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Afnan Hajyahia

GRE Subject Tests: Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology
Content Specifications


Chemical and Physical Foundations

Structural Biology: Structure, Assembly, Organization and Dynamics

Thermodynamics and kinetics

Redox states

chemical bond

Chemical reaction mechanisms

Macromolecules (e.g., nucleic acids, polysaccharides, proteins and

Nucleic acids




Supramolecular complexes (e.g., membranes, ribosomes and
multienzyme complexes)


Supramolecular chemistry

Catalysis and Binding

Chemical interactions and bonding

Solubility equilibrium

Solute-solvent interactions

buffer solution

Solutions and equilibria


Water, pH, acid-base reactions and buffers

small molecule

complex lipids)


Small molecules

Enzyme reaction mechanisms and kinetics

Enzyme kinetics

Ligand-protein interaction (e.g., hormone receptors, substrates and
effectors, transport proteins and antigen-antibody interactions)

Protein–protein interactions

com/academy/lesson/anabolism-and-  G.biology-online.htm Isotopes Separation techniques (e..g. Carbon.g. mass spectroscopy) Synthesis and degradation of macromolecules  regulatory enzyme  separation process Immunotechniques  Protein immunoblotting .D. Methods  catabolism-reactions-definitions-examples. Major Metabolic Pathways  F. nitrogen and sulfur assimilation Regulation and Integration of Metabolism  Covalent modification of enzymes  Sulfur assimilation  Allosteric regulation  Nitrogen assimilation  Compartmentalization  Carbon assimilation  Hormones  Anabolism  Catabolism  http://education-portal. crystallography.html#lesson  http://quizlet... chromatography and electrophoresis) Substrate-level phosphorylation  Electron transport    Microscope (history/types) Isotopes  Bioenergetics (including respiration and photosynthesis)  Biophysical approaches (e.   Energy transformations at the substrate level     electron transport chain (ETC)  Electron transport chains in mitochondria Proton and chemical gradients electrochemical gradient Energy coupling (e. phosphorylation and transport)  http://www.g. E. spectroscopy.  http://www.

CELL BIOLOGY — 28% Methods of importance to cellular biology.. A.pdf   B. biogenesis and evolution)  Symbiogenesis.g.g... such as fluorescence probes (e. or endosymbiotic theory Cell adhesion and junctions  Cell adhesion  Process eukaryotes Signal transduction    Signal transduction Receptor function  Processing of pre-mRNA)  Extracellular matrix (including cell walls)  Membrance transport/transport types  Cell Surface and Communication http://www. will be covered as appropriate within the context of the content below.g. FRET and GFP) and imaging..benjamintseng.g.Afnan Hajyahia GRE Subject Tests: Biochemistry. Cell and Molecular Biology II. Cellular Compartments of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes: Organization. FRAP. Signal transduction(receptor) Excitable membrane systems  Membrane potential (also transmembrane potential or membrane voltage) . Dynamics and Functions  Extracellular matrix (ECM) Cellular membrane systems (e. structure and transport across  role &importance membrane)  molecular component  Nucleus ( envelope and matrix)  Cell nucleus  Structures (Nuclear envelope and pores/ nuclear lamina/  Chromosomes/ Nucleolus)  Function (Cell compartmentalization/ Gene expression/  Dynamics and regulation (Assembly and disassembly) Mitochondria and chloroplasts (e. Protein turnover (e. Protein.g. stem cells and polarity)  Prenatal or antenatal development .C. damaged protein response)  Protein turnover  Cell cycle. Targeting and Turnover  Translocation across membranes   Posttranslational modification   Posttranslational modification (PTM) Intracellular trafficking   Membrane vesicle trafficking Secretion and endocytosis   Protein targeting or protein sorting http://medcell. homeotic genes. growth factors and induction.yale. Cell Division. environment. proteosomes. Processing. nuclear and cytoplasmic interactions. mitosis and cytokinesis  Cell Cycle  Mitosis  Regulation of the cell cycle  Cell cycle checkpoints Meiosis and gametogenesis  Gametogenesis  Meiosis Fertilization and early embryonic development (including positional information. tissue-specific expression. regulation and diversity  Motor proteins / function  D. Motility and Shape  Cytoskeleton  Eukaryotic cytoskeleton /comparison  E.. Differentiation and Development  Regulation of assembly and disassembly of filament systems   Microtubule / Regulation of microtubule dynamic Motor function.

diffen. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND GENETICS — 36% A.III.  Chromatin and Chromosomes  http://www. Specialized   Karyotype (Observations on karyotypes)  Karyotypes  Translocations. Parametric and nonparametric linkage analysis) B.  http://tinyurl. medical application)  C. transduction and conjugation transduction. Genetic Foundations   Mendelian and non-Mendelian inheritance  Non-Mendelian inheritance (types)  Mendelian inheritance   Transformation  Transduction (Generalized transduction. Proteomics (Complexity of the problem) Molecular evolution  Molecular evolution(Forces in molecular evolution) .com/qjqqw4y Mutational analysis Mutation testing Genetic mapping and linkage analysis  Genetic linkage (linkage map. deletions and duplications  Aneuploidy and polyploidy  Structure  Epigenetics Genome structure    Bioinformatics Proteomics   transposable element (Class I & Class II) Bioinformatics   Disease gene identification Transposable elements   Interspersed repetitive DNA Gene identification   Genome mapping (Genetic Mapping VS Physical Mapping) Repeated DNA and gene families   Structural genomics Physical mapping  Recombination and complementation   Genomics Transformation.

com/o9pyo2h Translation (biology) Genome replication and regulation  Viral replication  http://www.  DNA replication   DNA damage and repair  DNA modification  Positive and negative control of the operon  DNA replication (DNA Cis-acting regulatory elements conversion)  http://tinyurl.action)   Epigenetics Attenuation and antitermination Antitermination   DNA recombination and gene conversion   Gene conversion(Allelic gene conversion  Virus assembly  Virus-host interactions  Virus (microbiology) . siRNA. Regulation of gene   Gene expression profiling Post-transcriptional modification (mRNA processing) G.ncbi. microRNA) Genetic code RNA processing    Transcription/transcriptional profiling    The genetic code trans-acting Gene rearrangements and amplifications expression)  cis-Regulatory Elements ( examples) Trans-acting regulatory factors Gene Expression  http://www. Regulation)  Gene Regulation  Promoter recognition by RNA polymerases RNA polymerase (Control of transcription. ectopic gene  E.  Genetic recombination(Mechanism)   Gene expression(Mechanism.D. Genome Maintenance  F. Replication process.  non-coding RNA  Small interfering RNA  microRNA Viruses  Translation  Gene duplication (Mechanisms of duplication) Small non-coding RNA (e.nih.nlm.nih.nlm..

nih.PDF Afnan haj yahia | genetically modified organism (GMO) Microarrays  microarray  DNA cloning in prokaryotes and eukaryotes   Protein–DNA interactions Transgenic organisms   sequence analysis Protein-nucleic acid interaction   http://www. Cell and Molecular Biology H.eplantscience.nih.nlm.Afnan Hajyahia GRE Subject Tests: Methods  Restriction maps and PCR    Nucleic acid blotting and hybridization  Southern blot  northern blot  .php Sequencing and analysis   http://www.