually restricted to depths less that about 750 meters.Organic C compounds absorb light and suspended materials absorb and scatter . it can be mixed easily.Lakes with small watershed that are made from groundwater flow are seepage lakes .After ice-out (Spring) the water column is cold and isothermal .Solar radiation determines wind pattern in lake basins and water movement . This layer is called the impenetrable layer.Function of the climate and basin gelology . The uppermost reaches of this water is called the water table.Algae suspended in water (phytoplankton).5%-1% of the amount of light available at surface) Density Stratification: .Three layers: Epilimnion. lakes tend to stratify in distinct layers .Seepage lakes are susceptible to acid rain because of low buffering capacity Lake Chemistry: . metalimnion. Water will move down into the earth until it reaches a layer of soil where it can not penetrate. The Cutoff occurs when the stream erodes through the neck causing the river to be back to a straight course. fall turnover.Monimolimnion has high [] of dissolved solids The Watershed: Drainage basin (all land and water areas that drain towards a lake) . In actuality. depositing minerals across stream beds. algae attached to surface (periphyton). base levels. if you were to make it precise.Vertical extinction coefficient (k) is the percentage of the surface light absorbed or scattered in a 1 meter long vertical column of water .Glaciers form lake basins by making holes in loose/soft soil. the top stops mixing with the bottom . It originally was rainwater or snow. Also can use sharp increases in pollen in plants. Channels: Flood Plain A flood plain is the flat area that tends to be covered in water when the river rises.Light penetrates deeper with low k-values (btw attenuation means decrease) .As it becomes warmer and more buoyant. This is known as turnover .Light controls temperature (solar radiation) and photosynthesis (for dissolved O2) . The result is an Ox-bow Lake which is a separate body of water from the stream Ground Water: Ground Water is water that is in the ground. Though mine is a sloppy mess.Because of nature of water. and vascular plants (macrophytes) .When the temperature (density) of the surface water equals bottom. Facts. It exists in the pore spaces and fractures in rock and sediment.Holomictic lakes are mixed from top to bottom.Water quality decreases with an increasing ratio of watershed area to lake area . That's about 35 times the amount of water in lakes and streams! It occurs everywhere beneath the Earth's surface. or leaving buried chunks of ice behind that melt .The euphotic zone is the max depth where algae and macrophytes can grow (0.

SO4-2. mountainous.0 m Runoff: A. canals.Normally a small proportion of total input 2.Landscape form. and streams Global Water Balance: A.Surface outlets 1. humidity.Dams. diversions. temperature.Arheic -no rivers arise (deserts in the latitudes of the trade winds) C.Wind velocity.The limnetic zone is the open water area where light doesn’t reach the bottom .Lakes in closed basins lose water primarily by evaporation D.TDS (total dissolved salt) is the total amount of ions in the water Lake Zones: .Evapotranspiration 1. etc.Drainage lakes lose water mainly by flow from a surface outlet 2.More evaporation from the oceans than returned via direct precipitation -source of most terrestrial precipitation B.The bottom sediment is known as the benthic zone (has many organisms (invertebrates)) Trophic Status: .Hardwater lakes have a lot of calcium and magnesium and soft water lakes don’t .The euphotic zone is from the surface depth to the depth where light levels become too low for photosynthesis (occurs within the epilimnion) .Surface influents of drainage basin 1.Global atmospheric CO2increase and warming a.Has ion balance (sum of negative ions = sum of positive) of three major anion and four major cations (HCO3-. small. and quality affected by vegetation C.Global fluxes. and retention times 1.Difficult to accurately estimate D.Exorheic -rivers originate and from which they flow to the sea 2.Infiltration and percolation to the zone of saturation followed by relatively slow movement to drainage channels 2.Quantity.Commonly a major source in certain geological settings a)Rocky.57-80% of precipitation is returned to the atmosphere through evaporation (world average is 65%) E.Continental average precipitation comparable except South America D.Normally the major input 2. Mesotrophic are in the middle Lake Inputs: A.Endorheic -rivers arise but never reach the sea 3. ditches. Na+.Lakes with sediments composed mainly of clays and silts usually have surface outlets B. Mg+2.Large lakes can receive a large proportion from direct precipitation (Lake Victoria >70%) 3. relatively productive lakes.Lake sediments can regulate this loss C.Melt 1% of global polar ice cap and sea level rises about 80 cm b.Groundwater as discrete springs 1.Most important in shallow.Subsurface stormflow is shallower and more rapid .Can humans modify the global water balance? 1. and basin modification 2.Overland flow occurs when absorptive capacity is exceeded by therate of rainfall or meltwater influx B.Subsurface flow 1. regulate the rates of evaporation 3.Fractured basalts Lake outputs: A. Precipitation directly upon lake surface 1.Seepage into groundwater 1.Evaporation 1. Cl-/Ca+2.Hydrologic regions among continental land masses 1. content. agriculture.Soil and geological substrate regulate the rates and pathways ofhillslope runoff 1.Normally occurring in shallow waters 2.. land use.Calcareous regions 2. and management requirements should be or are linked to these processes 2.Hydrophytes (water loving) plants can transpire great quantities of water where present 2.Groundwater seepage 1.Dependent on season and latitude 2. K+ .Riparian and littoral vegetation main contributors to loss 3. ponds. timing. high gradient basins b)Glacial till c)Karst and doline lakes in limestone 2.Dead Sea has nearly zero direct precipitation upon surface B.Melt 10% of global polar ice cap and sea level rises about 8.Littoral zone is near the shore where sunlight fully penetrates .Retention time in atmosphere is ~9 days 2.Eutrophic lakes have high nutrients and plant growth while oligotrophic don’t.