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Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases

Geographical Distribution and Control Strategies
in the Euro-Asia Region

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Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Geographical Distribution and Control Strategies
in the Euro-Asia Region

Edited by

Mo Salman and Jordi Tarrés-Call
Authors:

Agustín Estrada-Peña, Róbert Farkas, Thomas G.T. Jaenson,
Frank Koenen, Maxime Madder, Ilaria Pascucci, Mo Salman,
Rita de Sousa and Alan R. Walker

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Salman, Mowafak Dauod.
Ticks and tick-borne diseases : geographical distribution and control strategies in the Euro-Asia region / edited by Mo Salman and Jordi Tarrés-Call;
authors, Agustín Estrada-Peña … [et al.].
p. ; cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-84593-853-6 (alk. paper)
I. Tarrés-Call, Jordi. II. Estrada-Peña, Agustín. III. Title.
[DNLM: 1. Tick-Borne Diseases--epidemiology--Asia. 2. Tick-Borne Diseases-epidemiology--Europe. 3. Tick-Borne Diseases--prevention & control--Asia.
4. Tick-Borne Diseases--prevention & control--Europe. 5. Ticks--pathogenicity-Asia. 6. Ticks--pathogenicity--Europe. 7. Topography, Medical--Asia. 8. Topography, Medical--Europe. WC 600]
614.5'263094--dc23
2012024123
ISBN-13: 978 1 84593 853 6
Commissioning editor: Sarah Hulbert
Editorial assistant: Alexandra Lainsbury
Production editor: Shankari Wilford
Typeset by SPi, Pondicherry, India
Printed and bound in the UK by the MPG Books Group

Contents

Contributors

ix

Foreword
Jeremy Gray

xi

Acknowledgements
Abbreviations
Introduction
Mo Salman and Jordi Tarrés-Call
Significance of Tick-borne Diseases
Geographic Scope
Methods Used for the Systematic Review of the Literature
Identification Methods for Tick Species, Including the Most Recent
Advanced Techniques and their Limitations
1

2

3

Emerging (Re-emerging) Tick-borne Infections and the
Dissemination of Ticks
Mo Salman and Agustín Estrada-Peña
Basic Biology and Geographical Distribution of Tick Species Involved
in the Transmission of Animal Pathogens, Including Zoonoses
Róbert Farkas, Agustín Estrada-Peña, Thomas G.T. Jaenson, Ilaria Pascucci
and Maxime Madder
2.1 Soft Ticks (Argasidae)
2.2 Hard Ticks (Ixodidae)
Factors Influencing the Spread and Distribution of Ticks
Maxime Madder and Ilaria Pascucci
3.1 Climate Changes
3.2 Changes in Land Use
3.3 Movement of Animals

xiii
xv
xvii
xvii
xviii
xviii
xxi

1

6

6
11
27
27
28
29

v

8 Theilerioses 5.1.4 Anaplasmoses and Ehrlichioses 5. Geographic distribution data for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) 117 117 118 .8 Recurrent (Relapsing) Fever 4. Jaenson.9 Piroplasmoses 4.12 Q fever Maps of Reported Occurrence of Ticks Agustín Estrada-Peña.5 Rickettsioses 5.7 Babesioses 5. Róbert Farkas and Ilaria Pascucci 6.10 Bartonelloses 5.3 Tick-borne Encephalitis Group Viruses 5.7 Lyme Borrelioses 4.4 Anaplasmoses 4.5 Ehrlichioses 4.9 Equine Piroplasmoses 5.1 Soft Ticks (Argasidae). Rita de Sousa.11 Tularaemia 5. Thomas G.1 Introduction to Surveillance and its Aim 7.2 Control Options for Hard Ticks 7.6 Borrelioses 5. Mo Salman and Agustín Estrada-Peña 7.1 African Swine Fever 5. Maxime Madder. Ilaria Pascucci. Agustín Estrada-Peña.2 Hard Ticks (Ixodidae) Surveillance and Control Measures Róbert Farkas.T. Róbert Farkas and Mo Salman 4. Frank Koenen.2.T. Genus Ornithodoros 6.2 Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever 4. Rita de Sousa and Róbert Farkas 5.vi 4 5 6 7 Contents Tick-borne Infections (Including Zoonoses) in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin Frank Koenen. Thomas G.1 African Swine Fever 4.2 Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever 5.T. Maxime Madder.3 Tick-borne Encephalitis Group 4.6 Rickettsioses 4. Geographic distribution data for African swine fever virus (ASFV) Table A1.11 Other Potentially Tick-borne Infections Maps of Reported Occurrence of Tick-borne Pathogens Agustín Estrada-Peña. Ilaria Pascucci. Jaenson.3 Control Possibilities for Soft Ticks Glossary 33 33 36 37 39 43 44 51 52 53 56 57 76 77 77 78 80 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 86 89 89 90 98 98 104 110 115 Appendices Appendix 1 Tables of Geographic Distribution Data for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Table A1. Thomas G.10 Hepatozoonosis 4. Jaenson.

turanicus) Table A1.8.15.7. Table A1.9. Table A1. Geographic distribution data for Theileria spp.12.18.21. Geographic distribution data for Hyalomma marginatum Table A1.cabi. Table A1. and Ehrlichia spp. Geographic distribution data for Rhipicephalus bursa Table A1.5.6. sanguineus and Rh. Geographic distribution data for Haemaphysalis punctata Table A1. Geographic distribution data for Bartonella spp. Geographic distribution data for Francisella tularensis Table A1.13.3. Geographic distribution data for Rickettsia spp.org/resources/tatbd). Geographic distribution data for the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) group Table A1. Table A1. vii 120 125 134 139 159 166 168 169 170 171 174 176 201 205 205 206 213 237 244 246 252 255 258 Appendix 2 List (By ID Number) of References from which Geographic Data Were Extracted (hosted on http://www.4. Geographic distribution data for Haemaphysalis concinna Table A1. 8 . Table A1.20. Geographic distribution data for Haemaphysalis inermis Table A1. Geographic distribution data for Ixodes ricinus Table A1.17.Contents Table A1. Geographic distribution data for Anaplasma spp.14.24.16.22. 272 Appendix 3 List of Scientific Papers That Could Not Be Retrieved (hosted on http://www. Table A1. Geographic distribution data for Coxiella burnetii Table A1. Geographic distribution data for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus Table A1. Geographic distribution data for Babesia spp.org/resources/tatbd). Geographic distribution data for Rhipicephalus sanguineus group (Rh.10.25.cabi. Geographic distribution data for Dermacentor reticulatus Table A1. Data from serological surveillance of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in domestic animals Table A1. Geographic distribution data for Dermacentor marginatus Table A1.11. Table A1.23. Geographic distribution data for Ornithodoros spp. Geographic distribution data for Borrelia spp. Geographic distribution data for Rickettsia spp.19. now included in Anaplasma spp. Geographic distribution data for equine piroplasmoses Table A1. 272 Appendix 4 Keys for Genera and Species of Ticks in the Mediterranean Basin 273 Index 289 The colour plate section can be found following p.

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Italy. Operational Director. Av. Belgium.Sousa@insa. IP (National Institute of Health Doutor Ricardo Jorge. Veterinary Entomology Group. and Extra-ordinary Lecturer.it Mo Salman. Evolutionary Biology Centre. E-mail: Thomas. Fort Collins. Interactions and Surveillance. E-mail: M. Norbyvägen 18d.fgov.be Maxime Madder. Uppsala University. Faculty of Veterinary Science. Professor in Parasitology. Campo Boario.min-saude. Professor of Veterinary Epidemiology. E-mail: Farkas.Pascucci@izs. Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre (Centrum voor Onderzoek in Diergeneeskunde en Agrochemie-Centre d’Etude et de Recherches Vétérinaires et Agrochimiques) (CODACERVA). E-mail: Mmadder@itg.uu. South Africa. PhD. Spain. PhD. University of Zaragoza.Jaenson@ebc. Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge. Centro de Estudos de Vectores e Doenças Infecciosas Doutor Francisco Cambournac (Center for the Study of Vectors and Infectious Disease Research Doutor Francisco Cambournac) (CEVDI). Colorado State University. E-mail: Frkoe@var. Department of Systematic Biology. Biologist. Department of Animal Pathology (Parasitology).hu Thomas G.D. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases. Animal Population Health Institute.be Ilaria Pascucci. da Liberdade 5. SE-752 36 Uppsala.pt ix . Senior Researcher. B-1180 Brussels.es Róbert Farkas. Nationalestraat 155B-2000 Antwerp. Jaenson. Miguel Servet 177. Medical Entomology Unit.Contributors Agustín Estrada-Peña. Caporale”. E-mail: I. Department of Biomedical Sciences. István u. College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences.Robert@aotk. University of Pretoria. 2965-575 Águas de Moura. Portugal. Faculty of Veterinary Science.edu Rita de Sousa. 50013-Zaragoza. DMV. I-64100 Teramo. USA. Belgium. Groeselenberg 99. Szent István University. IP) (INSA). Campus Stop 1644. Hungary.Salman@ ColoState. H-1078 Budapest VII. E-mail: Rita. Institute of Tropical Medicine. Professor in Medical Entomology. Department of Parasitology and Zoology. Onderstepoort 0110. E-mail: AEstrada@unizar.se Frank Koenen. Professor of Parasitology. Sweden.T. 2. Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e del Molise “G. CO 80523-1644.szie.

E-mail: Jordi. I-43126 Parma.Tarres-Call@efsa.europa. PhD. The positions and opinions presented in this monograph are those of the authors and editors alone and are not intended to represent the views or scientific works of EFSA.ac. E-mail: Alan.Walker. Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies.uk 1 The editor Jordi Tarrés-Call is employed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). University of Edinburgh.eu1 Alan R.Walker@ed. DMV. Edinburgh.R. Scotland. . Via Carlo Magno 1/A. UK. European Food Safety Agency (EFSA). EH25 9RG. Italy. Scientific Officer of the FEED Unit (formerly Scientific Officer in the Animal Health and Animal Welfare Unit).x Contributors Jordi Tarrés-Call.

Foreword Jeremy Gray Emeritus Professor of Animal Parasitology. where Lyme borreliosis. caused by the spirochaete species complex.. both as parasites in their own right and also as vectors of many different pathogens that cause diseases in livestock and companion animals – such as anaplasmosis. reflecting growing public interest. and a new multi-author version currently in preparation. Not since the outdated and relatively limited monographs compiled by the great Harry Hoogstraal and co-workers in the 1950s has such a comprehensive record of tick distribution been published as is presented in this monograph. Despite long-standing knowledge of the subject. Nuttall’s Ticks: Biology.D. with the two-volume 1992/3 publication Biology of Ticks by D. babesiosis.E. ehrlichiosis and theileriosis. Republic of Ireland Ticks are the most important ectoparasites worldwide in veterinary science. and second is an appendix detailing the sources of the data and other reference material. notably in the temperate northern hemisphere. relatively few books have been devoted to ticks and tick-borne diseases. especially in the context of remote sensing and risk mapping. none of these publications are concerned with the very important subject of the geographical distribution of tick-borne pathogens and their vectors. Estrada-Peña et al. Disease and Control and Tick-borne Diseases of Humans by J. However. tick biologists have had to rely in the past on texts such as Ticks of North-west Europe by P. cowdriosis. the methods used for reviewing the literature and a brief account of tick xi . This topic has acquired special significance in light of the predicted effects of climate and environmental change brought about by global warming and other anthropogenic factors. Although few tick species are adapted to parasitize mankind. The main text starts with an introduction that focuses on the significance of tick-borne diseases. address current ‘hot topics’. Hillyard and Ticks of the Domestic Animals in the Mediterranean Region by A.L. applying to both the ticks and to the diseases they transmit. Several other books such as A. is now acknowledged as the most prevalent vector-borne disease. Bowman and P. Sonenshine constituting the most important recent contribution. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. though both are quite short publications and are primarily concerned with taxonomy and identification rather than distribution. University College Dublin. they are also of great significance in human medicine as vectors of zoonotic pathogens. Goodman et al. and to my knowledge no such attempt to record the distribution of tick-borne diseases in these particular geographical regions has been attempted before. For such information pertaining to Europe and the Mediterranean. the geographic scope of the work. a plethora of popular books. This monograph comes in two parts: first is the main text with descriptions and accompanying maps. and there are several published proceedings of conferences and.

while for non-EU countries the name of the administrative area given in the publication was used. in the form of maps with accompanying qualifying and illustrative comments. and control options for both ixodids and argasids. There is no question that this publication will prove to be extremely useful for all those working with ticks and tick-borne diseases in Europe and around the shores of the Mediterranean. with the exception of Ixodes persulcatus. if these were not available. animal movement – both wild and domestic. the longitude and latitude coordinates were utilized. and also includes short accounts of their life cycles. highlighting the theme of environmental and climatic change and also the renewed interest in ticks and the diseases they transmit. including the forthcoming new edition of Biology of Ticks. . The first chapter consists of an account of the factors behind the emergence and re-emergence of tick-borne diseases. the nomenclature of territorial units for statistics (NUTS) was used for EU countries. some of which have evidently been collected from host animals. MedLine and Web of Science. 12 protozoan and three viral species are considered at varying levels of detail depending on their significance. which has been stimulated by an increased awareness of tick-borne zoonoses. Chapter 7 addresses the surveillance and control of ticks and tick-borne diseases. land use. Current Contents. Most of the focus is on identification to genus level but there are notes on selected species accompanying the illustrations. as in the Caribbean. This resulted in the citation of more than 1400 papers concerning the distribution of ticks and tickborne diseases. Appendix 4 presents illustrated identification keys for the genera and species of ticks in the Mediterranean basin. The text of the book is supported by an extremely extensive appendix. an introduction to the principles of surveillance and monitoring. Journal Citation Reports. It fills an obvious gap in the tick literature and will complement the more specialized content of other recent publications. It contains original photographs of examples of the vast majority of the tick species considered in the publication. which include climate. All the important tick species that occur in northern Europe and that are mentioned in the main text are also included here. pathology and epidemiology are covered.xii Jeremy Grey identification methods. and the importation of exotic vertebrates.org/vetmedresource/) from which the distribution data were extracted. Approximately 29 bacterial species. and significance as vectors.) variegatum and Am. geographical distributions. In Chapter 3 the factors responsible for the spread and distribution of ticks are considered. and these descriptions provide useful thumbnail sketches of the species biology to put alongside their distributions. Nearly all of this (as Appendix 1) consists of tables of geographic data for individual tick-borne diseases and tick species that have been derived from the very numerous bibliographic records (Appendices 2 and 3. and it should also find a place in all institutions in this geographical region that are concerned with the surveillance and monitoring of vector-borne diseases. which are likely to become increasingly relevant to those concerned with the determination of public health policies and the implementation of control measures. Tick-borne infections are reviewed in Chapter 4. Chapter 2 describes the basic biology of a total of 25 important tick species endemic to part or all of the geographical region under consideration. which are of immense significance south of the Sahara and whose distribution may change as a result of accidental introduction. It includes a brief description of tick sampling methods. In addition there are comments on some non-endemic species such as Amblyomma (Am. which is primarily a tick of temperate Asia. Food Science and Technology Abstracts. available at http://www. and the vast majority published in English. hebraeum. It will be a useful addition to the library of every European university with a biology department. with many others addressing other topics. Finally. and within each section of this chapter topics as varied as molecular taxonomy. Chapter 6 addresses the distributions of the vector ticks in the same way. Information on the literature was extracted from PubMed and the ISI Web of Knowledge using several databases including those of CABI. The geographical distribution of tick-borne pathogens is the focus of Chapter 5. In both cases.cabi.

Miguel A. Lise Gern contributed with much help on data on tick distribution in Switzerland. Joaquim Castellà. Zati Vatansever compiled unreported reports of ticks in Turkey and produced the list of species for the country as included in the final data set. Ramón Juste. with the help of Frantísek Dusbábek and the support of the European Concerted Action on Lyme Borreliosis. xiii . Parts of the data set were compiled with records curated in the collection of the Institute of Parasitology of the Czech Republic. We want to extend our gratitude to collectors and systematists who made the creation of this data set possible. and of Dr Nely Sánchez (Veterinary Parasitologist of the Department of Animal Pathology – Parasitology – of the University of Zaragoza) during the systematic literature review. The editors and the contributors of this monograph would like to express their appreciation for the full support of EFSA for producing this monograph. Byron Papadopoulos contributed with records in Macedonia. Peter Zemman and Milan Daniel. The Netherlands). funded by the European Union and led by Frans Jongejan (University of Utrecht. and EFSA. The authors acknowledge the valuable assistance of Drs Milen Georgiev and Sofie Dhollander (Scientific Officers of the Animal Health and Animal Welfare Unit of EFSA).Acknowledgements The initial mandate for this work was conducted under the auspices of the Animal Health and Animal Welfare Panel of European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Habela. Margarida Santos Silva and Sofia Núncio for providing advice and lists of records in the collections of ticks under their charge. The data set produced for this monograph was a joint effort made possible in part by the International Consortium of Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases. We express our thanks to the people in these concerted actions who contributed with expert assistance to the compilation: Danielle de Meneghi. Thomas Jaenson’s contributions were related to his research on ticks and tick-borne infections which is funded by Carl Trygger’s Stiftelse (Norwegian Foundation) and Magnus Bergvall’s Stiftelse. Ana García-Pérez. Jean-Louis Camicas and Ali Bouattour examined earlier maps of the species reported in the Mediterranean region. John Scharlemann provided a list with records of Ixodes ricinus in the UK. We also express our thanks to Ali Bouattour. Laurence Vial.

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: Anaplasma AF: Astrakhan fever Am.: Rickettsia RF: Russian Federation Rh.: Borrelia or Babesia Bo.: Boophilus CCHF(V): Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (virus) D.: Ehrlichia EPNs: Entomopathogenic nematodes H.Abbreviations A.: Rhipicephalus T.: Amblyomma Ar.: Hyalomma I.: Theileria TBD: Tick-borne disease TBE(V): Tick-borne encephalitis (virus) TCC: Transcaucasian Countries TIBOLA: Tick-borne lymphadenopathy xv .: Hepatozoon Ha.: Haemaphysalis Hy.: Ornithodoros R.: Ixodes ISF: Israeli spotted fever ICTTD: Integrated Consortium on Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (European project) LAR: Lymphangitis-associated rickettsiosis LI(V): Louping ill (virus) MSF: Mediterranean spotted fever NUTS: Nomenclature for territorial units for statistics O.: Argas ASF(V): African swine fever (virus) B.: Dermacentor DEBONEL: Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema lymphadenopathy DEET: diethyl toluamide E.

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Some of these infections/diseases can give clinical signs which can be severe (in the acute phase) but can also present as subclinical forms (mainly in endemic areas) in animals or humans. 2005.. co-infection with different pathogens can occur in the same vertebrate animal when the same tick species transmits more than one pathogen (e.. 2005. ricinus and D. the Middle East and the Mediterranean basin. 2007). 2002. 2012. reticulatus). Several recent reports have indicated the wider spread of specific tick species as vectors in geographic areas that were not considered previously infested with these tick species (e. Tarrés-Call) xvii .g.e. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (eds M.. Furthermore. The transmission of pathogens among ticks may occur transovarially. TBD co-infections by ticks are frequent in companion animals living in endemic areas and this may often impair an appropriate aetiological diagnosis (EFSA. 2002. Gray et al.. As blood-feeding parasites. Based on recent molecular studies. for Dermacentor reticulatus. Halos et al. Nijhof et al. the pathogen is transmitted via the eggs from females to their offspring. This monograph uses the taxonomy proposed by Uilenberg (2006). i. Furthermore.. for Ixodes persulcatus. including climatic factors.Introduction 1 Mo Salman1 and Jordi Tarrés-Call2 Colorado State University. ©CAB International 2013. Jääskelainen et al. The TBDs usually are geographically distributed within the range of their vectors. Jaenson et al. The taxonomy of tick-borne pathogens is also evolving and subject to change.. Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus). USA. Stan´czak et al. Bremer et al.g. including companion animals. Parma. Hepatozoon canis. for I. or when two or more tick species infest an animal or human at the same time (Belongia. Vectorial competence is the overall ability of a vector tick species to transmit a pathogen to a range of receptive vertebrate hosts in a given location at a specific time. Italy Significance of Tick-borne Diseases The aim of this monograph is to provide a general overview of the geographical distribution of various tick species which have proven their involvement in the transmission of the pathogens causing animal diseases and zoonoses in Europe. Salman and J. and venereally during copulation from male to female tick. on the transmission of pathogens. Swanson et al. 2006). 2009. trans-stadially from larva to nymph and/or from nymph to adult. and 2European Food Safety Agency (EFSA). the taxonomy of certain tick species has been adapted accordingly. 2006. ticks are able to transmit to their hosts a wide variety of pathogens which may cause tick-borne infections and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) that affect wild and domestic animals. other reports have shown that the host range of some tick species was wider than previously known. 2007... There are limited data on vector competence for many tick species and a lack of information on the effect of environmental factors.

Lithuania. Italy. Methods Used for the Systematic Review of the Literature A systematic literature review was carried out based on the general principles of the systematic review methodology (CRD. The active databases during the search in the ISI Web of Knowledge were: • Web of Science® • Current Contents Connect® • CAB Direct • Food Science and Technology Abstracts™ • MEDLINE® • Journal Citation Reports® Additional publications within which the topics were considered relevant to the review. The eastern border of Europe (Armenia. Belgium. Luxembourg. Poland. Austria. Romania. Andorra. Spain. Switzerland. collected by one of the contributors to this monograph. Cyprus. Moldova and Ukraine.filemaker.2. Morocco. Egypt. Germany. Libya. Syria. Liechtenstein. Bosnia and Herzegovina. Belarus. Finland (including Åland Islands). Bulgaria. All data derived from these sources were collated in a relational database (using FileMaker software. Jordan. Kosovo. the following countries are also included: Algeria. and a buffer zone of some 600 km in European Russia) is also included to account for the important tick species recorded in that area which are of potential interest for Europe under future scenarios. 1222 references were considered relevant. Sweden. The geographical limitation was applied as per the rustication to countries and regions listed above. After the first screening. In addition. The doubtful references (title and abstract) were further revised by two contributors to this monograph who still found ten relevant references. Duplicate references were deleted automatically by means of a reference management systemi. and 666 non-relevant. from which the maps were created. Faroe Islands. Georgia. The Netherlands. Lebanon. Portugal. By checking the full text. see http://www. San Marino. Malta. Higgins and Green. were also considered. 2009. The title and abstract of each reference were screened following the criteria listed in Table I. Israel. were submitted by the other contributors to this monograph. These strings were applied to the title and the abstract (Table I.xviii Mo Salman and Jordi Tarrés-Call Geographic Scope The list of countries that are covered in this monograph includes the European countries (Albania. 309 doubtful. the Czech Republic. The literature review was based on scientific papers published from January 2000 to March 2010 (some of the most recent data published or generated after this monograph was initiated are not present in the maps). . Two different sets of search strings were used – one for ticks and another for tick-borne pathogens. Tunisia and Turkey. Macedonia. Slovakia. The search in ISI Web of Knowledge and in PubMed produced a list of 2197 references. the UK). Norway. These neighbouring countries were included owing to their proximity to Europe and the potential for the spread of ticks from them. Latvia. References were then checked manually and duplicates removed. Estonia. Serbia.com). Croatia. and the geographic areas covering Palestine and the Western Sahara.1) of the publications. Published validated data from the European Union Project Integrated Consortium on Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (ICTTD-3). Denmark. Ireland. Hungary. France. Greece.These papers were retrieved from the citation indexing service of ISI Web of KnowledgeSM (Thomson Reuters) and from PubMed (US National Library of Medicine). Slovenia. 2009) with the aim of gathering information about the geographical distribution of tick species and tick-borne pathogens. Montenegro. No language restrictions were set.

The full articles of the relevant references were then retrieved. The second screening of articles was performed in parallel with the data extraction by two experienced veterinary parasitologists of the Veterinary School of the University of Zaragoza (Spain). Criterion Included Excluded Concerns occurrence of a tick species or a tick-borne pathogen in the area considered Concerns a tick species with proven involvement in transmitting pathogens of animal diseases or zoonoses Contains geographic information on the distribution of the tick species or the tick-borne pathogen Yes No Yes No Yes No 43 other initially doubtful references were considered as relevant. All contributors were . one of whom is a contributor to this monograph. There were 125 scientific articles (six in English language and 119 in other languages) that were missed. The search strings for publications on ticks and tick-borne pathogens. Search terms related either to ticks or tick-borne pathogens Tick Argas OR Ornithodoros OR Dermacentor OR Haemaphysalis OR Hyalomma OR Ixodes OR Rhipicephalus OR Boophilus Tick-borne African Swine Fever virus OR ASF pathogen virus OR ASFV OR Anaplasma OR A phagocytophilum OR Ehrlichia phagocytophila OR Babesia OR Crimean Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus OR CCHF virus OR CCHFV OR Hepatozoon OR Lyme disease agent OR Borrelia OR B burgdorferi OR B garinii OR B spielmanii OR B lusitaniae OR Rickettsia OR R conorii OR Ehrlichia canis OR Borrelia hispanica OR B hispanica OR Theileria OR T parva OR T hirci OR T ovis OR T lestoquardi OR Tick borne encephalitis virus OR Louping ill virus OR TBE virus OR TBEV OR tick borne flavivirus OR TBEF OR TBEFV OR TBE group OR Francisella OR F tularensis OR Bartonella OR Q fever OR Coxiella OR African horse sickness virus OR AHSV OR tick borne orbivirus AND AND (search terms related to the geographic region) Aland OR Albania OR Andorra OR Austria OR Belgium OR Bosnia and Herzegovina OR Bulgaria OR Croatia OR Cyprus OR Czech Republic OR Denmark OR Germany OR Spain OR Estonia Distribution OR OR Faroe Islands OR Finland OR presence OR France OR Greece OR Hungary occurrence OR OR Ireland OR Italy OR Kosovo reported OR Latvia OR Liechtenstein OR Lithuania OR Luxembourg OR Macedonia OR Malta OR Montenegro OR The Netherlands OR Norway OR Poland OR Portugal OR Romania OR San Marino OR Serbia OR Slovakia OR Slovenia OR Switzerland OR Sweden OR United Kingdom OR Algeria OR Egypt OR Israel OR Jordan OR Lebanon OR Libya OR Morocco OR Syria OR Tunisia OR Turkey OR Palestine OR Western Sahara OR Armenia OR Belarus OR Georgia OR Moldova OR Ukraine OR Russia OR USSR Table I. Criteria used in the first screening for relevance of the selected references.Introduction xix Table I. but some could not be found.1.2. This produced a total of 1275 relevant references and 822 non-relevant references.

the name of the administrative region at the level of precision provided in the scientific paper. Italian. Whether molecular techniques were used to identify the tick species (yes/no). For the countries that do not have the NUTS. livestock. For non-EU countries. biological methods such as PCR) . This second screening resulted in a total of 637 scientific papers considered appropriate to be included in the review. The corresponding bibliographic reference. Location of the pathogen: NUTS for European countries. recorded as in the original paper. The tick-borne pathogen genus and species (as it appeared in the original work). Spanish. Apart from the three criteria considered in the first screening. human. The source of the tick specimen: free living (questing). Geographical coordinates if provided. Bulgarian or Dutch Original work (not a review document) Yes No Contains geographic information on the distribution Yes No of the tick species or the tick-borne pathogen Does not specify a concrete geographic location. Criteria used in the second screening for relevance. or text not in English. locations were recorded by the name provided in the original report. molecular. the contributors were asked to also consider the secondary criteria listed in Table I.3. pet. German. Italian. in order to No Yes protect the privacy of personal data.xx Mo Salman and Jordi Tarrés-Call consulted when doubts arose. No Yes Rather refers it to the entire country Concerns a prompt importation of a tick species that No Yes does not reach sufficient epidemiological threshold for its establishment in the specified location Case reports of human infections that. Location of the tick species: based on the nomenclature of territorial units for statistics (NUTS) for the EU (European Union) countries. Table I. Hungarian. serology. provide the address of a reference hospital instead of the residence of the infected patient Tick identification is unequivocal and appropriate Yes No The diagnostic method for the tick-borne pathogen Yes No is appropriate (serology.3. Data were extracted to an Excel spreadsheet containing the following fields: • • • • • • • • Tick genus and species. wildlife (taxonomic order of the host). German. French. Diagnostic/identification method of the pathogen: isolation. at the equivalent level of geographical precision. French. These are listed in Appendix 2. Criterion Language publication Included Excluded English abstract and text Abstract not available available in English. Spanish. Bulgarian or Dutch Hungarian. sorted by the identification number of the reference. The coordinates (latitude/longitude) were recorded if given in the article. isolation.

not the species identification. Including the Most Recent Advanced Techniques and their Limitations Identification of ticks can be based on different criteria. and Appendix 4 contains identification keys for the morphological identification of hard and soft ticks in the Mediterranean basin. seasonality. Literature was retrieved mainly in the English language. and of Hyalomma (Hy. Limitations This monograph addresses data on the distribution of ticks and TBDs in Europe and the Mediterranean basin that were retrieved from existing literature and technical reports. in the case of the changes of Boophilus microplus to Rhipicephalus (Rh. however. with only limited inclusion of other languages. marginatum.1 describes these morphological terms.) marginatum marginatum to Hy. such as the change of Haemaphysalis (Ha.5 show how these morphological characteristics are present in hard and soft ticks. Cases were only reported from the literature without consideration of other sources that may be available through other means of searching. shape. Morphology can be the only criterion in some occasions but. are limited as a result of the following issues: • • • • • The presence of pathogens was based on antigen detection assays without consideration of serological evidence. Identification Methods for Tick Species.Introduction • • xxi Source of the sample (pathogen): livestock. The maps have not been updated since March 2010. . although it must be stressed that the ‘conventional’ identification was in many cases able to identify the different tick entities. For instance. the identification changed owing to tick physical appearance and not because of molecular characteristics. A more detailed description of the systematic literature review process is given in EFSA (2010). pet. in a more holistic approach. The colour plate section contains photographs of some hard and soft tick species involved in the transmission of animal diseases and zoonoses. elliptica in South Africa. the search may have missed some publications. respectively. size and the patterns of the scutum.) microplus. Figure I. tick. Morphological identification is based on: presence/absence of eyes. In other situations. The report’s findings. the presence of anal plates. it was only the name that changed. The taxonomy of ticks is not exempt from complications. Although intended to be comprehensive in the literature search strings. The corresponding bibliographic reference. and other criteria. predilection sites. ornamentation on the legs and scutum. Identification of tick species requires extensive experience with the subject over many species. There are problems of morphological identification and sympatric tick speciation.) leachi to Ha. and Tables I. so some of the most recent data published or generated after the completion of this monograph are not included.4 and I. wildlife (taxonomic order of the host). geographical occurrence. and other unique characteristics. identification may be based on host species. human. Molecular biology has reshuffled many names at both species and genus level.

from Walker et al.xxii Mo Salman and Jordi Tarrés-Call External structure of adult argasid ticks (the example is Ornithodoros) claws mouthparts four pairs of legs genital aperture mammillated texture spiracle anus DORSAL VIEW VENTRAL VIEW External structure of adult ixodid ticks (the example is Hyalomma) four pairs of legs conscutum palp scutum basis capituli alloscutum festoons MALE.1. VENTRAL VIEW MALE. Thomson. I. 2003. VENTRAL VIEW Fig.endnote. DORSAL VIEW FEMALE.0. http://www.. Note i EndNote X1. Main anatomical characteristics and terms used to describe the morphology of adult hard ticks.com . DORSAL VIEW pulvillus hypostome claw coxa I genital aperture genital aperture coxa IV spiracle anal groove anus ventral plates FEMALE.1 [Bld 2682].

Generic distinguishing morphological features of different genera of hard ticks. on some No No Posterior.3 cm) (0.9 cm) (0. Introduction Eyes Festoons Adanal plates Sub-anal plates Anal groove Rhipicephalus Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) Ixodes . chaliceshaped No Absent No Yes Yes Yes No. Anterior. (0.5– 0.5–1.3 cm) (0.5– total 0.6 cm) (0.8 cm) length) Mouthparts Long Basis capituli Ornate Caudal process Dermacentor Haemaphysalis Amblyomma Aponomma * Rhipicentor * (Amblyomma) Margaropus* Medium Small Small Medium-large Small Very large Medium (0.2–0.1–0. semicircular chaliceshaped No No No Coxae I Coxae IV Bifid Legs Banded Hexagonal Large. chaliceshaped No Posterior. but they may be imported in the future.4. enlarged segments in males xxiii (*) These genera are currently not present in European member states. Posterior. bifid Very large.5 cm) Large (0. chaliceshaped Present in some species Bifid Posterior.3–0. chaliceshaped No Posterior.3– 0. with spurs Banded Banded. pilose posterior margin Large.4–0. except for 4 species Yes Yes Yes With ventral auriculae No Yes No Yes No No No Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes No No No No No Yes Yes None. vertical line semicircular chaliceor U-shaped shaped Yes.3 cm) (0.1–0. Feature Hyalomma Size (unfed Large adults. Posterior.6 cm) Small (0. or very small No Posterior.0 cm) (0.Table I.1– 0. bifid Very large Grouped anteriorly Banded Yes.3 cm) Short to medium Hexagonal Long Very short Very short Long Medium Short Very long Medium Hexagonal Rectangular Rectangular Yes No Yes No Some species No Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes No Yes No No No Posterior.

H.L. F.com/ content/5/1/8 (accessed 22 June 2012). A.. and Vapalahti. International Journal of Medical Microbiology 291(Supplement 33).. and Vayssier-Taussat.. Ewing. S. Kruminis-Lozowska. D. Vectorborne and Zoonotic Diseases 7. 198–201.. A. P.2 (updated September 2009).. Swanson S. (eds) (2009) Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5. Petersson. Nijhof.G. and Jongejan.G.T. J. 585–595. Tikkakoski. Jebbink. J.... 1–102. A. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases 2009.. T. Estrada-Peña. Vaheri.060320 (accessed 22 June 2012). Walker.org/10.E. and Preston. R. Gray. Menach... O. Available at: http://www.L. UK. I. Racewicz. EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW) (2010) Scientific opinion on the role of tick vectors in the epidemiology of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever and African swine fever in Eurasia. Y.. Alekseev.... EFSA Journal 8(8): 1703.xxiv Mo Salman and Jordi Tarrés-Call Table I. B. Feature Argas Ornithodoros Body Presence of suture (differentiated tegumental tissue between dorsal and ventral surface) Presence of cuticle extensions rounded hook-like cones shaped Eyes Tegument Discs of tegument Flattened No Thick Yes No Yes No Granular Usually in radial rows Yes Squamous Not in radial rows References Belongia E. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 2. W..M.. S.G. CRD (2009) Systematic Reviews. 1–12.M. Veterinary Research 36. Jääskeläinen.. Jamal. 265–273. Postigo.G.A. A. (2012) Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden. M.R. D. (2006) Coinfections acquired from Ixodes ticks. and Lindgren. A. Babesia – a historical overview. E. Clinical Microbiological Reviews 19. and Belongia. E. M.T. Opsteegh.-L. W. (2006).J. A. T..... January 2009. (2002) Epidemiology and impact of coinfections acquired from Ixodes ticks.. Article ID 593232. Bioscience Reports. Moore. Jittapalapong. and Lindgren. E.A. Emerging Infectious Diseases 12.W. EFSA Journal 469. Veterinary Parasitology 131.0. University of York..A. Halos. Jaenson. Franssen. L. 95–105. L. A. (2003) Ticks of Domestic Animals in Africa: A Guide to Identification of Species.P. F. A. (2009) Effects of climate change on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Europe.D. and Green.. (2002) Coinfection of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in northern Poland with the agents of Lyme borreliosis (LB) and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE). 8... Rikihisa. Camicas. Bremer. M. Pegram. A.Y.R. G.E. and Kubica-Biernat. Wagner. Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Dautel. Higgins. and Malta as a consequence of abandoning the national rule... Nieuwenhuijs. Maillard. D.1186/1756-3305-5-8. G.. Neitzel.. The Cochrane Collaboration. Bouattour. 79–87. Jaenson. Oxford. (2007) Ticks and associated pathogens collected from domestic animals in the Netherlands. 708–727. (2005) Evidence of Bartonella sp. H..parasitesandvectors. CRD’s Guidance for Undertaking Reviews in Health Care. Edinburgh. Uzcátegui. A. E. Finland.S.. J. E. 3–10. J. Bodaan.G.5. Parasites and Vectors 5. UK. 10. L. Veterinary Parasitology 138. Ireland. Beugnet. Stan´czak.N. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) (2007) Opinion of the Scientific Panel on AHAW on a request from the European Commission on the risk of tick introduction into the UK. C.. and Stich R. Boulouis..3201/eid1210. in questing adult and nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks from France and co-infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Babesia sp. R. (2005) Transstadial and intrastadial experimental transmission of Ehrlichia canis by male Rhipicephalus sanguineus.. The University of Edinburgh. M. (2006) Siberian subtype tickborne encephalitis virus. doi:10.doi. F.J. N. Estrada Peña. A.. Eisen. T.. UK.R. Schaefer. Kahl. Reed K. Uilenberg. S. Horak. Needham. Generic distinguishing morphological features of different genera of soft ticks. Latif. . Available at: http:// dx.A. J. H.J.

and 2University of Zaragoza. Salman and J. Spain Ticks are arthropods and therefore they are susceptible to changes in climate. it will probably also generate a higher level of evaporation.. their pathogens and the interface between animals and humans. The different life stages of the tick are sensitive to temperature. These changes have been attributed to climate because permanent populations of I. Nevertheless. the fragmentation of a forest into smaller patches of vegetation surrounded by a matrix of nonhabitat landscape may deeply affect the behaviour of the hosts. The effect of temperature and desiccation are dependent upon the preferences of the species. Climatic and other factors also have an interactive effect on the survivability and spread of ticks and their infections in host populations. not always better for the overall performance of the tick population. but are probably not so disastrous for species living in Mediterranean conditions. and this might have profound consequences for the life cycle of the ticks. i. This effect is hazardous for tick survival. but also to subtle and continuous trends of changes in the vegetation. It is now evident that some tick species are spreading in parts of the world that were not previously considered to be favourable areas for ticks. For example. On completion of their life cycles. Tarrés-Call) 1 . For example. climate may account for their changes in distribution. ticks are also sensitive to the availability of hosts and to several other factors related to the surrounding landscape. Ixodes ricinus has spread in parts of Scandinavia as well as in the mountain ranges of the Czech Republic (Daniel et al. limited variations in temperature may have serious consequences for populations of ticks that colonize cold and wet environments in the forests of northern Europe. although in some parts of their range. A higher temperature is. For instance. landscape features and social habits. USA. as ticks are sensitive to desiccation. ricinus are now detected in northern areas of Sweden ©CAB International 2013. therefore. While a higher temperature will result in a faster completion of a given stage. they occur faster if a temperature near the optimum for that stage is available in the very few centimetres above the ground.e. These changes are leading to new areas of contact between ticks. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (eds M. this issue is not as simple as it appears. 2003).1 Emerging (Re-emerging) Tick-borne Infections and the Dissemination of Ticks 1 Mo Salman1 and Agustín Estrada-Peña2 Colorado State University. The reason for this spread is not only due to the effects of climate change. No unique pattern can explain the spread of the ticks and of the pathogens that they transmit. so small changes in the prevailing environment may have important consequences for the overall impact of ticks and tick-borne infections in surrounding areas. All stages of the life cycle of ticks are associated with vegetation. for which a high seasonal variability of climatic characteristics is the norm.

(2009). While there are no adequate figures available on the importance of this disease in the countries of the European Union (as it is not a compulsorily reportable disease) it is estimated to be the most widespread infection transmitted by ticks in Europe (Rizzoli et al. needed to understand the actual significant factors. the Near East and parts of Europe (Ergönül. 2006). birds and lizards.l. 1998) and colonize a higher altitude range in the mountains. as well as in the African steppes. the incidence of TBE is not directly related to the abundance of tick vectors. 2006). 2011). Studies have hypothesized that the re-emergence of the disease is based on a series of factors that interact. ricinus is the main vector in the Palaearctic region for the prominent pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s. ricinus is related not only to parasitism by this tick species of both humans and animals. CCHF is an important disease that is prevalent over wide areas of Africa. Although the ecological determinants of the spread of TBEV have been ignored. The disease was first diagnosed around the middle 1940s in the Crimea and then in the Congo. and the outbreak seems to be independent of climatic causes. I. An assessment of the effects of climate on the presence of human CCHF clinical cases in Turkey was carried out by Estrada-Peña et al. Lyme disease is also dependent upon a combination of reservoirs. As for other tick-borne diseases. It has not been reported in the Americas and Australia because of the absence of the main vectors. ricinus and cases of Lyme disease (or the presence of the pathogen in the tick vector). while there is a direct relationship between the presence of I. I. which are necessary for the maintenance of the pathogen population. ricinus would also be of great importance in providing an additional tool to understand the patterns of disease. CCHF has not yet been diagnosed in sites or countries outside its main distribution area for 60 years.l. however. infection by the Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus (CCHFV) has gained much attention as a result of several serious outbreaks. climate trends have been commonly linked to clinical cases of CCHF. Ticks are highly sensitive to small changes in climate. A framework linking the response of the tick to subtle climatic variations is. 2011). necessary to further evaluate how these factors may evolve. Asia. Other authors have speculated on different theories to explain the presence of a given disease reservoir as the shape of the area where the infection is present or have evaluated the importance of a given climate pattern and its impact on the life cycle of ticks (Rogers and Randolph. Other studies have confirmed the probable northward spread of the tick vector and of the risk of contracting Lyme disease in Scandinavia (Jaenson and Lindgren. The study concluded that climate was not different between . 2011). however. which causes tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in humans. ricinus is also the only known vector in Europe for tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). and long-term. and that the prevalence rates of B. In the last few years though. However. The analysis included monthly data for several climate factors. which are most prevalent in a Mediterranean-type environment. which are obviously dependent upon a combination of climate factors. It is. the map of reported cases of the disease has changed over the last few years. A recent paper suggested that this pathogen is present everywhere that the tick vector is. The pathogen is mainly transmitted by the bite of ticks of the genus Hyalomma (and especially by Hyalomma marginatum). this disease has re-emerged in Turkey. and how the areas where the infection is predicted to exist associate with the actual distribution of reported cases of the disease (or the records of the pathogen). ricinus may be predicted by some features of vegetation. infection are directly dependent upon a combination of features of climate and vegetation (Estrada-Peña et al. with more than 3000 cases. 2006).2 Mo Salman and Agustín Estrada-Peña (Talleklint and Jaenson. sustained and small differences in key climatic factors may drive a serious change.. mainly an abundance of ticks created by social influences and an increased availability of hosts (Ergönül. In the last few years. burgdorferi s.). the aetiological agent of Lyme disease.. but also to its associated pathogens and to infection of its hosts by these pathogens. A process-driven model for the life cycle of the tick I. such as rodents. The impact of this wide spread of I. and that the northern limit of I.

It also leads to the occurrence of isolated 3 amplification foci. Species composition changes within these fragmented and smaller isolated patches. and the lack of concordance between the groups of data clarified. smaller parts of South America. where new cases could appear in the reasonably near future. however.. 2009). 2011). Because these host populations are relatively isolated. and that high IgG seroprevalence in humans indicates an . and are currently. 2011). evidence that a fragmented landscape. they require a vertebrate host to move over significant distances. as was hypothesized by Karti et al. ticks infected with an ‘imported’ virus strain (or by a new. Climate is not the sole factor driving the virus amplification. Even though climatic characteristics may be consistent with sites where the disease has been reported. Research on the epidemiology of the CCHF infection in Turkey has focused on the region of Anatolia in north-central Turkey. the degree of habitat patchiness contributes to the increased contact rate among reservoir hosts. However. producing an amplification cycle whereby ticks feed on infected hosts (Estrada-Peña et al.. Efforts to link occurrence of the disease solely to an array of climate conditions in sites where Hyalomma ticks are absent (Randolph and Rogers. Bold statements such as the ‘probability of hospitable climates not only extended to Spain. These aspects of the disease have never been studied for CCHF. free of the infection.g. 2009). The role of the tick vectors needs therefore to be carefully evaluated under both laboratory and field conditions.. therefore. (2004). 2010) are unreliable without further knowledge of the system. based solely on climate factors.Emerging Tick-borne Infections and Dissemination sites with active foci of the infection and sites where Hyalomma marginatum is common but human cases are not reported. For CCHFV eco-epidemiology. even if climate in the autumn/winter may have a strong regulating role on the survival of tick populations (Hoogstraal. with consequently higher tick exposure to humans (Estrada-Peña et al. but even in large parts of North America. Although Hyalomma ticks can move horizontally. adequate vectors for CCHFV are known to be absent in the New World and Australia. the immune response of such isolated populations against the ticks and the pathogen may seriously decrease the population of infected ticks. The study also concluded that it is not possible to predict. and Australia’ (Maltezou and Pappa. i. with many small patches existing within a matrix of unsuitable tick habitat. humans and ticks. Isolated fragments surrounded by a matrix of agricultural land commonly have the poorest diversity of mammals. Pires et al. so the impact of a warmer climate seems to be not the only factor determining the occurrence of the disease. Claims. There is.. may lead to isolated populations of both ticks and hosts. Italy.. 2007) may be unrealistic. 2007. 1979). The detection of CCHFV IgM positivity and an elevated proportion of IgG seropositivity indicated that the genetic variants Europe 1 (the clade in which viral strains from Anatolia are included) and Europe 2 are very active in the region. that a warmer climate influences the presence or absence of the infection (Purnak et al. there are few local movements of hosts and therefore new ‘naive’ animals carrying uninfected ticks do not dilute the prevalence rates in the isolated patch. due to the high incidence of the disease in this area. and each species differs in its ability to cross the matrix between fragments (e. Lira et al. Forero-Medina and Vieira. and northern African countries across the Mediterranean Sea. The first clinical case of CCHF in the Thrace region (in north-western Turkey) was noticed in 2007 (Midilli et al. It is noteworthy that Hyalomma endemic areas with the mildest autumns and winters in the Mediterranean basin have historically been. Findings from a serosurvey on 193 human samples from three localities showed that anti-CCHFV IgM and IgG positivity rates were compatible with an epidemiological situation in which the virus has been present for a long time and is not the result of a recent invasive event from the main epidemic centre in Anatolia (Gargili et al. 2002.e. 2009). more infective genetic variant of the virus) spreading from central Anatolia to other regions of Turkey... It is unlikely that the recent epidemic of CCHF in Turkey is caused by a spreading wave of infected ticks through the movement of hosts. 2007) are unsupported when climate series are examined and compared.

while for the remaining months it is used either for chickpea/vetch production or is left fallow. (2009) Phylogeographic analysis reveals association of tick-borne pathogen. Estrada-Peña. Anaplasma marginale. F. Rollin.K.G.G. Ovali. Karti.C. References Daniel. Ozturk. R. Conditions have existed for continued cycles of amplification. Journal of Tropical Ecology 25.S..S.K. A. H.. Jaenson. I. and Vieira.A... Fernandez. and Estrada-Peña. E. 747–752. Acevedo-Whitehouse.S.V. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Disease 22. N. Forero-Medina. and thus isolated amplification systems. (2011) A population model to describe the distribution and seasonal dynamics of the tick Hyalomma marginatum in the Mediterranean Basin.L.. A. All this discussion highlights the variable impact of different biotic and abiotic factors in the delineation of the foci of pathogens transmitted by ticks. Caylan. these conditions are not the final step in a chain of recent climate trends. These figures support the idea that the infection had been present in Turkey for a long time before the epidemic reports. and Papa.J. Korten. S.. (2004) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Turkey.. Journal of Medical Entomology 15. 90.. A. whatever the factors behind it. and in a given village land is used for wheat production during half of the year. Fernandez.. Carlos.. H. S. O. A.. H. and Lindgren. Jirsa.. and Bakar.. 229–237. Land use practices are also important..S. has been observed simultaneously in distant regions of Turkey in only 2–4 years. Kocan. 213–223.... V. J. Pires.. Z.. Nichol.. While landscape patchiness.. Ergönül. where it is not the result of a moving wave of infected ticks feeding on hosts either. (2006) Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever. 427–435.. M. Such an epidemic threshold. Altas. (2009) The first clinical case due to AP92 like strain of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and a field survey. (2009) Perception of a fragmented landscape by neotropical marsupials: effects of body mass and environmental variables. G.. P. Vincent.4 Mo Salman and Agustín Estrada-Peña active immune protection (Gargili et al. P. G.. Emerging Infectious Diseases 19.. (2007) Use of a fragmented landscape by three species of opossum in south-eastern Brazil.J. Ticks and Tick Borne Diseases 2. C.A. V. Odabasi. Lira. (2002) Frequency of movements of small mammals among Atlantic coastal forest fragments in Brazil. M. (2011) The range of Ixodes ricinus and the risk of contracting Lyme borreliosis will increase northwards when the vegetation period becomes longer.. and efforts are actively being made to evaluate the main forces that make up such an intrinsically complex epidemiology. (1979) The epidemiology of tick-borne Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Asia. Koksal. B. F. Ergonul. K. The following year the land use is rotated. H. Sengöz.E. Mangold. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 11. Schittini. Erickson. K. Vatansever. Ergönül. Maltezou. Midilli... Martinez-Aviles. E. A. P. (2010) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: risk for emergence of new endemic foci in Europe? Travel Medicine and Infectious Diseases 8. and Munoz-Reoyo... A. Hoogstraal.M. R. P. (2011) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in European part of Turkey: genetic analysis of the virus strains from ticks and a seroepidemiological study in humans..A. BMC Biology 7..G.. Gargili. M... 1379–1384. M.A. Turan. BMC Infectious Diseases 9. and de la Fuente. Kriz. Naranjo. G. 2011). However. 203–214. V. Danielova. A. Cerit. 139–143. M. (2003) Shift of the tick Ixodes ricinus and tick-borne encephalitis to higher altitudes in central Europe. with the epidemic threshold only recently being reached. seems to be behind the proximal causes of the epidemic. Lira. O. 44–49. Journal of Tropical Ecology 23. Ergin. and Ksiazek. A. Z. J.C. G.J. and Curzio.. E.T. M. N. the factors driving the enzootic amplification cycle in Turkey remain unknown. T. Akdogan. Yilmaz. 57. 53–62. Midilli. 327–328. Ergin.. Sonmez. K. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 6. M.. T.. M. Europe and Africa. Elevli. the agriculture in CCHF areas is based on crop rotation and land fallowing. MSP1a sequences with ecological traits affecting tick vector performance. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 58. The shifting nature of these foci is far from being fully recognized. S.. Eren. L. M. S. and Nozicka J. Biological Conservation 108. Comer.R. Yilmaz. Alp. . K... Ö.. Iyisan. Estrada-Peña. A.. Gargili. K. and Oliveira.M. S. B. 307–417.

C. H. 3–13... In: Ergonul. (2011) Lyme borreliosis in Europe. Vourc’h. and Randolph. (eds) Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever. Medical Hypotheses 68. Journal of Medical Entomology 35. and Rosà. and Altundag. 521–526.A.E.G. R. A.E. 345–381. D. pp. T. Talleklint. Hauffe. pii=19906. S. and Rogers. (1998) Increasing geographical distribution and density of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Central and Northern Sweden. N.Emerging Tick-borne Infections and Dissemination 5 Purnak T. G. Rizzoli.. M.C. (2007) Global warming may increase the incidence and geographic range of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Neteler. D. K. Randolph. and Jaenson. Rogers.. Selvi. . Carpi. L. The Netherlands. Advances in Parasitology 62. (2007) Ecology of tick-borne disease and the role of climate. O. 924–925. Springer. (2006) Climate change and vector-borne diseases. S. G. and Whitehouse..I.J.A.T. Dordrecht. A Global Perspective. Eurosurveillance 16(27).

1 Soft Ticks (Argasidae) Argasid ticks. sun spiders or solpugids). whereas the larva has six legs like adult insects. Agustín Estrada-Peña.2. 2University of Zaragoza. Salman and J.3 Ilaria Pascucci4 and Maxime Madder5 1 Szent István University. 2. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (eds M. include about 180 species of four genera: Argas. Ricinulei (ricinuleids).1. In common with most arachnids.3.2 below) (Barker and Murrell. There are three families of ticks comprising a total of at least 907 species of ticks: (i) Nutalliellidae.1. Ornithodoros. Amblypygi (tailless whip scorpions). but the mouthparts and the basis capituli form the capitulum. 4Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e del Molise “G. and Maxime Madder supplied the colour plates of different tick species that are cited in the text.2. Belgium and University of Pretoria. Sections 2. Thelyphonida (whiptailed scorpions or uropygids). Ticks can be easily distinguished from adult insects because the tick’s body is not divided into three sections. Jaenson. Palpigradi (micro whip scorpions). 1988). Sections 2. with 720 species considered to have valid genus and species names (Section 2. Including Zoonoses* Róbert Farkas.2 (Introduction).2.2.2. Nutalliella namaqua. known as soft ticks. and 5Institute of Tropical Medicine. Italy.2 Thomas G. Spain.2. the adult tick and the nymph have eight legs. Hungary. Antwerp. Opiliones (harvestmen or daddy-long-legs). 3Uppsala University.1 Agustín Estrada-Peña. 2. All nymphal and adult ticks have a pair of spiracles located latero-ventrally on the abdomen.1 (Introduction). ticks are mites but not all mites are ticks (Woolley. soft-bodied or soft ticks. hard-bodied or hard ticks.2. Jaenson. The tick has no distinct head. Teramo. Ilaria Pascucci. (ii) Argasidae. 2.4.1.2 Basic Biology and Geographical Distribution of Tick Species Involved in the Transmission of Animal Pathogens. 2. Scorpionida (scorpions). with 186 species (Section 2. Caporale”. 6 ©CAB International 2013. Depending on the species.1 below). Araneae (spiders). Budapest. Otobius and Carios (Klompen * Róbert Farkas wrote Sections 2. and (iii) Ixodidae. Thomas G.T. The Ixodida (ticks) is one of several taxa that constitute the subclass Acari (mites). introduction of Chapter 2 Sections 2. Tarrés-Call) . 2. South Africa The class Arachnida falls within the phylum Arthropoda (arthropods) and encompasses the following taxa: Acari (ticks and mites). with a single species.T. 2. a pair of simple eyes may be present.5. 2008).2.6.1. rather there is strong fusion of the body segments giving the tick body a sac-like appearance. 2. Sweden. Pseudoscorpiones (book scorpions) and Solifugae (camel spiders. Hence.

2010a). on insectivorous mammals other than bats. It should be noted that argasid ticks in general are xerophilic arthropods. However. the gnathosoma (mouth and feeding parts) is not visible from the dorsal view. the feeding of nymphs and adults usually lasts 1 hour or less. and caves. pigeon lofts. In the argasids. 1985) which seem of little economic interest for domestic animals. Fewer species live in temperate areas and very few inhabit arctic climates. mating usually occurs off the host. and they mate in the environment. individual species have varying degrees of tolerance to humidity. 1985). which is effective in preventing water loss. after seeking and attaching to a host. In contrast to hard ticks.1 Genus Argas Argas species are about 5–10 mm long and 3–6 mm wide. Soft ticks often live for many years. at the present time they 7 are apparently of less importance in Europe than are the ixodid ticks. The ticks have a flattened body margin. The life cycles vary greatly between the Ixodidae and the Argasidae. The females lay batches of 20–100 eggs in hidden places after each blood meal.1. Females take repeated small blood meals and lay small batches of eggs (50–500) in places where they seek shelter (e.g. they then drop to the ground to moult into a nymph. A variety of argasids occur throughout most of the tropics and subtropics of the world. In contrast to the slow-feeding hard ticks. As many as six gonotrophic cycles have been reported in some species. animal burrows or dens. to a lesser extent. and when they extend into humid areas they tend to select drier niches where hard ticks would not survive. feed for 3–8 days. Argasid ticks have a considerable economic and medical impact in many parts of the world. when present. However. occur on folds lateral to the coxae. The many small integumental folds usually have a button-like appearance. being located ventrally. The Argasidae attain their greatest abundance in dry regions. leathery cuticle with a textured surface that may be marked with grooves or folds. although some species are found on reptiles and. and is transmitted by Ornithodoros erraticus (EFSA Panel on Health and Welfare. Argas larvae attach to hosts and feed for about a week. located between the coxae of legs III and IV. These nymphal stages occur off the host in cracks or crevices. They are also highly resistant to starvation. These soft ticks are nocturnal and endophilic. but after a blood meal they appear slate grey. A few studies exist about those pathogens. This virus has produced several epidemics in Spain and Portugal. within this range. which can extend their longevity even further (Hoogstraal. This behaviour is related to their leathery cuticle. The unfed adults are yellowish. the cracks and crevices that they use seldom have a significantly high relative humidity. each of which must have a blood meal once before moulting to the next stage. In general. There is little sexual dimorphism. The six-legged larvae hatch in 1–4 weeks and. Members of this genus are most commonly associated with birds and bats. 1993). The eggs hatch in about 2–3 weeks. The mouthparts are on the ventral surface of the body and small. The body of an argasid tick has an unsclerotized. The soft ticks are vectors of a large number of poorly known viruses (Hoogstraal. they are oval shaped and dorsoventrally flattened. or beneath debris in or near the nest and burrows. There are usually two nymphal stages. In nymphs and adults.Biology and Distribution of Tick Vectors and Olivier. The cuticle is leathery and wrinkled with definite margins that can be seen even when the tick is engorged. They then drop off and moult to the first nymphal stage. Although in localities of extremely low relative humidity argasids may seek a somewhat more humid microhabitat. they live in close proximity to their hosts: in the nests of birds. are relatively small and inconspicuous. The spiracular plates. Most argasids have two or more (six or even seven in some species) nymphal stages in their life cycle. 2. perhaps the most prominent pathogen transmitted by a soft tick in the Mediterranean basin is the African swine fever (ASF) virus (ASFV). Like adults. each eight-legged nymph . cracks and crevices) after each feeding. Eyes.

8

Róbert Farkas et al.

instar is nocturnal; they feed at night and
moult in cracks and crevices to the next nymphal stage and, finally, to the adult male or
female. The life cycle from eggs to adults
takes about a month or longer. The adults can
live up to 2 years or more without a blood
meal. The larvae and nymphs may survive
for a few months. The larvae and first
nymphal stage are most active in early summer, the other nymphal stages in midsummer, and the adults in late summer and
autumn. They overwinter in the adult stage
or as eggs. Three species of Argas have been
commonly reported in Europe, namely Argas
(Ar.) persicus, Ar. reflexus and Ar. polonicus.
Argas persicus
The fowl or chicken tick, Ar. persicus, has
spread widely in most parts of the world.
These ticks construct large, numerous, and
fairly permanent nests in the vicinity of
human activity. All stages congregate on
walls, in crevices or between the boards of
poultry houses. Populations of the species
can reach enormous numbers in poultry
houses, causing irritation, loss of egg production, even high mortality because of anaemia.
It is reported that larvae of Ar. persicus can
cause fatal paralysis in young chickens.
Occasionally, they parasitize small mammals
and reptiles, but seldom humans. Adults feed
once per month for about 2 h, but can survive
for up to 4–5 years unfed. Ar. persicus may be
the vector of the rickettsial agent Aegyptianella
pullorum, and it is a vector of Borrelia anserina,
the agent of fowl spirochaetosis in the
Mediterranean region. The colour plate section contains two images (dorsal and ventral)
of an adult male of Ar. persicus (Plate 1a,b).
Argas reflexus
Ar. reflexus, the European pigeon tick, originates from the Mediterranean/Near East and
can be distinguished from Ar. persicus by its
body margin. The host of Ar. reflexus is the
wild rock pigeon, Columba livia, and its various domesticated forms, as well as feral town
pigeons, C. livia var. domestica (Hoogstraal,
1956). Ar. reflexus lives in several European
countries up to about 55°N (Dautel et al., 1991).

In central Europe, Ar. reflexus occurs only in
or at buildings serving as pigeon breeding
sites where there are microclimatically elevated temperatures, especially in summer
and autumn but not necessarily in winter.
Such conditions are necessary for the completion of the embryonic development. The
life cycle appears to be much like that of Ar.
persicus. All nymphal stages as well as the
adults are nocturnal feeders taking blood
from sleeping pigeons. Feeding is for up to
12 h and, therefore, post-larval stages might
not have the opportunity to be transported
to distant habitats. Heavy infestations of
pigeons may cause death as a result of severe
anaemia.
Ar. reflexus has a relatively long minimum generation time of 2–4 years (Dautel
and Knülle, 1997). Hiding places of these soft
ticks are easily found in the cracks and crevices of pigeon cotes. German scientists (Dautel
et al., 1994) investigated the seasonal activities of this soft tick species in Berlin. They
reported that activities of all post-embryonic
stages peaked from March through to early
June, irrespective of whether or not hosts
were available to the ticks. The immature
stages displayed another peak of activity in
late summer/autumn. The only survey thus
far for pigeon ticks was also performed in the
city of Berlin, where more than 200 infested
buildings were discovered between 1989 and
1998. Most of the infestations were found in
older buildings constructed before 1918
(Dautel et al., 1999). Domestic chickens are
apparently considerably less liable to be
attacked by Ar. reflexus than are pigeons. In
the laboratory, any available mammal may
serve as host. Although the European pigeon
tick is nearly always associated with pigeons,
the exigencies of its domestic existence drive
it to attack humans, possibly more frequently
than does Ar. persicus (Rolla et al., 2004;
Spiewak et al., 2006). There have been a
number of reports describing human cases of
a specific anti-Ar. reflexus allergy (Chappard
et al., 1996; Veraldi, 1996; Kleine-Tebbe et al.,
2006). Allergy to Ar. reflexus has to be considered in patients having allergy symptoms
and living in buildings where pigeons have
their nests. Severe systemic anaphylactic
reactions (urticaria, angiooedema, dyspnoea,

Biology and Distribution of Tick Vectors

cardiovascular dysregulation, unconsciousness) were reported in 12 of 148 (8%) humans
after bites of the soft tick Ar. reflexus and 146
of 148 (99%) had local reactions (Kliene-Tebbe
et al., 2006). Man is frequently attacked, especially in the vicinity of long unoccupied
pigeon sites. The pigeon tick can withstand
long periods of starvation; it may remain
unfed in or near pigeon houses for many
months, or even for several years. This species can also be the vector of B. anserina. There
is no evidence that Ar. reflexus transmits pathogens to humans in central Europe. The colour plate section contains two photographs
(dorsal and ventral) of an adult male of
Ar. reflexus (Plate 2a,b).
Argas polonicus
Ar. polonicus is a poorly known species that
seems to be restricted to domestic and wild
pigeons. It has been largely confused with a

9

related species, Ar. vulgaris, and it differs distinctly from Ar. reflexus (Siuda et al., 1979).
Phenotypic (involving the use of cuticular
hydrocarbons) and genetic analysis also
showed that the two species are different
(Estrada-Peña and Dusbabek, 1992).
2.1.2

Genus Ornithodoros

The soft tick species within the genus
Ornithodoros are able to transmit ASFV. All
Ornithodoros species tested up to the present
have been proved to be competent vectors
for ASFV (Table 2.1). Some of these belong
to the taxonomic group of O. erraticus, a
group of species distributed mainly in the
Mediterranean basin and Middle East, including Transcaucasia and parts of Russia
(Morel, 1969). Sánchez-Botija (1963) demonstrated that O. erraticus found in pig sites
can be a vector of ASFV in Europe, while

Table 2.1. Laboratory and field studies on Ornithodoros species to determine their vectorial capacity for
African swine fever virus (ASFV) (EFSA, 2010a,b).
Virus presence
(max. period
post infection)

Species

Region

O. coriaceus

North
502 days
America

O. turicata

North
America
O. puertoricensis North
America
O. parkeri
North
America
O. savignyi
Africa
O. moubata

Africa

O. erraticus/
Europe
O. marocanus

Virus transmissiona
Transstadialb Transovarial Sexual To pigs

References

+ (4)

ND

23 days

NDd

ND

ND

+ 502 dpic Hess et al., 1987;
Endris and
Hess, 1994
+ 23 dpi

239 days

ND

+

ND

+ 239 dpi

70 days

+ (1)

ND

ND

106 days

+ (1)

ND

3 years

+ (5)

+

+

5 years

+ (5)

+


+ 106 dpi

Mellor and
Wilkinson,
1985
+ 3 years Kleiboeker et al.,
1998, 1999;
Plowright,
1977; Plowright et al.,
1970a,b, 1974,
1994; Rennie
et al., 2001
+ 588 dpi Hess et al.,
1989; Endris
et al., 1992;
Boinas, 1994

a
Only the maximum lengths of time for virus presence and transmission to pigs, or horizontal or vertical transmission
among tick populations, are considered; b number of moults; cdays post infection; dND, no data.

10

Róbert Farkas et al.

Plowright et al. (1969a,b) demonstrated that
O. moubata/porcinus ticks associated with
warthogs were also involved in virus transmission in Africa. The group of species O.
moubata/porcinus are not found in Europe or
in northern Africa. O. erraticus is accepted as a
reservoir for ASFV with a well-established
role in the maintenance of the infection in
nature (Plowright et al., 1970a,b). Replication
of ASFV in this tick species has been demonstrated, and this allows the species to remain
infectious for months and up to 5 years, posing a threat of transmitting the virus each
time the ticks feed on pigs (Boinas, 1994).
The adults and nymphal stages 4 and 5 of
O. erraticus remain infected for longer than
the larvae up to nymph 3 (Boinas, 1994; Basto
et al., 2006). It has also been reported that the
prevalence of infected O. erraticus and the
average titres of ASFV per tick decreased over
time when pigs were not present (Boinas,
1994). The maintenance of virus infection in
the tick can constitute risk if the ticks are able
to feed on pigs for periods of 40 weeks after
an ASFV infective meal (Basto et al., 2006).
More recently, Vial et al. (2007) demonstrated
ASFV DNA in O. sonrai collected from the
field in West Africa. O. sonrai, although a
different species, is morphologically undistinguishable from O. erraticus. The two species
may copulate but the progeny are not fertile.
At present, as there is not a solid ground test
to determine which of these two tick species
is which, any overlapping distribution in
some areas is ignored, as well as the basic biological mechanisms of separation of the two
species. It is probably that the main mechanism of isolation of the species – leading
to reproductive isolation – is the simple
geographical partitioning of the populations
(Vial et al., 2007).
Some authors consider ASFV and the
Ornithodoros tick as co-evolving organisms.
In fact, there are noticeable telomeric similarities in the genomes of ASFV and Borrelia,
with the latter sharing the same Ornithodoros
tick host in Africa and considered to be an
original pathogen of soft ticks, suggesting
that ASFV is also a primary organism of
Ornithodoros ticks and co-adapted to its
tick hosts (Hinnebusch and Barbour, 1991).

This hypothesis could explain discrepancies concerning infection success rates
that have been noticeable between several
past surveys.
For example, De Tray (1963) reported a
consistent establishment of the virus isolate
‘Uganda’ in specimens of the O. moubata
group (34/35 were infected), whereas another
isolate, ‘Tengani’, only caused persistent
infection in a small proportion of ticks (2/46
were infected). More recently, Kleiboeker
et al. (1999) compared oral and intra-haemocoelic experimental infections of Ornithodoros
ticks collected from warthog burrows in
Kruger National Park and the Northern
Transvaal region of South Africa, as well as
infections of ticks from Masai Mara Reserve
in Kenya, by three different viruses from
South Africa, Malawi and Zimbabwe; all the
viruses were originally isolated from ticks
collected from the field. The oral infection
conducted with the isolate from Malawi was
self-limiting (with a decline of virus titres
and the number of ticks containing virus),
while the other infections persisted. According
to Kleiboeker et al. (1999), the cytopathology
caused by the Malawi strain in infected ticks
suggested the non-adaptation of the isolate to
express specific genes that allow the production of large quantities of progeny virus without damaging the host cell. The reason why
this virus was originally isolated from ticks
could be the large opportunity for those
ticks to feed on infected pigs with high viraemic titres during an ASF outbreak and the
leakage of midgut contents into the haemocoel without tick mortality, instead of real
adaptation of this virus isolate to the tick host
(Kleiboeker et al., 1999).
Dixon and Wilkinson (1988) analysed
genomes of ASFV isolates collected over a
2 year period from ticks inhabiting warthog
burrows in four regions of Zambia and
observed additional sequences in the region
close to the left-end terminus of the genome,
which are not observed in domestic pig isolates. The author concluded that virus replication in ticks and warthogs may require
additional host-specific genes not necessary
for multiplication in domestic pigs and that
the introduction of virus from tick/warthog

Biology and Distribution of Tick Vectors

sources into domestic pig populations
would remove the selection pressure for
maintaining these genes (Dixon and
Wilkinson, 1988). More recently, Alfonso
et al. (2004) and Burrage et al. (2004) demonstrated that the ASFV multigene family in
the left variable region of the genome
encodes a host range determinant required
for efficient replication and generalization
of infection in pigs and ticks. However, no
more information is yet available on specific determinants for tick/warthog hosts,
as it was previously suggested. In addition,
it is unknown if ASFV is able to come back
from the domestic to the sylvatic cycle,
although some authors suggest that recombination processes during co-infections in
ticks may exist (Plowright, 1977; Dixon and
Wilkinson, 1988).
Identification
Ticks in the family Argasidae are easily separated from those in the family Ixodidae
because of the presence of the mouthparts
(capitulum) in a ventral position, instead of
in the terminal position as in members of the
family Ixodidae, and by the absence of a dorsal scutum in the adults. Furthermore, the
scutum (or conscutum, in males) is very
prominent in the specimens of the family
Ixodidae. The species in the genus
Ornithodoros share the features of the family,
as well as the absence of a lateral suture,
which separate species in the genus Argas
from species in the genus Ornithodoros. Other
than this feature, the mamillate structures on
the dorsal surface of the genera Argas and
Ornithodoros are different.
The identification of species of
Ornithodoros is difficult because most of the
species are not morphologically different.
Wallis and Miller (1983) conducted electrophoretic enzyme analysis to differentiate
between some of the species. In Eurasia, the
adults of most species of Ornithodoros have a
similar morphology, rendering the identification on that stage difficult, and the larvae
are the most useful stages to provide an
adequate determination. According to the
morphological features outlined by Filippova

11

(1966), ticks in the O. erraticus complex can be
separated by the setal dorsal complement in
the larvae, which is reduced to only two pairs
of dorsal setae. Currently, however, there is
no accurate way to separate the different species in the complex. Furthermore, there are
no adequate DNA data for the species found
in the wide distribution range of the complex, and there is strong evidence pointing to
a greater diversity than has currently been
reported. The colour plate section contains
two photographs (dorsal and ventral) of
an adult (sex undetermined) of O. erraticus
(Plate 3a,b).

2.2

Hard Ticks (Ixodidae)

Several physiological–behavioural and morphological characteristics distinguish the
hard ticks, Ixodidae from the soft ticks,
Argasidae. The life cycle of the hard ticks has
only one nymphal stage. A single but comparatively large blood meal is ingested by the
larva, the nymph and the adult female. The
ixodid female, in particular, is capable of
imbibing a very large amount of blood so that
the abdomen becomes enormously distended.
So in general, the ixodid ticks, except the
males in some species, stay attached to the
host for a period of several days. The morphology of ixodids has the following characteristics: (i) an anteriorly located capitulum
visible from above; (ii) behind the capitulum
a hard shield, the scutum; (iii) distinct sexual
dimorphism in that the dorsum of the adult
ixodid male is covered completely by the scutum, but the larva, nymph and adult female
have a scutum that only covers the anterior
part of the dorsal abdomen.
According to Barker and Murrell (2008),
the Ixodidae encompass the following genera:
Amblyomma, Anomalohimalaya, Bothriocroton,
Cornupalpatum, Cosmiomma, Dermacentor, Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Ixodes, Margaropus,
Nosomma, Rhipicentor and Rhipicephalus.
It may be noted that five species previously
in the genus Boophilus have been incorporated into the genus Rhipicephalus (subgenus
Boophilus).

12

Róbert Farkas et al.

2.2.1

Genus Ixodes

This is the largest genus of the family
Ixodidae, the hard ticks. The ticks in this
genus are so-called prostriate hard ticks,
which are characterized by the anal groove
encircling the anus anteriorly. The genus is
present on all continents, including Antarctica.
The species of most medical and veterinary
importance are I. scapularis and I. pacificus in
North America, I. ricinus in Europe, western
Asia and the Mediterranean coast of North
Africa, and I. persulcatus in north-eastern
Europe and northern Asia. In Eurasia, in view
of their roles as vectors of zoonotic pathogens among the natural host animals, I. hexagonus (present in Europe only), I. caledonicus,
I. frontalis, I. trianguliceps and I. uriae may also
be considered as medically and epidemiologically important tick species. Among
all Ixodes species, approximately 20% parasitize birds and 80% parasitize mammals
(Kolonin, 2009).
The host-seeking behaviour of this group
of ticks can be classified as endophilic or
exophilic. Endophilic ticks remain hidden
close to their hosts’ nest or burrows and only
attach to the host when it arrives, whereas
exophilic ticks seek hosts by climbing up the
vegetation waiting for them to pass. This
host-seeking behaviour of exophilic Ixodes
spp. should be distinguished from that of
hunting ticks, e.g. Hyalomma spp., which
actively run towards potential hosts. Because
of the difference in host-finding behaviour,
only exophilic species can be collected by
flagging or dragging. In the genus Ixodes,
exophilic species such as I. ricinus usually
mate on the host. Endophilic species such as
I. hexagonus normally mate in the hosts’ refuge (Hillyard, 1996).
Ixodes ricinus
In Europe, the most well-known tick species
is I. ricinus; this is often called the common
tick, castor bean tick or sheep tick. It is the
most commonly encountered tick species
in most parts of central, western and northern Europe. The distribution of this species
ranges from Ireland, Britain and Scandinavia,
Finland and western Russia across continental

Europe southwards to the Mediterranean
area into northern Africa and eastwards
to Iran.
I. ricinus is a three-host tick with a very
wide host range (telotropic host behaviour),
which includes lizards, many species of
birds and small, medium-sized and large
mammals. This tick species will readily
attach to humans. Jaenson et al. (1994) listed
two lizard species, 56 bird species and 29
mammal species as hosts recorded for
I. ricinus in Sweden alone. The colour plate
section contains photographs (dorsal and
ventral views) of adult male (Plate 4a,b)
and female (Plate 4c,d) specimens of
I. ricinus.
In Europe, I. ricinus is the vector of the
agents of several zoonoses, including Lyme
borreliosis (at least eight Borrelia genospecies
have been recorded from I. ricinus; Rudenko
et al., 2011), TBE, anaplasmosis (granulocytic
ehrlichiosis, tick-bite fever) due to Anaplasma
phagocytophilum and Rickettsia helvetica. I. ricinus also transmits Babesia divergens (the causative agent of babesiosis in cattle and a
life-threatening infection in splenectomized
humans), B. microti and B. venatorum, tularaemia due to Francisella tularensis and the louping ill virus (LIV).
Ixodes persulcatus
The taiga tick is an extremely important
vector of the TBE virus, Lyme borreliosis spirochetes and other pathogens in Finland, the
Baltic States and Russia, and also eastwards
to Japan. In the Baltic region and northwestern Russia, I. persulcatus overlaps with
the range of I. ricinus and ‘replaces’ I. ricinus
eastwards through Siberia. I. persulcatus transmits, in general, the same pathogens as
I. ricinus, i.e. the TBE virus, Lyme borreliosis
spirochetes, A. phagocytophilum and B. divergens. Both tick species are occasionally also
vectors, and possibly long-term reservoirs, of
F. tularensis. In I. ricinus, it is the nymphal
stage which is the most important one for
transmission of pathogens to humans. In contrast, the nymphs of I. persulcatus rarely bite
humans; therefore it is the adult females of
this species which play this main role of transmitting pathogens to humans.

Biology and Distribution of Tick Vectors

Ixodes hexagonus
This tick is better known as the hedgehog tick
and ranges through western, central and
southern Europe, including Ireland, the UK,
Norway, Sweden and Poland, to Portugal,
Spain, Italy, Greece, Romania and Ukraine
(Kolonin, 2009). It can easily be mistaken for
I. ricinus, but there is a pronounced hexagonal shield in female ticks. The main hosts
are carnivorous mammals (Canidae, Felidae
and Mustelidae), and the hedgehog, i.e.
mammals with a permanent dwelling
(Arthur, 1963; Jaenson et al., 1994; Kolonin,
2009). It is rarely found on sheep, cattle,
horses and birds (Hillyard, 1996). This tick
bites man occasionally and was a pest in
underground shelters in the London area
during wartime (Browning, 1944). I. hexagonus is a competent vector of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. and transfers the spirochaete both
trans-stadially and transovarially (Gern et al.,
1991); it is also possibly a competent vector of
TBEV and Babesia microti. The species has an
endophilic feeding behaviour and remains
close to the shelter of its hosts. Although relatively abundant, it is never caught by dragging or flagging. The colour plate section
contains photographs (dorsal and ventral
views) of adult male (Plate 5a,b) and female
(Plate 5c,d) specimens of I. hexagonus.
Ixodes canisuga
I. canisuga Johnston 1849 (= I. crenulatus Koch
1844; according to Kolonin, 2009) is often confused with I. hexagonus, which is usually more
commonly encountered. I. canisuga is distributed from western, northern and southern
Europe through Russia into Iran, Afghanistan,
India and China (Hillyard, 1996; Kolonin,
2009). All stages are parasitic on rodents and
carnivores, including badgers, foxes, mustelids, dogs and cats, i.e. hosts that regularly
return to a burrow or lair (Hillyard, 1996).
The colour plate section contains photographs
(dorsal and ventral views) of an adult female
of I. canisuga (Plate 6a,b).
Ixodes gibbosus
The main hosts of the larvae, nymphs and
adults of I. gibbosus are sheep and goats, but

13

the larvae and nymphs also feed on small
mammals and birds. The species is distributed from former Yugoslavia through Turkey
to Israel (Kolonin, 2009).
Ixodes uriae
This is the seabird tick, which inhabits islands
and mainland coasts in the subarctic and
temperate regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. I. uriae parasitizes colonynesting marine birds. This tick will
occasionally bite people visiting seabird
colonies. It is a vector of the human Lyme
disease spirochaete Borrelia garinii (Olsen
et al., 1993). The colour plate section contains
photographs (dorsal and ventral views) of
an adult male (Plate 7a,b) and female
(Plate 7c,d) of I. uriae.
Ixodes frontalis
Several arboviruses (Bahig, Kemerovo, TBEV)
have been isolated from the bird-parasitizing
tick I. frontalis, which is an ornithophagous
ectoparasite that does not bite humans.
However, it is presumably indirectly of enzootic
and epidemiological importance for TBEV.
Ixodes trianguliceps
I. trianguliceps is a nidicolous ectoparasite of
small mammals. It is distributed throughout
most of Europe eastwards through Ukraine to
Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan (Kolonin,
2009). Although this tick does not bite humans
it may indirectly be of medical and veterinary
importance in view of its presumed role as a
maintenance vector of TBEV, Borrelia afzelii
and Babesia microti, among its natural small
mammalian hosts (rodents and insectivores).

2.2.2

Genus Haemaphysalis

Few of the about 160 species of Haemaphysalis
parasitize livestock, but those that do are economically important in Eurasia, where they
inhabit humid, well-vegetated habitats. The
size of unfed adults ranges from 2.0 to 4.0 mm.
The genus is characterized by short mouthparts and a large rear-facing spur on trochanter

This species is widely distributed throughout Europe. in females it is about as broad. rodents. 1996). In Hungary. The species is restricted to temperate broadleaved and mixed forests where the environment is relatively unaltered. The species is also found on horses. and it occurs in cold and wet sites in most Mediterranean countries (Estrada-Peña et al. It is also known as the red sheep tick and is found in a very wide variety of habitats. sulcata (Bouattour et al. The anal groove passes behind the anus. recondite). about twice as broad as long. The tick is also suspected of being able to transmit Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). punctata is one of the two species of the genus Haemaphysalis that are likely to be found on livestock in North Africa. Haemaphysalis punctata The palps of the females and males are short and wide. mutans. Ha. motasi) and Theileria species (T. B. crows. T. It is frequently found where sheep. The scutum of males is longer than it is broad. usually 11 in number. Specimens of this species have been found to be infected by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Bhanja virus. T.. Coxa I lacks external spurs. Ha. in dorsal view. providing that a high degree of humidity is present. including southern Scandinavia and Britain. Engorgement on the host may take 6–30 days to complete and each female lays 3000–5000 eggs. concinna is known to be a carrier of F. 2002). reptiles and birds. The larvae and nymphs may be found in many months of the year. Ha. magpies. 1972). ovis. Ha. The sexes are usually found attached close together and copulation occurs on the host in April. b) and an adult female of Haemaphysalis (Ha. Males can be more numerous than females. livestock. horses. The capitulum is short and the palps are wide. but the ticks may occur on cattle. This tick has many similarities with I. 1986. Species of the genus Haemaphysalis are three-host ticks. adults may be found feeding from October to March.g. 2003). It is also able to transmit F. with the larvae and nymphs feeding on small mammals and birds. major. rodents and lizards. Immature ticks infest birds (e. Unlike the female.. importantly.. projecting laterally beyond the basis capituli. Nymphs of Haemaphysalis possess festoons but lack ornamentation and eyes (Hillyard. and occasionally it attaches to humans (Hillyard.14 Róbert Farkas et al. . 1996). Manilla. 1996). has sides with sharp lateral points (Hillyard. concinna is widely distributed in Europe (Walter et al. deer and hares. concinna showed peak activity in May (Hornok. sparrows. 2009). Under favourable conditions the life cycle can be completed within 1 year but it usually takes 3 years. 1999). but it is only one and a half times broad as long in males. and it needs to be distinguished from Ha. the basis capituli of nymphs.. B. they are most numerous on small mammals in June and July. dogs. tularensis and Coxiella burnetii. Adults infest larger domestic and wild mammals and. bovis. hedgehogs. pheasants. punctata is a vector of many Babesia species (B. punctata may cause tick paralysis (Hillyard. concinna are roe deer. 1998a. 2004). to a lesser extent. Haemaphysalis concinna Ha. The most important hosts for adult Ha. B. 1996). I.d). In humid climates. 1986. The bite of Ha. and the distribution is of relict type (Hoogstraal. The colour plate section contains photographs (dorsal and ventral views) of an adult male (Plate 8a.b). It is associated with wild and domestic ruminants (Encinas Grandes. to sheep and goats. Listeria monocytogenes and Brucella abortus. are present on the posterior margin. blackbirds). hedgehogs. The basis capituli of females is rectangular. 1996).. Nymphs have also been removed from humans (Hillyard.) punctata (Plate 8c. The larvae and nymphs feed on deer. punctata has the largest distribution range in Eurasia. ricinus in its distribution. Ha. Ornamentation and eyes are absent but festoons. The colour plate section contains photographs (dorsal and ventral views) of an adult male of Ha. but is distinct in its physical characters from that species. tularensis. Cringoli et al. bigemina. cats and hares. concinna (Plate 9a. they are especially adapted to domestic cattle and. goats and cattle feed in certain open forests and shrubby pastures in the greater part of Europe. Sréter et al.

France and Spain). inermis. 2. the palps lack lateral projections and there are 11 well-marked festoons on the posterior margin (Hillyard. cattle. The species is primarily associated with deer... It is suspected of transmitting T. inermis has been noted as causing tick paralysis. shoulder and back. All coxae have a small spur. examination of animals in El Arich city and El Hassanah centre in Egypt revealed Ha. The adults also feed on large and small domestic and wild mammals (e. The hard tick genus Hyalomma is a complex of a few species that exhibit an almost endless variation of morphology.g. annulata and Anaplasma ovis. The capitulum of females differs from the normal form in the genus. Romania. 1999). as well as in parts of Turkey (Estrada-Peña et al.. Poland. Small ruminants. rodents and insectivores. the Mediterranean region and the Balkan Peninsula). The species has peak activity in November and December in Hungary (Hornok. Hungary.3 Genus Hyalomma Hyalomma species are large ticks with pale rings on most segments of their legs. former Yugoslavia. grasslands and mountain slopes. in males. Haemaphysalis sulcata Ha. The Bhanja virus has also been isolated in Ha. 1996). primarily because they feed and drop off the host within hours – an exceptionally short period for engorgement. 1996). inermis. Ha. 2004). and Hy. known as the winter tick. Another important species is the rabbit tick. sulcata during a survey performed in Bulgaria (Pavlov et al. In North Africa. 1996). Copulation takes place on the host but the sexes do not attach alongside each other. punctata. particularly sheep and goats. Algeria. Humans may also be attacked (Hillyard. Adults of the species feed on ungulates. 2002). Greece. Ha.Biology and Distribution of Tick Vectors Haemaphysalis inermis Ha. are the most common hosts. sulcata on goats. Other species of Haemaphysalis are potentially important in Europe and the Mediterranean region. However. always under conditions of steppe vegetation. and when folded they do not project laterally beyond the relatively wide basis capituli. They also have long mouthparts which project to the anterior of the body and. In Poland it is suspected of carrying the virus that causes tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) (Hillyard. punctata. sheep. franchinii were also identified in small numbers in Tunisia (Bouattour et al. but the range of hosts of larvae and nymphs is similar to that of Ha. The immature stages are rarely found in nature. anal plate (Manilla. Ha. Ha.g. sulcata is one of the two species of the genus Haemaphysalis that are likely to be found on livestock in a wide range of climates in the Mediterranean region. Italy. is a rather small tick. the nymph’s rapid feeding contrasts with the very long time needed to develop to the next stage. The colour plate section contains a photograph of an adult female (ventral view. Ha. France. This tick is present in some foci within many European countries (e. The scutum is broader than it is long. lusitanicum on cattle (Mazyad and Khalaf. Tunisia and Libya. Plate 10) of Ha.. fox and hedgehogs). horses. Immature stages feed on reptiles such as lizards. the species occurs in Morocco. The palps are relatively long and narrow. 1978). Probably because of misidentification in the past. inermis is winter active and inhabits deciduous and mixed forests. Its original centre of dispersal was probably Iran or southern Russia. Larvae and nymphs feed on reptiles in the spring and summer (April and July). 1998b. Genetic instability may in . In males.2. Adults are active in the autumn and winter between October and March. parva on sheep. For example. 2009). this tick species has been detected in several countries (Cyprus. with the immature stages found on small mammals. the role in the transmission of pathogens by this species is not yet clearly defined. 2004). In Europe. nymphs may take a year or more before moulting to the adult stage. The preferred feeding sites for the ticks are the neck. leporispalustris. Estrada-Peña et al. it needs to be 15 distinguished from Ha.

Adult Hyalomma ticks share the following common features: a basis capituli that is usually rectangular. Central Asia. marginatum inhabits the Mediterranean climatic zone. host and other environmental factors. clearly wider than long. For identification purposes. 1999). 2005). lowland and middle altitude biotopes. Hy. in warm.1998). including the sub-Saharan territories. 1987. brown in colour and rich in punctations of different size. subanal and accessory plates in the male. 1998b). the most reliable diagnostic features are actually scanty. strong and banded legs with two large spurs on the first pair of coxae. as well as steppe and foothill landscapes (south-western Palaearctic Region). marginatum is the main vector of CCHFV in Eurasia. and the body of the replete male has subanal triangular plates that can be visible beyond the posterior edge (Manilla. long. generally harsh. Its distribution reaches the Far East. India and northern China. It is a characteristic species of steppe. Hyalomma marginatum Hyalomma marginatum is a large tick that can reach 18 mm length in females and 6 mm in males. In most cases. Hy. it is not possible to identify immature stages to the species level using only morphology (Manilla. The colour plate section contains photographs (dorsal and ventral views) of adult male (Plate 11a. Portugal.b) and female (Plate 11c.. Sporadic reports of the species in the humid biotopes of northern Europe can be explained as introductions by migratory birds that are frequently included in the host range of the immature stages. Apanaskevich and Horak. these characteristics may vary with populations. southern Asia and most of Africa. there is a need to consider only the differential features not subject to change on an individual basis. The legs have white-yellowish rings. festoons that are more evident in unfed ticks. Hyalomma ticks are often the most abundant tick parasites of livestock. 2004). and spreads westward to Spain. However. which are often convex and placed in the confluence between the anterior and the posterior edges of the scutum in females and in the corresponding place in males. Manilla. The virus can also be transmitted transovarially with variable efficiency depending upon the viral strain (Zeller et al. equi. from the Caspian Sea to southern Ukraine and Bulgaria. Its dorsal shield is wider than long. shiny eyes with a surrounding orbit (a circular groove surrounding the eye). and in biotopes with long dry seasons. 2003. part account for the wide morphological differences found in many specimens (Hoogstraal. southern Europe. marginatum is also involved in the maintenance of the enzootic cycle of C. a dark scutum rich in punctations and grooves. 1998b). the Near and Middle East. The ticks are also a vector of Babesia caballi and T. . arid and semiarid. savannah and lightly wooded hill and valley biotopes with fairly low humidity. Morocco and Algeria (Manilla. sergenti infection (Pipano and Shkap.. Hyalomma ticks are mainly two. 1998b). Extraordinary survival factors play a large part in permitting these ticks to exist and even thrive where few or no others live. In particular.16 Róbert Farkas et al. To date. 1987). Sudan and Eritrea. This species belongs to a hard tick species complex occurring in southern Europe. these are mainly seen in replete ticks. and of T. Hy. 1956). marginatum is a twohost tick and the immature stages stay for a long time on the host (12–26 days) which enables them to be passively transported by migrating birds over hundreds or even thousands of kilometres (Rechav et al. making the ticks difficult to identify. burnetii. long palps with the 2nd article longer than the 3rd. especially for the females. a long hypostome with a rounded tip and 3/3 denticles. from central and south-west Asia to southern Europe and southern Africa. and adanal. 1997).and three-host species (Matthysse and Colbo. annulata is the agent of tropical theileriosis that occurs in northern Africa.d) specimens of Hy. where it overlaps with theileriosis caused by T. Hy. marginatum. Many Hyalomma species have been redescribed recently based on morphological characteristics (Apanaskevich. including camels. annulata (Viseras and García-Fernández. T.

it is small. 2003). with large and sparse punctations in the caudal field. the cervical and lateral scutal grooves are deeper. the Hyalomma subspecies that were known as Hy.or black-brown. scupense is a two-host tick species that feeds on large domestic ungulates. 1998b. southern Europe and along the Mediterranean coast of Africa as far as Algeria and Morocco in the west. and the thickness of the tails of the spiracle plates.or reddish-brown. excavatum is often less commonly found on livestock than Hy. Apanaskevich. which are narrower in Hy.d) specimens of Hy. respectively. d. A recent study that compared the morphology of each stage of the two species using several specimens belonging to different collections allowed researchers to definitely separate the two specific identities of Hy.. excavatum is larger than Hy. scupense (Guglielmone et al.9 mm in the female. Walker et al. d. less punctated and does not have pale rings on its legs. scupense are different in their body size (Hy. Hy. annulata (which causes tropical theileriosis in cattle) T. scupense). scupense (Manilla. 2003).. 2007). anatolicum. 2003). Walker et al. the length and breadth of the conscutum is usually less than 4 mm and 2. 2007. Hy. gnathosoma and coxae are dark red. and despite some morphological differences.. Hy. The biological differences between the two species influence their vector competences. HYALOMMA ANATOLICUM HYALOMMA EXCAVATUM Hy. It is present in sub-Saharan Africa in north-central Sudan as well.. The colour plate section contains photographs 17 (dorsal and ventral views) of adult male (Plates 12a. excavatum is questioned as a vector of Theileria. detritum than in Hy. d. 2009). detritum scupense were brought together to comprise a unique species renamed as Hy. perhaps .. caballi and T. This is a small tick. d. The colour plate section contains photographs (dorsal and ventral views) of adult male (Plate 13a. anatolicum is common in the southern Mediterranean area and also in eastern Africa (Sudan.Biology and Distribution of Tick Vectors Hyalomma anatolicum and Hyalomma excavatum The study of the ecology. detritum detritum and Hy. Hy. It transmits the protozoans T. but it is reported eastwards through to Iran and Turkmenistan. In the female.d) specimens of Hy. development and epizootic role of these two similar species is very difficult. together with the presence of hybrid forms. The species transmits a variety of protozoan parasites trans-stadially and transovarially and is a threat to animal improvement programmes. The scutum. anatolicum. detritum and Hy.b) and female (Plate 13c. 1998b. Hy. because its vectorial capacity is affected by its feeding habits on rodents (Manila. but it has a wider geographical distribution and is found in much of North Africa from Mauritania to Egypt. Ethiopia and Eritrea. This Hyalomma tick spreads in central Asia from northern India to the Middle East. Hyalomma scupense Two years ago. The former subspecies Hy. Rasulov. d. anatolicum is also a vector of CCHFV to humans. Somalia and Ethiopia) and central Asia (Ahmed et al. and their occurrence within the same geographical area. and also into Sudan. The species is adapted to the Mediterranean and steppe climatic regions of North Africa. the length of the legs. The scutum. Ivory coloured enamelling is diffuse on the dorsal aspects of the leg segments. Ecological conditions apparently determine which form will develop in a given location (Liebish et al. and is also found in the southern Balkans. detritum is generally smaller than Hy. Their taxonomic status is not even uniformly agreed on. Compared with other Hyalomma ticks. and to steppe climatic regions elsewhere in its wide range. 2005). lestoquardi (which causes malignant ovine theileriosis). excavatum. 1989. scupense. morphological variations and impossibility of distinguishing the larvae and nymphs. equi (which cause equine piroplasmosis).3 mm in the male. d. and 2 mm and 1. excavatum (Apanaskevic and Horak. Ivory coloured marbling is absent on the scutum. anatolicum and Hy.b) and female (Plates 12c. gnathosoma and coxae are light yellowish. It is not found commonly south of the Sahara. complicate this work. B.

The species is also a vector of C. variegatum is also strictly associated with dermatophilosis and the transmission of African tick bite fever (caused by R. Am. Am. while larvae and nymphs start to be more active at the end of the rainy season. The distribution of Am. It occurs in South Africa and in southern Mozambique. Generally. Even though individuals of both species are active throughout the year. 1998b). In the tropics. the tick genera belonging to the metastriate group originated from a group of ticks that resemble the present subfamily Amblyomminae. variegatum and Am. are often included in the host range of immature Amblyomma ticks that feed on mammals when they moult to become adults (Manilla. Nowadays.. 2003). Like all Ixodidae.. together with small mammals and birds. annulata to cattle and T. they are protected by a rigid shield that completely covers the dorsal body surface in the male. the shield is richly coloured. Am. In addition. Am. hebraeum are morphologically similar. They occur in different geographical areas. 1971. Papadopolous et al. variegatum (the tropical bont tick. although they are adapted to the same type of habitat. but was probably introduced there by migratory birds (Albanese et al. TBT) is the most widespread species. hebraeum are the most important species of the genus in Africa. hebraeum are the main vectors of Ehrlichia ruminantum. africae) (Norval and Horak. scupense is able to transmit T. hebraeum is affected by interspecific competition with Am. In some species. but the colour pattern on the scutum is different and they have beady eyes. It is seldom reported in the Mediterranean. velifera and T. adults and immature stages of 37 of the around 102 known Amblyomma species parasitize reptiles. According to the Ixodidae evolutionary hypothesis formulated by Hoogstraal and Kim (1985). In America. Am. hebraeum is exclusively a southern African tick.18 Róbert Farkas et al. mules and donkeys.4 Genus Amblyomma Amblyomma species are large ticks with long mouthparts and pale rings on their legs. 2. Pegram et al. They usually have ornate eyes and coxal spurs. 1984. 2004). americanum are two of the main species of Amblyomma ticks. variegatum was similarly introduced from Africa into the Arabian Peninsula and Mauritius (Norval and Horak. following the importation of cattle from Senegal. the festoons of the males are dark brown in colour. having invaded from the Red Sea coast or via the Nile river valley (Manilla. Both Am. and these make Amblyomma ticks especially difficult to remove. Their presence is affected by climate and the surrounding environment according to their developmental stage. It was first introduced into the Caribbean in around 1828. These ticks reached their greatest evolutionary success by simultaneously adapting themselves to the dinosaurs during the geological time from the end of the Palaeozoic to the end of the Cretaceous period.. a disease that is one of the main constraints to livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa. female shields are smaller. Moreover. equi to horses. adults are more numerous during the rainy season.. and later spread to the rest of the West Indies (Uilenberg et al. maculatum and Am. This tick originates from Africa and has spread widely south of the Sahara desert. and to southern and western Zimbabwe. 1998). 2005). These ticks also transmit T. variegatum. Am. hebraeum.) variegatum and Am. burnetii.. maculatum is an important pest of livestock and is present in the Gulf coast area. enabling significant distension of the abdominal wall during blood feeding. It has been experimentally .2. Am. The genus Amblyomma is generally confined to the tropics and subtropics. variegatum and Am. causing heartwater. 1996). Amblyomma (Am. mutans to cattle. in the African ranges of distribution a certain seasonality is reported for both species. reptiles. Its distribution also extends inland through the lowveld areas of Swaziland and eastern Botswana. Am. Hy. Manual removal frequently causes serious wounds which may become secondarily infected by bacteria or screw worms (Walker et al. The long mouthparts are clearly visible on the dorsal view of the body. variegatum adults have long mouthparts and banded legs like Am. 2004).

and it may cause tick paralysis in humans and dogs. Q fever.2. On the basis of those studies. 2. Newly active adults and nymphs are frequently seen climbing walls from floor-level cracks (Merck. ewingii in humans and dogs. Rhipicephalus (Rh. The life cycle is typically three host. 2000. 1982). This is mainly an African genus (Walker et al. taxonomy and nomenclature are being revised and expanded based on molecular analyses. and the biosystematic status of the majority of them has been confused (Walker et al. 2004). including humans (Dantas-Torres. camicasi and Rh. Current concepts of tick phylogeny. Rhipicephalus camicasi and Rhipicephalus turanicus Rh. The genus Rhipicephalus comprises 79 species. perissodactyls (horses) or carnivores. It is now established in buildings as far north as Canada and Scandinavia. canine babesiosis. Its distinctive feature is the silver spot on the scutum (the ‘lone star’). Rhipicephalus sanguineus.Biology and Distribution of Tick Vectors demonstrated to be a good vector for the agents transmitting heartwater (Uilenberg. chaffeensis and E. however. the ‘kennel tick’ or ‘brown dog tick’. 2008). 2000. With the exception of few species. sanguineus are differentiated from those of Rh. which usually has a . warm summer with low rainfall). dogs are virtually the only hosts of the immature stages and the adults. but in the Mediterranean climatic zone (long. camicasi and Rh. Estrada-Peña et al. sanguineus group comprises several tick species. Q fever. hepatozoonosis. Two species of the group that closely resemble Rh. Rh.. It is also a vector of monocytic ehrlichiosis caused by E. Rhipicephalus ticks are recognized worldwide as vectors of many important disease agents of animals and humans – diseases such as: Mediterranean spotted fever and other rickettsioses. Estrada-Peña et al. It is also a notorious pest in Mexico as well as in Central and South America. sanguineus is active throughout the year in the tropics and subtropics. sanguineus are Rh. 2008). Adults of most species parasitize wild and domestic artiodactyls (swine and ruminants). Many Rhipicephalus species have long been difficult to identify or have been incorrectly identified.) bursa is a two-host species (Merck. Species in this genus have some features in common: a short hypostome and palps. Am. a usually hexagonal basis capituli and the presence of eyes and festoons and anal plate in the males. and Lyme disease. mainly within latitudes 35°S and 50°N (Dantas-Torres.. Am. the morphology and biology of the Boophilus species are significantly different. The Rh. Although this species feeds primarily on dogs. americanum.. monocytic ehrlichiosis. Nairobi sheep disease and East coast fever. in urban situations everywhere within the range of distribution. hence the common name of the ‘brown ticks’.. It is a medium sized. it can be found on a diverse range of wild and domestic animals. Walker et al. However. Females of Rh. Probably the species of Rhipicephalus with the largest geographical range is Rh. the lone-star tick. turanicus. Immature stages feed mostly on smaller mammals. which has travelled worldwide with domestic dogs. 2010). It can be found almost worldwide. turanicus by the genital aperture. of those that parasitize rodents and of those that parasitize artiodactyls. ranging northward into New Jersey. sanguineus is universally known as ‘the kennel tick’ (Manilla 1998c. the genus Boophilus has recently been included in the genus Rhipicephalus. including the five species that were formerly in the genus Boophilus. they are inornate. and as far south as Australia. pale yellowish-brown or reddish-brown tick. 2010). 2004). but only from spring to autumn in temperate zones. but even 19 though Boophilus species now belong to the same genus as Rhipicephalus species. americanum is the vector of tularaemia. a few feed on the same host as the adults. Rocky Mountain spotted fever.5 Genus Rhipicephalus The genus Rhipicephalus is one of the largest of the family Ixodidae. sanguineus. is abundant in the southern USA in Texas and Missouri and up the Atlantic Coast.. 2000). This ongoing work is likely to expand and alter the current understanding of the phylogeny and evolution of the subfamily Rhipicephalinae.

There are also photographs (dorsal and ventral views) of adult male (Plate 15a. sanguineus but a narrow U shape in Rh. The adults may be separated by a combination of adanal and spiracular plate characteristics. the dorsal punctation pattern (males). sanguineus do not have a depression of the cervical fields compared with the small depression that there is in Rh. and resemble those of Hyalomma. almost in a regular triangular shape. not only within a continent but also from continent to continent on imported hosts. 2000. The length of unfed adults is 4. most importantly B. turanicus. Most species of Dermacentor are three-host ticks. Temperature seems to be the only restrictive factor in the dissemination of the tick towards northern latitudes. annulatus.b) and female (Plate 16c. Two species.b) and female (Plate 14c. marginatus. and less than the width of the adjacent festoon. annulatus is the vector of some prominent pathogens. This single-host type of life cycle has numerous biological advantages. Rhipicephalus annulatus ( previously known as Boophilus) Rhiphicephalus (Boophilus) ticks are unique in that their entire life cycle from the larva to the engorged. reticulatus.d) specimens of Rh. Cattle are the chief hosts throughout the world. but a few are one-host ticks. with a projection easily seen in the median portion and protruding to the anus (medial). D. Rh. other domestic stock. horses.) annulatus. To study the morphology of the genital aperture. usually with ornate patterning. 2. bursa are large ticks. Both sexes of Rh. The veterinary importance of these ticks is considerable and they are vectors of important pathogens of livestock. broad V shape in Rh. reticulatus by its palp which lacks a prominent rear-facing spur. camicasi and Rh. has an ornate scutum. most of which are found in the New World. bursa. It also allows for particularly easy control by dipping infested animals. Dermacentor marginatus D. possibly in inhospitable areas and for indefinite periods.d) specimens of Rh.. In Rh.d) specimens of Rh. 1996).8 mm.6 Genus Dermacentor The genus Dermacentor is small. turanicus.. Other wild animals are not commonly infested.20 Róbert Farkas et al. Most interesting is that this tick is well adapted to xerophilic areas with periodic rains. Rhipicephalus bursa Adults of Rh. also known as the ‘ornate sheep tick’. and by the feature of the genital aperture (females). It is distinguished from D. these tails are broad. The colour plate section contains photographs (dorsal and ventral views) of adult male (Plate 17a. and wild antelopes and deer are less frequently attacked. sanguineus have spiracle plates with tails which are narrow. (Bo.2. an engorged . 2004). The predilection of these ticks for large domestic animals particularly favours widespread dispersal and survival.d) specimens of Rh. sanguineus.6–5. mated adult is confined to a single host. marginatus and D. They are medium sized to large ticks. This is an important pest of domestic cattle in every kind of Mediterranean environment. Hence it is widespread at scattered points across the Mediterranean basin. Males have very conspicuous anal plates.b) and female (Plate 15c. camicasi (Walker et al. The only species present in the Mediterranean basin is Rh. The boophilid type of life cycle eliminates danger-ridden periods between two or three different kinds of hosts. bovis. it is necessary to dissect and mount it. and allow adequate cleaning to remove the chitinized structures. which is a potentially dangerous pathogen of cattle. Females drop to the ground to oviposit. Males of Rh. such as several species of Babesia. are widely distributed in Europe (Hillyard. turanicus. with about 30 species of hard ticks. The colour plate section contains photographs (dorsal and ventral views) of adult male (Plate 16a. The colour plate section contains photographs (dorsal and ventral views) of adult male (Plate 14a.b) and female (Plate 17c. EstradaPeña et al. deeper than those observed in other species of the genus collected in the Mediterranean region. Both males and females have a noticeable large dorsal punctation pattern.

tularensis may also be transmitted by this tick species (Nosek. marginatus. Zahler and Gothe. unused habitats both in the middle and on the periphery of villages. In western and Central Europe. however. The activity of the species varies considerably according to region. D. In a study in Hungary. temperate forest and grassland. D. 2004). marginatus was found to be most numerous in February and March (Hornok. ricinus. In East Europe. In the European part of its distribution. The larvae and nymphs feed mostly on small mammals such as rodents and birds (Nosek. Sréter et al. R. The colour plate section contains photographs (dorsal and ventral views) of adult male (Plate 19a. Hillyard. Therefore. reticulatus (Szymanski. The unfed nymph is 1. 1987. The tick has a 1 or 2 year life cycle depending on the environmental conditions. 2005.. in unused gardens. several European countries have noticed changes in the distribution of D. Adults are active during the spring. 1996). reticulatus is recorded in almost all European countries but formerly was relatively rare in cold continental climates. marginatus is a vector of C. In North Africa. D. hedgehogs and humans. Hillyard. The larvae appear in June and the nymphs in July. 2006). pictus) is also known as the ‘ornate dog tick’. This species is one of the two representatives of the genus Dermacentor that infest domestic animals in the Mediterranean region. Dautel et al.0 cm.8 mm in length. 2011) and climate changes. on abandoned prairies.5 cm. The colour plate section contains photographs (dorsal and ventral views) of adult male (Plate 18a. as well as in grazing pastures and woodlands.. ricinus and Ha... The ticks are absent from Northern Africa (Estrada-Peña et al.Biology and Distribution of Tick Vectors female measures up to 1. 1972. D. It is common under oak and pine vegetation. having a preference for xerophilic vegetation. A generation from egg to adult usually develops within a year. an engorged female measures up to 1.b) and female (Plate 18c. D... for example in Scandinavia. 1972. The spread of Dermacentor ticks is thought to be linked to importation (Cochez et al. 1989). The unfed nymph is 1. F.8–4. The distribution area of the species extends from France and south-western England in the west to Central Asia in the east (Gilot et al. but also on dogs. hares. Most important for the survival and activity of D. the tick is abundant in open.b) and female (Plate 19c. this tick species is restricted to areas with dense bush and tree cover. conori. Zahler and Gothe. 1997). but very abundant in low-altitude hills. 2009). Bullova et al. the occurrence of this species is highly focal (Dautel et al..8 mm in length. burnetii. it does not occur north of 53–54°N latitude. 2006. Raoult et al. Algeria and Tunisia (EstradaPeña et al.. 2009). The length of unfed adults is 3. marginatus has more thermophilic requirements than other species that can occur together. reticulatus (syn. 2008). reticulatus is absent from mountain regions.8 mm. Thus it is found in the cooler and more humid parts of the Mediterranean climatic region associated with the Atlas Mountains. 2002). Dermacentor reticulatus D. notably the shortening of the winter period and increasing minimum temperatures.4–1. Adults feed on large mammals such as domesticated and wild ruminants. This metastriate tick species 21 has been confused with others in the genus because it has considerable morphological variability (Estrada-Peña and Estrada-Peña.d) specimens of D. marginatus occurs widely in Europe. R. the ‘marsh tick’ or the ‘ornate cow tick’. 2004). reticulatus. Within this large distribution area. D. early summer and autumn. nor in the Mediterranean climate zone. D. slovaca and R. Wild boars (Sus scropha) are also important wild hosts. The ticks inhabit pastures.d) specimens of D. punctata.b. such as is found in periurban colonies. 1991a. Favourable landscapes for the survival of the species occur where different forms of cultivation overlap and urbanization modifies landscape structures. In the last two decades. It prefers . D. but has a restricted distribution in North Africa (Nosek. marginatus is restricted to the same type of habitat as I. it may occur as far north as St Petersburg (60°N).4–1. and is restricted to small areas of Morocco.. 1972). 1996. such as I. reticulatus are foci of adequate microclimate (Estrada-Peña. sibirica sibirica. 2001.

Adults parasitize larger domestic and wild mammals. Leitao. sheep..A. E..R. M. excavatum (Acari: Ixodidae) based on a study of all life cycle stages. and Seitzer. canis. The main activity period for adults is the spring.. such as small rodents and carnivores. and Nuttall. Zahler and Gothe. Cartaxeiro. so it is absent in the Mediterranean region where the relative humidity is not sufficient for its survival. then drop to the ground and moult to the nymphal stage. C.. A. 819–826. strain RpA4) (Nosek 1972.. PhD Thesis. A. equi.. A. A. Cambridge University Press. (2003) Differentiation of closely related species Hyalomma anatolicum and H. R. (1963) British Ticks. Aksin. Basto. Hernaez. and Horak. B. L. (1994) The role of Ornithodoros erraticus in the epidemiology of African swine fever in Portugal. For example. Apanaskevich. P. Dixon. M. throughout entire geographical range. ovis.22 Róbert Farkas et al. cold regions with an adequate amount of air relative humidity.S. B. 1996. 1987). Rivista di Parassitologia 32. pp. 259–280. University of Reading. Browning. Boinas. B. A..C. R.P. Veterinary Parasitology 165. recent studies have confirmed the presence of F. Martinod and Gilot. J. (2008) Systematics and evolution of ticks with a list of valid genus and species names. D. and Petko. A. I. J. J. 2005). (1971) Notizie sulle zecche di Sicilia con segnalazione di Hyalomma detritum e Amblyomma variegatum. R.. (Euhyalomma) anatolicum Koch 1844 and H. reticulatus was most numerous in September and October in Hungary (Hornok. C. Copulation takes place on the host.A. U. This stage feeds over a period of several days. and Lavagnino. Rivera. 2006). 1996).K. raoultii (formerly Rickettsia sp. D. The immature stages are generally active from midsummer to late autumn. F. A. Alfonso. 159–162. divergens. Parasitology Research 101. D. Hillyard. and occasionally birds (Nosek 1972. cattle. Stanko. reticulatus (Lopes de Carvalho et al. 2037–2046. conori and R. D. reticulatus is one of the most common tick species on dogs and wild canids wherever it exists (Gilot et al.J... In: Bowman. (1944) On the discovery of numbers of males of Ixodes hexagonus Leach (Acari: Ixodidae). and Daoud.. (2007) Current status of ticks in Asia. . 96–99. Dautel et al. S. (2009) Spatial distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus tick in Slovakia in the beginning of the 21st century. The larvae hatch from the eggs after 2–3 weeks and will feed for approximately 2 days on the host. Boinas.A. Apanaskevich.. caballi). Bouattour. 1). References Ahmed. (1999) Distribution and ecology of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting livestock in Tunisia: an overview of eight years field collections. In Portugal. (2006) Development of a nested PCR and its internal control for the detection of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in Ornithodoros erraticus. Földvári and Farkas. 357–360. Bullova. reticulatus is known to be a vector of Babesia spp. Hillyard. M. Parassitologia 41(Suppl. London. (eds) Ticks: Biology. 1989. UK. but it varies considerably according to region (Szymanski. Reading. The larvae and nymphs feed on a variety of small mammals. H. drops off and moults to become an adult. Nix.A. Portugal.. P. horses. Barker. B.. 2001..S. and high numbers of questing adults were found in Belgium during winter when temperatures were just above 0°C (Madder. Acarina 13. and Escribano. Darghouth. F. Butterworths. Arthur. goats and pigs. but only occasionally bite humans. B. T. 1991. Parazitologia 37. A. Alp. 2011). 1–39. E. UK. and Murrell. B. Smiraglia. C.M. The female feeds for 9–15 days before dropping to the ground to lay approximately 4000 eggs in sheltered spots. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 156. Alonso. C. 181–197.. with a secondary peak in autumn. (Euhyalomma) excavatum Koch 1844 with the redescription of all stages. Lukan... Disease and Control. Cambridge. unpublished data). II The taxonomic status of H. Archives of Virology 151. 273–276. Proteomics 4. and Martins. D. (2005) The genus Hyalomma. D. Albanese. (2004) Identification of cellular proteins modified in response to African swine fever virus infection by proteomics. (B. tularensis in D.S. 2009). ovis. 5–10. M.

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(2009). In order to predict future tick-borne scenarios.. ricinus (Estrada-Peña et al. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (eds M. Antwerp. However. however.1 Climate Changes Long-time series of historical data related to climatic factors and the geographical distribution of ticks and tick-borne pathogens are required to determine the impact of climate changes on the spread of these vectors and the pathogens they carry. generally. to affirm that despite some evidence it is difficult to implicate climate change as the main cause for an increase in tick-borne diseases. 2012). One of the most recent and long-term studies has been described by Jaenson et al. (2012). climate change models are required that take into account the dynamic biological processes involved in vector abundance and pathogen transmission which affect the complex ecology and epidemiology of tick-borne diseases such as Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF). tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and Lyme borreliosis. few such attempts have been made. and 2Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e del Molise “G. Effects of the climate on the geographical distribution of a tick species are generally more evident along the border of its distribution. studies on the dynamics of CCHF cases in Turkey did not show any influence of climate when sites where the disease had been reported were compared with sites where the disease was absent (Estrada-Peña et al. As the roe deer is. 2011). mainly because of the lack of data collection over a sufficiently long period of time to allow for comparison in relation to existing climatic data. climate changes have influenced the survival of ticks (direct effect). Tarrés-Call) 27 . but there is limited evidence that rising temperature results in a greater abundance of ticks simply by increasing rates of development. in questing nymphal I.. 2010). Belgium and University of Pretoria. It is suggested that the milder climate has made it possible for roe deer to expand northwards and into northern Sweden. A study by Jaenson and Lindgren (2011) has shown that a warmer climate in Northern Europe has extended the vegetation period ©CAB International 2013. affecting the geographic range potentially suitable for the tick. Salman and J. ricinus in Sweden the expansion of this tick host has favoured the subsequent expansion of the tick into the same northern area (Jaenson et al. Empirical proofs have been obtained that climate may be in part responsible for shaping the prevalence rates of Borrelia burgdorferi s. the most important host of adults of I.. activity and development. To our knowledge.3 1 Factors Influencing the Spread and Distribution of Ticks Maxime Madder1 and Ilaria Pascucci2 Institute of Tropical Medicine. In this article it was shown that deer abundance and climate change seem to be the most important factors explaining the spread of Ixodes ricinus northwards in Sweden during the last 30 years.l. Teramo. According to Gray et al. Caporale”. South Africa. It is possible. Changes in climate and the length of the different seasons directly affect tick survival. Italy 3.

. Climate change may also influence the risk of infection by affecting human activities. for some tick species. the host abundance. the long-term use of land. hares) and wild animals (e. normal agricultural activities were disrupted and the common sport of hunting European hares was abandoned. Such vegetation may also benefit pathogen-reservoir hosts such as rodents and shrews. Probably the most interesting tick species to work on and to explore the diversity of seasonal patterns is I. as did the population of Hyalomma ticks. 2010). When Soviet troops reoccupied the hilly Crimean steppes in 1944. Generally climate effects are more easily noticeable close to the geographical distribution limits of both vector and pathogen. for agriculture or tourism. is still not available. human migration and settlement. All these factors may boost the density of infected ticks. ricinus. and with the expansion of the hare population came the first documented CCHF outbreak of the modern era (Ergönül.2 Changes in Land Use Changes in land use often affect the host–tick relationship and consequently increase the transmission of tick-borne pathogens. The influence of mast years on rodent abundance and consequently on tick density is one example of how vegetation will indirectly affect the density of Borrelia-infected Ixodes ticks (Ogden et al. after the occupation of Crimea (1941–1944). this seems to have enlarged the geographic range available for the tick. ecosystems and biodiversity. A similar explanation was suggested for an outbreak in Turkey as hunting and pasturing had been abandoned in the fields in the affected region from between 1995 and 2001 because of terrorist activities (Ergönül. as mentioned above.28 Maxime Madder and Ilaria Pascucci which has allowed ticks to be active for a longer time during the year. the most abundant tick in Europe and an important pest of both animals and humans. . European hares are a reservoir of CCHF virus (CCHFV) and one of the primary hosts of immature Hyalomma.. be beneficial to tick survival and could lead to an increase in tick numbers as well. After mast years. changes in development rates make tick cohorts available to different diapause windows (largely determined by day length). but the direct impact on animal and human infection rates is unknown and has not yet been evaluated for any of the many pathogens that the ticks can transmit. 2006). This is due to an increase in food supply and consequently in body fat. and increase the survival and abundance of tickmaintenance hosts such as deer (Jaenson et al. and berry and mushroom picking. Climate changes can indirectly alter survival of the ticks by modifying the type of vegetation and. climate will affect the vegetation. the numbers of small mammals (e. For instance. 2006). The higher host population density affects the tick density in the following year and possibly also the risk of disease transmission (Tack et al. wild boars) increased.g. which is necessary to study such diverse seasonality patterns. For instance. When the fields became available again for hunting and pasturing. but the magnitude of the effects of climate change in an endemic area is the result of the interaction of many other parameters associated with socio-economics..g. However. rodent populations significantly increase as a result of an extended breeding season and higher survival during winter. cattle. 2006). a process-driven model. bird migrations. sheep and humans were exposed to virus-carrying ticks (Ergönül. during World War II. land use and land cover. hunting.g. The indirect effects of climate change are more complicated to evaluate. dense humid vegetation will. for example. which in many ways may influence the number of infected ticks. In addition. the hares had become excessively abundant and neglected pastures were overgrown with weeds. e. In this period. human culture and behaviour. Weather patterns also have an effect by influencing short-term human behaviour so that tick-bite risk may be linked to the seasonality of certain human activities such as hiking. and immunity in the human and animal populations (Gray et al. Then again.. 2005). could be affected by climate change. 3. 2009). thus changing the patterns of seasonal activity and significantly altering generation length. 2012).

3. 1994). as mentioned above (Burridge et al.3. While this fact is not the most important factor in the introduction of CCHFV to Europe.. Hyalomma (Hy. both reptiles imported from Africa (Nowak. it has nevertheless been hypothesized that the outbreak of CCHF in Turkey in 2002 could have been caused by birds carrying CCHFV-infected ticks from the Balkans (Karti et al. This probability is greater for ticks associated with migratory birds (Manilla. marmoreum or Am. Molin et al.. The dispersal of ticks by birds may be restricted to a short distance during local post-breeding flights or over extremely long distances during migration flights. infested by Am.. variegatum in southern Italy and Greece by migratory birds has been sporadically reported (Albanese et al. The current opinion is that the virus has been there many years and that some change/s favoured its contact with humans so that disease incidence increased (Ozdarendeli et al. latum and Am. 2010). Hy. Am. 2002). latum and Am.. 2011). In addition. flavomaculatum. belong to this group of ticks. the introduction of Am. 1996). 3. Some reptileassociated African Amblyomma tick species were found on the American mainland.3 Movement of domestic animals Ticks associated with pets are able to reach and establish themselves in areas far from their origins. One of the most typical examples is Rhipicephalus (Rh. taking into consideration the available epidemiological data. Their potential spread northwards and the establishment of permanent populations in the north are therefore of great importance. 2010). marmoreum. 1963). rufipes have occasionally been collected from imported tortoises and snakes (Bronswijk et al. but also through the introduction of lightly infested wild ungulates and tickinfested reptiles from Africa. Am. 1963. 1971. it was discovered that birds migrating from Eurasia to Africa carried tick species that were characteristic of the fauna of Europe and Asia (Hoogstraal.e. 1979.. mainly as a result of the importation of tickinfested reptiles from Africa (i. It currently seems impossible that migrating birds from the Balkans could have introduced the disease into Turkey and have it spread in an interval of weeks. Am.. and other tick species such as Am. in Poland. variegatum ticks. Am. Jaenson et al.. Similarly. exornatum. dissimile and Hy.) marginatum and Hy. Papadopoulus et al.g. The risk of diffusion of CCHFV into areas where the virus does not occur is linked to the possibility of infected Hyalomma ticks reaching and becoming established in such ‘uninfected areas’. particularly as the immature stages of Hyalomma are frequently found on migratory birds flying northward to temperate Europe (e.1 Migratory birds The introduction and spread of tick species by migratory birds are documented for those tick species which are ornithophilic in the larval and nymphal stages. 2004).3. 3. Also. nuttalli on monitor lizards.3 Movement of Animals 3. The occurrence of this disease in 29 Turkey is under discussion.2 Importation of exotic and wildlife species There are many examples of exotic ticks that have been introduced into countries by the importation of exotic animals. 2001). transversale were found on pythons and Am. universally known as the ‘kennel tick’ (Manilla. Jongejan. 1998a). ... Hoogstraal (1979) reported that many bird species are responsible for the intracontinental and intercontinental dissemination of ticks associated with CCHFV. Linthicum and Bailey. rufipes. 1994. a constant threat for the introduction of heartwater into the American mainland exists mainly by the importation of livestock from the Caribbean Islands infested with Am.Factors Influencing Tick Spread and Distribution 3. in the Netherlands. In studies conducted on birds migrating through Egypt between 1955 and 1973. 2007). and to a lesser extent some species of Amblyomma. sparsum). Am. flavomaculatum was collected from an African savannah monitor lizard (Nijhof et al. As another example. rufipes is the most common tick found on birds migrating northwards from subSaharan Africa to Eurasia in the spring (Hoogstraal.) sanguineus.

Am. sanguineus is probably one of the most widely distributed tick species in the world.. Cochez et al.. variegatum into the Caribbean area is an example of how the movement of domestic animals can spread exotic ticks. 2000. mainly in the south of the country. 2004). reticulatus is a tick species that appears to be expanding its range in north-western Europe. marsh tick or cattle tick) may have been introduced into north-western Europe in a similar way. mainly because of its large geographical distribution and its ability to transmit both Asiatic and African redwater babesiosis caused by Babesia bovis and B. or from East Africa to the Indian Ocean islands.. Cattle transportation between islands also explains the introduction of the tick at least into Marie-Galante. 2011).. 2007. as it has already succeeded in colonizing new territories through the movement of migratory birds which cannot be controlled. The most resistant strain studied to date has been shown to survive the dipping procedure used at the USA–Mexico border as part of an importation barrier to prevent the re-entry of Rh. It remains a threat in areas where climatic conditions are suitable for its establishment.. In Belgium. microplus into the USA (Temeyer et al. Rh. but during the latter half of the 19th century it. (Boophilus) microplus. for example Puerto Rico. 1995). reticulatus has increased on deer and vegetation. microplus. The reinfestation of some countries.. Walker et al. Furthermore. 2004).. microplus was not present in West Africa. and these ponies then introduced this tick species to that country. Madagascar. variegatum is thus the only African vector of cowdriosis that has established itself successfully outside the continent (Walker and Olwage. possibly explaining further spread of D. Populations have also been found over the last few years in the Netherlands and Belgium (Nijhof et al. Travellers with dogs have brought this important vector species permanently into the latitudes approximately between 50°N and 30°S (Walker et al. Antigua and Martinique. This is a monotropic three-host tick strictly associated with the domestic dog. 2011) and Benin (Madder et al. these were most likely established after the introduction of southern European cattle breeds. 1956.. as no large mammals are present there. in addition to the routes described previously. is without a doubt one of the most important vectors of livestock pathogens in the world. the pantropical blue tick... D. The introduction of Am. Rh. Barré et al. 1987). (2006) in 2003 and 2004 showed that the distribution and abundance of D. or to tick-infested litter used during cattle transportation by ships from Senegal to the West Indies (Barré et al. 2004). 2012) as a result of uncontrolled cattle imports for cattle improvement programmes. reticulatus has been found on tick (flag or drag) cloth dragged in different nature reserves and peri-urban areas. more specifically. of Rh. Rh. 1993). Rh. Ponies were exported to Belgium to manage vegetation. variegatum into Guadeloupe and probably also into most of the West Indies islands was due to the importation of infested N’Dama cattle in the 1800s. Because of the high adaptability of ticks and. reticulatus. Temeyer et al. 1993. 2000)... Latin America. . several populations have been found in freshwater tidal marshes. South Africa. 2007. Estrada-Peña et al. 1987). and the babesiae it transmits. Most of these areas are frequented by dogs. The initial introduction of Am. microplus was eradicated from the USA in 1943 through the costly Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program which started in 1906. D. was spread by cattle transported to Australia. But from the late 1960s. Dermacentor reticulatus (the ornate dog tick. 2004). This cattle-associated African bird species was also introduced into the Caribbean area (Corn et al. the rapid increase in the number of infested islands in the Caribbean area was linked to the presence and spread of the cattle egret in the West Indies. A study performed in Germany by Dautel et al. after a successful eradication campaign might also be due to the movement of this bird (Bokma and Shaw. Mexico and the USA (Hoogstraal.30 Maxime Madder and Ilaria Pascucci 1998b. In the Netherlands. Until recently. and on dogs. This tick species originates from Asia. the risk of the introduction of this species into the Mediterranean area and the establishment of local populations seems possible. but this tick species has unfortunately been introduced into the Ivory Coast (Madder et al. bigemina (Coetzer and Tustin.

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7. mainly in countries located south of the Sahara. It affects only porcine species. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (eds M. The disease is currently present in Africa. Thomas G. it has been observed that ASFV induces an inapparent infection in three species of wild pigs (warthogs. Caporale”. 2009). with clinical signs and case fatality rates similar to those observed in domestic pigs in Spain. Rita de Sousa. those of all breeds and ages. Sections 4.1.2. Róbert Farkas. Belgium. Maxime Madder. More recently. Salman and J. many efforts have been made in this area.1 Ilaria Pascucci. Wild boar and feral pigs can transmit the virus directly to domestic swine.11. 5National Institute of Health Doutor Ricardo Jorge.3 Maxime Madder.6 Róbert Farkas7 and Mo Salman8 1 Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre. IP (INSA). CODA-CERVA. Sections 4. Portugal and Sardinia (Italy) and.2.8. and in most cases it is endemic. Belgium and University of Pretoria. but with unsatisfactory results.10.1. Tarrés-Call) 33 . when the first live attenuated vaccine was used in Portugal. Hungary. In Africa. Antwerp. while the role played by the giant forest hog has not yet been clarified (Jori and Bastos. The disease was first described in Kenya by Montgomery in 1921 when the virus spread from infected warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) to domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) and resulted in a 100% case fatality rate. Sweden. 2006).3. Portugal.11.4 Rita de Sousa. ASF is still endemic in Sardinia. Teramo. Budapest. 4. 4.5 Agustín Estrada-Peña. Section 4. Jaenson.3. Wild boar have also been identified as susceptible to ASFV infection. no treatment or effective vaccine against ASFV is available. bush pigs and red river hogs). Italy.6. 2 Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e del Molise “G. ©CAB International 2013. the prevention of this disease in * Frank Koenen wrote Section 4. Sections 4. 4. Section 4. 3Uppsala University. 2006).5.11. 4. Agustín Estrada-Peña. 7Szent István University. 4Institute of Tropical Medicine.4 Tick-borne Infections (Including Zoonoses) in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin* Frank Koenen.11.2 Thomas G. Mo Salman. As no vaccine for ASFV currently exists. experimentally. Spain.4.9. Jaenson. Águas de Moura.T. ASFV spread to the Transcaucasian countries (TCC) and the Russian Federation (RF) (Sánchez-Vizcaíno. 4. Brussels. an icosahedral complex DNA virus that is a unique member of the Asfarviridae family. Ilaria Pascucci. At present. in 2007. 6University of Zaragoza. Since 1963. In Europe. Section 4. 4. Pigs are the only domestic animal species that are naturally infected by ASFV. and 8Colorado State University.4. South Africa. USA 4.T. in feral pigs in Florida (Sánchez-Vizcaíno. Section 4.1 African Swine Fever African swine fever (ASF) is a viral swine disease caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV).

This cycle of the virus makes ASF very difficult to eradicate in Africa. in O. and pig–tick interactions (Sánchez-Vizcaíno. bone marrow. In Europe. 1969 and 1993). infectious dose and mode of infection. The main routes of transmission are: swill. All of these virus introductions were also linked to swill feeding. Other soft tick species that are widely distributed in North and South America have been identified as harbouring and transmitting ASFV. a scientific opinion issued by the EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) Panel on Animal Health and Animal Welfare (2010a) on ASF contained an assessment of the risk of introduction of this virus into the European Union (EU). ASFV is spread among domestic pigs via the oral–nasal route. lung. only trans-stadial transmission has been demonstrated. porcinus in Africa and O. Some species of soft ticks have proved to be ASFV reservoirs and vectors. erraticus complex have been found in Sardinia. The infection usually commences in the monocytes and macrophages of the tonsils and mandibular lymph nodes. liver and kidney) which are the principal sites of secondary replication. with a range of clinical forms varying from acute to subclinical and chronic. erraticus in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal). The clinical signs of ASF can resemble a variety of other swine haemorrhagic diseases and can easily be confused with classical swine fever (hog cholera) and erysipelas. some other outbreaks occurred in other European countries. Malta (1978). the Netherlands (1986) and Italy (1967. 2011). such as Ornithodoros moubata and O. ASFV infection is characterized by low levels of virus in the tissues and low or undetectable levels of viraemia. transovarial and trans-stadial ASFV transmission have been described. In 2010. where ASFV remained endemic until 1995. affecting Andorra (1975). it has also been demonstrated that the virus can be infectious by a number of other routes. and by the intramuscular. ASF can also present different clinical signs that depend primarily upon the virulence of the virus. O. where ASF has remained endemic since 1978. has been shown to transmit ASFV to domestic pigs (see Table 2. Another scientific report from the EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Animal Welfare (2010c) discusses the role of tick vectors in the epidemiology .. 1967 and 1974). infected animals are the most important source of virus dissemination to susceptible pigs. present in Africa. Belgium (1985). subcutaneous and intraperitoneal routes. including tick bites. However. In O.34 Frank Koenen et al. where ASF is still present. Laboratory tests are necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Although this first outbreak was rapidly eradicated. 2006). France (1964. During this period. several epidemiological paths are known to be able to maintain ASFV in domestic pig populations and this complicates the control of the disease. erraticus.1). ASFV was introduced for the first time in 1957 into Portugal through waste from international flights. ASFV is maintained by a cycle of infection between wild pigs and soft ticks. experimental inoculation via cutaneous scarification. 2006). In Sardinia. Experience of past outbreaks of ASF outside Africa has shown that the introduction of ASFV into a non-infected pig population within a free region is most often linked to entry through international ports or airports. savignyi. intravenous. From there it spreads through the draining lymph nodes and blood to the target organs (lymph nodes. disease-free areas depends on preventing the introduction of the virus (SánchezVizcaíno. especially from the Caucasus (Wieland et al. and in the experimental setting. 2006). wild boars are as susceptible as domestic pigs. In Africa. In some of these wild pigs. spleen. however. moubata. domestic pig and wild boar interactions. Once ASFV is established in domestic swine. these levels of virus are sufficient to infect soft tick vectors and for tick transmission of the virus to domestic pigs. In Europe. The infected material is typically garbage containing uncooked pork that is used for pig feeding (Sánchez-Vizcaíno. in 1960 the virus entered Europe again in Lisbon (Portugal) and spread through the rest of Portugal and Spain. No ticks from the O. including the island of Sardinia.

no more information is currently available on specific determinants for tick/warthog hosts. moubata group (34/35 were infected) whereas another isolate. as well as infections of ticks from Masai Mara Reserve in Kenya. instead of real adaptation of this virus isolate to the tick host (Kleiboeker et al. using concatenated sequences of the p22 and p32 genes.1. In Madagascar. 1977.. Some other genotypes were only found in domestic pigs and presented low genetic divergence (Lubisi et al. 1999). and contains geographic distribution maps of the tick vector and ASFV. 4. Kleiboeker et al. as was previously suggested. (1999) compared oral and intra-haemocoelic experimental infections of Ornithodoros ticks collected from warthog burrows in Kruger National Park and the Northern Transvaal region of South Africa. Michaud (Michaud et al. Malawi and Zimbabwe.1 Virus–tick interaction Several factors can influence the vector competence of soft tick species for ASFV. More recently. ‘Tengani’. Bastos et al. De Tray (1963) reported consistent establishment of the virus isolate ‘Uganda’ in specimens of the O. However. According to Kleiboeker et al. Some authors consider ASFV and the Ornithodoros tick as co-evolving organisms. These researchers used three different viruses from South Africa. Dixon and Wilkinson (1988) suggested that virus replication in ticks and warthogs may require additional host-specific genes that are not necessary for multiplication in domestic pigs. (2003) and Lubisi et al. 1988). In addition. Dixon and Wilkinson. leading to its accelerated diversification. it has been suspected that the introduced virus was adapted to local bush pigs and Ornithodoros ticks. noticeable telomeric similarities in the genomes of ASFV and Borrelia (the latter shares the same Ornithodoros tick host in Africa and is considered to be an original pathogen of soft ticks) suggest that ASFV is also a primary organism of Ornithodoros ticks and that it coadapts to its tick hosts (Hinnebusch and Barbour. (1999). it is unknown whether ASFV is able to come back from the domestic to the sylvatic cycle. 1991). (2005) observed higher genetic variations in genotypes directly isolated from Ornithodoros ticks and warthogs.1.. Such diversification phenomena as reported in several African . For example. 4.Tick-borne Infections in Europe and Mediterranean Basin of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and ASF in Eurasia. 2007) detected relatively high genetic divergence between Malagasy virus isolates collected on domestic pigs from 1998 and 2003. 2005). The reason why this virus was originally isolated from 35 ticks could be the large opportunity for those ticks to feed on infected pigs with high viraemic titres during an ASF outbreak and the leakage of midgut contents into the haemocoel without tick mortality. although some authors suggest that recombination processes during co-infections in ticks may exist (Plowright. In Madagascar. Actually. compared with that observed on West African and European isolates since the 1970s. or in genotypes circulating in East and southern Africa where the sylvatic cycle plays a crucial part in the epidemiology of ASF.. while the others persisted. the cytopathology caused by the Malawi strain in infected ticks suggested the non-adaptation of the isolate to express specific genes that allow the production of large quantities of progeny virus without damaging the host cell. caused persistent infection only in a small proportion of ticks (2/46 were infected). The oral infection using the isolate from Malawi was self-limiting (decline of virus titres and number of ticks containing virus). and that the introduction of virus from tick/warthog sources into domestic pig populations would remove the selection pressure for maintaining these genes.2 Genetic diversification of ASFV By sequencing the C-terminal end of the p72 gene. This hypothesis could explain the noticeable discrepancies concerning infection success rates that have been reported in several past surveys. all originally isolated from ticks collected in the field.

2004). and large mammals such as giraffes and rhinoceroses. such as transstadial and transovarial transmission. sheep and goats will have viraemia for approximately a week after becoming infected. no information is yet available on the location and the expression of this genetic diversification. Domestic ruminants such as cattle. the tick remains infected throughout its life (transstadial transmission). countries has been previously analysed by Dixon and Wilkinson (1988) on Zambian virus isolates from Ornithodoros ticks. The infection is caused by a virus belonging to the genus Nairovirus (family Bunyaviridae) and is transmitted by several species of hard (ixodid) ticks.. Outbreaks usually take place during the peak activity periods of Hyalomma ticks. ticks would be able to enhance the diversification of ASFV and the emergence of new virulent isolates to domestic pigs. The virus may be maintained in tick populations during inter-epizootic periods through several mechanisms.. Tick-infested birds migrating from Russia across the Black Sea were suggested as a link to introduction of the virus in Turkey (Karti et al. coinciding with the hot and dry season (Swanepoel. Three clades are distributed in Africa. two in Europe and the other two in Asia. However.2 Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever CCHF is a tick-borne zoonotic infection that has public health concern in several regions of the world including Africa. The most common cause of infection in humans is a bite from an infected tick. There are a large number of potential vertebrate host reservoirs for CCHFV. and the mature tick may transmit the virus to large vertebrates such as livestock. It has also been concluded that viral strains have a latitudinal relationship in which there is not much interchange of the strains between different latitudes (i. Paweska. This diversity resulted from peculiar point mutations all along the length of the genome. particularly by those belonging to the Hyalomma genus (Horak et al. Phylogenetic analyses performed on S-. Antibodies against the virus have been detected in domestic and wild animals.36 Frank Koenen et al. hedgehogs. The most important source of virus transmission is immature ticks of the Hyalomma genus which have fed on the blood of viraemic small vertebrates.. Africa and Europe). it appears that circulation of the virus is largely confined to within two specific regions in these continents. A considerable genetic diversity was observed between virus isolates from ticks collected from the same regions and even from the same warthog burrows. In addition. 1988).24 contains data on the serological surveillance of CCHF in domestic animals. the Balkans region. The level of viraemia in birds is usually low and unnoticeable. Table 1. Infection can also occur through direct contact . rodents. 2005. instead of insertions/deletions in the region close to the left-hand terminus of the genome usually observed for host selection (Dixon and Wilkinson. Turkey and western Asia. even though migratory birds may play role in the epidemiology of the virus by disseminating infected Hyalomma ticks. the Middle East. bats. 2006). The epidemiological features of the disease are still under discussion.and L-RNA segments of the CrimeanCongo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) showed virus strains grouped in seven different clades (Deyde et al. Greece. 2007). 2001). Once infected. including hares. In this case. Despite the potential for dispersal of the virus in Africa and Eurasia. and non-viraemic transmission of ticks aggregated on the same host (co-feeding). 2006). In Appendix 1. M. They may be the source of infection for humans during slaughtering or veterinary procedures such as castration. and corresponds to the distribution and dispersal of tick vectors of the virus (Burt and Swanepoel. Nevertheless. 4.e. reflecting the diverse feeding preferences of the immature and adult tick vectors. many social and environmental factors affect CCHF occurrence in Turkey. this process does not seem compatible with the persistence of ASFV in Iberian Ornithodoros ticks and the observed genetic homogeneity of ASFV in Europe.

2008). is a member of the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae. Related viruses are louping ill virus (LIV). The infection occurred when the infected ticks on the carcasses were squashed during skinning (Swanepoel. are more easily detected and removed when encountered on the human body.. I... which may also cause human encephalitis. the infection prevalence of TBEV in nymphs ranges around 0. persulcatus.. in this substrate the CCHFV is quickly inactivated by a drop in pH.. Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) and Alkhurma virus (ALKV). These animal models will be beneficial for the development of treatments and vaccines (Keshtkar-Jahromi et al. Clinical infection in humans is initially manifested as an acute febrile illness that can be followed by a fatal haemorrhagic syndrome with case-fatality rates of up to 50% (Swanepoel et al. 2011. 1998).5 mm) compared with the dull-coloured smaller (1. which is more important. 2010). 2010). and the Far Eastern subtype. Langat virus (LGTV) and Powassan virus (POWV). Naderi et al. In Estonia. Aradaib et al. ricinus (Labuda and Nuttall.. 2011).5 mm) nymphs and. tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). including the Kumlinge virus on Åland in Finland. 2010).Tick-borne Infections in Europe and Mediterranean Basin with blood or tissues from infected humans or livestock. 2010. 2003). the Siberian subtype. the nymphs are far more abundant in nature than the adult ticks. which is the main vector stage for the Eastern TBEV. Three subtypes of the TBEV are recognized: the Western or Central European subtype. Nevertheless.0%. 4. 2010. Elata et al.1 Tick-borne encephalitis Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is one of the most important and serious human infections occurring in Europe and many parts of Asia. which cause serious haemorrhagic fevers rather than encephalitis (Gritsun et al. Bereczky et al. Misdiagnosis is frequently due to the nonspecific clinical signs (Fisgin et al. as occurs during the maturation process that the meat undergoes after slaughter. A scientific report from the EFSA Panel and Animal Health and Welfare (2010c) addresses the role of tick vectors in the epidemiology of CCHF and ASF in Eurasia.. where the distributions of the two tick species overlap. tends to be much higher (up to 40%) than in I. therefore. with that in adults about 0. The highly pathogenic nature of the virus occasionally results in serious nosocomial outbreaks (Swanepoel. This is due to several factors: the unfed larvae are usually not infected but may become infected while taking their first blood meal on a viraemic host or.. Co-circulations of both Western TBEV and Eastern TBEV occur in some foci in the Baltic States.. The aetiological agent. by co-feeding with infective nymphs.1–0. 1995. 2010). meat from butchered animals does not pose a risk. 2008). In TBE foci in central and northern Europe.000 human cases of encephalitis in Russia and more than 3000 cases in the rest of Europe annually (Donoso Mantke et al. 1987). The infection prevalence in adult females of I. Two animal models have been recently established by using genetically defective mice in which the interferon response had been altered (Bente et al.3 Tick-borne Encephalitis Group 4. The Far Eastern subtype has been discovered not only in Siberia but also in some European localities (Chausov et al. Recently. The diagnosis is based on serology or viral RNA detection by molecular techniques. During human infection. the Siberian subtype was recognized as a human pathogen in western Finland where populations of the vector. ricinus is the main tick vector involved in TBEV infections in Europe.3–6. were also recorded. Outbreaks in South Africa arose among slaughterhouse operators during the slaughter of ostriches which were heavily infested with ticks.. 37 TBEV is believed to cause at least 11..3. all three humanpathogenic subtypes of TBEV have been . 2011). viral genomes are present in saliva and urine with viral loads similar to those in blood (Bodur et al. and Omsk haemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV).5%. All its stages can attack humans although the nymphs are the most important ones as vectors of the virus to humans. and the colourful adult females are relatively large (3.. Ixodes persulcatus.

sociopolitical changes and technological factors. In contrast to these wild hosts. and the field mouse. mainly in Russia. 1988). However. The incidence of TBE usually fluctuates from year to year. I. These authors estimated from field observations conducted in Scotland that this mode of infection could account for 73–98% of all virus infections in wild red grouse in their first season. Ha. but an increased incidence has been noted in some countries (Danielova et al. better diagnostic methods and increased awareness (Donoso Mantke et al. Clinical signs include fever. (2004). Several tick hosts. punctata are competent but secondary vectors (Labuda and Nuttall. One of the main assumptions for the transmission of a vector-borne pathogen is usually that feeding by the vector is the sole or main route of host infection. horses. however. 2008). ricinus and I.3. salivation. trembling.38 Frank Koenen et al. Occasionally. coma and death.. The virus can cause severe encephalitis in humans. such as the red grouse. Clethrionomys glareolus. are occasionally infected. This is presumably the result of a complex interaction of factors such as the changing climate affecting the vector both directly and indirectly by affecting the plant and host communities. 4. found in the same areas (Golovljova et al. Mountain hares. the clinical syndrome of TBE disease is severe.g. with a life-threatening neurological syndrome and high case fatality (5 to 35%) in its Eastern form. willow grouse. Most of these cases were due to accidents while handling the virus in the laboratory . and less commonly of cattle. became infected with LIV after eating infected I. ricinus ticks. is usually too low to be infective to feeding tick larvae. arboricola. several other tick species. 1988). In contrast. ataxia. however. Scotland. particularly the bank vole.2 Louping ill Louping ill virus (LIV). mainly in Central and Northern Europe. persulcatus. is usually comparatively low (approximately 1%) with nearly all deaths confined to patients above 60 years of age. this way of transmission has potential implications for the understanding of other vectorborne pathogens in which hosts may ingest vectors through foraging or grooming. For the maintenance of TBEV in I.. Gilbert et al. other domesticated animals and birds. Until not long ago.. I. is closely related to TBEV and is the only member of this virus complex present in the British Isles. e. Telford and Goethert. it was believed that viraemic small rodents. however. Ireland and Norway. cattle and goats develop viraemias sufficiently high to be infective to tick larvae (Reid. 2006. (1997). Apodemus flavicollis. demonstrated experimentally a transmission route whereby an important tick host. and insectivores were the principal reservoirs of TBEV that infected the vectors. Lindquist and Vapalahti. Many cases of TBE in humans are unrecognized and without clinical signs or symptoms. the viraemia in these rodents is usually of short duration (2 days). In some cases. the red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus). Wales. hexagonus. may be maintenance hosts for LIV by non-viraemic transmission between co-feeding ticks. about 35 cases have been recorded. 2008. co-feeding transmission between infective nymphs and susceptible larvae feeding very close to and on the same small rodent is now considered to be much more important than transmission via viraemic small mammals (Labuda and Nuttall. Lepus timidus. including I. and new TBE foci seem to have appeared. Haemaphysalis (Ha. 2008). ricinus populations. and particularly sheepdogs and hunting dogs in endemic areas. LI is principally a disease of sheep and red grouse. Dogs. as experimentally demonstrated by Jones et al. Certainly. sheep and red grouse consistently develop viraemia sufficient to infect tick larvae and amplify the virus. Patients infected with the Siberian subtype may suffer from a milder but often more chronic disease compared with the disease caused by the Far Eastern subtype. field vole and deer become viraemic when infected with LIV. where the vector is I. Apart from the two main vector species. also known as ovine encephalitis/encephalomyelitis virus. The viraemia. the case fatality in Western Europe. especially in the last decade. inermis and Ha. Louping ill (LI) is endemic in sheep-farming areas of northern England. 2008). 2008).) concinna. ricinus (Reid. 2004)..

E. so most probably the seroprevalence of TBE antibodies in humans is due to crossreactivity to GGEV (Grard et al. ricinus is the primary vector and virus reservoir. 1988). Bulgaria. Even when virions are acquired by the feeding larvae. LIV infection in sheep is exacerbated by co-infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Reid. ricinus population. and the agent of HGE. 39 4. phagocytophilum in the genus Anaplasma. causing human granulocytic ehrlichiosis – HGE) were renamed as A. Ehrlichia. Anaplasmosis was formerly known as gall sickness. As a result of a taxonomic reorganization of the order Rickettsiales (Dumler et al. 2007).4. is currently classified in the TBEV group. These virus-positive ticks were detected in regions where a high prevalence of TBE antibodies was present in humans. 2007).) appendiculatus and Hyalomma (Hy. ricinus play any significant role in the epidemiology of the disease (Reid. bovis and A. E. Experimental and trans-stadial transmission have been reported in Rhipicephalus (Rh. TBEV is considered not to be endemic in Greece. 4. Rymaszewska and Grenda.1 Anaplasma phagocytophilum A. platys. The Turkish subtype (Turkish sheep encephalitis virus) is more closely related to LIV and should be reclassified.. which was isolated from the brain of a newborn goat with neurological symptoms. equi. formerly known as E.Tick-borne Infections in Europe and Mediterranean Basin (Labuda and Nuttal. The vector of GGEV has not yet been specifically identified but it is considered as likely to be I.. This species is the aetiological agent of human and animal granulocytic anaplasmosis. and canine granulocytic anaplasmosis in dogs (Strle.3. 2001). the prevalence of LIV in I. 1988. The main Anaplasma species responsible for animal infections or zoonosis in Europe and the Mediterranean basin are listed in Table 4. species all invade blood cells other than erythrocytes in their respective mammalian hosts. phagocytophila and E. pasture fever in cattle and wild ruminants (deer. Infection of domestic and wild animals and humans with these organisms may lead to a clinical disease collectively called anaplasmosis that manifests as a febrile systemic illness with haematological abnormalities and lymphadenopathy (Rikihisa. ricinus. phagocytophila and Ehrlichia spp. only a few of the nymphs become infected.3 Other viruses related to TBE Infections of domesticated animals similar to TBE and LI also occur in other European countries (Spain. Like the prevalence of TBEV in the I. 2008). Sequence analysis showed that the virus was GGEV. 2008). phagocytophilum. Definitive diagnosis is based upon the isolation and identification of the virus (Reid. Several species of the genus Anaplasma pose severe threats to livestock and human health. ricinus is also low. equine granulocytic anaplasmosis in horses. bovis and E.1. A study during 2003– 2006 in goat and sheep farming rural areas of northern Greece suggested the presence of TBEV in two pools of I. In the family Anaplasmataceae. four genera have been identified: Anaplasma. 1988). is a commonly found bacterium causing tick-borne fever (TBF) in sheep. platys are now known as A. human granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans. Wolbachia and Neorickettsia. Similarly. equi. some species of the genus Ehrlichia (E. but there is no evidence that they are natural vectors or that any other tick species except I. because of the transstadial – but presumably not transovarial – transmission.4 Anaplasmoses Alphaproteobacteria of the order Rickettsiales are obligate intracellular organisms with a wide range of eukaryotic hosts. 4. ricinus ticks. recently added. the vector efficiency of this species is relatively restricted. 2006). There are two well-characterized families: Anaplasmataceae and Rickettsiaceae. Lobetti. Greece and Turkey). These latter. a disease of ruminants caused by intraerythrocytic bacteria. bison and wild goats). 2004. Greek goat encephalitis virus (GGEV).) anatolicum. Although I. It was first recognized in Scotland in 1932 and is now identified in most other European .

persulcatus. For example. Hy. yet fulminating cases have been described. especially in persons above the age of 60 years. persulcatus. excavatum. bursa. Anaplasma. It is generally a benign disease in these animals. sanguineus. persulcatus. respiratory distress. Rh. but also a rodent-tick cycle. Rh. no fatal cases have been reported. bursa. I. sheep. countries. small mammals Hy. sanguineus. and the prevalence of infection varies among regions and with the development stage of the tick (Stuen. The bacterium infects granulocytic leucocytes (neutrophils. 2006). Table 4. 2008). phagocytophilum is I. and the disease is always acute. Ha. Rh. ricinus. ricinus (Strle.25 and 25% (Walker et al. in unfed nymphs the infection rate varied between 0. yellow-necked mouse (A. I. ricinus. myalgia. sanguineus Ruminants I. annulatus Cattle. 2007). Mortality is low. Anaplasmoses in Europe and in the Mediterranean basin transmitted by hard ticks. thrombocytopenia and general immunosuppression (Woldehiwet. Hyalomma. The main vector of A. lymphopenia. Equine granulocytic anaplasmosis occurs in horses as their natural host but also in llamas and rodents. Apart from domestic ruminants. persulcatus.. flavicollis). In particular. Disease Host range A. cattle Rh. Ha. I. bovis Bovine mononuclear or agranulocytic anaplasmosis Ovine anaplasmosis A. The wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus). I. neutropenia. 2004). free-living ruminants such as feral goats. similar to symptoms of the common flu. 2007). sanguineus. Human granulocytic anaplasmosis is a multisystemic disease that occurs more in adults than in children. field vole (Microtus agrestis) and bank vole (Myodes glareolus) are found to be competent reservoirs of infection (Barandika et al.40 Frank Koenen et al. nausea and lethargy. Rh. phagocytophilum Tick-borne fever (TBF) Pasture fever Human granulocytic anaplasmosis Equine granulocytic anaplasmosis Canine granulocytic anaplasmosis Sheep Cattle. Haemaphysalis.. punctata. wild ruminants Humans A. sanguineus Horses. turanicus A. I. marginale Bovine anaplasmosis A. platys Canine infectious cyclic thrombocytopenia Tick involved (in Europe and the Mediterranean basin) I. Rh. Anaplasma spp.. Rh. I. annulatus Cattle I. sanguineus Dogs Rh. immunocompromised patients are at high risk.1. and red. rodents Dogs I. Rh. Rhipicephalus. I. trianguliceps. The survival of the parasite is . 2001). shock and opportunistic infections are occasional complications. ricinus. Rh.. never chronic. eosinophils and basophils). sanguineus. Rh. Meningoencephalitis.. Rh. llamas. Rh. trianguliceps.. ovis A. phagocytophilum. monocytes and tissue macrophages. but the mortality rate in the USA has been shown to be between 7 and 10% (reviewed by Bakken and Dumler. The disease is characterized by acute fever. Rh. fallow and roe deer tested positive for A. punctata. Ha.. Ixodes. centrale Bovine anaplasmosis A. Rh. headache. Not only a tick-ruminant cycle. bursa. TBF in sheep and pasture fever in cattle are characterized by fever. turanicus Goats. is believed to maintain the TBF variants. 2008 and Rymaszewska and Grenda. ricinus. In Europe.

A. 4. ricinus. Australia. In cattle. Mechanical transmission occurs via the contaminated mouthparts of biting flies. 1936). centrale is considered as a separate species or subspecies of A. Naranjo et al. 4. marginale.4. A crossimmunity between the two bacteria exists. only few strains have been characterized. centrale. 2008). sanguineus (Alekseev et al. 2007b. persulcatus. bursa and Rh. the pathogen has been detected mainly in Italy (George et al. both domestic and wild. marginale is present in tropical and subtropical regions although this bacterial species is frequently detected in Europe (Sicily. in Europe this mainly involves I. eland) can function as reservoirs of A. Hence.. although the pathogen can remain viable and infective in arthropods for several days after ingestion (Ewing. Horseflies (Tabanus spp. anaemia.. 1981. The disease is characterized by fever.2 Anaplasma marginale Bovine anaplasmosis. 2007.. 2004).. The role of the latter species as a vector is not yet determined. The transmission of A. 2001. Ogden et al. weight loss. These vaccines are mainly used in Africa. Not much is known about the epidemiology of A.. as only one Rh. Alberti et al.Tick-borne Infections in Europe and Mediterranean Basin believed to be over a year while ticks are awaiting a new host. In Europe. centrale.3 Anaplasma centrale A. as endemic stability means that all calves need to come into contact with the disease. deer. 2004). cattle reared in endemic regions develop a naturally acquired immunity. marginale is often introduced into a herd by ticks.) and stable flies (Stomoxys spp. 2008).). water buffalo. reservoirs and stable vector populations. bison. it may lead to death (Rymaszewska and Grenda. calves. marginale and also A. reduction of milk production and in pregnant females. Latin America and Israel (Rymaszewska and Grenda. and to a lesser extent mosquitoes (Psorophora spp. quite often without passing through a stage of clinical disease.e. caused by A. the disease in cattle causes considerable losses to dairy and beef industries worldwide. It is an obligate intracellular species invading erythrocytes mostly in ruminants. in areas of the UK where I. 1998.. 2004). unless sufficient contact in the first 41 months of life allowed for the development of immunity. punctata. and because of its mild virulence this naturally attenuated strain has been used for more than 100 years in live-blood vaccines to protect cattle from the more virulent A... ricinus was not present (MacLeod. 2005). Carelli et al. sanguineus. this tick was removed from a dog showing clinical signs of tickborne disease (TBD). African antelopes and mule deer. Trans-stadial transmission of the bacteria is effected by ticks of approximately 20 species.).. Rh. Torina et al. marginale and the infection can be maintained in game reserves (deer-to-deer transmission) without bovine intervention being necessary (Potgieter and Stoltsz. Hornok et al. Thereafter. Only trans-stadial transmission occurs. Hungary and Spain) (de la Fuente et al. Hornok et al. no matter the immune status of the mothers. I. transmit A. It has also been linked with I. marginale. marginale (Potgieter and Stoltsz. 1998. but subsequently mechanical transmission (transmission by insects or by veterinary interventions) may become more important. persulcatus. 2008). African antelopes and mule deer). and is a disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants (water buffalo. phagocytophilum has also been associated with other tick species. 2008. It appears that A. was formerly known as gall sickness.. . (Boophilus) annulatus (Kocan et al. Kocan et al. Rh. abortion. 2006. 2005. such as Ha. I. and is also an intraerythrocytic tick-borne pathogen that causes mild infections in cattle. the risk for serious diseases increases with age. trianguliceps and Rh. sanguineus was found to be positive. i. 2008). buffalo. Calves under the age of 6 months have innate resistance and will not develop clinical anaplasmosis... Wild ruminants (antelopes.4. 2010). bison. but can only be achieved within a few minutes after the initial bite.

1997). Clinical signs are usually not observed. bovis is the aetiological agent of bovine mononuclear or agranulocytic anaplasmosis. 2003.4.4. but is most commonly present in South America.. France. appendiculatus and Hy. 2008). ovis was identified molecularly in the salivary glands of two Rh. platys. 2011). apart from occasional haemorrhages after trauma or surgery. but possibly also Rh. bursa (Friedhoff. ovis in small ruminants is a benign infection with low morbidity and mortality. sanguineus. The infection has been detected worldwide. A. Sparagano et al. enlargement of the prescapular lymph nodes. 2001) and Israel (Harrus et al. ovis. canis. Hornok et al.. and the Indian subcontinent. 2007b. bovis infects the monocytes of the peripheral blood and the macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system. marginale. Central and southern Africa. sanguineus and Rh. 2011). it has been detected in Italy. Mylonakis et al... excavatum (Coetzer and Tustin. The implicated vector seems to be Rh. marginale (Herndon et al. weight loss.. centrale in Europe was reported in 2008 in Italy (Carelli et al. In Europe. 2005. 2009).. 2003).4 Anaplasma bovis A. This disease has been reported in Italy (Georges et al. Sparagano et al. 1997). Sanogo et al. 1978). marginatus could play a role in the transmission because of the high prevalence of ticks found in the affected flock. Hungary and Turkey (de la Fuente et al. Cases of importation of both the infectious agent and the vector have been reported in dogs visiting the Mediterranean region (Heyman et al. fever. centrale does not protect against A. Torina et al. 2009). 2007). 2008). The first case of bovine anaplasmosis caused by A. ovis mainly infects wild ruminants and small ruminants like sheep and goats.. and in Europe cases have been reported in Spain.. vaccination with A. 2007..5 Anaplasma ovis A.. sanguineus ticks collected from sheep in Turkey (Aktas et al. ovis in the Mediterranean basin is Rh. Christova et al. centrale was compared with that of virulent A. but in general anaplasmosis due to A. but infected dogs may remain asymptomatic (Harvey et al.. Infection may occur with limited or no clinical signs. 4. 2006. paleness of the mucous membranes and mucous nasal secretion (Uilenberg. Greece and Italy (Sainz et al. turanicus adults collected from vegetation (Harrus et al. Yabsley et al. sanguineus (Inokuma et al. although the authors also suggest that D. The pathogen has recently been detected in Israel in unfed Rh. Goats appear to be resistant. .. a disease occurring mainly in cattle and small mammals (Goethert and Telford. 2002.. 2008). Goats are normally more susceptible than sheep or cattle.. Alberti and Sparagano... Recently. 2003). and is prevalent worldwide (Rymaszewska and Grenda. and the clinical signs were typical of acute anaplasmosis caused by A.. This bacterium also infects erythrocytes. West.42 Frank Koenen et al. 2000. Molecular analysis of the Italian strains linked these to the African A. The bacterium multiplies in platelets.. Nijhof et al. centrale strains (Carelli et al.. 2004). marginale. although ticks of Rh. 2003. The disease is characterized by weakness. a complete genome sequence of A.. 2004. The biological vector of A. 1991). 2003. 4. 2008. 2008). Aktas et al. The transmission of the disease is transstadial by known vectors: Amblyomma (Am. Rh.6 Anaplasma platys Canine anaplasmosis or canine infectious cyclic thrombocytopenia (CICT) is caused by A. 1999.) variegatum.. sanguineus fed on experimentally infected dogs were not able to infect naive dogs in the adult stage (Simpson et al. 2006).4.. 2010) with the aim of identifying possible outer membrane protein candidates for the development of a safer inactivated vaccine. Serological tests may cross-react with other Anaplasma and in vivo tests may be inaccurate because of low bacteraemias (de la Fuente et al. The case involved a naturally occurring infection in a dairy cow.. In contrast to A.. 4. A. a cosmopolitan tick species that also transmits E.

1993).5.2 Ehrlichia ruminantium E. In Africa. sanguineus. variegatum and Am. 2010). sheep. Its distribution has expanded with the distribution of its vector and is maintained in nature by persistent infections of wild and domestic canids (Groves et al. in dogs it infects monocytes and causes classical canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. a zoonosis present in the USA and caused by the closely related E. the islands in the Indian Ocean and several Caribbean islands. variegatum sporadically occurs in the Mediterranean basin.. The control of Am. wolf. 1987. The disease has three clinicopathological phases: acute. The most widely distributed Amblyomma species in Africa is Am.5. hebraeum in this region would be best suited to Sardinia. tropical canine pancytopenia. Perez et al. 1975). In Europe. most probably imported on migratory birds (Papadopoulos et al. variegatum in the Caribbean has been a daunting task. bovines. but its importance was not seriously considered until 1968 when an epizootic occurred in Vietnam among military working dogs. such as tracker dog disease.. 2006). canis is restricted to the Mediterranean and Balkan countries (Hornok et al. Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is also known by other names. Although the ticks had been eradicated for a number of years. it has not been observed. the islands became infested again after the import of immature stages on migrating cattle egrets (Corn et al. 2011). E. bovis. variegatum. and this even spreads outside the continent. It resides as a colony within a membrane-lined intracellular vacuole or morula.. turanicus adults collected from the vegetation also have been shown to harbour A. i. the survival of Am. variegatum and Am. in spite of the presence of potential vectors (Coetzer and Tustin.e. unfed Rh. Am. Rh. chaffeensis (Perez et al.. Am. Clinical 43 signs of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis in humans are very similar to those of human monocytic ehrlichiosis. . Transmission is related to the Amblyomma vector. Heartwater is an infectious tick-transmitted disease of ruminants. 2007). fox.. infectious exudative pericarditis or malignant rickettsiosis of ruminants). and is widespread in tropical and temperate areas of the world (from 50°N to 35°S)..5 Ehrlichioses 4. previously known as Cowdria ruminantium. Sambri et al. canis is a tick-transmitted obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium. i. Sicily and the south-western part of the Italian peninsula (Pascucci et al.. 2004). and the adults of both species parasitize cattle. 4. as mentioned for A. 2003). platys (Harrus et al.. ruminantium into the Mediterranean region.Tick-borne Infections in Europe and Mediterranean Basin Similarly. 2008). 2004. although several cases of canine ehrlichiosis have been detected in more northern regions in dogs with a history of travelling (Hirsch and Pantchev. According to a predictive GIS (geographical information system) model using temperature and land use. The bacterium is transmitted transstadially by the kennel tick (or brown dog tick). at least ten species are capable of transmission. canis have been reported (Maeda et al. mad gall sickness. Several cases of human infections with E. the most important are Am. Heartwater occurs in sub-Saharan Africa and in several African islands. In continental America. subclinical and chronic (Skotarczak. 1996). causes heartwater or cowdriosis (other names are black gall sickness. 4..1 Ehrlichia canis E. This poses a possible risk for the introduction of E. hebraeum is the most important vector in southern Africa. Guadeloupe and Antigua. goats and various wild species. 1935). canine haemorrhagic fever and canine typhus. and infections in this breed are associated with a poorer prognosis (Raoult and Parola.. ruminantium. 2007). German Shepherd dogs and their crosses are particularly prone to more severe signs of disease. coyote) (Donatein and Lestoquard.e. The disease has been known since 1935 as a disease of dogs and other canids (jackal. 2006). hebraeum.

Rickettsiae are coccobacillary Gramnegative. 2000). but most Rickettsia species are associated with ticks.1 Rickettsiae as bacteria The genus Rickettsia is classified in the Alphaproteobacteria subdivision. obligate intracellular bacteria that reside free in the cytosol and occasionally in the nucleus of host cells (Walker. Geographic distribution and activity of infected ticks are important determinants in the epidemiology of tick-borne rickettsioses. the agent of epidemic typhus transmitted by the human body louse (Pediculus humanus corporis). mites and fleas. ompA (Fournier et al. The rickettsiae are traditionally divided into two antigenically distinct groups based on their lipopolysaccharide (LPS): the typhus group (TG) that includes two species. This boom in new or rediscovery of Rickettsia species in recent years is undoubtedly related to the development of cell culture systems and the advent of molecular genetics technology. which are both their vectors and reservoirs. The vectors of rickettsiae do include lice. R. the agent of murine typhus transmitted by the rat flea. Trans-stadial persistence from larvae to nymphs and to adults is also important for maintaining the infection so that transovarial transmission is successful (Burgdorfer and Brinton.. and the majority have been described in the last 25 years.44 Frank Koenen et al. and R. 1998). Ticks become infected with rickettsiae mainly by feeding on rickettsaemic host animals. Likewise. These diseases exist primarily in endemic and enzootic foci and occasionally give rise to sporadic or seasonal outbreaks.6 Rickettsioses Rickettsial diseases are among the oldest known arthropod-borne diseases affecting human health throughout the ages. order Rickettsiales (which also includes the families Anaplasmataceae and Holosporaceae). conorii. Currently. Humans are accidental hosts that become infected when ticks containing virulent rickettsiae in their salivary glands take a blood meal and inject the rickettsiae into the feeding site. cultivating long and well-established relationships with arthropods (lice.. causing illness and death worldwide (Maxey. 1998). ompB (Roux and Raoult. 2005) and sca1 (Ngwamidiba et al. particularly young rodents. prowazekii.. typhi. 4. 1995). and by the passage of rickettsiae via eggs to the progeny of infected female ticks. the detection and identification of longknown pathogens in patients from new and distinct geographic regions has refuelled interest in these agents. 1975). 2001). and the spotted fever group (SFG) that includes the majority of rickettsial species. For example.12 Mb). Many of the de novo biosynthetic pathways characteristic of free-living bacteria are no longer present in rickettsiae (Andersson and Kurland. This lifestyle within a highly specialized niche. family Rickettsiaceae (Dumler et al. Evidence suggests that rickettsiae and Rickettsia-like organisms have evolved and survived as obligate intracellular bacteria. These emerging infections often have diverse presentations that underscore the need for increased awareness among clinicians.11– 1. Different phylogenetic studies using the sequencing of 16S rDNA (Roux and Raoult. has given rise to unique adaptations such as the reduction of bacterial metabolism and the exploitation of host metabolites. 2006) – have shown distinct groups of Rickettsia species. 2007). 2006). This family includes the genus Rickettsia along with Orientia (Tamura et al. 1997). but some authors still believe that it is difficult to define the SFG species. mites. . 4.. sca4 (Ngwamidiba et al. 1998). which are transmitted by different arthropod vectors. The ability to transport substrates that are present in the host cell cytosol but rarely available in the extracellular milieu is likely to have contributed to the evolution of the small-sized rickettsial genome (1. the eukaryotic cell. 1899).6. Eight are present in Europe and the Mediterranean basin.. This is because some species of Rickettsia are so closely related that they could be considered to be strains of a single species (Walker. sca2 (Sekeyova et al. the sequence analysis of 16S rDNA for R.. fleas and ticks) and vertebrate hosts (Azad and Beard.. there are 12 ticktransmitted species of rickettsiae that are known to cause disease in man. 1995) and diverse rickettsial genes – gltA (Roux et al. 2001).

The main Rickettsia species responsible for animal infections or zoonoses in Europe and the Mediterranean basin are listed in Table 4. conorii Israeli spotted fever strain R. conorii Astrakhan strain Astrakhan fever (AF) R... sanguineus. ventalloi Ha. Ha. africae. reticulatus. turanicus D. Hy. 2005. interpretation should be undertaken cautiously because some strains are so closely related that they cannot be distinguished (Teysseire and Raoult.. Rh. ricinus D. Ha. inermis. Ha. This technique can reach a good level of success if the sample is collected and preserved under appropriate conditions until isolation procedures begin. turanicus D. 4.2.. pusillus D. scupense). Rh. rickettsial DNA detection by PCR and other methods require specialized laboratories. massiliae Unnamed R. conorii. Rh.. punctata. reticulatus.6. D.2 Rickettsia conorii R. is the most frequently isolated rickettsia and has Table 4. hexagonus. sibirica mongolitimonae strain Lymphangitis-associated rickettsiosis (LAR) R. However. turanicus Rh. Ha. Rhipicephalus. Culture of the agent is the ultimate criterion to confirm the diagnosis and to identify the species of Rickettsia from the patient’s blood (Gouriet et al. slovaca Tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA)/Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL) R. Western blot (WB) and cross adsorption (CA) immunoassays can sometimes assist in the differentiation of SFG or TG rickettsiae..Tick-borne Infections in Europe and Mediterranean Basin R.2. de Sousa et al. however. Rh. Hy. R.. punctata Rh. helvetica Unnamed R. punctata. sanguineus. pumilio. 1995). marginatus. conorii Malish Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) Israeli spotted fever (ISF) R. the causative agent of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF). Dermacentor. inermis. It should be noted that the sensitivity of PCR in skin biopsy (eschar) is higher than in blood. Hy. sanguineus Hy. The diagnosis of rickettsial disease is most often confirmed by serological tests because culture. detritum (syn. Hyalomma. ricinus. marginatum. 45 The advent of molecular methods based on PCR has though enabled the development of specific and rapid tools for the detection and identification of Rickettsia species. 2004). Rickettsia spp. Hy. Hy. Rh. I. R. Rh. Rh. 2008b). sanguineus. Indirect immunofluorescent assay remains the gold standard serological test and is the mostly widely used technique for diagnosis of rickettsial diseases (Brouqui et al. owing to the presence of shared protein and LPS antigens among spotted fever group rickettsiae. I. I. Ixodes. Disease R.5% of divergence between them (Roux and Raoult. Rickettsioses in Europe and in the Mediterranean basin transmitted by hard ticks. monacensis Unnamed Tick involved (based on publications review) Rh. parkeri and many others has shown less than 0. sibirica.. Haemaphysalis. excavatum. 1992). the use of serological methods to distinguish between infections due to closely related rickettsiae is extremely difficult. and also because serum is usually the most commonly available sample. aeschlimannii Unnamed R. I. Rh. anatolicum. Ha. bursa. . reticulatus. I.

is the main vector and reservoir for R..4/105 inhabitants. peaking in July and August when immature stages of the tick predominate. 1985). and is widely distributed in the Old World. 1988). The onset of MSF is generally abrupt and the disease is characterized by . However. not only the skin. respectively (de Sousa et al.. but do not seem to be a reservoir for R. 1989) and Germany (McDonald et al. it seems that in the last few decades there has been an increase in reported MSF cases in Portugal. Italy. 1991).. 1997). In some situations. In Italy. 2005). mainly in anthropozoonotic and domestic cycles. France and Israel (Walker and Fishbein. conorii from patients in the Mediterranean area continue to be described. de Sousa and Bacellar. Case reports and isolations of R. conorii Israeli spotted fever strains (Alexandre et al. In some countries.8/105 inhabitants and 47. sanguineus. Most of these cases were attributed to the introduction of imported vectors or travellers who acquired the infection in endemic areas (Walker. The incubation period ranges from 3 to 7 days after the tick bite. and it has particularly serious manifestations when the lungs and brain are affected (Valbuena and Walker. 2003. 2006). estimated that in Israel the annual incidence of MSF is 6.4% of all clinical cases. MSF is seasonal. (1982). showed that the average winter temperatures in Portugal over the last 10 years have been the warmest on record and this. 2011). During that same period the incidence of MSF in the Bragança and Beja districts of Portugal reached rates of 56. conorii Malish and R. possibly played a role in doubling the number of confirmed MSF cases during 2000–2005. the national incidence rate during the period 1989–2003 was 8. former USSR. As the larvae and nymphs of the associated ticks are small and their attachment to the body during feeding is painless.6/105 inhabitants was reported.. Menn et al. 1981) and the UK (Chai et al. 2005a). Rh. and in most of European countries the cases are encountered in late spring and summer (81–88%). northern Africa and India (Rehacek and Tarasevich. this is likely to be due to climate changes influencing tick activity. Dogs are transient reservoirs because they have a short-lived rickettsaemia after infection. they are more difficult to detect and so more likely to transmit MSF organisms (Raoult and Roux. A study by de Sousa et al. Switzerland (Chamot et al. The disease is characterized by a generalized endothelial infection of the microvasculature and the main clinical features are due to the injury of blood vessels. during a 5 year period from 1998 to 2002. it is difficult to compare the incidence of the disease in different regions. such as Belgium (Lambert et al. India and Pakistan. One study performed in Portugal also showed that dogs can present with febrile illness related to infection with R. MSF was described for the first time by Conor and Brusch in Tunisia in 1910. the widest geographical distribution of the SFG rickettsial species.. including recent cases in Croatia (Sardelic et al. et al. coupled with low rainfall. had an incidence rate of 9. accounting for 51. 1984).. the same period of time in Sicily. 1987). Inasmuch as the reporting of cases of MSF is not obligatory in all endemic countries. 1988). (2006a). conorii strains in the Mediterranean area. the USA (Anderson et al. the incidence of MSF is unknown. a national incidence rate of 1. However.2/105 inhabitants and that the highest incidences of the disease occur in the western coastal area and the southern Negev Desert. 2004). 2009). Turkey (Kuloglu et al. the Middle East. commonly known as the brown dog tick..9/105 inhabitants per year.. dogs are the main host for feeding of all the stages of Rh.. as well as in Japan (Yoshikawa.3/105 inhabitants (Ciceroni et al. 2003. 2003). Africa.. 2004) and Greece (Psaroulaki et al. Spain. In Portugal. conorii.. Otero et al. 2010).. sanguineus (Gilot. and most of the knowledge is based on the human seroprevalence of antibodies to SFG rickettsiae. Sporadic cases have also occurred in nonendemic countries in northern and central Europe. but it can be longer.. Sweden (Vene. 2008).46 Frank Koenen et al. a prospective study in the south of Corsica showed a higher incidence of 48/105 inhabitants compared with other regions (Raoult et al. The histopathological phenomenon of vasculitis can involve all the organs. In France. 1984). being endemic in southern Europe..

Occasionally. 2000). Znazen et al. 1987.. 2008).4–13% was reported for hospitalized patients in France. Walker et al. this is less frequent than what is reported by patients infected with the R.6. significantly higher percentages of ISF patients had nausea. The most important and statistically significant finding documented in the study was that the ISF strain was associated with a higher number of fatal cases. 2003). Several clinical cases were described in those same countries. A prospective study conducted in Portugal during 1994–2006 identified and compared two groups of patients infected by Malish and ISF strains. Recently. myalgias (84%). the eschar is not found and is seen rarely in multiples.. 2005. 2003. conorii ISF strain showed that only 39% and 40% of patients had eschars.. However. Moreover. vomiting and increased levels of total bilirubin. 4. Boillat et al. headache (78%). In Israel. Israel. some differences were found. 2008b). conorii has always been considered to produce a less severe disease than R. Giammanco et al.. conorii strains. but significantly fewer reported presence of an eschar compared with patients infected by the Malish strain.. 1987. and a case fatality rate of 1. severe forms of MSF have been reported in 6% of patients. Patients infected with ISF had a recognized tick bite. and has been detected in Rh. Severe forms and fatal cases were also described in patients in Sicily and Tunisia. and the presence of an eschar at the site of the tick bite. rickettsii. Regev-Yochay et al.Tick-borne Infections in Europe and Mediterranean Basin fever. in southern Portugal the fatality rate in 1997 reached 32. maculopapular rash (94%). Spain.. de Sousa et al. studies in Portuguese and Sicilian patients infected with the R. and some years later the aetiological agent was isolated from Rh.. 2005.. The main clinical signs were fever (94%). The co-morbidity condition of diabetes mellitus was identified as the risk factor for a fatal outcome.. asthenia (95%) and anorexia (73%).. including the palms and soles. and some clinical series reported the total absence of an eschar (Gross and Yagupsky... Other underlying conditions. 2003. It is still unclear whether the more severe and fatal cases are simply related to host factors or whether there are differences in the virulence of the bacteria causing the disease. Although the comparison of the clinical manifestations of MSF caused by different strains revealed a tremendous overlap.. 2008b. Algeria (Oran) and Portugal (Ruiz-Beltran et al. clinical signs and symptoms were reported in a group of 71 Portuguese patients with confirmed diagnosis either by PCR or isolation of R. 2008b). 2005. 1985. In general. clinical and laboratory data are similar to those found in patients infected with R. and more recently patients have also been reported in Tunisia and Libya (Bacellar et al. 2005). Also. conorii Malish. Giammanco et al. sanguineus collected in Portugal and Sicily (Giammanco et al. increasing age and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency can be also be implicated in severe illness (Walker.. 1974). The differences in virulence between strains are not yet understood and comparative analysis of genomes will probably lead to better comprehension. 2008. 1989). sanguineus ticks and from a patient 47 (Goldwasser et al. g-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase. Chai et al.. a maculopapular rash involving the entire body. this was indicative of a bad prognosis (de Sousa et al. 2008b). conorii Malish strain (de Sousa et al.. 1990. Purpuric or petechial rashes were present in 6% of patients with severe forms. 2003.. Giammanco et al. such as heart failure. and also in travellers that visited endemic areas (de Sousa et al. Amaro et al.. confirmed either by isolation or DNA detection by PCR (de Sousa et al. 2008b. Statistical analysis of a representative sample of Portuguese patients with MSF also showed that alcoholism increases the risk for a fatal outcome. eschars have been described in only 4% of cases. eschar (60%)...3 Rickettsia conorii Israeli spotted fever strain Israeli spotted fever (ISF) was described for the first time in 1946 in Israel. Wolach et al.. . 2007). However.3% in hospitalized patients (de Sousa et al. de Sousa et al. 2011).. The disease that initially seemed restricted to that area is actually widespread in the Mediterranean basin. de Sousa et al. 1999. R.

2002).. and disease manifestations similar to MSF.. Toledo et al. conorii Astrakhan strain showed similar clinical manifestations to those of the other strains of R. Raoult et al. 2009b). the disease was serologically diagnosed. 2005). slovaca infection was reported only in 1997 in a French patient who presented with an eschar on the scalp and enlarged cervical lymph nodes after receiving a bite from a Dermacentor tick (Raoult et al. In 1996. from Israel and Rh. more than 2000 cases of the disease have been registered in a small area of the Astrakhan region (Tarasevich et al. but the unusual aspect of the case was its occurrence in March when MSF is rarely reported. a region of Russia located on the Caspian Sea (Tarasevich and Mediannikov. 2005. 2006). slovaca was first isolated in 1968 from a Dermacentor marginatus tick in Slovakia (Rehacek.. 4. the R.... the first human case of infection caused by this Rickettsia strain was described in southern France. a rare or diffuse maculopapular rash and eschars. The new strain was isolated from the blood and skin of a patient admitted in March to the Hospital La Timone in Marseille 4.. and the diagnosis was confirmed by rickettsial isolation and/or PCR detection of the agent in eschars (Fournier et al. this is in contrast with the majority of Portuguese cases that occurred in summer during the MSF season. 1984. suspected cases of infection caused by R. 1984).. Clinical cases with isolation or DNA detection of the agent were also reported in Greece.5 Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae strain R.6. most of the reported cases caused by the R. 2006). 50% of patients also have a lymphangitis expanding from the inoculation eschar to the draining lymph node (de Sousa et al. 2005b. Rehacek. and in French travellers who visited Algeria and Egypt (Fournier et al. 2006b. In Europe and the Mediterranean basin... Eremeeva et al. the first proven case of R. However. conorii. The latter feature has led to the name given to this disease: lymphangitis-associated rickettsiosis (LAR) (Fournier et al. Since 1983. In subsequent years. (Raoult et al.4 Rickettsia conorii Astrakhan strain Astrakhan fever (AF) was first reported in the 1970s in patients living in rural areas of Astrakhan.. The lymphadenopathy present in most of the patients that have been seen infected . pumilio ticks (Tarasevich et al. sanguineus ticks in Kosovo (Fournier et al. anatolicum from Greece. 2008a). 2005b. sibirica mongolitimonae strain have occurred in the spring. 2005). The patient had no travel history. 1997). pusillus from Portugal and Spain (Psaroulaki et al. Aguirrebengoa et al. 1991. The clinical presentation of R. 2010). Scolovschi et al. sibirica mongolitimonae strain – initially named strain HA-91 – was originally isolated from a Hy. In France. other human cases were described in France. Portugal and Spain.. slovaca were reported in patients from Hungary and Slovakia (Mittermayer et al. and the R. sibirica mongolitimonae strain was detected in Hy.. Subsequently. conorii Astrakhan strain has recently been isolated from a patient in Chad and from Rh. Later.6 Rickettsia slovaca R... Infection caused by the R. 2008.6. conorii Astrakhan strain was isolated from humans and Rh.6. sibirica mongolitimonae infection has included fever. Hyalomma sp. The appearance of the clinical cases coincided with the construction of a petrochemical complex that was releasing enormous quantities of CO2 into the atmosphere.. however.b).. 1991). 4. 1996). Psaroulaki et al... 1993). 1991). 1994). 2006a. 2003a.. de Sousa et al.. de Sousa et al. R. 1980. It seems that the CO2 attracted ticks to this area and somehow increased the probability of exposure of the population to the vector (Tarasevich and Mediannikov. eschars have been reported in only 23% of patients (Tarasevich et al. asiaticum tick collected in the Alashian region of Inner Mongolia in 1991 (Yu et al. The occurrence of these cases in different months could be related to the differences in seasonal activity and population dynamics of the different vectors.48 Frank Koenen et al.

2006). 2002. Parola et al.. Hungary. 2002... until now the two described human cases caused by R. Selmi et al. Ibarra et al.6%). rash is rare (14–23%) compared with other rickettsioses.. 2009). Fever is present in 12–67% of the patients. 2009). raoultii (formerly genotypes RpA4..5%) and Switzerland (45. turanicus. 1994. Later. Milhano et al. this rickettsia has been detected by molecular methods and isolated in several countries in Europe (Scolovschi et al.. Spanish researchers have also coined the name Dermacentorborne necrosis erythema lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL) (Lakos. revealing similar manifestations to those found with other rickettsioses.. Portugal (41. marginatum ticks from Portugal. Bacellar et al. reticulatus in most European countries. 1993).6. The enlargement of lymph nodes has been reported in almost all of the patients (74–100%) (Lakos. This Rickettsia species was also found in Dermacentor removed from Spanish and French patients with cases of TIBOLA/ DEBONEL (Ibarra et al. 1997).. Parola et al. Later.Tick-borne Infections in Europe and Mediterranean Basin with R.. 2006. 2010). nutallii in Siberia.4%) (Beati et al. It seems that children and women had a higher risk of infection. massiliae was isolated in 1992 from ticks in France near Marseille (Beati and Raoult. Fernández-Soto et al. Slovakia and Italy (Lakos. massiliae has been found mainly in ticks from the Rhipicephalus genus: Rh. aeschlimannii were . 1997.... the other aetiological agent of TIBOLA/DEBONEL. France.. Nevertheless. slovaca has led to this clinical syndrome being named tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA). The pathogenicity of 49 the species has been suggested by the amplification of its DNA from the blood and skin biopsy samples of patients with a clinical picture of R. and patients were more frequently bitten on the scalp (68–100%). R. DnS14... The epidemiological and clinical findings on R. slovaca infections in Europe is still under-evaluated. Only 50% of the patients develop detectable antibodies. Spain. Bacellar. 4. sanguineus and Rh.. Italy and Egypt (Beati et al. 2002. Selmi et al. which may reflect the fact that this disease is a localized infection. 1999). another case of R. it was not until 2005 that the isolate discovered 20 years before was characterized and identified as R. 1999. The diagnosis was confirmed by PCR in a Spanish laboratory (García-García et al.. the majority of patients have been reported from France. massiliae (Vitale et al. However.7 Rickettsia massiliae R. However. The patient presented with an eschar on his right ankle. but 21–52% of patients developed a localized alopecia at the site of the tick bite and around 37% suffered from persistent asthenia. R. He recovered completely after receiving tetracycline. slovaca-like infection. this Rickettsia was detected in Dermacentor ticks in other European countries (Rydkina et al... Punda-Polic et al. aeschlimannii was first characterized in 1997 from Hy. Croatia. Hungary. 1997).8 Rickettsia aeschlimannii R..6. No complications were observed.. 2006. 1995. 1997. 2008. marginatus and D. Recently. DnS28). Parola et al. 4. 2010). slovaca infections among patients in France. 2009. was described for the first time in Rh.. Raoult et al. slovaca remains the main aetiological agent responsible for the majority of TIBOLA/DEBONEL cases. Parola et al. 2009). The prevalence rates of R. Spain and Italy showed that the infection occurred mainly during the colder months of the year. Ibarra et al. pumilio collected in the Astrakhan region and in D. Algeria. Oteo et al. R. 2003). slovaca has been identified in D.. in accordance with the density and activity of Dermacentor ticks. Raoult et al. and a maculopapular rash involving the palms and soles. 2006. 2002. Lakos and Raoult.. Subsequently. this rickettsia was also described from Hy. massiliae infection was diagnosed in a patient from Argentina. The number of R. 2002. R. 2010). 2008. Spain. mostly from October to April. Raoult et al. 2006. marginatum ticks from Morocco (Beati et al. The first human case was described in a Sicilian patient who was admitted at Palermo hospital in 1985. slovaca infection that have been found in Dermacentor ticks in Europe range from 21% in Hungary to higher rates in Spain (40. 1999.

1999). Nilsson et al. 2009. Pluta et al.. Raoult et al. such as: Hy. 2009. Prosenc et al. Hungary. ricinus for the first time in Germany. in the same vector (I. The prevalence of R.50 Frank Koenen et al. an association of R. punctata.Soto et al. turanicus (Fernández-Soto et al. 1999. 2003. Recent studies in Algeria. Rh.. Rh. 1993).10 Rickettsia monacensis R. Bitam et al. 2011). Blaschitz et al.. helvetica in ticks from different countries has been found to range from 2.. 1998. Hy. Bulgaria. 2002. Portugal. 2009). most European countries have reported the presence of this agent. 2010). however. helvetica (Baumann et al.. 4. It was reported for the first time in 1999 in Sweden in two patients with fatal perimyocarditis. Nijhof et al. helvetica infection has been progressively becoming a clinical entity of its own. Slovenia. Hy. aeschlimannii was confirmed by PCR amplification of rickettsial DNA from serum and skin biopsy (Pretorius and Birtles.. and infection by R. I. Detection of co-infections with R. 2007. but additional evaluation and isolation of the bacterium from clinical samples are needed to confirm the pathogenicity of R. R. monacensis was recently associated with febrile disease in humans in northern Spain (Jado et al. 2011).. bursa.8% in Poland to 91.9 Rickettsia helvetica R. Movila et al. 1995. 2002. monacensis was easily propagated and isolated in Vero cell lines at 28°C in conditions different from that for the isolate from Germany (Milhano et al. 2008.. Christova et al. ricinus. 2004... 2003. helvetica infections have been reported in patients in Europe (France. rufipes. 2005. and their reported diseases in Europe and in the Mediterranean basin. Since then. Symptoms exhibited by the patients were similar to those of MSF..6. Chmielewski et al. and it was recently reported in two Swedish patients with meningitis and septicaemia (Nilsson et al.. Greece..4% in the south of Germany (Chmielewski et al. 2003. Corsica.25 in Appendix 1 elaborates on the geographical distribution of Rickettsia spp. helvetica infection or Lyme borreliosis (Fernández. In Portugal and Spain. Ha.. 2002). sanguineus and Rh. helvetica has been detected and isolated from I. ricinus in many European countries. Milhano et al.. helvetica and Borrelia burgdorferi s.. monacensis was isolated and characterized from I.l. D... Silaghi et al.. only diagnosed in Africa. ricinus in 1979. Skarphedinsson et al. the organism has been also detected in I. and it was shown that R.6. Poland. 2004.. 2008. Table 1. 2007. Psaroulaki et al. 2002). aeschlimannii. Fournier et al. and confirmed as a new member of the SFG Rickettsia in 1993 (Beati et al. Matsumoto et al. this Rickettsia species has also been isolated from I. Mokrani et al. R. Switzerland) and Asia (Thailand).. 2006. Parola et al.. 2004. 2010). Eastern Ukraine. Sweden and the UK (Bacellar et al. Germany. 2011). Shypnov et al. Sréter-Lancz et al.. helvetica with sarcoidosis was proposed... ricinus in Portugal. Nilsson et al.. More recently. including Austria. 2004.. anatolicum. Movila et al. the validity of this association has been questioned and later serological studies did not reveal the presence of anti-rickettsial antibodies in a group of Scandinavian sarcoidosis patients (Nilsson et al. ricinus) has gained attention for possible exacerbation of the illness arising from R. 2010. Ha. This table was generated independently of the main systematic literature review that is described in the introduction.. Germany and the European part of Russia also revealed that other tick species can harbour R.. 2010). Ciceroni et al. Italy. Hy. Spain. Beninati et al. Fernández-Soto et al. reticulatus. ventalloi parasitizing birds (Santos-Silva et al... Denmark. 4. essentially based on molecular detection (Simser et al. 2009.. Serological associations with R. 2009. The first case was in a French traveller who had visited Morocco. appendiculatus tick (Pretorius and Birtles. the Netherlands. 2007). detritum (syn. 2002). . Moldova. Spain. France.. and the second case was detected in a South African patient who was bitten by a Rh. scupense). 2004). R.. TijsseKlassen et al.. In 2002. 2002. 2003. 2006. inermis. 2006. Planck et al. Italy. helvetica was detected for the first time in Swiss I.

afzelii is mainly associated with rodents. B. lusitaniae sometimes infect humans and may cause human LB (Richter et al. LB is prevalent in most parts of Europe. followed by mixed B. burgdorferi. garinii and B. valaisiana are associated with birds. but the infection also occurs in other parts. persulcatus. In Europe. as climate change is a broad concept that includes all potential intentional and nonintentional changes in weather conditions) and an increasing abundance of deer could . garinii and all serotypes of B. the nymphs are usually more important than the female adult ticks for transmission of the pathogens to humans (Hubálek and Halouzka. B. I. At least 18 species or genospecies of spirochaetes in the B. range 0–11%. afzelii infection (Piesman and Gern. while some serotypes of B. lusitaniae is associated with lizards in the Mediterranean countries. Several are pathogenic to humans and domestic animals. 1998). Piesman and Gern.. i. nearly all human LB cases are confined to the north-eastern USA. They are transmitted by tick species of the genus Ixodes. mainly I. B. scapularis in the eastern USA. but its prevalence is lower in southern Europe. The infection also occurs in some specific locations in North Africa.9%. Many species of Borrelia may circulate in the same ecosystem. voles. Multiple infection of a tick may occur because the host on which the tick was feeding had a multiple infection or because the tick had fed two or more times on hosts infected with different Borrelia spp. In Europe. B. 1992).l. at least another four Borrelia species. rats and squirrels) or hares. Piesman and Gern. Cervids appear to be refractory to the infection and usually do not serve as Borrelia reservoirs. spielmanii and B. rodents (mice. Certain bird species also serve as vertebrate reservoirs to the spirochaetes. and B.. Hubálek and Halouzka. Ixodes ricinus. 2008). 2006). bavariensis. so in this case it is the adult female ticks that are responsible for nearly all human infections with LB spirochaetes. The enzootic cycle in general involves Ixodes spp. hexagonus and I. valaisiana are predominant in the mixed infections. the nymphs rarely feed on humans. afzelii and B. B.7 Lyme Borrelioses Lyme borreliosis (LB) or Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease of humans in the northern hemisphere. burgdorferi s. including Mexico and Brazil. 51 It is important to distinguish between vertebrate hosts for the ticks and vertebrate reservoirs of the spirochaetes. It is a complex of several different zoonotic infections of which the aetiological agents are transmitted by hard ticks. but with a lower prevalence than the northeastern part of the country. such as in Portugal and Italy than in the former USSR to Japan. In Europe. ricinus in Europe.Tick-borne Infections in Europe and Mediterranean Basin 4. range 3–58%) than in the nymphs (mean 10. ricinus females (Jaenson and Tälleklint.. however. complex have so far been described. particularly insectivores (shrews. including California. hedgehogs). Co-feeding transmission has been demonstrated to occur when sheep serve as a Borrelia reservoir (Ogden et al. 2008. 2005). 13% of Borrelia infections in I. I. larvae and nymphs which become infected when feeding on infective wild bacteraemic mammals. In I. ricinus are mixed infections (Rauter and Hartung. B. Rudenko et al. LB is becoming increasingly prevalent in southern Canada and has also been reported from South America. 2011). Larvae are rarely infected (mean 1. 2005. Mongolia and northwestern China (Rauter and Hartung. 2008).4%. garinii. ricinus is higher (mean 17. pacificus in the western USA and I. and often infects vector ticks more frequently than do the other genospecies in the complex (Richter and Matuschka. garinii/B. 1997). three tick species are considered to be vectors of LB spirochaetes. I. with the result that a single tick can be infected with two or more species of Borrelia – and with the TBE virus and other species of human-pathogenic bacteria. range 2–43%). persulcatus in Eurasia. which is predominant in North America but also present in Eurasia.e. 2004. Although the level of infection in the adult ticks in European populations of I. 1998). 2008). but are extremely important hosts to I. Climate change (not synonymous with global warming in the author’s opinion.e. They include B. i. valaisiana. which are predominant in Eurasia. In North America. Throughout Europe. uriae (Piesman and Gern.8%.

caves and rocky overhangs (Estrada-Peña and Jongejan. Iran and Central Asia. B. It has been isolated in O. endemic tick-borne relapsing fever is a zoonotic disease transmitted worldwide by soft tick species of the genus Ornithodoros. 1999). although the time spent on the host is relatively short. erraticus ticks found in nearby areas (Anda et al. specific relationships usually exist between the Ornithodoros vector species. probably with an underestimated incidence (Sánchez-Yebra et al. typically in cracks and crevices of rodent burrows. several other relapsing borrelioses are present. clinical symptoms associated with LB have been reported in dogs. latyschevii is transmitted by O. B. hispanica is found in Spain. 2006). hispanica is one of the less severe in the relapsing fever group. 1998). This tick commonly lives in localities where livestock are housed. 1998). Ornithodoros ticks are included in the family Argasidae. Although this new Borrelia species has not yet been cultured. Reservoir hosts are usually wild rodents. This tick species usually lives in the burrows of wild rodents. the agent of Persian relapsing fever. tholozani (Rodhain. . present in the Caucasus and Iraq. After each blood meal they are found in their habitats. including meningitis. Relapsing fever borrelioses are characterized by recurrent febrile episodes and spirochaetaemia. Human LB infections sometimes cause clinical disease. Among domesticated animals. erraticus. and this tick species has adapted to live in these habitats (Estrada-Peña and Jongejan. 2006). B. In Spain and Portugal. In 1996. which can range from a relatively short influenza-like illness often accompanied by excruciating (nocturnal) pain.52 Frank Koenen et al.000 people annually contract the infection. and hence relapsing fever was sporadically reported in countries such as Spain during the 20th century. salivary glands and excretory organs. Syria.8 Recurrent (Relapsing) Fever Relapsing fever is an infection caused by several spirochaetes of the genus Borrelia (Cutler. to a severe syndrome with neurological involvement. Spirochaetes then invade all tissues of the tick. 1996). however. caucasica. it has been estimated that in Sweden alone about 10.. 1997). crocidurae. recurrentis and transmitted by the body louse Pediculus humanus.. Humans may be bitten. burgdorferi s. hispanica. cattle and horses. cats and livestock can be high. On the borders of Europe. tartakovskyi in Central Asia. but it is often difficult to establish a cause-and-effect relationship between exposure to the spirochaetes and clinical signs. 1999. a tick commonly found in south-western Europe. 1999). 1998). Ticks become infected during a blood meal on a vertebrate with spirochaetaemia. Cyprus. It is transmitted by O. They live close to their host. Greece and North Africa. duttoni (an African species not present in Europe) and B. persica. its natural host. be associated with the spread of LB in Northern Europe (Gray et al. in dogs. Other than the louse-borne relapsing fever caused by B. Egypt. it has adapted to bite domestic pigs that are kept in continuous grazing and sometimes overnight in large burrows or inside old buildings. molecular analyses have shown that it is closely related to B. and presents with neurological signs in less than 5% of cases (Cadavid and Barbour. Rebaudet and Parola.l. Within each region. for example manmade shelters. a new Borrelia species was isolated in southern Spain from three patients with relapsing fever and from O. B. Vertebrates and humans become infected during a blood meal through contamination of the feeding site by salivary and/or coxal secretions of the tick (Parola and Raoult. The disease caused by B. 2009). resulting in clinical disease (Berglund. chronic severe arthritis and/or myocarditis. Antibody titres against B.. The disease is sometimes severe (Cadavid and Barbour. verrucosus. including ovaries (responsible for transmission between generations). 2004). Portugal. Borrelia species and their distribution areas. another argasid parasite of rodents. B. 4. the former USSR and Iran (Estrada-Peña and Jongejan. The reservoir of this bacterium is still unknown and further records of the pathogen are unavailable. but also in human shelters or just below the soil surface. For instance. 2001). is transmitted by O. is found in Israel.

A low or nonpathogenic bovine Babesia species. these then leave the host cell and each enters another red cell (Homer et al. The introduction of susceptible animals into endemic regions could lead to the recrudescence of babesiosis (Telford et al.. which includes North Africa (Bouattour and Darghouth. Certain species of Babesia. To date. anaemia and hyperbilirubinuria. Uilenberg. another species in Europe.. others can infect only ticks from the genus Ixodes. B. Hunfeld et al. Molecular analysis suggests that the host range of many Babesia species is less restricted than previously believed and that still-unrecognized species may cause zoonotic infections in a variety of animals and humans (Gray and Weiss. The clinical features of babesiosis vary substantially from asymptomatic to life threatening. 2001. divergens. depending on the condition of the host and the parasite involved. 1993. All species of Babesia are naturally transmitted by the bite of infected female ticks. During the acute babesial infection.. divergens and B. 1993. which are the second most common blood-borne parasites of mammals after the trypanosomes. These species may persist in several generations of ticks. such as B. 2000. 2006).1 Babesioses Babesioses are caused by naturally ticktransmitted and generally host-specific intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia (phylum Apicomplexa.9. order Piroplasmida). was detected for the first time in unfed Hy. The two major factors involved in the pathogenesis of babesiosis are the release of pharmacologically active agents and intravascular haemolysis. B. daughter cells. Animals and humans can also acquire the infection through the transfusion of contaminated blood products. the host may become severely ill as a result of host-mediated immunopathological mechanisms and erythrocyte lysis. occultans. 2008). Infection is initiated by inoculation of the sporozoites with the saliva of the vector tick into the bloodstream of the host. In endemic areas. even without new infections. Transmission only occurs a few days after the tick has attached. Babesioses are well-recognized diseases of veterinary importance in Europe and North Africa. B. All mammalian hosts examined have been able to develop immunity to Babesia species in which both humoral and cellular factors are involved. Typically. 2000. One of the most important and widespread Babesia species affecting cattle in temperate Europe is B. Several tick vectors can carry more than one Babesia species.. Babesiae. Homer et al. with no or minimal clinical disease. marginatum ticks collected in three bioclimatic regions of Tunisia. The vectors become infected when ingesting the infected blood cells from a vertebrate reservoir that is competent in maintaining the Babesia organisms in an infectious state. punctata in western Europe. The relative importance of each varies with the species of Babesia. all or almost all individuals of the host population are infected when they are young. 1996).9 Piroplasmoses 4.. Babesia species directly invade red blood cells. Uilenberg.Tick-borne Infections in Europe and Mediterranean Basin 4. gives a much milder infection that is transmitted by Ha. the infected host can suffer high fever. and this species probably occurs wherever the vector I. More than 100 species have been identified. and these are traditionally divided on the basis of their morphology into the small and large babesiae (Telford et al. 2008). It has been demonstrated that male ticks may transmit Babesia species. 2000). It was supposed that this species may have a wide distribution in the Mediterranean region. and not only in . Homer et al. ricinus is present. sometimes four. are transmitted transovarially to the next generation because they invade the female tick’s ovaries. Some other Babesia species (e. major. only ixodid ticks have been identified as vectors for Babesia species. possibly followed by alterations in the kidneys and other organs. microti) are only transmitted trans-stadially. where their asexual multiplication most often results in two. including humans.. canis. are capable of infecting a wide variety of vertebrate mammalian species. because maturation of the sporozoites in the salivary glands of the vector is 53 stimulated by feeding. Some Babesia species can infect more than one genus of ticks.g. although the epidemiological importance of male ticks in transmission has yet to be established.

. Austria and Germany (Herwaldt et al. and there are serological differences as well (Uilenberg. B. 2004. and commonly induces moderate clinical signs in dogs.2 Theilerioses Theileria spp. 2007). In many individuals. divergens in two cases of human babesiosis in the Canary Islands (Olmeda et al.. A new European B. 2006. 1997) and in Portugal (Centeno-Lima et al. Beck et al.. 2000.. Babesioses are an emerging zoonotic problem caused by several species of protozoans in the genus Babesia (Homer et al. To date. 2006). This subspecies is considered to be a mildly virulent subspecies.4%) from several countries may be infected with B. and the B. c. c. Besides these large parasites... molecular studies have confirmed the responsibility of B. 2007). 2001. divergens-like organism (EU1). however.. divergens tend to develop severe and sometimes fatal illnesses (Homer et al. This parasite species was involved in the first documented cases of human babesiosis in asplenic men in Italy. caused by a strain named Babesia EU3 that has high homology with Babesia EU1. was reported from Germany (Häselbarth et al. 2006. The main species are B.. Cardoso et al. ovis. saliva or ingested blood independently of the limitations of vector tick infestation (Jefferies et al. 1957). gibsoni infection can be transmitted from dog to dog via bite wounds. 2002. Gray. namely B. In recent years. has been described from deer and from I. B.9. sanguineus. Bonnet et al.. ricinus (Duh et al. respectively.. named B. Most infected patients share splenectomy as a risk factor for acquiring the disease. microti-like or ‘Spanish isolate’. venatorum. microti or B. 2009). has also been reported in continental Europe (Cacció et al. small babesiae such as B. babesiosis is a mild. Splenectomized or elderly patients infected with B. At least 70% of the cases in Europe are associated with the cattle piroplasm. 4. bursa. 2011). vogeli. 2000. which are transmitted by Ha. 2007). 2007)..The first confirmed case of human babesiosis was diagnosed in a splenectomized Yugoslavian cattle farmer who died of a fatal B. 2006). microti. 2001). canis of dogs has been subdivided into three subspecies. reticulatus ticks. 2005. 2002. These subspecies are currently considered to be separate species. canis. 2008). transmitted by the brown dog tick. transmitted by D. motasi and B. sub-Saharan Africa as previously described (Ros-García et al. canis. divergens (Genchi. Rh. have been reported from some European countries (Zahler et al. A human infection in a splenectomized patient. Kjemtrup and Conrad. is the most common canine Babesia subspecies in temperate regions of Europe (Cacció et al.. 2007). microti infection has also been reported in Europe (Hildebrandt et al. c. On the basis of differences in vector specificity. B. geographical distribution. 2000).. Babesia c. punctata and Rh.9. motasi in northwestern Europe produces a clinically milder disease than it does in the Mediterranean basin.54 Frank Koenen et al. 2000. Gray. 2009).. Häselbarth et al. Camacho. 2000. vogeli and B. but the rising number of HIV-positive individuals and the increasing population of immunocompromised patients may also serve to boost the number of human cases. 2007). B.2). Herwaldt et al. 2008). divergens infection in 1956 (Skrabalo and Deanovic. more than 60 cases of human babesiosis have been reported from Europe. self-limited disease that requires only supportive therapy.. (phylum Apicomplexa. The clinical course of human babesiosis varies according to the aetiological agent and ranges from subclinical infection to a severe disease with sudden onset.. sanguineus.. order Piroplasmida) are tick-borne intracellular protozoan haemoparasites causing infection and often disease of veterinary and economic importance in livestock and wild animals in different regions of the world (Preston. 2003. Uilenberg. Several studies have proved that B.. pathogenicity. Babesia c. Duh et al. Sero-surveys suggest that a low percentage of Europeans (< 3.. gibsoni.. Irwin. antigenic properties and molecular investigations. 2003). The genus Theileria differs . Hunfeld et al. The taxonomy and even the geographical distribution of babesial parasites of small ruminants are not quite settled. rossi (Kjemtrup et al. Babesiosis in the horse is mentioned with theileriosis (see Section 4. with the proposed name of Theileria annae. 2003. the species B. transmitted by Rh.

mortality can reach up to 50% (de Waal. The mild form of the disease can cause equids to appear weak or show lack of appetite. caballi are qualified for importation to some countries. B. and vary from mild to severe. Transplacental transmission of T. while more severe cases may have fever. up to 12 species of ixodid ticks belonging to the genera Hyalomma. 2004). equi and B. 1990). T. anatolicum excavatum and Hy. and then enters red blood cells where the parasites multiply. extending from southern Europe to southern Asia (Brown.. 1992). especially in endemic areas. Acute and subacute cases are the most commonly observed. 1999). marginatum marginatum may also play a role in the epidemiology of the disease in the field (Estrada-Peña et al.. Massaro et al. lestoquardi (formerly T. such as Hy. caballi and Theileria (syn. Canada. which is distributed in many areas of the world.. 1996). c. The newly hatched larvae of the ticks are never infected. . Hy. the parasites have first to mature before they become infective (Mehlhorn and Schein. annulata is transmitted by a number of Hyalomma species.Tick-borne Infections in Europe and Mediterranean Basin from Babesia in that Theileria first penetrates lymphocytes or macrophages and develops there. and blood or serum transfusions (de Waal and Van Heerden. donkeys. 2003. either for participation in international events or for export. 2004).. 1996.. 1999). haemoglobinuria and bilirubinuria. equi from carrier mares to asymptomatic foals was recently confirmed (Allsopp et al. canis of dogs has been reported in horses. 1984.. The parasites are also spread by the transfer of blood from infected to naive equids through shared needles. such as the USA. sergenti/buffeli/orientalis causes a mild or asymptomatic disease in cattle known as bovine benign theileriosis (Uilenberg. Preston. Preston. thus making this disease a cause of great concern in the global horse industry. hirci) are recognized as the species that can cause serious theileriosis in small ruminants. Only horses seronegative for both T. 2001). 2007). dromedarii are considered as the main vectors in the field. Hy. 2000. Clinical signs of infection with EP are not pathognomonic. Ticks can only transmit these haemoparasites trans-stadially. Hornok et al. Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is a tick-borne intraerythrocytic protozoal disease of equids (horses. The clinical signs of theileriosis in animals differ from babesioses in the absence of haemoglobinuria and the occurrence of a less severe anaemia. 55 but no clinical signs attributable to this parasitic species were described (Criado-Fornelio et al. particularly sheep. where the disease occurs in the Old World (Schnittger et al. 2005) and Italy (Moretti et al. There is no transovarial transmission because theileriae do not passage the ovaries and the eggs of the vectors. For this reason. Other species. 2006). improperly shared equipment. swollen abdomen. In some cases of acute or chronic disease. anaemia. Spain (Camacho et al. especially in semi-arid areas (Viseras and GarcíaFernández. forming tetrads often in the shape of a Maltese cross (Uilenberg. Knowles. this is caused by T.. The disease agent is mainly spread by competent ticks. but it only occurs a few days after the tick has attached. testing of horses for EP is mandatory for the international movement of horses. anatolicum anatolicum.. the horse can appear normal. equine theileriosis is more prevalent in Portugal (Bashiruddin et al. T. equi (Bruning. The transmission of parasites takes place by the injection of infected saliva of ticks. This economically important protozoan disease of horses has been reported in many countries. Babesia) equi. 2004). equi appears only to occur trans-stadially (de Waal. T. Australia and Japan (Bruning. equi remain lifelong carriers because anti-theilerial drugs suppress but do not eliminate the parasite. Infected animals that recover from acute or primary infection of T. A mild disease of domestic cattle is called tropical or Mediterranean theileriosis. mules and zebras) caused by B. Within Europe. In the chronic phase. 1996. 2009). Nymphs and adults become infective only if they were infected in the previous developmental stage. ovis and T. which are found in large numbers in the Mediterranean region. 2001).. Transmission of T. 2003). 1981). annulata. To date. Dermacentor and Rhipicephalus have been identified as vectors of both B. 1992). caballi and T. detritum detritum and Hy. 2007a). jaundice. and sometimes result in death (de Waal and Van Heerden.

In this respect. Africa.. including hard ticks. in particular ehrlichiosis and leishmaniosis in endemic areas (Baneth. including mammals. 2007). Rh. to a life-threatening disease with lethargy.. thus explaining the occurrence of hepatozoonosis in areas considered Rh. In the Old World. 2010) has been reported in naturally infected red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Hepatozoon differs from many other tick-borne protozoal and bacterial pathogens. H. Italy. The first detection of H. canis is regularly introduced by dogs into north-west Europe after ingestion of infected Rh. Portugal. where its main vector.9% in France (Criado-Fornelio et al. reptiles and amphibians. lymph nodes and spleen. 1997. Trans-stadial transmission of H. When the infected vector is ingested by the dog. Transmission of H. fever. the Far East and South America. canis to the dog takes place by ingestion of a tick or parts of ticks containing Hepatozoon oocysts.. However.10 Hepatozoonosis Hepatozoonosis is an arthropod-borne infection of both wild and domestic animals. The grave and potentially fatal disease occurs mostly in young animals or in dogs suffering from a concurrent infection or immunosuppressive conditions. canis in Slovakia (Majláthová et al. Baneth et al. Canine hepatozoonosis is typically a mild clinical disease. Greece and France). canine hepatozoonosis caused by H... 2010). 1993) have reported that vertical transmission of H. further studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis. sanguineus. ricinus might also be implicated in parasite transmission. 2004). cachexia and anaemia with a large number of circulating parasites. 2006). this is because the protozoan is not disseminated within the tick but remains in the haemocoel. 1996). canis is of veterinary importance. sanguineus during visits to endemic regions (Holland. is enzootic (Vincent-Johnson et al.56 Frank Koenen et al. The ticks become infected when they ingest infected neutrophils and gametocytes while feeding on the blood of a parasitaemic dog. Hepatozoonosis is of increasing importance in dogs in regions that have previously been considered free of the infection.. 2003). H. are definitive hosts in which the sexual reproduction and sporogony of the protozoans occurs. the Middle East. 2001). . canis occurred in puppies born from an infected dam and raised in a tick-free environment. the brown dog tick. 2006. Carrier mares may transmit the organism to their offspring and this may result in abortion or neonatal piroplasmosis. Japanese scientists (Murata et al. According to a sero-survey of H. 2009)... canis from the nymph to the adult stage in the tick vector has been recorded. 4. Some researchers suggest that foals may be born as carriers yet remain apparently healthy as colostral T. Prevalence data for dogs are still restricted to small areas and range from 0. this protozoal infection appears to be endemic in red fox populations and these may serve as reservoirs of the parasite for domestic dogs (Fishman et al. 2007).. 2007) and Italy (Gabrielli et al. H. The detection of apparently healthy carrier horses therefore remains a worldwide challenge for controlling the spread of the disease. H. Baneth et al. No salivary transfer of these parasites has been documented.. reducing the incidence of clinical neonatal piroplasmosis (Allsopp et al. The pathogenicity and clinical manifestations of hepatozoonosis vary according to the age of the host and the degree of infection. including the bone marrow. canis is commonly associated with co-infection with other diseases. The vertebrates are intermediate hosts. Recently. However. clinical signs vary from an apparently subclinical infection with a low parasitaemia. 2009) to 71% in Croatia (Vojta et al. sanguineus free (Gabrielli et al. equi antibody may act to suppress parasitaemia in the newborn. whereas transovarial transmission could not be demonstrated (Baneth. Italian scientists reported that I.. It is caused by about 300 apicomplexan protozoal species from the genus Hepatozoon (Smith. and several blood-sucking invertebrates. birds. canis has been reported from the Mediterranean region of Europe (Spain. canis mainly infects the haemolymphatic tissues and blood-forming organs. canis in Israel.

Dogs. but does not exceed 21 days (Barnard et al. hence VP2 is the major target of the host’s neutralizing antibodies response (Burrage et al. and responsible for most of the antigenic variation of the virus (Iwata et al. Barnard. 1993).. 1993. 1998. Coetzer and Guthrie. in experimentally challenged horses.1 African horse sickness African horse sickness (AHS) is caused by African horse sickness virus (AHSV). Roy et al.Tick-borne Infections in Europe and Mediterranean Basin 4. The insect Culicoides imicola is the principal vector responsible for AHSV transmission. 1977. In addition.. 2004). Spain (1966. The most common way for a dog to become infected with the virus is through the consumption of uncooked meat from an infected horse carcass.11 Other Potentially Tick-borne Infections The following infections are associated or suspected to be associated with ticks as one of the potential – but not the only – modes of transmission. the pathogenesis and clinical disease that develops differs among cases. 1994). Mellor and Hamblin. Donkeys and zebras are very resistant to the disease. Coetzer and Guthrie. VP2 has been shown to be the most variable. Coetzer and Guthrie. 2004). AHSV is considered to be endemic in north-eastern parts of South Africa. although they may play a small role in spread of the virus.. they maintain year-round infections and are considered a reservoir host for the virus in endemic regions (Davies and 57 Otieno. 2004). primarily Mpumalanga Province. 2004). 1994. 1921.. and its importance in AHSV transmission . with the outer capsid made up of VP2 and VP5. are likely to be deadend hosts for the virus (Braverman and Chizov-Ginzburg. depending on virulence and dose of virus (Theiler. 2002. 1987–1990) and Portugal (1989) (Rodriguez et al. Theiler demonstrated that AHSV can be transmitted to dogs and cause a similar pathology to that found in horses (Theiler. but outbreaks regularly occur in other parts of South Africa (Lord et al. 2004. but with a lower case fatality rate of 50–70% (Coetzer and Guthrie. VP4 and VP6 (minor proteins) (Roy et al.. route of infection in experimental inoculations and virulence phenotype) (Burrage and Laegreid. 2004).. The virion is approximately 70 nm in diameter (Polson and Deeks. is non-enveloped and consists of a double-layered icosahedral capsid with 32 capsomeres (Pringle and Wickner. and usually just develop subclinical infection (Theiler. 1906).. 1981). 1991). a member of the genus Orbivirus.11. subfamily Sedoreovirinae and the family Reoviridae. 2000). 4. 1978. AHSV infects all equids. 1996). Coetzer and Guthrie. Coetzer and Guthrie. 2004). The double-capsid particles contain seven structural proteins (VP1–VP7). however. Among the capsid proteins. which has a severe morbidity and high case fatality rate of 50–95%. 1994). but the absence of viral antigens after 14–19 days post infection makes them unlikely long-term hosts. as was the case in Pretoria in 1980 (Van Rensburg et al. and may be more susceptible to clinical disease than the South African donkey (Alexander. This difference is not completely understood. 1989. Coetzer and Guthrie. 1993. In comparison. and the inner capsid (the core) made up of VP3 and VP7 (as major proteins) and VP1. 1921. 2004). North Africa (1965. viraemia usually lasts 4–8 days. 1992. major outbreaks of the virus have recently occurred in regions with close proximity to the Mediterranean Sea. Barnard. Zebras only show mild fever when experimentally infected with the virus (Erasmus et al. with horses being the most susceptible to clinical disease. but is a function of both host factors (genetics and immune status) and virus factors (dose. Donkeys in the Middle East can have a case fatality rate of up to 10%. 1994).. Donkeys were considered to be potential reservoirs. 2004). 1963). Hamblin et al. Mules have a similar morbidity to horses.. 1948. 1992. Mellor and Hamblin. such as in the Middle East (1959–1961). 2004). Clinical disease develops in susceptible animals after an incubation of about 5–7 days. While AHSV causes severe morbidity and mortality in the majority of infected horses. AHSV has also been isolated in blood samples 40 days post infection in zebras.. Coetzer and Guthrie.

ricinus is a competent vector for B. marginatus. nymphs or adults can transmit the pathogen trans-stadially. scapularis.. their multiplication within the tick’s salivary glands after a second blood meal. 2000. and Bartonella species are commonly present in important hosts of Ixodes ticks. These alphaproteobacteria infect erythrocytes and endothelial cells. B.. B. these microparasites can be ingested and potentially transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods. This is an obligate intracellular bacterium. 2004). henselae-infected cat and then. 2004). deer and rodents. However. More than 40 species of ticks including D. taylorii are Ctenocephalides felis. henselae used is highly adapted to laboratory conditions and grows easily in vitro. human cases of bartonellosis preceded by tick bites are on record. 1990). leading to persistent infections of their mammalian hosts. under natural circumstances. Pediculus humanus humanus and Ctenophthalmus nobilis. Nevertheless tick species in general are also capable of transmitting the virus (Meiswinkel et al. determine whether the nymph can transmit B. and transmission of viable and infective B.. As Bartonella species tend to infect the blood of their vertebrate hosts chronically.e. Some of the reasons why Bartonella species might be transmitted by ticks have been listed by Telford and Wormser (2010): other arthropods can transmit Bartonella species.11. henselae (Cotté et al. Mellor and Hamblin. grahamii and B. including Europe (Aitken et al. a more reliable proof of vector competence would be to feed an uninfected Ixodes sp. burnetii. After feeding on bacteraemic hosts. The mere detection of Bartonella DNA by PCR in blood-feeding arthropods is no evidence that these bacteria are viable and infective. henselae from ticks to blood were recorded.. sanguineus and Carios kelleyi (Billeter et al. The most common reservoirs for human infections are cattle. respectively (Billeter et al.11. i. additional (epidemiological) data would be necessary to conclusively prove that ticks are of importance as natural vectors of bartonellae. D.58 Frank Koenen et al. or that these arthropods are competent vectors of Bartonella species. henselae (the aetiological agent of cat-scratch disease). birds and reptiles are also susceptible to infection and may play a role in maintaining the infection in natural habitats. birds and arthropods in most areas in the world. 4. As suggested by Telford and Wormser (2010). Confirmed vectors of B. sheep and goats. ricinus.. dried or frozen tissues and soil. and females can pass it transovarially (Lang. Lutzomyia verrucarum. 1990. although it can survive for months or years outside host cells in such media as water.3 Q fever The aetiological agent of Q fever is the rickettsial parasite. Lang. 4. it occasionally . Coxiella burnetii. Although C. Ticks are one of a broad range of reservoirs for the organism. Bartonella bacteria have been detected – based mainly on PCR – in several tick species. I. However. there is no conclusive evidence that any Bartonella species can. Dogs.. 2003).. this study may not be relevant to establishing the vector competence of ticks for bartonellae as certain of its parameters were unnatural: the ticks were fed continuously on blood containing exceedingly high numbers of bacteria. burnetii does not usually cause clinical disease in animals. and the strain of B. B. Trans-stadial transmission of the bacteria. on a B. has been recognized for over 50 years. bacilliformis. 1987. Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis affecting mammals (including domestic animals). 2008). infect a vertebrate via tick bite. Toledo et al. including I. In fact. although a recent laboratory investigation using a membrane feeding technique suggested that I. cats. The organism has been described as a possible biological weapon (Madariaga et al..2 Bartonelloses Bartonella infections are widespread in wild and domesticated mammals. after the tick has hatched. C. imicola has historically been found in Africa and South-east Asia (Meiswinkel et al. reticulatus. quintana. and several new species have been described during the last few decades. persulcatus. 2008). Rh. 2008). I. henselae by bite to an uninfected cat. 2009a). are naturally infected with C. the DNA of Bartonella species is often detected in ticks.

1994). as well as in certain invertebrates (Morner and Addison. 1996). Tularaemia.4 Tularaemia Tularaemia is a zoonotic disease caused by one of the most infectious bacteria.. lambing. D. Four closely related subspecies of F. The fatality rate is less than 1% in acute cases but may rise to 30% in chronic cases. but outbreaks do occur (Matyas et al. tularaemia is primarily a disease of the orders Lagomorpha (rabbits and hares) and Rodentia (Friend. where it causes a public health problem (Morner and Addison. tularensis (Petersen et al. 2001. t. including mammals. t. 1987. Tarnvik et al. Other ticks.. as well as shedding organisms via tissues and fluids.. ricinus. infection may be from contaminated dust. holarctica is found throughout much of Europe except for the UK. tularensis can be recovered from contaminated water. 2007). Keim et al. rarely occurs among domestic animals. The European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) is a common host of F. F. holarctica... and is listed among Class A biothreat agents (Dennis et al. D. 2006). veterinarians and laboratory workers in contact with livestock are at high risk of infection.. The disease is epidemic. Therefore. burnetii in their faeces for weeks. F. Hubalek et al. and in cats and dogs (Friend. F. 2004). t. tularensis as both mechanical and biological vectors (Hopla and Hopla. 2001. 1996). meat-packing workers. Santic et al. 2001.11. O’Toole et al. 4. Haematophagous arthropods such as deer and horse flies. Humans are highly susceptible to F. such as I. 1994). chronic hepatitis. 2002). Subspecies F. Strauss and Pohlmeyer.. tularaemia occurs frequently in mountain hares (L. 2004). have also been found to be naturally infected with F.. tularensis and F. The disease is not contagious and is most often transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected arthropod vector. 1994. t. marginatus. Pikula et al. in a range from subclinical infection to death. by direct contact with infected . and is most frequently observed in sheep during the lambing season. birds. However. A scientific opinion on Q fever has been published by the EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Animal Welfare (2010b). 2009).. 2002. 1990). 2001. 2006. tularensis in central Europe. This bacterial species causes great concern as a potential bioterrorism agent. Natural infections with F. tularensis have been identified: F... 2001). Ticks are believed to be the most important arthropods for F. amphibians and fish. Infected animals develop high rickettsaemias and excrete large numbers of C. tularensis in Europe (Hopla and Hopla. a Gram-negative obligate intracellular agent (Ellis et al. Humans can also be infected by inhalation of the organism or by the ingestion of infected milk and/or fresh dairy products. Q fever is characterized by mainly limited flu-like illness.. t.. as was reported for an outbreak of Q fever in an urban area in southern Wales. endocarditis and other endovascular infections. Infections in humans are typically sporadic. 2006). I. F. abattoir workers. tularensis among small and mediumsized mammals in central Europe (Gurycˇová et al. holarctica cause most human illness.Tick-borne Infections in Europe and Mediterranean Basin induces reproductive disorders such as stillbirths. 2004. UK (Ayres et al. tularensis have been reported in over 250 animal species and in a range of vertebrates. tularensis. 1995. mediasiatica and F. especially on farms or in farming communities when infected domestic animals are being handled. persulcatus. Rh. Oyston et al. such as during wool shearing. Lang. straw or manure. Tularaemia is typically a disease of northern and central Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union (Ellis et al.. The organism may survive in contaminated milk and butter for up to 3 months. but is rarely documented in dairy cows (Aitken et al. abortion and metritis in pregnant goats and sheep.. 2008). rossicus and Ha. It may become chronic and manifests with fatigue syndrome.. pneumonia or hepatitis. t. farmers. reticulatus plays an important role in the maintenance and transmission of F. novicida (Forsman 59 et al. tularensis. ticks and mosquitoes are common vectors of F. Ireland and Iceland. t. soil and vegetation. Close contact with infected animals is not required. concinna. 2007). calving and slaughtering.. 2004). timidus) (Morner and Addison. After an incubation period of about 20 days. Francisella tularensis. In Scandinavia and Russia. Oyston et al. 2001.

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Caporale”. IP (INSA).9.11.1 Frank Koenen. the data presented in the maps were classified according to their chronology into those published in the years 2000 to 2010.8. published from January 2000 to March 2010 (see Introduction). Maxime Madder. Thomas G. Section 5.3 Thomas G. and derived from their private collections regardless of the time frame concerned.1.2.5 Maps of Reported Occurrence of Tick-borne Pathogens* Agustín Estrada-Peña. Sections 5. Budapest.T. Salman and J.10. Rita de Sousa. and (iii) published historical data (for the period of approximately 1970–2000) of the Integrated Consortium on Ticks and Tickborne Diseases (the Sixth Framework Programme funded ICTTD-3 European project).5. Section 5.T.T.7. The data included in the maps were classified according to the reported geographic location using either coordinates (latitude/ longitude) or. CODA-CERVA.6. 5. Belgium. Jaenson. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (eds M. Italy. Águas de Moura.4 Maxime Madder. Brussels. Róbert Farkas. the symbols used in the maps are placed either in the middle of the smallest administrative region described in the scientific paper (for the countries that do not have official nomenclature of territorial units for statistics – NUTS). 4Uppsala University. Countries or areas not showing cases of the tickborne pathogen under investigation are not * Frank Koenen wrote Section 5. Belgium and University of Pretoria. Tarrés-Call) . Hungary The maps that are presented in this chapter on the geographical occurrence of tickborne pathogens have been produced using three sources of data: (i) a systematic literature review based on scientific papers retrieved from the databases integrated in the ISI Web of Knowledge and PubMed. Sweden. In this last case. Section 5. Jaenson. 2Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre. Agustín Estrada-Peña produced the maps with the advice of the authors and Thomas G. and 7Szent István University. or as historical data (published before the year 2000). 5. 5Institute of Tropical Medicine. Consequently.12. Ilaria Pascucci. 3Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e del Molise “G. South Africa. 76 ©CAB International 2013. Section 5. Portugal. (ii) a pool of scientific papers considered relevant by the experts of the Working Group on Ticks and Tickborne Pathogens of the Animal Health and Animal Welfare (AHAW) Unit of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Antwerp. or in the middle of the NUTS containing the specified location. Jaenson. Sections 5. Spain. 5.4.3. in the cases where coordinates were not indicated or could not be found because the name of the location was not specified in the corresponding paper. 6 National Institute of Health Doutor Ricardo Jorge.5 Rita de Sousa6 and Róbert Farkas7 1 University of Zaragoza. according to the smallest administrative region in which the findings were made. 5.2 Ilaria Pascucci. 5. Teramo.

Kosovo. data from 2000–2010. Both symbols indicate records in which the coordinates were not provided. 5. Serological evidence was not included. ticks do not play a role in the maintenance of ASFV on that island. just the name of the location (see the introduction to this chapter). • Smallest administrative region or territorial unit for statistics (NUTS). respectively (Sánchez-Vizcaíno.1 African Swine Fever The few existing records for African swine fever virus (ASFV) have been obtained from active surveillance of the infection in domestic pigs. and no records exist of wild boar infested with ticks. The distribution is expected to be biased because the culinary habits in wide regions of northern Africa and parts of the eastern Mediterranean erase the domestic pig as the main host of the virus.1) displays 77 the records for ASFV that were found in the available literature of the last 10 years (solid black circles) and data from before 2000 (solid black diamonds). data on that species may not be presented in the literature available for this report. so these maps may underestimate the real distribution of the pathogens. historical data (before 2000). The endemicity is mainly related to the traditional extensive production system. The exception to this is the island of Sardinia. Therefore. ASFV in Portugal and Spain was eradicated in 1999 and 1995. Reported occurrence of African swine fever virus (ASFV). Turkey.Maps of Reported Occurrence necessarily free of that pathogen. 5. Rather. The most recent outbreaks are in the Caucasus. Albania. which is considered to be endemic for ASFV. wild boars and soft ticks associated with foci of outbreaks. 5. as well as ticks infected with the CCHF virus (CCHFV) under natural (field) conditions have been recorded only in an area covering southern Russia. Greece. 5. The Ornithodoros tick is not present on this island. ¨ Smallest administrative region or territorial unit for statistics (NUTS). Fig. . 2006).1.2 Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever Clinical cases of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in humans. The presence of the pathogens represented in the maps is based on confirmed detection of the antigen for that pathogen. The distribution recorded on the map (Fig.

It is likely that the virus circulates in the Balkans (as suggested by the recent first report of CCHF in humans in Greece.promedmail. The stars indicate records in which the coordinates were not provided. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) includes three viral subtypes.2). The distribution map displays the records for CCHFV that were found in the available literature of the last 10 years.2. Both the virus and signs of clinical infection in humans have been partly surveyed in Europe. i. marginatum and other hard ticks in Chapter 2. Ixodes ricinus is the main vector of the Western subtype and the Siberian and Far Eastern subtypes are vectored mainly by I. The disease is widespread in Turkey. because we then ignore the reasons why the disease (or the virus) is absent in places where the tick vectors are widespread (see the comments on Hy. Hyalomma marginatum. just the name of the location (see the introduction to this chapter).3 Tick-borne Encephalitis Group Viruses The map shown in Fig. Section 6.org. from the International Society for Infectious Diseases).3 displays the records of the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) group viruses that were found in the available literature of the last 10 years. and Chapter 6. Reported occurrence of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) (2000–2010).2). • Smallest administrative region or territorial unit for statistics (NUTS). and are indicated by solid black circles. 5. persulcatus. Although the main vector of the Western Fig. Romania and Bulgaria (Fig. .78 Agustín Estrada-Peña et al.. Papa et al. These symbols represent records in which the coordinates were not provided. 5.e. following the areas where the main tick vector. 5. Western TBEV.2. but with negative results. just the name of the location (see the introduction to this chapter). 2008). No published reports exist for the distribution and incidence of the disease in the Balkans and Russian areas other than reports collated from ProMED Mail (http://www. exists. 5. Section 2. Siberian TBEV and Far Eastern TBEV. The solid black circles indicate the coordinates (latitude/ longitude). This is probably the most exposed area for spread of the virus to other parts of Europe. This is a cause of concern.

This virus is endemic in sheep farming areas of Northern Ireland. Finland (including the Åland Islands). TBE is prevalent in Russia all the way from the western border with Europe to its eastern border. Sweden and Finland (Jääskeläinen et al. Lithuania.g. 2010). • Coordinate (latitude/longitude). TBE incidence fluctuates from year to year. the UK (Scotland. Records of TBE group viruses published during the last 10 years and shown on the map originate from the following countries: Czech Republic. Germany. Estonia. The map does not show the presence of the louping ill virus (LIV). 5. especially in the last decade. which may affect the . Hungary. The geographical distribution of TBEinfected ticks within regions and countries is such that the risk of infection can change dramatically from one area to another within short distances. the determining factors are often many and they interact – often in complex manners. Haemaphysalis (Ha.) concinna. Liechtenstein. ricinus.3. Russia. punctata are competent but secondary vectors (Labuda and Nuttall. I. up 193% from a mean of 1452 cases per year (1976–1989)’ (ECDC 2010). 2008). The main determinants for such changes in TBE incidence may vary from one time to another and from one region to another region. 2006. Ha. Formsgaard et al. Denmark. Among the main determinants should be mentioned: the changing climate. Also. Switzerland and Turkey. 2009). e. Norway. including I. excluding Russia.3) does not include records published before 2000. Poland. Sweden. Hungary. 5. but the number of reported human TBE cases has increased in Europe in the last two decades. inermis and Ha. Denmark.. Norway. ‘Countries with increased risk of TBE include Austria. the Baltic States. Italy. Slovakia. Õ Smallest administrative region or territorial unit for statistics (NUTS).. persulcatus and usually cause more severe disease than the central European strain. The TBE virus subtypes in Russia are in general vectored by I. Cornwall and Wales) and Norway. An increase in TBE incidence has been noted in some northern countries and new TBE foci have appeared. between 1990 and 2007 was 2805 cases per year. southern Germany and southern and eastern Sweden’ (ECDC.Maps of Reported Occurrence 79 Fig. hexagonus. subtype is I. Reported occurrence of tick-borne encephalitis group viruses (2000–2010). several other species. the Czech Republic. in many areas. Greece. ‘The mean number of TBE infections in Europe. The map (Fig. Latvia. arboricola.

ovis has so far been found in the same countries as A.. canis has expanded with the distribution of its vector. A. 2008. 5. was first recorded in 2008 (Carelli et al. The stars indicate records in which the coordinates were not provided. 5. 5. ruminantium. The solid black circles indicate the coordinates (latitude/longitude). just the name of the location (see the introduction to this chapter). The distribution of E. and technological factors. e. marginale. marginale. Reported occurrence of Anaplasma spp. except for some imports of immature stages on birds. 5. 5.. France. Õ Smallest administrative region or territorial unit for statistics (NUTS). no records have yet been found in Europe and its vector ticks seem to be absent from this continent. phagocytophilum has been recorded in most European countries.. has a more limited distribution in Europe with records from Sicily. A.4.4 Anaplasmoses and Ehrlichioses The map shown in Fig. In Italy. which may increase or decrease human activities in TBEV foci.g. Similarly. • Coordinate (latitude/longitude). Rhipicephalus (Rh. A. vector directly as well as indirectly via the plant and host communities. 2006). bovis has also been recorded in Italy although it is most commonly present in other continents.4 displays the records of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species that were found in the available literature of the last 10 years. A.) sanguineus. 2008).5 displays the records of Rickettsia species that were found Fig. and Ehrlichia spp. Randolph. For E. For anaplasmoses. centrale.80 Agustín Estrada-Peña et al. normally recorded from tropical and subtropical regions. 2008.5 Rickettsioses The map shown in Fig. A. a similar parasite to A. and in Europe cases of infection have been reported from Spain. including South America. 2010). Hungary and Spain. Telford and Goethert. better diagnostic methods and increased awareness (Donoso Mantke et al. marginale. (2000–2010). Greece and Italy (de la Fuente et al. platys has been detected worldwide. . sociopolitical changes. Africa and the Indian subcontinent. A.

Tunisia and Libya. Rh.5. burgdorferi s.Maps of Reported Occurrence 81 Fig. The map represents records of all the tick-transmitted rickettsiae recorded in Europe. conorii Israeli spotted fever strain was first reported from Israel but was later also detected in Portugal. B. The solid black circles indicate the coordinates (latitude/longitude). B. The stars indicate records in which the coordinates were not provided.l. 5. B. (2000–2010). and only the name of the location was included in the original report (see the introduction to this chapter). valaisiana and B. garinii. which causes Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) is mainly present in the Mediterranean. burgdorferi s. of which the distribution is not always overlapping. Reported occurrence of Rickettsia spp. Although no detailed information is available about the presence and absence of the different rickettsiae. spielmanii. 5. and B. is considered to consist of at least 15 genospecies. is present. As most of the Rickettsia species are transmitted by different tick species. in the available literature of the last 10 years. these rickettsial pathogens are found in areas determined by their vector. burgdorferi s. As described above. afzelii.s. burgdorferi s.6 displays the records of Borrelia species that were found in the available literature of the last 10 years. The stars indicate records in which the coordinates were not provided.. .l. Each of the species has a specific area of distribution. just the name of the location (see the introduction to this chapter). lusitaniae. 5. but rare in Russia and apparently absent from Asia. irrespective of the species or strains. sanguineus. B. this map shows the more recent records of B. reveal the presence of the Rickettsia species in new member states of the European Union (EU). eight of which occur in Europe. The R. conorii Malish. present in Europe and the USA. afzelii. where its vector. namely: B. Õ Smallest administrative region or territorial unit for statistics (NUTS).. B. especially molecular studies. B. and not necessarily in adjacent countries from which the parasite was originally described. R. Sicily. it must be said that more and more recent studies.6 Borrelioses The map shown in Fig.s.

Moldavia. (2000–2010). valaisiana. has been found in several other tick species (EUCALB. persulcatus are apparently the only tick species responsible for infecting humans with the Lyme disease spirochaetes in Europe and Asia. is common in most or all I. the ranges of at least some of the Lyme borreliosis genospecies are likely to change significantly in the near future. ricinus. Estonia. while not revealed by this map.7 displays the records of Babesia species that were found in the literature of the last 10 years. ricinus populations in southern and central Sweden.l. the present map is based solely on recent records (published after 1 January 2000). just the name of the location (see the introduction to this chapter). burgdorferi s. ricinus and I. many earlier records of B. B.82 Agustín Estrada-Peña et al. B. southern and central Finland. ricinus populations (Piesman and Gern. burgdorferi s. burgdorferi s. The solid black circles indicate records in which the coordinates were not provided. 2000. from large areas of Europe are not shown on the map. burgdorferi s. These ‘carrier species’ are not considered to be competent natural vectors of B. 1998. and the expansion of its range. B. garinii OspA serotype 4). Although I. especially B. afzelii are the most commonly encountered and most widely distributed of the ‘European’ Lyme disease genospecies.l. Tunisia and Morocco. 5. Gray et al. B. 5. garinii and B. and some genospecies. The empty circles indicate the coordinates (latitude/ longitude). burgdorferi s.7 Babesioses The map shown in Fig.s. . • Coordinate (latitude/longitude). B. B. 2009). Therefore. Russia.l. There are indications from northern Europe about an increasing incidence of Lyme borrelioses and TBE as a result of increased abundance of the vector.. Thus. probably due to an extended vegetation period caused by climate change (Tälleklint and Jaenson. bissettii in Eurasia. B. Latvia. Ukraine and Ireland. Lindgren et al. spielmanii. garinii and B.6. lusitaniae is common and predominates over the other genospecies in I. Õ Smallest administrative region or territorial unit for statistics (NUTS). Kirghizia. I. bavariensis (formerly B. Thus. Note that... lusitaniae and B. 2008).l. Byelorussia. Reported occurrence of Borrelia spp. garinii. afzelii. 2010). as mentioned above. it should be noted that B. Fig. In Portugal. B. 5. B.

○ Coordinate (latitude/longitude). The solid black circles indicate records in which the coordinates were not provided. Hy. In endemic areas. are found in large numbers. marginatum and Hy. Mediterranean theileriosis. with no or minimal clinical disease. anatolicum.8 displays the records of Theileria species that were found in the available literature of the last 10 years. with I. Italy. There have been very few reports on theileriosis of domesticated ruminants from the European countries. excavatum.8 Theilerioses The map shown in Fig. Recently a new zoonotic Babesia species (Babesia EU-1.Maps of Reported Occurrence 83 Fig. The empty circles indicate the coordinates (latitude/longitude). is present. The most common species is B. Dermacentor reticulatus. Based on these reports. 5. annulata is known to occur in southern Europe. • Smallest administrative region or territorial unit for statistics (NUTS). 5. equine piroplasmoses). the exact geographical distribution and the incidence of theileriosis in domesticated and wild animals cannot be mapped properly in Europe. (Babesia) equi in Morocco. The occurrence of Babesia species has been reported from many European countries. Reported occurrence of Babesia spp. . 5.9. just the name of the location (see the introduction to this chapter). venatorum) has been detected in roe deer and in humans. which are known to transmit T.7. annulata. 5. Croatia and Slovenia (see Fig. Several tick vectors can carry more than one species of Babesia. North Africa and Turkey. ricinus identified as its vector. proposed name B. Turkey. caused by T. canis canis which exists in several foci of wide areas in Europe. However. (2000–2010). where its known vector species. Most papers published in the last 10 years reported the occurrence of horse theileriosis caused by T. no published reports exist for its incidence and distribution in the Balkans and Iberian Peninsula where ixodid ticks such as Hy. The introduction of susceptible animals into endemic regions could lead to a recrudescence of babesiosis. especially in semiarid areas. Some Babesia species can infect more than one genus of ticks. others can only infect ticks from the genus Ixodes. all or almost all individuals of the host population are infected when they are young. from France to Poland.

Babesia) equi and Babesia caballi. (2000–2010). The distribution and incidence of equine piroplasmoses caused by two species of apicomplexan protozoa. • Smallest administrative region or territorial unit for statistics (NUTS). just the name of the location (see the introduction to this chapter). ○ Coordinate (latitude/longitude).9 displays the records of equine piroplasmoses that were found in the available literature of the last 10 years. Reported occurrence of Theileria spp. 5. Theileria (syn.9. The solid black squares indicate records in which the coordinates were not provided. 5.8. 5. have been reported from a few European countries. ■ Smallest administrative region or territorial unit for statistics (NUTS). Fig.9 Equine Piroplasmoses The map shown in Fig. Reported occurrence of equine piroplasmoses (2000–2010). Piroplasmosis .84 Agustín Estrada-Peña et al. 5. Fig.

respectively (Billeter et al. both parasite species can be spread by infected horses without clinical signs. improperly shared equipment. The solid black circles indicate records in which the coordinates were not provided. sanguineus and Carios kelleyi (Billeter et al. • Smallest administrative region or territorial unit for statistics (NUTS). Pediculus humanus humanus and Ctenophthalmus nobilis. equi in a wide area in Europe. scapularis. the DNA of Fig. (2000–2010). ○ Coordinate (latitude/longitude). quintana. Lutzomyia verrucarum. 2010). Italy and Turkey than in other countries. the map does not give a complete picture of the geographical distribution in Europe of the genus Bartonella. Besides infected tick vectors. 2008).. B. However. caballi and T. Thus. ricinus. henselae. taylorii are Ctenocephalides felis. including I. reticulatus. Confirmed vectors of B. Some of the reasons that Bartonella species might be transmitted by ticks have been listed by Telford and Wormser (2010): other arthropods can transmit Bartonella species. just the name of the location (see the introduction to this chapter). I. B. The genus at present comprises 28 species and subspecies (DSMZ. Bartonella bacteria have been detected – based mainly on PCR – in several tick species. grahamii and B. and blood or serum transfusions. Rh. 5. bacilliformis..10 displays the records of Bartonella species that were found in the available literature of the last 10 years. . 5.10 Bartonelloses The map shown in Fig.10. Dermacentor and Rhipicephalus have been identified as vectors of both B.Maps of Reported Occurrence seems to be more prevalent in France. 2008). B. D. 85 This map shows the geographical locations only of recent (2000–2010) records of B. B. these microparasites can be ingested and potentially transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods. by the transfer of blood from infected to naive equids through shared needles. Because Bartonella species usually infect their vertebrate hosts chronically. quintana. vinsonii and unidentified Bartonella species. henselae (the aetiological agent of cat-scratch disease). Reported occurrence of Bartonella spp. B. 5. the disease may occur in other countries because several species of ixodid ticks belonging to the genera Hyalomma. I. The empty circles indicate the coordinates (latitude/longitude). persulcatus.

. Although vector-borne transmission of tularaemia to mammalian hosts has an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease (Petersen et al. it should be clear that there is. The map indicates the sporadic reported cases by locations. and Bartonella species are commonly present in important hosts of Ixodes ticks. 2010). 5.11 displays the records of Francisella tularensis infection in humans or animals that were found in the available literature of the last 10 years. just the name of the location (see the introduction to this chapter). The solid black squares indicate records in which the coordinates were not provided.e. the sparsity of the data is mainly due to the low percentage of compliance with reporting this disease and the similarity of clinical signs to those of several other diseases. Bartonella species is often detected in ticks. 5. burnetii is endemic in most European member states. The solid black squares indicate records in which the coordinates were not provided. 5. 2009).11. 5. so far. just the name of the location (see the introduction to this chapter). ■ Smallest administrative region or territorial unit for statistics (NUTS). Not all of these cases are necessarily related to tick transmission. no evidence that any tick species is a natural. there are several vectors in addition to ticks that are related to the transmission and maintenance of the pathogen.12 displays the records of Coxiella burnetii infection in animals and Q fever disease in humans or animals that were reported in the available literature of the last 10 years.12 Q Fever The map shown in Fig. In domestic animals.11 Tularaemia The map shown in Fig. C. Reported occurrence of Francisella tularensis (2000–2010). 5. human cases of bartonellosis preceded by tick bites are on record.86 Agustín Estrada-Peña et al. competent vector of any Bartonella species (Telford and Wormser. deer and rodents. Although many researchers have indicated that ticks might be vectors of bartonelloses.. i. Fig.

Torina. N.. eu/en/healthtopics/spotlight/spotlight_tickborne/Pages/TBE_epidemiology_surveillance.B. 1–9. (2008) A survey on cases of tick-borne encephalitis in European countries. B. Carelli. and Ceci. 107–110.. Decaro. and Niedrig. La Mantia.1186/1746-6148-2-24. V. Reported occurrence of Coxiella burnetii (2000–2010). R. 1–15. V.. O. 5. Italy. Available at: http://www. G. BMC Veterinary Research 2. 2010). F. . Paradies... Buonavoglia C. E.. Martella. K. TBE situation in individual European countries. Eurosurveillance 13. M. E. M.G. Available at: http://www.. L.M..de/bacterial-diversity/bacterial-nomenclature-up-to-date.12. Chomel. G. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1149. and Breitschwerdt. A. In the Netherlands. TBE surveillance in Europe.Maps of Reported Occurrence 87 Fig... References Billeter. 24.A.B. (2006) Molecular characterization of Anaplasma platys strains from dogs in Sicily.. Alongi. EFSA Journal 8(5).europa. A. doi:10. ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control) (2010) TBE epidemiology In Europe. P. Lorusso. a Q fever outbreak in humans first emerged in 2007 and is considered to have been the largest community outbreak ever recorded (EFSA. Schädler. DSMZ (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen) (2010) Bacterial Nomenclature Up-todate. de la Fuente.html (accessed 2 July 2012). Most countries have a long history of infection in domestic animals and sporadic human cases. S. Donoso Mantke. and Kocan. (2008) Vector transmission of Bartonella species with emphasis on the potential for tick transmission.aspx (accessed 2 July 2012)... Naranjo. S.ecdc.dsmz. (2008) First report of bovine anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma centrale in Europe.. EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW) (2010) Scientific opinion on Q Fever. ■ Smallest administrative region or territorial unit for statistics (NUTS). Nicosia. Elia. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 22. 1595. but has a limited impact on human and animal health. J. Levy.

Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. and Vapalahti. (eds) Ticks. Zimmerman. and Gern. G. (eds) Ticks. Emerging Infectious Diseases 16. J. In: Bowman. (2010) Bartonella spp. and Nuttall.. doi: 10. A. (2009) First identification of tick-borne encephalitis in Denmark outside of Bornholm.S.. Piesman. Tälleklint. and Antoniadis. Eurosurveillance 15(27):pii=19606. A. Christiansen. (2006) Siberian subtype tick-borne encephalitis virus.. (2008) A case of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Greece. 9th edn. Jääskeläinen. Eurosurveillance 14(36):pii:19325. In: Bowman..S. EUCALB (European Union Concerted Action on Lyme Borreliosis) (2010) Biology: Vector Competence. T. A. E.S.. August 2009. Cambridge University Press. J. L. A.edis. S.M.E.. A. Available at: http://meduni09. and Polfeldt. June 2008. (2000) Impact of climatic change on the northern latitude limit and population density of the disease-transmitting European tick Ixodes ricinus. V. (2008) Lyme borreliosis in Europe and North America.E. Biology.B.A. L.at/eucalb/cms_15/index. . Estrada-Peña. A. (2008) Emerging and emergent tick-borne infections..R..N. UK. Cambridge. (eds) Diseases of Swine. pp. and Bødker.S. (2009) Effects of climate change on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Europe. L.. Maltezou. Biology. pp.J. In: Bowman.. S. (2008) Viruses transmitted by ticks..J. III and Wormser. Telford. S. P. 220–252. Telford.. P. Iowa.E. T. 379–384. A. Formsgaard. doi: 10.S. Disease and Control.A. J. (eds) Ticks. Alekseev. (2009) Francisella tularensis: an arthropod-borne pathogen. and Taylor.E.1051/vetres:2008045.. I. Petersen. Article ID 593232. Blackwell Publishing. UK. O. 119–123. and Nuttall.1155/2009/593232. Finland. R.G. Tikkakoski. and Schriefer. Pierroutsakos. P.P. Labuda. P. 1568–71. 291–298. M. (2010) Human activities predominate in determining changing incidence of tick-borne encephalitis in Europe. H. Gray. and Nuttall. Eurosurveillance 13(33):piii=18952. Ames. Disease and Control. Veterinary Research 40(2).. B. A. UK. Cambridge. D. III and Goethhert. H. Papadimitriou.G. S. Tälleklint. Environmental Health Perspectives 108. Sánchez-Vizcaíno. E. Kahl. G. C. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases 2009.A. Randolph. Mead.K. In: Straw. J. A. T. S. and Jaenson. (2006) African swine fever. Journal of Medical Entomology 35.. 253–280.Y. pp. Lindgren.A. and Nuttall. 521–526. A. transmission by ticks not established. D’Allaire. T. Disease and Control. 7. M. and Lindgren. Emerging Infectious Diseases 12(10). A.88 Agustín Estrada-Peña et al. H. Cambridge University Press. Tsiodras.. P.C.. (1998) Increasing geographical distribution and density of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in central and northern Sweden.php?view=article&catid=57%3Abiologycat1&id=56%3Atick-vector-competence&format=pdf&option=com_content&Itemid=90 (accessed 2 July 2012).M. 344–376.N.. Dautel. Vaheri. Uzcátegui. N. pp. Kartalis. Dalla. J.R. Papa. Biology.

Countries or areas not showing the presence of a tick genus or species are not necessarily free of it.6 Maps of Reported Occurrence of Ticks* Agustín Estrada-Peña.1 covers the known distribution of the species in the genus Ornithodoros in the Palaearctic region. Owing to the lack of reported data in the area of concern. and 4Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e del Molise “G. 6.1 Thomas G. and shows historical data (before 2000). Caporale”.4. in the cases where coordinates were not indicated or could not be found because the name of the location was not specified in the corresponding paper.3. Teramo. ©CAB International 2013. Ilaria Pascucci. The data included in the maps were classified according to their geographic accuracy using either coordinates (latitude/longitude) or.2.1 Soft Ticks (Argasidae). Spain. the symbol representing the data was placed either in the middle of that region (for the countries that do not have official nomenclature of territorial units for statistics – NUTS).2 Róbert Farkas3 and Ilaria Pascucci4 1 University of Zaragoza.2. and (iii) published historical data (for the period of approximately years 1970–2000) of the Integrated Consortium on Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases (the Sixth Framework Programme funded ICTTD-3 European project).1. that genus or species may not be represented in the literature that was available for this monograph.5.2. Róbert Farkas. no maps were produced for the genera Argas and Amblyomma. Sections 6. or in the middle of the NUTS containing the specified location. 6. Genus Ornithodoros The map shown in Fig. Section 6. Tarrés-Call) 89 . Section 6. The solid black circles indicate the coordinates (latitude/longitude). according to the smallest administrative region in which the findings were made. The stars indicate records in which the coordinates were not provided. In the latter case.2. 2Uppsala University. and derived from their private collections regardless of the time frame concerned. Jaenson. 6.2. Hungary.1. Italy The maps that are presented in this chapter on the occurrence of ticks have been drawn up using three sources of data: (i) a systematic literature review previously published by EFSA (2010) based on scientific papers published from January 2000 to March 2010 and retrieved from the databases integrated in the ISI Web of Knowledge and PubMed. (ii) a pool of scientific papers considered relevant by the experts of the Working Group on Ticks and Tick-borne Pathogens of the Animal Health and Animal Welfare (AHAW) Unit of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Jaenson. 3 Szent István University. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (eds M. Salman and J.T. Rather. Thomas G. 6.T. Budapest.2. Sweden. just * Agustín Estrada-Peña produced the maps with the advice of the authors and wrote Sections 6.

with special emphasis on nests of rodents. as they seem to be restricted to parts of the western Mediterranean and portions of Georgia. the name of the location (see the introduction to this chapter). Hence.1. although it has been hypothesized that O. Û Smallest administrative region or territorial unit for statistics (NUTS). erraticus. the lack of adequate morphological features renders the separation of possible species a difficult task. Currently. ricinus ticks that were found in the available literature of the last 10 years (solid red circles and black stars) and those . Fig. while O. It is interesting to note.90 Agustín Estrada-Peña et al. As mentioned previously (Section 2. historical data (before 2000). the map includes only the accurate records of the species in the group of O. Species in the genus are also known to be present in parts of Morocco. however. Armenia and Turkey. 6. and therefore live in open and dry habitats commonly associated with rodent burrows.1 Hard Ticks (Ixodidae) Genus Ixodes: Ixodes ricinus The map shown in Plate 20 displays the records of I. which are the preferred hosts of this group of species. Tunisia and Egypt. there is fragmentary knowledge about the distribution of this species. sonrai would be the species found in Egypt and southern Morocco. that there are no recent records (years 2000–2010) of the ticks in Europe. so. All of the species in the O.1.2 6. • Coordinate (latitude/longitude).2. 6. historical data (before 2000). The mechanisms operating in the separation of these species in Morocco are unknown. the mapping has been carried out with historical records (years 1950–2000). Further sampling efforts should be done in wide areas of the European Mediterranean region. The reported distribution of these ticks is poor. erraticus would be present in the Iberian Peninsula and parts of Morocco. erraticus group are xerophilous ticks.2). This is because the tick has received some attention owing to the occurrence of the epidemics of African swine fever (ASF) in Europe. Reported occurrence of Ornithodoros spp. as noted above. The apparent lack of records of the tick in the centre of the target area seems to be the result both of a lack of interest in the soft ticks and the lack of knowledge on the morphology of these species.

g. just the Fig.. rickettsiosis (Rickettsia helvetica). Wales and England. Lindgren et al.2 displays the records of Haemaphysalis (Ha. Scotland. and in relatively humid. 6. as well as affecting its population density. Lindgren and Jaenson. The stars show records in which the coordinates were not provided. Jaenson et al. with the changing range of I. just the name of the location (see the introduction to this chapter). historical data (before 2000). including louping ill of sheep. The stars indicate records in which the coordinates were not provided. data for 2000–2010. e. including Scandinavia. ricinus. Lyme borrelioses due to Borrelia burgdorferi s. Õ Smallest administrative region or territorial unit for statistics (NUTS). 6. . 2006. Finland and western Russia. 2000..2 Genus Haemaphysalis Haemaphysalis punctata The map shown in Fig.2. 1998. and in historical data published before 2000 (solid black circles). 2012). from Iceland and Ireland through central and southern Europe eastwards to central Asia (Iran) and southwards to North Africa.) punctata ticks that were found in the available literature of the last 10 years (stars). in the damp sheep pastures of Ireland.l. Reported occurrence of Haemaphysalis punctata.. 2005) and latitudes (Tälleklint and Jaenson. In Europe.. changes in climate during the last few decades appear to have caused an expansion in the tick’s range to higher altitudes (Materna et al. anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum). It is present in relatively dry Mediterranean habitats in northern Africa and the Iberian Peninsula. • Coordinate (latitude/longitude). its role as an important vector of infections of humans and/or domesticated mammals. I. Moreover. Jaenson and Lindgren. and tularaemia (Francisella tularensis). mixed coniferous/ deciduous woodland biotopes throughout most of Europe. needs to be monitored in the future.Maps of Reported Occurrence of Ticks that are from historical data older than 2000 (solid green circles).2. 6. tickborne encephalitis (TBE). babesiosis (Babesia divergens). 91 2011. The circles indicate the coordinates (latitude/ longitude). ricinus is the ‘common tick of Europe’ and is widely distributed in north-western Europe through much of the Palaearctic. The circles indicate the coordinates (latitude/longitude).

The stars indicate records in which the coordinates were not provided. concinna is a palaearctic species scattered in the Eurasian region from the Atlantic coast to Japan. Û Smallest administrative region or territorial unit for statistics (NUTS).4 displays the records of Ha. Fig. punctata is widely present in Europe and in the whole Mediterranean area. besides feeding on small mammals. immature stages. Migratory birds are carriers of immature ticks and could potentially introduce them into free areas. can also feed on birds. just the name of the location (see the introduction to this chapter). Immature stages. inermis ticks that were found in the available literature of the last 10 years. inermis is present in the southerncentral Eurasian region. Reported occurrence of Haemaphysalis concinna. besides feeding on small mammals. name of the location (see the introduction to this chapter). just the name of the location (see the introduction to this chapter). most reports show this tick species to be concentrated in southern-central Europe while northern Africa appears to be the southern limit of its distribution. but also on canids and lagomorphs. It is mainly present in temperate climates and is well adapted to different biotopes. concinna ticks that were found in the available literature of the last 10 years. 6. Ha. Ha. Ha.92 Agustín Estrada-Peña et al. Adults feed on domestic and wild ungulates. It is an ancient species and its geographic origin has been identified in the Caucasus. 6. Haemaphysalis inermis The map shown in Fig. Adults feed on domestic and wild ungulates. . and migratory birds. data for 2000–2010. Haemaphysalis concinna The map shown in Fig.3 displays the records of Ha. Nevertheless. 6. immature stages. The stars indicate records in which the coordinates were not provided. including migratory birds. It occurs mainly in a dense forest environment. Ha. including migratory birds. on ground-feeding birds. can also feed on birds. inermis is well adapted to different biotopes. besides feeding on small mammals. Adults feed on domestic and wild ungulates. can also feed on lizards.3.

3 Genus Hyalomma Hyalomma marginatum Hyalomma marginatum is well known from the Mediterranean region. but those records lack adequate referencing.2. In any case. 6.Maps of Reported Occurrence of Ticks 93 Fig. 6. data for 2000–2010.2. Accurate records exist for the tick in wide areas from Turkey to Portugal. The tick is also known from other sites in northern Africa. The presence of the tick has been recorded from southern Russia and neighbouring Republics (but has not been documented with any geographical information). The tick is restricted to the oroMediterranean (temperate) zone. Permanent populations of the tick are currently established at around 46°N. marginatum ticks that were found in the available literature of the last 10 years (solid red circles and black stars) and those that are from historical data older than 2000 (solid green circles). 6. and these seem to be restricted in movement because of the Alps and the Balkan mountain ranges. The map shown in Plate 21 displays the records of Hy. Concerns exist about the probable spread of the tick into northern latitudes where the tick is currently absent. considerable interest exists about the possible spread of the tick. Scattered records of the tick exist in northern Europe.4 Genus Rhipicephalus There are serious concerns about the identity of the ticks of the genus Rhipicephalus in the . it appears that a too-cold or too-dry climate may restrict the colonization of potentially available areas. but these records came from migratory birds. The stars indicate records in which the coordinates were not provided. Reported occurrence of Haemaphysalis inermis. where it can be found populating areas in northern Africa and southern Europe. and they do not represent established populations. The circles indicate the coordinates (latitude/longitude). just the name of the location (see the introduction to this chapter).4. and more field studies are necessary to understand the basic phenological processes behind the observed distribution. Migratory birds may bring immature ticks into free areas in spring. Û Smallest administrative region or territorial unit for statistics (NUTS). but the current climate in the Scandinavian countries jeopardizes their establishment.

sanguineus and Rh.5 displays the records of ticks of the Rh. but there are serious troubles in the differentiation of both Rh. Õ Smallest administrative region or territorial unit for statistics (NUTS). It is difficult to ascertain the degree to which Rh. historical data (before 2000). sanguineus ticks can colonize northern latitudes. sanguineus and Rh. Therefore. The open circles indicate the coordinates (latitude/longitude). ○ Coordinate (latitude/ longitude). sanguineus and Rh. sanguineus complex that were found in the available literature of the last 10 years (stars and solid black circles) and those that are from historical data older than 2000 (open circles). Reported occurrence of Rhipicephalus sanguineus group (Rh. 6. Rhipicephalus bursa The map shown in Plate 22 displays the records of Rh. data for 2000–2010. sanguineus complex have a wide Mediterranean distribution (see Fig. the ticks of this complex are common in open areas with different degrees of moisture content. the presence has been reported of Rhipicephalus (Rh. turanicus. Rhipicephalus sanguineus complex (Rh. turanicus). we prefer to report on specimens of both Rh. sanguineus and Rh.5) linked to an endophilous (nidicolous) habitat associated mainly with domestic carnivores. Rh. turanicus. Therefore. data for 2000–2010. bursa ticks that were found in Fig. 6. bursa. sanguineus and Rh. • Smallest administrative region or territorial unit for statistics (NUTS). 6. While the climate is much too cold for the tick at such latitudes. There is no problem in differentiating specimens of Rh. turanicus) The map shown in Fig. the association of the tick with endophilous sites may protect its populations from the extremely cold temperatures. bursa. turanicus as the Rh. it could be expected that the tick may be found at more northern latitudes than the currently reported range.5. Other than this anthropophilous habitat.) annulatus (formerly in the genus Boophilus) and of three more species. namely Rh. Currently. just the name of the location (see the introduction to this chapter).94 Agustín Estrada-Peña et al. Species in the Rh. but are always associated with warm areas. sanguineus complex (group). . The stars and solid black circles indicate records in which the coordinates were not provided. Palearctic region.

annulatus at sites that should support populations of the species may be a result of the control of ticks on cattle. marginatus can colonize colder and more humid sites.6). 6. The distribution of Rh. just the name of the location (see the introduction to this chapter). The tick seems to be absent from many parts of southern Russia and is probably 95 replaced by other tick species in this region. bursa in France. marginatum and Dermacentor marginatus in parts of its Mediterranean range. Rh. annulatus ticks that were found in the available literature of the last 10 years (stars). 6. marginatus colonize colder sites. bursa overlaps with that of Hy. marginatus. bursa is more abundant in the oroMediterranean zone than D. and in historical data older than 2000 (solid black circles).6. Õ Smallest administrative region or territorial unit for statistics (NUTS). The circles indicate the coordinates (latitude/longitude). annulatus Fig. The tick is well represented in many areas of the Mediterranean region (see Fig. The stars indicate records in which the coordinates were not provided. However. It seems that the apparent lack of Rh. Reported occurrence of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. . bursa prefers drier areas while Hy. 6.Maps of Reported Occurrence of Ticks the available literature of the last 10 years (red stars and solid red circles) and those that are from historical data older than 2000 (green stars and solid green circles). The circles indicate the coordinates (latitude/longitude). Rh. while D. marginatum and D. just the name of the location (see the introduction to this chapter). In any case. The data gathered about the distribution of Rh. but this extreme has not been reported. Rhipicephalus annulatus (formerly Boophilus) The map shown in Fig. data for 2000–2010. marginatus and Rh. Rh.6 displays the records of Rh. where similar tick field collection efforts on both species have been carried out in the last 30–40 years. which has resulted in an apparent absence of the species. Such a distribution extends to approximately 45°N latitude. annulatus in the Mediterranean region seems to be discontinuous in nature. The stars indicate records in which the coordinates were not provided. • Coordinate (latitude/longitude). historical data (before 2000). It is interesting to note the different distribution areas of D.

○ Coordinate (latitude/longitude).5 Genus Dermacentor Dermacentor marginatus The map shown in Plate 23 displays the records of D. There are no conclusive studies about the involvement of D. data for 2000–2010. D. but there are no geographically accurate reports about this. although the species does seem to be widespread in France in areas of a climate similar to that found in southern Germany. marginatus is well known from the Mediterranean region (see Plate 23). just the name of the location (see the introduction to this chapter). and it seems that this species can spread further than its previously known distribution area. In many parts of northern Africa. the actual northern limits of D. D. The circles indicate the coordinates (latitude/longitude). marginatus in parts of Germany. 6. the tick is found only in areas where a permanent or temporal flow of water is available. Dermacentor reticulatus The map shown in Fig. marginatus has not been recorded from Belgium or the Netherlands. marginatus in the transmission of Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) virus among animals and humans. • Coordinate (latitude/longitude). which has a northern distribution in Europe. marginatus are not well known. marginatus ticks that were found in the available literature of the last 10 years (solid red circles and black stars) and those that are from historical data published before 2000 (solid green circles). marginatum (the proven vector) and Rh.96 Agustín Estrada-Peña et al. It is present in areas north of the Balkans.2. reticulatus ticks that were found in the available literature of the last 10 years Fig. . 6. historical data (before 2000). However. Reported occurrence of Dermacentor reticulatus. the area of distribution of this tick species overlaps in many parts with that of Hy. has a patchy area of distribution because it is restricted to sites with adequate moisture content. The tick D. bursa (a suspected vector of some CCHF viral strains). Therefore. 6. reticulatus. Established populations are well known in southern Russia.7 displays the records of D. The stars show records in which the coordinates were not provided. Û Smallest administrative region or territorial unit for statistics (NUTS). has been wrongly reported as D. data for 2000–2010. being recorded from as far north as Hungary and southern Germany.7.

doi:10. D. 8. T. T. References EFSA Panel on Animal and Welfare (AHAW) (2010) Scientific opinion on the role of tick vectors in the epidemiology of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever and African swine fever in Eurasia.G. (2006) Lyme borreliosis in Europe: influences of climate and climate change. pictus) also known as the ‘ornate dog tick’ exist in wide areas in Europe. Daniel. 6. and Danielová. T.G. reticulatus into other areas of countries that are already infested (e. T. Central European Journal of Public Health 13. Copenhagen. EFSA Journal 8(8). EUR/04/5046250. (2005) Altitudinal distribution limit of the tick Ixodes ricinus shifted considerably towards higher altitudes in central Europe: results of three years monitoring in the Krkonose Mts.T. 24–28. (1998) Increasing geographical distribution and density of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in central and northern Sweden. and Lindgren. World Health Organization. Lindgren. Accurate records of D.G.T. therefore it is absent in the Mediterranean region where the relative humidity is not conducive to survival. Jaenson.1186/1756-3305-5-8. The circles indicate the coordinates (latitude/longitude). E. just the name of the location (see the introduction to this chapter). T. 119–123. Jaenson. Tälleklint. Tälleklint.. Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases 2. E. Lindgren. reticulatus seems to be widespread in France. 521–526.E. reticulatus (syn. The area of distribution of this tick species (Fig.G. (Czech Republic). Germany. and Polfeldt. 1703. Materna. The stars show records in which the coordinates were not provided. E. marginatus and it has been wrongly reported as the latter species. E. D. ecology and adaptation measures. 97 D. Hungary and the eastern part of Poland.Maps of Reported Occurrence of Ticks (stars and open circles) and those that are from historical data older than 2000 (solid black circles). epidemiology.. and Jaenson. M. J. L. L.g. Report No. from France to Moldavia. Petersson. (2012) Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden. 44–49. and Jaenson. .. Eisen. E. Regional Office for Europe. The actual geographical distribution and northern limits of this species are not well known. It prefers cold regions with an adequate amount of air relative humidity. (2000) Impact of climatic change on the northern latitude limit and population density of the disease-transmitting European tick Ixodes ricinus.G. but very abundant in low-altitude hills. Germany) and into new countries where the tick is currently absent. L.T. Parasites and Vectors 5. It is absent from mountain regions. Jaenson. Concerns exist about the probable spread of D. (2011) The range of Ixodes ricinus and the risk of contracting Lyme borreliosis will increase northwards when the vegetation period becomes longer... and Lindgren.7) overlaps in many parts of Europe with that of D. Environmental Health Perspectives 108. Journal of Medical Entomology 35. V.

When more reliable estimates of tick abundance are required.1 Introduction to Surveillance and its Aim 7. USA. whereby livestock inspectors pass their hands over different regions of the animal’s body to detect attached ticks.3. and it can provide useful information of appropriate types. For tick-infested cattle. Ticks collected on the cloth are counted as the number of a given species per unit of distance dragged (e.1.2. Hungary. 7.. For example. 1993). a timetested method is the scratching technique.7 1 Surveillance and Control Measures* Róbert Farkas. Absolute measures of tick population densities cannot be obtained with this method. 1996). or from people (Lindenmayer et al.3. Passive surveillance utilizes information collected from tick laboratories or hospitals to assess tick or disease distribution (White. Ticks can also be sampled from wild or domestic hosts.1.1.1 Mo Salman2 and Agustín Estrada-Peña3 Szent István University. Nicholson and Mather. 98 ©CAB International 2013. this passive approach is less expensive and requires less effort.1 What are surveillance and monitoring? A surveillance system is defined as the systematic. A similar technique is used in combination with visual inspection to examine wild animals. a mark-and-recapture method can be used.. An alternative to dragging/flagging is the use of carbon dioxide traps. measurement. mules and other livestock. These methods provide more accurate information. horses. Spain Tick surveys often are conducted to determine whether tick control is needed or not. Salman and J.g. ongoing or repeated. Agustín Estrada-Peña. although the value of the results is sometimes limited by unidentifiable biases in data collection (Johnson et al. Sections 7. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (eds M. Budapest. although the relative abundance of ticks in the sampling area can be determined. Section 7. The gas is an attractant for crawling ticks. * Mo Salman wrote Section 7. 7. 1991. 100 m).2. Róbert Farkas. The most common method for sampling ticks is the use of a flag or drag cloth pulled or dragged through the vegetation. which then adhere to the trap. investigators can be assigned to deer-check stations during the hunting season to count all ticks on hunter-killed animals. The species that are collected can provide an indication of the potential risks of tick-borne diseases in a given area. Tarrés-Call) . but are expensive and labour intensive. 2004). Another technique for sampling ticks is to trap small and medium-sized wild animals and hold them over trays filled with water or alcohol to catch fed ticks as they detach. 2Colorado State University. and 3University of Zaragoza.

Thus. the difference between these two systems is related to the anticipated action plan for the expected outcome from the corresponding system. The use of monitoring data is in its ability to provide information on the prevalence of a particular disease or changes in the rate or direction of the spread of that disease. animal characteristics and production characteristics. the same approaches used in surveillance are used in monitoring. should follow specific field protocol in order to maximize the available specimens to be collected. This requirement that surveillance has an action associated with a predefined threshold is its key difference from disease monitoring. 2003). A surveillance system for TBDs may require a combination of measurements related to the host as well as the ticks that are involved in the transmission of the pathogens. however. analysis. ongoing or repeated. disease forecasting. For example. There is a data gathering and analysis component via a defined monitoring system. Disease monitoring is the continuous adaptable efforts used to assess the disease or health status of a population and the risk factors associated with disease (Salman. collection. and the terms have been used interchangeably. analysis. the US Department of Agriculture conducts monitoring programmes through its National Animal Health Monitoring System in which it investigates and collects data over time on disease states. evaluating the effectiveness of intervention programmes. but the key difference is in the objectives of the system (Salman. This type of monitoring is considered as part of a surveillance system for TBDs in order to increase the likelihood that there will be timely detection of undefined (emerging) or unexpected (exotic or re-emerging) threats of TBDs. 2003).1.2 Necessary components and considerations of monitoring and surveillance systems A monitoring and surveillance system (MoSS) is built on three basic principles. interpretation and timely dissemination information of health-related data without an associated predefined plan of action. surveillance is a critical component of control programmes (Salman. 2003). but in and of itself is only informative. This body of data can be used to recognize a need for further research or the need for a surveillance programme. The key feature of surveillance is that it has an associated corrective action when the presence of disease exceeds a predetermined threshold. Typically. 2003. First is the identification of the disease(s) to be assessed based on a risk assessment. and developing policy and public education campaigns (Akhtar and White. collation. Thrusfield. Further objectives of surveillance include identifying hypotheses for research. 2010). 2007a). The term monitoring is defined as the systematic. 2007a). density and geographical distribution of ticks is an essential component for an early warning system for specific tick-borne diseases (TBDs) in selected regions of the world. the disease pathophysiology . The surveillance process can be broken down into three distinct components based on the fact that it is an action-oriented programme. and (ii) presence or absence of the pathogens in the collected specimens. the epidemiology of the selected diseases. Because of the requirement of action at certain thresholds. 7. implementation and evaluation of risk mitigation measures (OIE. the objectives are purely an observational undertaking. In monitoring. measurement. This can be a continuous effort to gather data about general health or production metrics. The collection of tick specimens can support at least the essential components of the surveillance: (i) tick species identification. collation. or it can be the monitoring of a specific health or production metric. It should be noticed that monitoring the presence. interpretation and timely dissemination of health-related data that is essential for describing health hazard occurrence and for the planning. Tick collection. species. The data gathered under general health monitoring are commonly known as vital statistics (Thrusfield.Surveillance and Control Measures collection. 2003). a dissemination of the collected data or analysis findings to stakeholders and a predefined response or action component based on when 99 the findings of the data analysis exceed a predefined disease level threshold (Salman.

. 2007a). A risk assessment can be used to identify the diseases of concern for an area. 2003). The hazards that are identified can then be prioritized based on their public health. By nature. disease control or disease eradication. 2010). there is the identification of the goals and objectives of the surveillance system. Case definitions increase the specificity of a surveillance programme. 2003. standardized methods of collecting data. the limitations of diagnostic tests and other disease measurement methods need to be incorporated into the system in order to understand its overall validity (Stark. Finally. but also requires the following components: public education campaigns. 2003). 2002). the latter two tasks use surveillance systems specifically because an action is implied. Salman. methods of communication of the results from the surveillance system.. production and international trade implications. Proper training of personnel is even more important when attempting to exclude or prevent diseases with a public health and socio-economic impact. especially of a disease-specific programme. Ideally. and the inherent agent characteristics (Zepeda and Salman. and the appropriate training of personnel involved in sample collection and disease determination (Christensen. It does not just include finding cases. Definitions that include the serological testing authorized to determine suspect and confirmed cases are most specific when the tests used are defined and the order of laboratory tests is explicitly stated (Akhtar and White. Risk communication is the role of the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). OIE. Typically. Jebara. The protocol consists of the identification of disease hazards. 2003. Screening tests are used to identify suspect cases. Jebara. 2003. screening tests are typically of higher sensitivity so as to reduce false negatives. The role of the OIE in risk communications is through its requirement that OIE-listed diseases and significant animal health concerns be reported to the organization on a weekly. 2010). thresholds need to be identified that will result in action should a disease-positive animal be found or should population levels of disease exceed a predefined prevalence or incidence threshold (Christensen. Another issue that needs to be considered for TBDs is the species identification and the detection of the pathogens . or specific to a particular disease of interest (OIE. 2004. public health systems and appropriate national government organizations. Monitoring and surveillance is demanding of resources. response resources such as vaccines. These can be monitoring for trends. an understanding of how the data will be analysed and used by decision makers. Those developing the surveillance system should also consider the reproducibility of test sensitivity and specificity between different laboratories. a defined sampling method and sample size. as well as the laboratory burden and capacity to test for the disease(s) of interest. The identification of the sampling scheme must also be decided upon. 2010). and an evaluation system to allow for regular critiquing and improvement of the programme. the assessment quantifies the probability of experiencing the full range of hazards associated with a disease threat. Therefore. monthly and annual basis via the required reports for all member states (OIE. which also has an impact on the type of data collection done: either passive or active. This is because few people have experience with the disease in their day-to-day clinical life and they are unfamiliar with its clinical manifestations. it is necessary to confirm suspect cases with tests of higher specificity or diagnostic tests (Dohoo et al. indemnities. The design of a surveillance system has many parts that are necessary to define before initiating a surveillance programme. The risk management of the prioritized hazards uses a monitoring and surveillance system (Dennis et al. focusing on a broad range of diseases or syndromes. 2004). Secondly. producer awareness. 2003. 2003b). Thrusfield. the characterization of those hazards and the likelihood of exposure to the ranges of hazards or outcomes that can be caused by a disease. These are: an established case definition. 2003. a case is defined by the clinical manifestation of disease and laboratory results. Salman. This surveillance can be general. but are also known for having lower specificity than other tests and thus have a higher rate of false positives.100 Róbert Farkas et al. Therefore.

There are different populations that can be considered for surveillance based on whether probability or non-probability sampling is used. all animals or people in the population of interest are assessed for the presence of disease (Cameron et al. The most reliable method to ensure a representative sample is to use random sampling techniques (Cameron et al. This will also ensure that all necessary information is captured and reported by the reporting agencies. storage and tracking methods must also be standardized. Random sampling is sampling which ensures that the probability of being selected is the same for every entity in the study population (Cameron et al. The external validity of a programme is greatest when a census of the population is performed. 2003). 2003c). If populations of interest are quite small. but a sample gives you a value and its variability. Yet. this may be manageable. Dohoo et al. such censuses are not feasible. Data collection methods and. The variability is the measure of uncertainty that comes with using a sample of the population to estimate the level of disease rather than using a census to assess the entire population. In the situation of a census.. For example. They are smaller.. 2003a). the data entry can be standardized too (Thrusfield. 2003). This variability can be reduced as the sample size increases (Dohoo et al. 2003).. it will reduce errors when data are recorded into a database by narrowing the need to interpret different questions and answers as to where they fit into the database. Populations are groups of interest with a common characteristic. Sample size is determined through calculations that consider the allowable error. but if they are quite large. more specifically. 2003). Yet neither of these methods yields representative samples of the greater population (Cameron et al. then 101 representative sampling is needed to estimate the level of disease in that larger population. sampling from the population of interest. but not for measures of disease occurrence.. If the sample is not representative of the population of interest. or the extrapolation of the surveillance results to the greater population of interest. Validity requires probability sampling and.. Convenience sampling can save resources and time. a census gives you a specific and reliable measure of disease. 2003a). when the population of interest is too large to census. while being representative of the study population. For measures of disease such as prevalence. more importantly. This is also known as probability sampling. 2003. Nonrandom sampling or non-probability sampling.. when necessary. Lastly. then the results of the surveillance within that sample will be also invalid. less costly and more manageable. If one is using the surveillance system to assess risk factors. Using the same collection forms across all areas of the surveillance system will prevent differences in reporting from different sources and will increase consistency. 2007b). Sample populations are more advantageous than censuses for multiple reasons. Decision makers will be more likely to consider the MoSS information when they are confident that what it is reporting has internal validity and. this is the concept of the power of a study and is also related to sample size. Targeted samples are a type of purposive sampling – sampling of populations at high risk. The results from an appropriately selected sample population can then be extrapolated to the study population without conducting surveillance on the entire population (Cameron et al. and sample size. random selection. Random sampling often results in representative samples and allows for statistical evaluation of the results as well (Dohoo et al. estimating disease prevalence would make this important. . external validity as well. such as the general population. such as purposive or convenience sampling. is determined by the sampling method (Dohoo et al. External validity is important in monitoring and surveillance when it is critical that the output from the sample population mirrors the true situation in the study population. When a standardized form is used.. can also be used for specific events. 2003a).Surveillance and Control Measures among the collected ticks associated with specific TBDs. External validity. The need for this standardization comes from the need of the surveillance system and its results to be reliable. a certain sample size is needed to assure that there is truly no association when the results find no association...

physicians. veterinarians. qualitative methods such as graphical methods. the form in which the data are distributed to the various stakeholders may need to differ based on how such stakeholders will use the information. A needs assessment of the stakeholders can be used to identify areas of weakness in the surveillance system or areas that need to be addressed that currently may not be in the system (Martell-Moran et al. even as they change. If the output does not measure variables of interest. Clearly. Diseases often cluster based on political. and veterinary public health personnel may need information on the rate of spread and scope of the disease to . the confidence of the estimate. The impact of a surveillance system depends upon the usefulness of its output. classification analysis can compare various surveillance systems. or a surveillance system over time. The general public may need information on how to protect themselves from disease. Thirdly. Secondly. and thus overestimate disease (Buehler et al. the legal basis of the programme. Graphical methods include fault tree analysis and scenario analysis. and the ability to reach them must adhere to sufficient quality standards as well. the surveillance may accurately estimate the level of disease by chance. but also the sampling method. 2003a). clustering has many impacts on a surveillance system that must be considered. In order to adequately assess a system. producers may need information on how to enhance their biosecurity in the face of an epidemic. Of course. Finally. This clustering needs to be considered not only in relation to the sample size determination. 2011). 2003). The results of a surveillance system are used for multiple purposes. 2003. the objectives and aims of the system. benchmarks are meant to be a tool. 2011). There are numerous methods for conducting assessments. All systems should be continuously evaluated and improved to meet current needs and threats. If it is not considered.. otherwise the entire programme is for naught. the sampling method oversamples from clusters without disease. the surveillance system is limited in its overall utility. 2003). If standardized. An important component of dissemination of the results is in identifying all of the critical stakeholders in federal. laboratories and the general public (Martell-Moran et al. the greater the similarity of the animals within the clusters in terms of the measure of interest. In terms of sample size.. the baseline purpose of the surveillance assessment can be defined. there are three possibilities. spatio-temporal analysis or simulation models that are often used for risk assessments. These can supply quality assurance to the system too by setting benchmarks for the number of tests run or disease reports generated in a period of time (Stark. such as those in different regions of countries. Lastly. The collection of the data should be fitted to the desired analysis instead of fitting the analysis to the data collections.. the results of the analysis from a surveillance system must be communicated to all stakeholders. the various components of the programme and the responsible organizations need to be defined. thereby making it a quantitative analysis (Stark. another potential quantitative assessment is via benchmarks or indicators. Assessment and validation of a system must consider the needs of the stakeholders. the sampling method may oversample from clusters with disease. 2003a). It also allows the data to appropriately feed into pertinent statistical analysis. social and environmental factors. These include questionnaires of stakeholders. the variability of the measure of interest in the population and the power wanted in the study (Cameron et al.. First. the disease under surveillance. the greater the sample size (Dohoo et al.102 Róbert Farkas et al. Furthermore. industry.. descriptive assessments or classification analysis and quantitative methods such as scoring systems. Classification analysis is a descriptive assessment of the surveillance system through its component parts. However. By using these definitions and the needs of the stakeholders. The next step in a classification analysis is to assign a scoring system to the effectiveness of each component. there are also other considerations when evaluating disease presence. This requires that the purpose of the data is predetermined. domestic flock owners).. Other factors such as the study population size and the accuracy of tests must also be considered. the ability to detect disease and the usefulness of the data to the stakeholders. private citizens where appropriate (pet owners. 2003). thus underestimating disease. state and local governments. Dohoo et al.

2003. The more common a disease is in a population the smaller the sample size that is needed. interpretative reports are needed that include a description of the programme and the results (Wineland and Dargatz. As different populations with different backgrounds will be using the surveillance results. the surveillance system will fail to reach its objectives or purpose. accurate in its depictions of the disease situation/s.Surveillance and Control Measures implement appropriate disease control strategies on a regional or national level. . but their usefulness depends upon the purpose of the surveillance programme. 2007a. 2003. 2003). Making critical diseases notifiable can assist in ensuring that they are better reported and recognized by clinicians and veterinarians. There are numerous components and considerations that go into a surveillance system and its methods. reports using tabular summaries that require some level of interpretation can be used. the sampling frame can be derived from different types of populations. In active surveillance. Sample sizes increase as the disease becomes rare (Salman. Without consideration of all these parts. a targeted sample population will most likely need to be used. Passive surveillance is the collection 103 of laboratory results. 2010). This reduces the sample size and hence the burden on resources needed to successfully eradicate disease. Thus for rare diseases alternative sampling populations are used. A comprehensive surveillance system should be reasonably sensitive and specific for the disease or diseases of interest. therefore. and even flexible in its ability to adapt as situations change (Akhtar and White. acceptable to those who provide the data and those who use the data. from development to assessment and dissemination of the data. be timely and useful to the stakeholders for developing policy. 7. tick specimens. Salman. but these guidelines can assist in the development of an effective programme. The data are second-hand and generated for purposes of diagnosis and not for the sole reason of surveillance. 2003). Active collection requires data collection from the apparently normal population for the sole purpose of surveillance and monitoring (Akhtar and White.1. Passive data collection is useful for recognizing trends and emerging diseases. For very rare diseases that are being eradicated. The latter reports are useful to policy makers and industry key players who have a larger stake in the results of the surveillance system. General population-based surveillance programmes allow for the calculation of incidence and prevalence if the sampling is representative. These are the general population. sentinel populations and targeted populations. 2007a). 2003). Thrusfield. for those familiar with surveillance systems and epidemiology. In order to fully advise stakeholders the programme must be timely. There is no right answer or recipe for a surveillance system. but do not have the appropriate training to interpret the data alone. General populations are best used when the disease is very common and can easily be found with a reasonable sample size that is economically feasible within manpower and laboratory constraints. 2003). and be able to dictate when interventions for disease control should be implemented in biosecurity and bio-containment programmes. OIE. slaughterhouse information or reporting by clinicians (veterinarians and physicians) through health departments or similar organizations.. have an adequate positive predictive value – especially in the face of endemic diseases. there need to be various reports that present different types and levels of information: public information requires the statement of easily understandable facts about the disease situation. The targeted population should have a higher prevalence of disease than the general population (Cameron et al.3 Types of data collection methods and surveillance techniques Passive and active data collection systems are both useful. but it should not be relied upon as a rapid early warning system. and for stakeholders and policy makers. General population surveillance makes use of random sampling and systematic sampling to assess the level of disease in a population (Thrusfield. The results can. be extrapolated to the general population because there is external validity. This is based on the concept that a representative sample of the population at risk is followed over a time period and all new cases in the representative sample are identified.

pyrethroids (e. poor access to remote regions and a lack of appropriate levels of manpower (Thrusfield. 2007a). carbamates (e. Sentinel populations are populations that are monitored for the presence of a seasonal or foreign animal disease.1 Chemical control of ticks on animals Acaricides include several groups of pesticides: organophosphates (e. The clinical case definition is the only method of capturing all potential suspect cases. 2004). amitraz).2 Control Options for Hard Ticks Tick control has stimulated intense interest for more than a century. fipronil) and natural acaricides such as botanical materials (e.g. formamidines (e.g. propoxur). 2006. sentinel populations can be used as a public health tool. eprinomectin)..104 Róbert Farkas et al. permethrin. it is tailored to a specific disease. The purpose of syndromic surveillance is to capture all of these potential cases so that laboratory confirmation (in a field or diagnostic laboratory) can be carried out. Further. the intraruminal bolus and injections. Surveillance programmes can also use sentinel populations.g. sprays using manual or motorized highpressure sprayers. Dipping vats have been used extensively for tick control on livestock including cattle and sheep. dusts. it can act as an early warning system to the presence of disease (Rabinowitz et al. but there is little wastage of acaricide and they may be cheaper in the long term. Pour-on formulations are relatively expensive. this finding can be used by the public health professionals in the area as a way to alert the human population to the disease threat.g. Small numbers of livestock can be treated with hand-held sprayers but manual spraying depends on the skill of the person applying it. Treatment with synthetic chemicals known as acaricides is still the most widely used means to control or prevent hard tick attacks..g. Sentinel populations are useful in programmes of disease exclusion or prevention. 2006). Control of ticks with acaricides can either be directed against the ticks on the host or against the free-living stages of those ticks in the environment. If the sentinel population is sufficiently sensitive to disease. which determined the absence of disease in remote locations (Jost et al.. when surveillance is done using participatory epidemiology. Tick prophylaxis should cover the entire period during which ticks are active. doramectin. ivermectin. and has the aim of preventing pathogen transmission (Polar et al. Several methods are used for the application of acaricides to animals. diazinon). acting as an early warning system when the sentinel population incubation period is shorter than the human incubation period for the disease. 2006). spot-ons. extracts of the neem tree containing azadirachtin). When sentinel populations indicate the presence of a zoonotic disease. When these are used for several animals over extended periods of time. There is a variety of strategies for the control of ticks and TBDs (Sonenshine et al. Ideally. The other topical application . moxidectin. 2003). These populations should have a higher rate of disease than the general population (McCluskey. two classes (avermectins and milbemycins) of macrocyclic lactones (e. pour-ons. and these products can also be used with applicators to treat wild ungulates in game reserves (Latif and Walker. Syndromic surveillance requires a detailed clinical case definition.2. Often. Participatory epidemiology is a specialty that uses local knowledge to understand the local disease situation. coumaphos. 2005). 7.. Retreatment may be needed several times during a season when sprays and dips are used. Willadsen. Pour-on formulations of acaricides contain high-quality oil that spreads through the greasy hair coat of livestock.g. The reason for such an approach is that in underresourced countries there is often poor laboratory support. such as dips.g. phenylpyrazoles (e. flumethrin). syndromic surveillance is utilized. dipping vats need to be maintained with the proper solution levels and percentage of active ingredient. Such participatory disease surveillance programmes were used in the Rinderpest eradication campaign. 2007). West Nile fever and eastern equine encephalitis in horses act as an indicator for the human population in this way. 7. deltamethrin.

Examples include bait boxes. The active compounds mostly belong to the same chemical classes as the acaricides used for pets. acaricides can be incorporated into plastic or other suitable matrices that provide a slow release of the toxicant over a period of weeks or months. If permanent infestations with Rhipicephalus (Rh. particularly if those TBDs are not endemic in the home country. 2009). The effectiveness of any tick-control approach tends to depend on the ecological conditions at the application site. These preparations can be divided into injectable. Systemic acaricides offer another means of providing long-lasting and effective tick control. the cattle pass through a heavy low pressure spray and become soaked with acaricidal fluid. It should also be remembered that the duration of efficacy of an acaricide may differ between tick species. an important concept called host-targeted tick control has been introduced in recent years as a way to destroy ticks without harming their hosts. These collars offer at least partial protection but may not provide total protection against ticks (Elfassy et al. and so-called four-poster devices (Stafford and Kitron.. regular acaricidal treatment of pet animals coupled with environmental treatment using a compound from a different chemical group can be used.. As the deer inserts its head to feed on the bait. all of which are delivered to the tick during its feeding activity on the skin. Topical spot-on treatments containing fipronil or selamectin can be used on both dogs and cats. to ensure that any visible ticks are removed 105 and that early repeat treatment is considered if appropriate. 2003). especially when combined with other management techniques appropriate for the local conditions of tick distribution and transmission dynamics. oral and topically applied products. Insecticide-impregnated pet collars are also available for dogs and cats. 2002). Four-poster devices have the advantage of providing well-targeted applications using far lower amounts of pesticide than are used in broadcast applications (Pound et al. Another novel hosttargeted method is the use of rodent-targeted bait boxes containing fipronil. To achieve long-lasting efficacy. Dogs and cats travelling to regions with ticks and endemic TBDs should also receive a regular application of acaricidal products. however. Spencer et al. thereby reducing the subsequent . although those containing amitraz cannot be used on cats.) sanguineus occur within a kennel or household environment. This has proven effective in eliminating immature ticks on mice. may be detected on the animal. The application of acaricides is advisable because not all of the ticks. 2004). For wildlife. the duration of efficacy for an individual product should be established from the relevant product data sheet so that the owners are given the correct retreatment intervals. with a bait dispenser and applicator station on either side. but body parts such as the ears and groin may not be effectively treated by this method (Latif and Walker. in particular towards the end of the protection period. There are special formulations of acaricides for use in kennel or household environments. only approved veterinary medicinal ectoparasiticides should be used. permethrin can be used only on dogs. especially the larval and nymphal stages and unengorged adults. To advise pet owners and improve owner compliance. again highlighting the importance of visual checking to verify that the treatment remains effective (ESCCAP. It includes a central bin. When treating dogs and cats against ticks. Several such devices have been developed to attract deer or small mammals to ‘feeding stations’ where they are treated. One of the most promising of these devices is the ‘four-poster’ device.Surveillance and Control Measures methods are often employed owing to their advantage in limiting the amount of acaricide used. There are several different formulations of acaricides for pets. It is advisable that animals are checked regularly. but these methods can be important tools in integrated pest management programmes. creams or alcohol should not be used for killing the ticks.. permethrintreated cotton balls. containing bait to attract deer. it contaminates its fur with acaricide from the applicators. 2001. The hosts can be attracted (using feed. Oil. and both dogs and cats can be sprayed with approved products. Each application method has its advantages and disadvantages. 2000). nesting materials or other attractants) to devices that apply acaricides to them.

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population of questing nymphs and adults,
as well as reducing the proportion of these
ticks infected with the Lyme disease spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi (Dolan et al., 2004).
The chemical control of ticks on livestock poses several problems. Besides leaving residues in meat and milk, the use of
many acaricides (e.g. organophosphates, carbamates) is associated with risks of side
effects or poisoning resulting from overdoses on specific species or from breed
sensitivity (de Oliveira Monteiroa et al.,
2010). Environmental contamination and
effects on non-target animals have also been
well documented for organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates and pyrethroids
(Kunz and Kemp, 1994). The development of
acaricide resistance by some tick species is an
increasing and continuing concern in tropical and subtropical areas, where these ticks
have been found to be resistant to chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphorus
insecticides, pyrethroids and formamidines
(Kunz and Kemp, 1994). Acaricide resistance
in tick species occurring in Europe has not
yet been reported, but to avoid the onset of
this problem there are certain rules that
should be followed:


When acaricides are used they should be
stored as recommended and used as soon
as possible so that they are of full strength
as specified by the manufacturer.
All ticks on treated animals should be
destroyed or eliminated.
The acaricide type recommended by veterinary authorities should be used until
official advice to change to another type
is given.
Novel acaricides should only be used when
the older types of acaricides have become
ineffective (Latif and Walker, 2004).

For the above-mentioned reasons, major
alternatives to conventional acaricide treatments have been developed in recent years
which can be used in integrated management programmes for hard ticks in order
to minimize the environmental impacts
and acaricide resistance, and to reduce
production costs (Samish et al., 2000). The promising alternative methods described in
Sections 7.2.2–7.2.8 are being investigated.

7.2.2

Pheromone or hormone-assisted
control

Pheromone-assisted tick control is one of the
novel strategies being used for the control of
hard ticks. Research with tick pheromones
suggests that combinations of pheromones
and acaricides can be significantly more effective in controlling ticks than the acaricide alone
because ticks are unlikely to develop resistance to their own pheromones. A pheromone–
acaricide combination applied to a single spot
on cattle can be effective in killing ticks.
Another promising device is the ‘tick decoy’,
in which the sex pheromone 2,6-dichlorophenol and an acaricide are impregnated into
plastic beads on the surface of which ‘mounting’ sex pheromone is smeared. Male ticks are
attracted to these decoys on the animal’s hair
coat and killed. This approach also disrupts
mating activity so that any surviving females
cannot lay viable eggs (Norval et al., 1996).
Another novel technology for killing Ixodes
scapularis ticks in their natural habitats was
developed by incorporating the components
of the tick arrestment pheromone (guanine,
xanthine and haematin) along with permethrin into an oily matrix for dispersal on vegetation. These paste-like droplets attracted
and killed ticks before they could infest
humans or animals (Sonenshine et al., 2003,
2006; Sonenshine, 2008). Hormones and
insect growth regulators (IGRs) such as
methoprene have also been used to disrupt
tick development in laboratory experiments.
Analogues or mimics of ecdysteroids and
juvenile hormone are effective in killing ticks
by delaying their development, disrupting
oviposition or killing the larvae when they
hatch from eggs deposited by treated
females. However, these compounds do not
appear to be uniformly effective against all
types of ticks.
7.2.3

Biological control

Biological control of ticks seems an appropriate alternative that may reduce the frequency
of use of chemical acaricides and the need for
treatment of TBDs. Biological control agents
are in principle highly desirable, but their

Surveillance and Control Measures

narrow host specificity, often relatively low
efficacy, costs of manufacture, certain application problems and sometimes low stability
present serious challenges. Numerous pathogens attack ticks, including bacteria, fungi
and nematodes (Samish et al., 2004). Several
papers have reported the testing of entomopathogens for the control of ticks in laboratories, and the use of these novel biocontrol
techniques on animals (Alonso-Díaz et al.,
2007) or vegetation (Kaaya, 2000). Among the
potential biocontrol agents, entomopathogenic fungi, nematodes and parasitic wasps
are the most promising candidates (Samish
and Rehacek, 1999).
Entomopathogenic fungi have been studied as control agents of ticks mainly in laboratory assays (Kaaya, 2000; Samish et al., 2001,
2004; Polar et al., 2005). These fungi invade
their host by direct penetration of the cuticle.
After germination of the attached spore,
appressoria are formed which then secrete
histolytic enzymes and produce hyphae.
After successful penetration by the hyphae,
yeast-like blastospores are formed and propagate. After the death of the host, the fungus
grows out of the cadaver and sporulates
(Kleespies, 1993). The comparative ease with
which the spores of these fungi can be produced and artificially disseminated makes
them promising potential agents for the control of ticks (Norval and Horak, 2004). It has
been reported that temperature and host
secretions (e.g. sweat) may affect the virulence of entomopathogenic fungi on animals
treated with biopesticides to control ticks
(Polar et al., 2005). Alternative targeted methods of applying fungal pathogens to the
environment for the control of ticks are
needed. Studies of the effects of entomopathogenic fungi on ticks under field conditions
are scarce (Benjamin et al., 2002; AlonsoDíaz et al., 2007), but at present one of the best
candidates for tick biocontrol is Metarhizium
anisopliae (Samish et al., 2001). Preliminary
field trials have had modest results. The use
of an oil-based carrier enhanced tick mortality when compared with a water-based solution (Kaaya and Hassan, 2000). The pathogens
that affect ticks typically also affect other
arthropods (Brownbridge and Glare, 2007),
so effects on non-target arthropods must be

107

considered in strategies for the application of
biocontrol materials. There are opportunities
to use auto-dissemination devices to deliver
pathogens to ticks (Maniania et al., 2007).
Such devices use visual cues, pheromones
and kairomones to attract host pests to a
pathogen source (Vega et al., 2000).
A promising alternative to the use of
entomopathogenic fungi is biological control
through the use of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) (Samish et al., 2001). The thirdstage infective larvae of EPNs of the families
Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae live
freely in the soil. They enter their hosts through
natural body openings such as the genital pore
and release symbiotic bacteria carried in their
intestines (Kocan et al., 1998). These bacteria
proliferate in the haemolymph and produce
toxins and other metabolites. The tick then
dies from septicaemia and the bacteria produce suitable conditions for the nematodes to
complete their life cycle (Ehlers, 2001).
Arthropods can also be used for biological control of ticks: chalcid wasps of the genus
Ixodiphagus are obligatory parasitoids of ixodid ticks and most species will oviposit and
develop only in the nymphal stage of the tick.
Several wasp larvae can successfully develop
in a single engorged nymph, which is killed
during this process (Mwangi et al., 1997; Hu
et al., 1998; Norval and Horak, 2004).
Domestic chickens are opportunistic predators of ticks and can be used for tick control in
rural areas. In particular, the indigenous breeds
of Galliformes, if allowed to scavenge among
cattle, can consume considerable numbers of
ticks (Latif and Walker, 2004).
7.2.4

Genetic resistance

In general, tick tolerance or tick resistance
exhibited by certain livestock breeds might
vary with the species of infesting tick; heterospecific resistance appears to be low or even
absent among different genera of ticks, while
a certain degree of cross resistance is expressed
to tick species belonging to the same genus
(de Castro and Newson, 1993). Genetic resistance has been described in West African
N’Dama cattle. This breed has a higher degree
of natural resistance to ticks with a long

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hypostome, such as some Amblyomma and
Hyalomma species, than to tick genera with a
short hypostome. In Bos indicus breeds, the
evidence for a genetic resistance trait to multihost ticks, such as Rh. appendiculatus, is not as
strong as for the one-host ticks, i.e. Rh. microplus (Mattioli et al., 2000).

(de la Fuente and Kocan, 2006). Other promising vaccines target tick-cement protein, disrupting the attachment success as well as
causing midgut injury and affecting the tick’s
ability to transmit pathogens (Labuda et al.,
2006); affect the ability to disrupt the male
engorgement factor; or apply a combination
of anti-tick and anti-pathogen vaccines
(Sonenshine et al., 2006, Willadsen, 2008).

7.2.5 Vaccine
In Australia, a commercial recombinant antigen vaccine has been developed for the control of the cattle tick Rh. (Boophilus) microplus
based on a so-called concealed antigen (Bm86)
in cells of the tick gut. A similar recombinant
vaccine has been developed in Cuba. Recent
reports suggest that the recombinant Bm86
can reduce tick fecundity by as much as 90%
(Willadsen, 2006, 2008). Although it is possible that antigen-resistant strains of cattle ticks
may appear, large-scale vaccination of cattle
herds with these recombinant vaccines offers
a promising alternative or supplement to acaricides. Although the vaccine uses an antigen
from Rh. (Bo.) microplus, it is even more efficacious against Rh. (Bo.) annulatus than against
the homologous species (Fragoso et al., 1998).
Such effects appear not to correlate with the
degree of sequence conservation of the antigen across tick species (Willadsen, 2006).
Because vaccines are expensive and
involve considerable risk, a high level of efficacy is required to offset these negative
aspects of their use. Research on other antigens and other tick species is in progress.
Many more potential antigens have been proposed than have been tested. Tick antigen
targets studied to date are from a restricted
range of functional classes. They include
structural proteins, particularly from salivary
glands, hydrolytic enzymes and their inhibitors, especially those involved in haemostatic
processes, and a range of membraneassociated proteins of unknown function
(Willadsen, 2006, 2008). Of special interest is
the development of novel combinations using
RNA interference (RNAi) to silence subolesin
and the tick-protective antigen Rs86 (similar
to Bm86) against Rh. sanguineus; the synergistic effect of silencing both genes causes a
much greater reduction of tick feeding and
oviposition than targeting either one alone

7.2.6

Personal protection

Preventive measures are the most effective
means of protection from ticks. Ticks can
be avoided by avoiding exposure to fields,
forests and other tick-infested habitats, especially in areas of known disease foci (Ginsberg
and Stafford, 2005). Maintaining a shortclipped lawn in gardens and parks, and establishing barriers to prevent access to woods
can minimize human exposure to ticks in
these environments. The use of clearly defined
paths can help people avoid contact with tickinfested vegetation. People in tick-prone areas
should wear boots, socks, long trousers and
light-coloured clothing. Trousers should be
tucked into the boots, socks drawn over trousers, and the socks taped to form a tight seal.
A recent study showed that wearing protective clothing was 40% effective in preventing
Lyme disease (Vásquez et al., 2008). Clothing
should also be treated with an effective repellent or acaricide such as permethrin before
entering tick-infested habitats. Exposed skin
also should be treated with repellents or acaricides suitable for use on humans. The most
widely used personal protectant is the repellent DEET (diethyl toluamide or N,N-diethyl3-methyl benzamide), which is available as a
lotion or a spray. Repellents should be applied
repeatedly as needed to maintain maximum
protection, but because of absorption or abrasion the interval should be longer than a few
hours. Each person should conduct selfexaminations for ticks during and after exposure to tick-infested areas. Early removal of
attached ticks is important in minimizing the
risk of contracting TBD. There is a large variety
of purpose-designed tick removal tools available, and these may be used for the removal of
ticks attached to the skin. Oil, creams or alcohol should not be used for killing the ticks.

Surveillance and Control Measures

7.2.7

Habitat modification

Tick control primarily involves the treatment
of animals. However, habitat modifications of
the infested land can aid in reducing tick
abundance. Ticks have species-specific habitat
requirements that are often associated with
habitats of hosts and the need to avoid desiccation. Therefore, habitats can be manipulated to make them unsuitable for ticks or to
minimize encounters between ticks and
animals and people (Stafford, 2007). Several
acaricides, including organophosphorus and
synthetic pyrethroid preparations can be
applied directly to vegetation in gardens,
parks and other areas that are suitable sites
for ticks. Using acaricides off the host is of
limited value because ticks commonly occur
in microhabitats covered by vegetation, leaf
litter and other natural materials, or in the
nests, burrows and other cavities used by
their hosts. For these reasons, the ticks often
do not come into direct contact with acaricides. Therefore, the chemicals must reach the
ticks when they are seeking hosts. However,
public opposition to the treatment of natural
habitats with pesticides has made it unpopular to use this form of tick control. In the
European Union (EU) it is prohibited to use
any acaricides in the environment.
Selective grazing and pasture rotations
often reduce cattle exposure to tick populations. By keeping animals out of certain
pastures (e.g. by the removal of deer by hunting and deer-exclusion fences), the number of
fed ticks that would serve to build up a population is reduced (Daniels et al., 1993). Although
lowering deer populations by hunting can
also lower tick numbers, this approach is not
generally practical, because deer populations
must be reduced to extremely low levels to
have a reliable effect on the transmission of
tick-borne pathogens (Ginsberg and Stafford,
2005). An extreme case of pasture management is zero grazing by dairy cattle, but there
is a risk of the unexpected reintroduction of
ticks on cut fodder, on wild mammals or birds,
or on newly introduced animals. This practice
of zero (or non-continuous) grazing has
often been referred to as pasture ‘spelling’
(Ginsberg and Stafford, 2005). Mowing and
burning vegetation in natural areas also lowers tick numbers temporarily, but ticks reinfest

109

treated areas as the vegetation grows back
(Wilson, 1986).
For minimizing human and pet exposure
to ticks in outdoor areas, efforts should first
be made to keep overgrown and heavy vegetation cleared and cut in potentially tickinfested areas. A study on Lyme disease New
York state showed that lawns that were cut
short and were open to the sun had minimal
numbers of ticks, while tick densities
increased incrementally in gardens, wood
edges and forests (Maupin et al., 1991). Indoor
tick control, as well as tick control in and
around kennels, with cleaning or changing of
pet bedding to prevent or remove ticks, is
directed primarily at the brown dog tick,
Rh. sanguineus.

7.2.8

Integrated tick management

There is no single, ideal solution to the control
of ticks, but integrated control scenarios
involving increased scientific and practical
complexity can be developed and recommended. The integrated approach is probably
the most effective way to control ticks
(Jongejan and Uilenberg, 1994; Willadsen,
2006). Integrated pest management (IPM) is
an approach to the management of arthropod
pests that fosters the integration of various
pest control methods so as to minimize reliance on individual environmentally damaging approaches and to provide sustained
management of pest populations. Given the
many tick control techniques currently available and the numerous novel techniques
being developed, it is important to refine the
theory and practice of integrating these methods so they can be efficiently and effectively
applied to prevent human and animal
disease.
In conclusion, controlling hard ticks can
be an effective way to break the cycle of the
tick-borne pathogens and subsequently to
control the spread of disease. There are
numerous conventional and relatively new
approaches to control hard ticks and their
spread, and several factors should be considered in determining the most effective options.
These factors can be summarized as: the tick
species involved, the animal species involved,
the environmental and ecological conditions,

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animal management and the feasibility of
the measures. Integration of these factors is
required in order to most efficiently control ticks and the potential pathogens that
they carry.

7.3 Control Possibilities for Soft Ticks
7.3.1 Argasidae
The control of argasid ticks is a difficult
task because they possess a range of biological features (e.g. morphological, physiological and ethological) that make them
difficult to eradicate. These soft ticks can
form long-term aggregations deep inside
the fissures, cracks and crevices of buildings where it is difficult to spray with
chemicals to destroy them. Thus, efforts to
eradicate these ticks from old buildings can
be extremely costly and are generally
unsuccessful.
In the case of Argas reflexus (the European
pigeon tick), a low level of metabolism that
allows the resting tick to close its spiracles for
several hours, or perhaps even for days,
might help this particular species to withstand the application of toxic gases (Dautel
et al., 1994). Even when using long-term residual pesticides, A. reflexus is difficult to exterminate owing to its long life cycle. A successful
control measure of this tick species usually
involves three stages (Dautel and Kahl, 1999):
(i) the complete uncovering of all potential
tick hiding places (in some instances, plaster
must be removed from the walls); (ii) the
application of a pyrethrum spray to expel
ticks; followed by (iii) the use of a propoxurbased contact pesticide. A second control
measure is often indicated 3–4 months later
because of the resistance of the egg stage to
control. Indeed, repeated treatments by a pest
control professional are often necessary
(Herrmann, 2000).
Several pesticides have been reported
to be effective against argasid ticks, including permethrin (Dusbabek et al., 1997),
ivermectin (Montasser et al., 2005), and
Bacillus thuringiensis (Hassanain et al., 1997).
It was reported that entomopathogenic
fungi have also good potential for the control

of A. persicus (Sewify and Habib, 2001).
Repellents (e.g. permethrin and DEET)
have been shown to be effective against
A. persicus, the fowl or poultry tick (Kumar
et al., 1992; Haag-Wackernagel, 2005).
No vaccine against argasid ticks exists yet.
The various alternatives need further
investigation because no effective method
for the long-term control of these ticks is
known. At present, the only practical measure is to avoid housing domestic fowls in
old, infested, buildings and to prevent
access to this type of building by freeranging herds. In order to control argasid
ticks in poultry houses, all cracks and
crevices – which provide shelter to these
ticks – must be eliminated.

7.3.2

Ornithodoros

Eradication of O. erraticus from old pig sties
is invariably unsuccessful. This is because
of the tick’s long life and long survival
without feeding, the existence of accidental
hosts other than pigs, and the possibility of
penetrating into the cracks and surfaces of
the buildings where the ticks are not accessible to acaricides or to the use of a fire
torch on these surfaces or on the ground.
These factors have been the major reason
for abandoning O. erraticus-infested pig
farms after an outbreak of African swine
fever (ASF), and they have led to avoiding
the use of this type of building to shelter
pigs on the Iberian peninsula (Boinas,
1994). The use of endectocides in pigs can
reduce the level of infestation in the
premises, but does not prevent infection by
the ASF virus in the pigs if they are bitten
by an infective tick.
Practical measures include not housing
pigs in infested buildings. When such buildings are located near a pig herd, the premises
can be isolated with fences to prevent access
by the pigs, or the buildings can even be
destroyed and new premises built in another
location (Arias and Sánchez-Vizcaíno, 2002).
No effective vaccine against the ticks exists
but there are promising studies on salivary
glands extracts and ‘concealed’ gut antigen
extracts (Astigarraga et al., 1995, 1997;
Manzano-Román et al., 2006, 2007).

Surveillance and Control Measures

111

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which have chemosensillae. Ixodid ticks: hard ticks. ©CAB International 2013. the enamel looks like paint on the surface of the integument. Associated with this is reduced morphogenesis. Diapause occurs during a genetically determined stage(s) of metamorphosis. Diapause: a neurohormonally mediated dynamic state of low metabolic activity. Kairomones enable an interspecific system of chemical communication. Kairomone: a compound (chemical messenger) emanating from a potential host. carbon dioxide in ox breath that may induce appetitive behaviour in blood-feeding arthropods (ticks.Glossary Argasid ticks: soft ticks. increased resistance to environmental extremes. sclerotized protective shield (plate) which covers most of the dorsal surface of Ixodidae males. Once diapause has begun.g. even when the vertebrate host has not developed a systemic infection. The colour is mainly pink. and its full expression develops in a species-specific manner. etc. usually in response to a number of environmental stimuli that precede unfavourable conditions. Competence: the ability of a vector to transmit a pathogen to a susceptible host in such a way that the host becomes infected. Reservoir: an animate or inanimate object on or in which an infectious agent usually lives. Co-feeding: a phenomenon in which ticks become infected with a pathogen during feeding adjacent to infective ticks on the same vertebrate host. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (eds M. Conscutum: the hard. The tick’s front legs. Enamelling: is often called ornamentation. and altered or reduced behavioural activity. Endophilic and Exophilic: when not feeding. Monotropic: ticks which as immature stages or adults feed on the same type of host. mosquitoes.). It is most conspicuous on the conscutum of males. e. Such questing ticks may be collected by flagging or dragging a cloth to which they try to attach. metabolic activity is suppressed even if conditions favourable for development prevail. burrow or den of the host. orange or red. Tarrés-Call) 115 . endophilic (= nidiculous) ticks live in the nest. Questing: many exophilic ticks cling to plant stems or similar substrates and await passing animals. Exophilic ticks live in the open environment away from the host’s nest or burrow. Salman and J. and which therefore is often a source of such an infectious agent. are held out. Nidiculous: endophilic and nidiculous are synonymous.

from mother to offspring via the ovaries. both rodents and ruminants can support the feeding of immature stages of a certain telotropic tick.116 Glossary Scutum: the hard plate on the anterior dorsal surface of the larva. Soft ticks (Argasidae) do not have a scutum. . including viruses. For instance. Transovarial transmission: the transmission of microorganisms. nymph and adult female ixodid tick. Telotropic: when the immature stages of a tick are able to feed on both different types of hosts and the same types of host as the adult ticks. Trans-stadial transmission: the passage of microorganisms and viruses in arthropods from one stage (stadium or instar) to the next.

Geographic distribution data for African swine fever (ASFV).1. Tarrés-Call) Reference ID 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 122 122 122 122 122 122 122 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 0 0 117 .cabi. Country Administrative region 1 Armenia Armenia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Italy Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Spain Spain Lori Tavush Ajaria Guria Imereti Kakheti Kvemo Kartli Mtskheta-Mtianeti Racha-Lechkhumi-Kvemo Svaneti Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti Samtskhe-Javakheti Shida Kartli Tbilisi Sardegna Beja Beja Évora Évora Faro Portalegre Portalegre Astrakhan Kalmyk Krasnodar Rostov Stavropol Volgograd Andalucía Extremadura Administrative region 2 Batumi Chokhatauri Bagdati Akhmeta Bolnisi Akhalgori Ambrolauri Abasha Adigeni Gori Tbilisi Cagliari Aljustrel Alandroal Albufeira Alter do Chão Akhtubinsk Chernozemel’skiy rayon Abinskiy rayon Aksayskiy rayon Aleksandrovskiy rayon Alekseevskiy rayon ©CAB International 2013.org/vetmedresource/) for complete reference indicated by the Reference ID.Appendix 1 Tables of Geographic Distribution Data for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Table A1. See Appendix 2 (hosted on http://www. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (eds M. Salman and J.

org/vetmedresource/) for complete reference indicated by the Reference ID. See Appendix 2 (hosted on http://www. Geographic distribution data for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). Country Administrative region 1 Albania Bulgaria Bulgaria Greece Greece Kosovo Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Kukës Blagoevgrad Blagoevgrad Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Pristina Astrakhan Astrakhan Astrakhan Dagestan Dagestan Ingush Kalmyk Kalmyk Kalmyk Rostov Rostov Rostov Rostov Rostov Rostov Rostov Rostov Rostov Rostov Rostov Rostov Rostov Rostov Stavropol Stavropol Stavropol Stavropol Stavropol Stavropol Stavropol Stavropol Stavropol Stavropol Stavropol Stavropol Stavropol Stavropol Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia Stavropol Stavropol Stavropol Stavropol Volgograd Volgograd Administrative region 2 Gotse Delchev Gotse Delchev Rodopi Dubovskiy rayon Martynovskiy rayon Orlovskiy rayon Orlovskiy rayon Peschanokopskiy rayon Proletarskiy rayon Remontnenskiy rayon Sal’skSal’skiy rayon Tselinnyy rayon Tsimlyanskiy rayon Zimovnikovskiy rayon Zimovnikovskiy rayon Apanasenkovskiy rayon Apanasenkovskiy rayon Arzgirskiy rayon Blagodarnenskiy rayon Budennovsk Budennovskiy rayon Ipatovskiy rayon Izobilnenskiy rayon Krasnogorodskiy rayon Krasnogorodskiy rayon Novoaleksandrovskiy rayon Novoselitskiy rayon Petropavlovskiy rayon Rostov Stepnovskiy rayon Reference ID No.118 Appendix 1 Table A1.2.cabi. entriesa 723 1109 1412 1413 721 1402 1068 1404 635 1403 1411 1411 1401 1404 1408 1068 634 1407 1414 1405 1414 1407 1407 1407 1405 1406 1406 1406 1414 1404 1404 635 1410 1414 1414 1410 1408 1414 1414 1410 1409 1410 1414 1410 1414 1400 1414 1068 1404 Continued .

entriesa 3 4 44 20 31 3 14 2 3 3 14 38 117 21 73 2 6 8 25 70 2 2 4 4 18 42 5 4 2 3 4 8 4 2 3 2 2 15 11 3 3 Continued .Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 119 Table A1. Continued.2. Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Russia Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Volgograd Adana Adiyaman Afyon Aksaray Amasya Ankara Artvin Artvin Aydın Balıkesir Bayburt Bilecik Bingöl Bolu Bursa Çanakkale Çankırı Çorum Erzincan Erzurum Erzurum Eskis¸ehir Giresun Giresun Gümüshane Gümüshane Hatay ˙I çel Isparta Istanbul Istanbul ˙I zmir Karabuk Kars Kastamonu Kayseri Kırıkkale Kırklareli Kırs¸ehir Konya Kütahya Malatya Manisa Mugla Mus Nevs¸ehir Ordu Osmaniye Samsun S¸anlıurfa Sinop Oktyabr’skiy Reference ID 1408 1399 1399 1399 1399 1342 1399 1399 708 1399 1399 1399 1399 1399 1399 1399 1399 1399 1399 1399 1399 708 1399 1102 1399 1399 991 1399 1399 1399 1399 649 1399 1399 1399 1399 1399 1399 1399 1399 1399 1399 1399 1399 1399 1399 1399 1102 1399 1399 1399 1399 No.

Continued. Table A1. Country Administrative region 1 Åland Islands Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Estonia Estonia Estonia Estonia Estonia Estonia Estonia Estonia Estonia Estonia Estonia Estonia Estonia Estonia Jihocˇeský Jihocˇeský Jihocˇeský Jihomoravský Jihomoravský Jihomoravský Kraj Vysocˇina Královéhradecký Královéhradecký Plzenˇský Århus Bornholm Bornholm Bornholm Fyn Ringkøbing South Jutland Storstrøm Storstrøm Vejle Vejle Harju Harju Hiiu Ida-Viru Ida-Viru Ida-Viru Järva Jõgeva Lääne Lääne Lääne-Viru Pärnu Põlva Rapla Administrative region 2 Reference ID No. entriesa 114 219 2 2 2 95 a If more than one. Country Administrative region 1 Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Sivas Tokat Tokat Trabzon Tunceli Van Yozgat Zinguldak Administrative region 2 Reference ID 1399 1102 708 708 1399 1399 1399 1399 No. entriesa Hasle Otterup Ringkøbing Fakse Vejle 1329 1045 226 525 1338 227 525 227 225 230 230 888 1290 345 1325 582 582 888 888 582 888 582 1317 377 1317 1317 376 377 1317 1317 1317 377 1317 1317 1317 1317 8 4 2 2 2 Continued .org/vetmedresource/) for complete reference indicated by the Reference ID.cabi.2. See Appendix 2 (hosted on http://www.120 Appendix 1 Table A1.3. Geographic distribution data for the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) group.

Country Administrative region 1 Estonia Estonia Estonia Estonia Estonia Estonia Estonia Estonia Estonia Finland Finland Finland Finland Finland Finland France France France France France Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Greece Saare Tartu Tartu Tartu Valga Valga Valga Viljandi Võru Lapland Southern Finland Southern Finland Western Finland Western Finland Alsace Bourgogne Champagne-Ardenne Franche-Comté Lorraine Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg Bayern Bayern Bayern Bayern Bayern Bayern Bayern Bayern Bayern Brandenburg Brandenburg Hessen Hessen Hessen Hessen Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Nordrhein-Westfalen Rheinland-Pfalz Rheinland-Pfalz Rheinland-Pfalz Rheinland-Pfalz Rheinland-Pfalz Sachsen Sachsen-Anhalt Sachsen-Anhalt Thüringen Thüringen Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Administrative region 2 Reference ID No. Continued.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 121 Table A1. entriesa Lapland Uusimaa Central Ostrobothnia Freiburg Mittelfranken Niederbayern Niederbayern Oberbayern Oberpfalz Unterfranken Brandenburg Rheinhessen-Pfalz 1317 1317 1348 376 1317 376 377 1317 1317 409 1341 409 1329 34 465 1285 1285 1285 1285 1285 1058 1327 969 968 1058 1327 969 1287 1287 968 1287 1287 439 1058 424 1058 1327 968 969 1121 523 1064 1058 1327 968 969 1059 969 1121 523 1121 969 736 2 2 Continued .3.

Country Administrative region 1 Greece Greece Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Dytiki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Fejér Gyor-Moson-Sopron Heves Heves Komárom-Esztergom Nógrád Nógrád Somogy Tolna Vas Veszprém Zala Friuli-Venezia Giulia Piemonte Trentino-Alto Adige Trentino-Alto Adige Trentino-Alto Adige Trentino-Alto Adige Veneto Veneto Kurzeme Kurzeme Kurzeme Kurzeme Kurzeme Kurzeme Kurzeme Kurzeme Latgale Latgale Latgale Latgale Latgale Latgale Latgale Latgale Latgale Riga Riga Riga Riga Vidzeme Vidzeme Vidzeme Vidzeme Vidzeme Vidzeme Vidzeme Vidzeme Vidzeme Administrative region 2 Reference ID No. entriesa Torino Trento Trento Trento Trento Belluno Belluno Dobele Kuldiga Kuldiga Liepaja Liepaja Saldus Tukums Ventspils Balvi Balvi Daugavpils Jekabpils Kraslava Ludza Madona Preili Rezekne Limbaži Riga Riga Riga Aizkraukle Aluksne Aluksne Gulbene Limbaži Madona Valka Valmiera 736 736 1286 784 784 1286 784 784 1286 784 784 784 784 784 784 336 780 1304 160 804 806 1304 201 968 1317 968 1301 968 968 968 968 1317 968 968 968 968 968 968 968 968 1317 126 1301 968 1301 968 1317 968 968 968 968 968 968 7 8 3 3 4 2 Continued .3. Continued.122 Appendix 1 Table A1.

Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 123 Table A1.3. Continued. Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Reference ID No. entriesa Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Norway Norway Norway Norway Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Russia Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Zemgale Zemgale Zemgale Zemgale Aizkraukle Bauska Jelgava Ogre Alytaus Alytaus Kauno Kauno Klaipe˙dos Marijampoles Paneve˙žio Paneve˙žio Šiauliai Šiauliai Taurages Taurages Telšiai Telšiai Utenos Vilniaus Vilniaus Aust-Agder Aust-Agder Aust-Agder Sør-Trøndelag Greater Poland Kuyavian-Pomeranian Lesser Poland Lódz Lower Silesian Lublin Lublin Lublin Lublin Lubusz Masovian Opole Podlachian Podlachian Podlachian Pomeranian Silesian Subcarpathian S´wie˛tokrzyskie Warmian-Masurian West Pomeranian Blekinge Blekinge Blekinge Blekinge Alytaus Birštono Klaipe˙dos Marijampoles Biržu Akmenes Jurbarko Mažeikiu Anykšcˇiu Šalcˇininku Arendal Arendal Lublin Radzyn Białystok Karlskrona Olofström 1317 968 968 968 541 489 489 1317 489 1317 1317 1317 413 1317 1317 413 489 1317 1317 489 1317 489 1317 887 209 210 1290 942 942 942 942 942 193 942 403 192 942 942 942 532 942 1350 942 942 942 942 942 942 1293 1054 1289 1289 1289 4 2 2 2 2 Continued .

3.124 Appendix 1 Table A1. Continued. Söderhamn Söderhamn Upplands-Bro 1289 483 636 636 636 1328 1328 165 1328 1328 1328 1328 541 855 556 308 1351 . entriesa Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Turkey Turkey Blekinge Skåne Stockholm Stockholm Stockholm Aargau Bern Bern Neuchâtel Sant Gallen Schaffhausen Thurgau Thurgau Thurgau Zürich Tokat Yozgat Ronneby a If more than one. Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Reference ID No.

and Ehrlichia spp.4.org/ vetmedresource/) for complete reference indicated by the Reference ID. Geographic distribution data for Anaplasma spp.cabi. See Appendix 2 (hosted on http://www. entriesa 2 2 2 Continued 125 Country Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Species . now included in Anaplasma spp. Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Anaplasma bovis Anaplasma centrale Anaplasma centrale Anaplasma centrale Anaplasma centrale Anaplasma centrale Anaplasma centrale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Italy Egypt Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Hungary Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Basilicata Al Wadi al Jadid Basilicata Basilicata Calabria Calabria Sicily Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Abruzzo Apulia Apulia Basilicata Basilicata Basilicata Basilicata Calabria Calabria Calabria Campania Campania Lazio Lombardia Marche Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Potenza Matera Potenza Crotone Vibo Valentia Palermo Bari Foggia Matera Potenza Crotone Vibo Valentia Agrigento Caltanissetta Catania Enna Messina Palermo Palermo Reference ID 156 1343 156 156 156 156 366 443 156 207 156 207 996 156 156 996 156 156 207 996 996 996 996 994 996 992 992 992 992 992 242 244 No.Table A1.

Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma marginale Anaplasma ovis Anaplasma ovis Anaplasma ovis Anaplasma ovis Anaplasma ovis Anaplasma ovis Anaplasma ovis Anaplasma ovis Anaplasma ovis Anaplasma ovis Anaplasma ovis Anaplasma ovis Anaplasma ovis Anaplasma ovis Anaplasma ovis Anaplasma ovis Anaplasma ovis Anaplasma ovis Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Spain Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Cyprus Cyprus Cyprus Cyprus Cyprus Hungary Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Romania Spain Turkey Albania Belarus Bulgaria Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Sicily Sicily Sicily Toscana Umbria Castilla-La Mancha Graubünden Graubünden Graubünden Famagusta Larnaca Limassol Nicosia Paphos Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Tulcea Andalucía Elâzig˘ Tiranë Minsk Sofia Sofia Koprivnicko-Krizevacka Famagusta Jihomoravský Palermo Palermo Trapani Ciudad Real Agrigento Caltanissetta Catania Enna Messina Palermo Palermo Trapani Cádiz Stolichna Reference ID No. Continued.126 Table A1. entriesa 366 992 992 996 996 246 1211 270 438 775 775 775 775 775 443 994 992 992 992 992 992 242 992 992 59 241 24 409 1336 448 185 656 1139 1338 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 Appendix 1 Species .4.

Moravskoslezský Strˇedocˇský Strˇedocˇský Copenhagen Frederiksborg Fyn North Jutland South Jutland South Jutland Al Jizah Pärnu Saare Alsace Alsace Aquitaine Aquitaine Aquitaine Aquitaine Aquitaine Auvergne Auvergne Auvergne Auvergne Basse-Normandie Basse-Normandie Basse-Normandie Bourgogne Bourgogne Bourgogne Bourgogne Bourgogne Bretagne Bretagne Bretagne Bretagne Centre Bas-Rhin Bas-Rhin Dordogne Gironde Landes Lot-et-Garonne Pyrénées-Atlantiques Allier Cantal Haute-Loire Puy-de-Dôme Calvados Manche Orne Côte-d’Or Nièvre Saône-et-Loire Saône-et-Loire Yonne Côtes-d’Armor Finistère Ille-et-Vilaine Morbihan Cher 1338 1091 1092 888 888 888 888 1120 888 1343 1348 1336 484 719 484 484 484 484 484 484 484 484 484 484 484 484 484 484 484 719 484 484 484 484 484 484 3 3 2 Continued 127 Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Egypt Estonia Estonia France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum .

128 Table A1. Continued. entriesa Appendix 1 Species .4. Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France Centre Centre Centre Centre Centre Centre Centre Champagne-Ardenne Champagne-Ardenne Champagne-Ardenne Corse Franche-Comté Franche-Comté Franche-Comté Franche-Comté Franche-Comté Haute-Normandie Haute-Normandie Île-de-France Île-de-France Île-de-France Île-de-France Languedoc-Roussillon Languedoc-Roussillon Limousin Limousin Limousin Limousin Limousin Lorraine Lorraine Lorraine Lorraine Lorraine Eure-et-Loir Eure-et-Loir Indre Indre-et-Loire Indre-et-Loire Loir-et-Cher Loiret Ardennes Haute-Marne Marne Corse-du-Sud Doubs Haute-Saône Haute-Saône Jura Territoire de Belfort Eure Seine-Maritime Essonne Seine-et-Marne Seine-et-Marne Yvelines Bouches-du-Rhône Lozère Corrèze Corrèze Creuse Haute-Vienne Haute-Vienne Meurthe-et-Moselle Meurthe-et-Moselle Meuse Meuse Moselle Reference ID 484 719 484 484 719 484 484 484 484 484 484 484 484 719 484 484 484 484 719 484 719 484 561 484 484 719 484 484 719 484 719 484 484 484 No.

Lorraine Lorraine Lorraine Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Nord-Pas-de-Calais Nord-Pas-de-Calais Nord-Pas-de-Calais Pays de la Loire Pays de la Loire Pays de la Loire Pays de la Loire Pays de la Loire Pays de la Loire Picardie Picardie Picardie Picardie Poitou-Charentes Poitou-Charentes Poitou-Charentes Provence-Alpes-Côte-d’Azur Provence-Alpes-Côte-d’Azur Provence-Alpes-Côte-d’Azur Provence-Alpes-Côte-d’Azur Provence-Alpes-Côte-d’Azur Provence-Alpes-Côte-d’Azur Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Moselle Vod Vosges Aveyron Haute-Garonne Haute-Garonne Hautes-Pyrénées Lot Tarn Tarn Tarn-et-Garonne Nord Pas-De-Calais Pas-De-Calais Loire-Atlantique Maine-et-Loire Maine-et-Loire Mayenne Sarthe Vendée Aisne Oise Oise Somme Charente Deux-Sèvres Vienne Alpes-Maritimes Bouches-Du-Rhône Bouches-Du-Rhône Var Var Vaucluse Ain Haute-Savoie Isère 719 484 719 484 484 719 484 484 484 719 484 484 484 719 484 484 719 484 484 484 719 484 719 484 484 484 484 484 484 719 484 719 484 484 484 484 2 Continued 129 France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum .

Continued.130 Table A1.4. entriesa 8 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 Appendix 1 Species . Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum France France France France Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Greece Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Lithuania Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Baden-Württemberg Bayern Berlin Berlin Brandenburg Thüringen Kriti Basilicata Friuli-Venezia Giulia Friuli-Venezia Giulia Friuli-Venezia Giulia Lazio Lazio Sardegna Sardegna Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Trentino-Alto Adige Trentino-Alto Adige Klaipedos Loire Rhône Rhône Savoie Berlin Potenza Agrigento Caltanissetta Catania Enna Messina Palermo Palermo Palermo Ragusa Syracuse Trapani Trento Trento Reference ID 484 1032 484 484 718 1352 540 1294 540 1352 1108 156 191 639 93 832 833 28 619 999 992 992 992 992 992 242 243 992 992 992 992 158 806 1336 No.

Chisinau Chisinau Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate Aust-Agder Sør-Trøndelag Telemark Greater Poland Lublin Lublin Lublin Lublin Lublin Masovian Masovian Podlachian Podlachian Podlachian Podlachian Pomeranian Warmian-Masurian West Pomeranian Faro Madeira Madeira Madeira Vologda Branicevski Grad Beograd Macvanski Ni’avski Pomoravski Ra’ki Sremski Zajecarski Banskobystrický Hitra Kragerø Lublin Warsaw Augustów Hajnówka Hajnówka Białystok 1134 528 666 643 1323 1323 1323 1131 1062 11 179 990 194 1119 1098 1129 0 385 386 931 0 822 836 1143 238 838 35 652 652 652 652 652 652 652 652 529 2 4 6 2 2 6 Continued 131 Moldova Moldova Moldova Morocco Norway Norway Norway Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Russia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Slovakia Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum .

Country Administrative region 1 Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum Anaplasma platys Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Tunisia Turkey Turkey Turkey Ukraine UK UK UK Italy Banskobystrický Bratislavský Košický Košický Košický Nitrianský Presov Zilinsky Andalucía Castilla y León Comunidad de Madrid Galicia Galicia Galicia Galicia Galicia La Rioja La Rioja País Vasco País Vasco Bern Graubünden Graubünden Neuchâtel Jendouba Giresun Rize Trabzon Kharkiv England England England Abruzzo Administrative region 2 Cádiz Madrid Ourense Ourense Pontevedra Pontevedra La Rioja La Rioja Cheshire Hampshire Northumberland Reference ID No. entriesa 941 1349 256 499 936 1349 936 1347 191 241 327 18 360 52 53 52 53 701 773 78 79 586 1211 438 586 643 26 26 26 1134 134 808 131 912 12 2 2 2 3 4 2 2 4 3 3 Appendix 1 Species .132 Table A1.4. Continued.

Anaplasma spp. Anaplasma spp. Anaplasma spp. Anaplasma spp. Anaplasma spp. Anaplasma spp. 133 . Italy Italy Italy Tunisia Turkey Albania Albania Cyprus Germany Slovakia Slovakia Turkey Turkey Turkey Sicily Sicily Sicily Jendouba Mug˘la Durrës Kukës Berlin Bratislavsky Nitriansky Antalya Kayseri Malatya Palermo Durrësit Kukësit Berlin 994 999 245 643 1012 185 185 1118 1330 124 124 185 185 185 2 4 2 3 Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Anaplasma platys Anaplasma platys Anaplasma platys Anaplasma platys Anaplasma platys Anaplasma spp.a If more than one. Anaplasma spp. Anaplasma spp.

cabi.5.org/vetmedresource/) for complete reference indicated by the Reference ID. Geographic distribution data for Rickettsia spp. . entriesa 4 6 2 3 Appendix 1 Species 134 Table A1.Country Rickettsia aeschlimanni Rickettsia aeschlimanni Rickettsia aeschlimanni Rickettsia aeschlimanni Rickettsia aeschlimanni Rickettsia aeschlimanni Rickettsia aeschlimanni Rickettsia aeschlimanni Rickettsia aeschlimanni Rickettsia aeschlimanni Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Algeria Croatia Egypt France Russia Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Albania Albania Algeria Algeria France France Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Administrative region 1 Splitsko-Dalmatinska Shamal Sina’ Corse Stavropol Castilla y León Castilla y León Castilla y León La Rioja La Rioja Durrës Kukës Oran Languedoc-Roussillon Provence-Alpes-Côte-d’Azur Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Dytiki Makedonia Dytiki Makedonia Dytiki Makedonia Dytiki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kriti Stereá Elláda Thessalia Administrative region 2 Corse-du-Sud La Rioja La Rioja Durrësit Kukësit Hérault Var Drama Kavala Florina Grevena Kastoria Kozani Imathia Khalkidiki Kilkis Pella Pieria Serrai Thessaloniki Fokis Trikala Reference ID 110 781 1343 624 1144 327 327 328 700 772 185 185 110 664 1292 1299 720 222 222 222 222 222 222 222 222 222 222 222 222 222 367 778 222 No. See Appendix 2 (hosted on http://www.

Piemonte Piemonte Sicily Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Pecki Grand Casablanca Grad Beograd Pcinjski Raski Srednje-Banatski Zlatiborski Andalucía Castilla y León Cataluña Cataluña Galicia Galicia Islas Baleares La Rioja Antalya Edirne Kayseri Kırklareli Malatya Tekirdag˘ Sicily Albania Albania Austria Bulgaria Croatia Denmark Durrës Kukës Burgenland Sofia Medimurska North Jutland Cuneo Cuneo Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Pec Stari Grad Vranje Tutin Zrenjanin Uzice Sevilla Soria Barcelona Tarragona Ourense Pontevedra La Rioja Durrësit Kukësit Stolichna 416 607 608 999 346 827 827 1104 827 827 827 827 827 95 681 907 907 53 53 907 1295 185 1122 185 1122 185 1122 369 4 4 4 2 2 185 185 265 185 264 0 2 3 3 Continued 135 Israel Italy Italy Italy Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Morocco Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Italy Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia conorii israelensis (Rickettsia conorii Israeli spotted fever strain) Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica .

Continued.136 Table A1.5. entriesa 3 7 3 2 12 2 2 2 3 3 Appendix 1 Species . Country Administrative region 1 Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia helvetica Rickettsia massiliae Rickettsia massiliae Rickettsia massiliae Rickettsia massiliae Rickettsia massiliae Rickettsia massiliae Rickettsia massiliae Denmark Denmark France Germany Germany Italy Italy Italy Moldova Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Poland Poland Poland Poland Slovakia Spain Spain Spain Switzerland Tunisia Turkey Turkey Turkey Ukraine Algeria Greece Morocco Spain Spain Spain Spain Vestsjælland Vestsjælland Auvergne Bayern Berlin Toscana Trentino-Alto Adige Veneto Flevoland Friesland Noord-Holland Overijssel Greater Poland Greater Poland Lesser Poland Pomeranian Banskobystrický Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía Zürich Jendouba Antalya Kayseri Malatya Kharkiv Stereá Elláda Gharb-Chrarda-Béni Hssen Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía La Rioja Administrative region 2 Korsør Puy-de-Dôme Berlin Trento Granada Huelva Jaén Fokis Granada Jaén Sevilla La Rioja Reference ID 1146 973 727 1063 1294 1281 1281 1281 1134 917 917 917 917 1145 932 932 932 941 1127 1127 611 125 0 185 185 185 1134 110 778 1104 1127 611 614 700 No.

Ticino El Tarf Bayern Bayern Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate Madeira Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía La Rioja País Vasco Jendouba Kharkiv Provence-Alpes-Côte-d’Azur Kriti Baden-Württemberg Berlin Toscana Toscana Podlachian Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía Stereá Elláda Medimurska Splitsko-Dalmatinska Bretagne Bayern Kentriki Makedonia Toscana Toscana Andalucía Andalucía Castilla y León Castilla y León Granada Huelva Jaén Bouches-du-Rhône Freiburg Berlin Lucca Lucca Granada Huelva Jaén Fokis Khalkidiki Lucca Lucca Granada Jaén Burgos 96 1111 1112 878 1134 1104 238 1127 1127 611 468 468 0 1134 348 776 1137 1330 1332 862 1129 1127 1127 611 778 264 781 1130 1137 1303 1332 862 1127 611 330 587 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 Continued 137 Switzerland Algeria Germany Germany Moldova Morocco Portugal Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Tunisia Ukraine France Greece Germany Germany Italy Italy Poland Spain Spain Spain Greece Croatia Croatia France Germany Greece Italy Italy Spain Spain Spain Spain Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Rickettsia massiliae Rickettsia monacensis Rickettsia monacensis Rickettsia monacensis Rickettsia monacensis Rickettsia monacensis Rickettsia monacensis Rickettsia monacensis Rickettsia monacensis Rickettsia monacensis Rickettsia monacensis Rickettsia monacensis Rickettsia monacensis Rickettsia monacensis Rickettsia mongolotimonaeb Rickettsia mongolotimonae Rickettsia raoultii Rickettsia raoultii Rickettsia raoultii Rickettsia raoultii Rickettsia raoultii Rickettsia raoultii Rickettsia raoultii Rickettsia raoultii Rickettsia rhipicephali Rickettsia slovaca Rickettsia slovaca Rickettsia slovaca Rickettsia slovaca Rickettsia slovaca Rickettsia slovaca Rickettsia slovaca Rickettsia slovaca Rickettsia slovaca Rickettsia slovaca Rickettsia slovaca .

Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Rickettsia slovaca Rickettsia slovaca Rickettsia slovaca Rickettsia slovaca Rickettsia spp. sibirica mongolitimonae. Rickettsia spp. and is now called both R. Spain Spain Spain Switzerland Albania Cyprus Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Italy Italy Poland Poland Portugal Russia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Spain Spain Castilla y León La Rioja La Rioja Ticino Tiranë Palencia La Rioja La Rioja a Bayern Bayern Berlin Brandenburg Sachsen Sachsen-Anhalt Friuli-Venezia Giulia Veneto Podlachian Warmian-Masurian Madeira Vologda Banskobystrický Banskobystrický Bratislavský Nitrianský Andalucía País Vasco Berlin Belluno Granada Reference ID 587 1295 700 96 409 1118 236 236 1330 236 236 236 337 752 928 928 238 35 124 529 124 124 1127 79 No. entriesa 5 2 2 4 15 If more than one.5. Rickettsia spp. Rickettsia spp. Rickettsia spp. Rickettsia spp. Rickettsia spp. sibirica species complex.138 Table A1. It was later identified as a member of the R. Rickettsia spp. sibirica mongolotimonae and R. Rickettsia spp. Rickettsia spp. Rickettsia spp. Rickettsia spp. Rickettsia spp. Rickettsia spp. Continued. b 3 2 Appendix 1 Species . Rickettsia spp. Rickettsia spp. Rickettsia spp. Rickettsia spp. Rickettsia spp. Rickettsia spp. Rickettsia mongolotimonae is the name first proposed for this species.

6. Administrative region 1 Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Denmark Finland France France Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Kärnten Niederösterreich Oberösterreich Steiermark Steiermark Tirol Vorarlberg Wien Sofia Primorsko-Goranska Jihocˇeský Jihocˇeský Jihomoravský Jihomoravský Královéhradecký Královéhradecký Liberecký Moravskoslezský Plzenˇský Ústecký Zlínský North Jutland Western Finland Alsace Île-de-France Baden-Württemberg Bayern Bayern Berlin Niedersachsen Nordrhein-Westfalen Administrative region 2 Stolichna Haut-Rhin Yvelines Tübingen Berlin Hannover Reference ID No. See Appendix 2 (hosted on http://www.cabi.Table A1.org/vetmedresource/) for complete reference indicated by the Reference ID. entriesa 114 511 114 114 963 114 114 511 185 1011 224 255 550 742 225 230 271 220 230 550 550 1026 34 331 753 794 332 333 1294 431 600 8 2 2 2 4 2 6 8 5 3 2 5 Continued 139 Country Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Species . Geographic distribution data for Borrelia spp.

entriesa 344 380 754 639 831 833 1331 98 609 741 319 528 666 1291 365 1050 1050 1323 1323 475 1323 603 194 1337 1288 384 738 739 35 652 652 652 652 3 2 3 3 Appendix 1 Species 2 2 2 2 .6. Continued. Country Administrative region 1 Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Hungary Ireland Ireland Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Latvia Moldova Moldova Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Norway Norway Norway Norway Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Russia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Pest Galway Kerry Friuli-Venezia Giulia Lazio Lazio Toscana Toscana Trentino-Alto Adige Trentino-Alto Adige Riga Chisinau Chisinau Flevoland Gelderland Noord-Holland Overijssel Aust-Agder Sør-Trøndelag Telemark Telemark Greater Poland Lublin Lublin Silesian Warmian-Masurian Warmian-Masurian Warmian-Masurian Vologda Branicevski Grad Beograd Macvanski Ni’avski Administrative region 2 Pisa Trento Trento Arnhem Hitra Kragerø Lublin City Lublin City Tarnowskie Reference ID No.140 Table A1.

Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l.l. .Pomoravski Ra’ki Sremski Zajecarski Bratislavský Košický Nitrianský Trencianský Trencianský Zilinský La Rioja País Vasco Gävleborg Kalmar Skåne Skåne Stockholm Västerbotten Graubünden Neuchâtel Neuchâtel Neuchâtel Ticino Ticino Valais Valais Çankiri Istanbul Ordu Burgenland Burgenland Burgenland Burgenland Borrelia burgdorferi s. Austria Burgenland La Rioja Nynäshamn Umeå Eisenstadt Eisenstadt Umgebung Güssing 652 652 652 652 1320 1349 602 1349 1349 603 1347 315 78 350 350 350 696 470 470 163 143 163 368 1284 163 1284 163 396 395 396 114 258 172 172 2 16 2 2 172 Continued 141 Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Spain Spain Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Turkey Turkey Turkey Austria Austria Austria Austria Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia afzelii Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.

Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l.6. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Burgenland Burgenland Burgenland Burgenland Burgenland Kärnten Niederösterreich Oberösterreich Salzburg Steiermark Tirol Vorarlberg Wien Antwerp Brussels East Flanders East Flanders Flemish Brabant Flemish Brabant Hainaut Liege Limburg Luxembourg Namur Namur Walloon Brabant Walloon Brabant West Flanders West Flanders Sofia Sofia Stara Zagora Administrative region 2 Jennersdorf Mattersburg Neusiedl am See Oberpullendorf Oberwart Namur Stolichna Reference ID No.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Continued. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.142 Table A1. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Country Administrative region 1 Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. entriesa 172 172 172 172 172 114 114 114 114 258 114 114 114 580 580 580 668 580 615 580 580 580 580 580 1298 1333 580 580 668 184 448 1319 1007 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 Appendix 1 Species .l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.

l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l.l.l.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. . Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.Koprivnicko-Krizevacka Jihocˇeský Jihomoravský Jihomoravský Jihomoravský Jihomoravský Jihomoravský Jihomoravský Kraj Vysocˇina Královéhradeck Libereck Libereck Moravskoslezský Moravskoslezský Moravskoslezský Olomouck Pardubický Pardubický Plzenˇský Prague Ústecký Zlínsk Zlínsk Copenhagen Frederiksborg Fyn North Jutland North Jutland South Jutland Western Finland Alsace Alsace Alsace Alsace Aquitaine Basse-Normandie Brno Liberec Ústí nad Orlicí Bas-Rhin 656 491 1077 1338 490 491 669 472 491 491 491 472 1035 491 1338 491 491 472 491 669 550 491 550 888 888 888 888 946 888 34 1285 572 851 719 572 572 4 2 3 4 4 2 Continued 143 Croatia Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Finland France France France France France France Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.

l. entriesa 1285 572 572 626 572 719 626 719 626 1285 572 626 1285 572 572 719 262 572 626 572 851 1285 572 719 626 626 572 408 572 626 572 719 Appendix 1 Species 3 . Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l.l.144 Table A1. France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France Bourgogne Bourgogne Bretagne Bretagne Centre Centre Centre Centre Centre Champagne-Ardenne Champagne-Ardenne Champagne-Ardenne Franche-Comté Franche-Comté Haute-Normandie Haute-Normandie Île-de-France Île-de-France Île-de-France Limousin Limousin Lorraine Lorraine Lorraine Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Continued. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.6. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Country Administrative region 1 Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. France France France France France France France France Lorraine Lorraine Midi-Pyrénées Nord-Pas-de-Calais Pays de la Loire Pays de la Loire Picardie Provence-Alpes-Côte-d’Azur Administrative region 2 Morbihan Eure-et-Loir Indre-et-Loire Indre-et-Loire Loiret Ardennes Eure Seine-et-Marne Meurthe-etMoselle Meuse Moselle Nord Maine-et-Loire Alpes-Maritimes Reference ID No.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.

l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l.l.Provence-Alpes-Côte-d’Azur Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. France France France France France France Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Greece Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg Bayern Bayern Berlin Berlin Berlin Brandenburg Brandenburg Hessen Hessen Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Sachsen-Anhalt Thüringen Thüringen Attiki Calabria Friuli-Venezia Giulia Friuli-Venezia Giulia Friuli-Venezia Giulia Lazio Marche Molise Toscana Toscana Toscana Trentino-Alto Adige Veneto Bouches-duRhône Ain Haute-Savoie Loir-et-Cher Rhône Freiburg Stuttgart Unterfranken Berlin Darmstadt Attica Arezzo Florence Siena Trento Belluno 626 572 851 782 719 782 782 691 691 564 439 540 633 1330 540 633 930 496 633 633 268 633 476 381 191 49 93 832 325 325 1283 1283 1283 806 201 2 5 10 3 4 3 Continued 145 France Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l.l.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. . Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.

l. Italy Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Netherlands Netherlands Veneto Alytaus Alytaus Kauno Klaipe˙dos Klaipe˙dos Klaipe˙dos Klaipe˙dos Klaipe˙dos Klaipe˙dos Marijampoles Marijampoles Panevezio Panevezio Panevezio Šiauliai Šiauliai Šiauliu Šiauliu Šiauliu Utenos Utenos Utenos Vilniaus Vilniaus Friesland Noord-Holland Administrative region 2 Belluno Birzu Joniskio Kupiskio Pakruojo Pasvalio Rokiskio Varenos Šilutes Klaipe˙dos Klaipe˙dos Neringos Skuodo Marijampoles Paneveûio Rokiökio Šiauliu Joniökio Utenos Utenos Ukmerges Ameland Reference ID No.l.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l.l. Continued. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Country Administrative region 1 Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. entriesa 752 1100 1100 1100 1100 1100 1100 1009 732 1009 1009 732 1100 732 732 1100 1009 732 1009 732 732 732 732 1009 1009 1009 1009 732 732 1009 732 467 1050 2 3 Appendix 1 Species 4 2 2 . Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.6.l.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.146 Table A1. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l.l.l.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.

l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.Aust-Agder Hordaland Rogaland Telemark Vest-Agder Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Kuyavian-Pomeranian Kuyavian-Pomeranian Kuyavian-Pomeranian Kuyavian-Pomeranian Lódz Lódz Lower Silesian Lower Silesian Lower Silesian Lublin Lublin Lublin Lublin Lublin Lublin Lublin Lublin Lublin Lublin Lublin Lublin Lubusz Masovian Birkenes Kvinnherad Kragerø Kristiansand Czarnków-Trzcianka Jarocin Krotoszyn Leszno Miedzychód Poznan´ Poznan´ Naklo Sepólno Włocławek Lowicz Lubartów Lublin City Lublin City Lublin City Radzyn Włodawa 732 732 707 732 732 645 107 107 107 107 107 107 644 1324 283 283 284 1324 284 267 272 513 105 1062 178 193 925 990 192 192 194 196 192 284 1324 1324 2 6 2 4 6 Continued 147 Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. .l.l.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l.l.l.l.l.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.

l.l.l.6.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Portugal Russia Russia Russia Russia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Slovakia Slovakia Masovian Masovian Masovian Masovian Masovian Opole Podlachian Podlachian Podlachian Pomeranian Pomeranian Silesian S´wie˛tokrzyskie Warmian-Masurian Warmian-Masurian Warmian-Masurian Warmian-Masurian West Pomeranian West Pomeranian West Pomeranian West Pomeranian West Pomeranian Lisboa Leningrad Moskva Novgorod Vologda Grad Beograd Grad Beograd Toplicki Zapadno-Backi Banskobystrický Banskobystrický Administrative region 2 Kozienice Kozienice Przasnysz Warsaw Hajnówka Lidzbark Stargard Szczecin Szczecin Mafra Reference ID No.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Country Administrative region 1 Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l.l.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. entriesa 531 284 285 284 1098 1324 1324 715 334 1324 931 956 1324 1324 738 739 283 1324 687 1296 138 891 76 533 522 533 35 654 655 655 655 529 87 7 2 2 2 5 2 2 3 4 Appendix 1 Species . Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.148 Table A1. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Continued.

Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l.l.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l.l. .l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l.Banskobystrický Bratislavský Bratislavský Košický Košický Košický Košický Košický Košický Košický Nitrianský Prešovský Prešovský Prešovský Prešovský Trencˇianský Trencˇianský Trnavský Zilinský Zilinský Galicia Galicia La Rioja País Vasco País Vasco Dalarna Gävleborg Gotland Halland Halland Jämtland Jönköping Kalmar Kronoberg Orebro Ourense Pontevedra La Rioja Varberg 939 87 939 256 382 87 934 936 940 945 87 87 939 936 940 87 939 87 1347 87 191 53 53 705 78 79 1312 1312 1312 1312 470 1312 1312 1312 1312 1312 22 18 3 4 6 3 3 2 Continued 149 Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.

l.l. entriesa 1312 1312 1312 1312 470 1312 470 1312 1318 1322 1322 1312 1312 1312 798 1326 1321 101 507 252 101 114 511 114 114 114 511 185 1011 224 255 550 742 Appendix 1 Species 7 4 2 3 . Borrelia burgdorferi s.150 Table A1. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.s.l.l.l.s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Östergötland Skåne Södermanland Stockholm Stockholm Uppsala Uppsala Värmland Västerbotten Västerbotten Västerbotten Västernorrland Västmanland Västra Götaland Genève Neuchâtel Valais Bursa Düzce Isparta Izmir Niederösterreich Niederösterreich Oberösterreich Salzburg Tirol Wien Sofia Primorsko-Goranska Jihocˇeský Jihocˇeský Jihomoravský Jihomoravský Administrative region 2 Norrtälje Uppsala Umeå Umeå Stolichna Reference ID No. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s.l.l.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Continued.s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.6.l.s. Country Administrative region 1 Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.s.s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s.l. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.

Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s.s.s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s.s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.Královéhradeck Královéhradeck Libereck Moravskoslezský Plzenˇský North Jutland Alsace Île-de-France Baden-Württemberg Bayern Bayern Berlin Niedersachsen Nordrhein-Westfalen Pest Kerry Friuli-Venezia Giulia Lazio Toscana Toscana Trentino-Alto Adige Riga Riga Chisinau Chisinau Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate Telemark Greater Poland Greater Poland Lublin Lublin Silesian Warmian-Masurian Branicevski Grad Beograd Macvanski Haut-Rhin Yvelines Tübingen Berlin Hannover Pisa Trento Taza Poznan´ Lublin City Lublin City Tarnowskie 225 230 271 220 230 1026 331 753 794 332 333 1294 431 600 344 754 639 831 1331 98 741 319 319 528 666 642 475 603 645 194 1337 1288 384 652 652 652 4 2 4 3 Continued 151 Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Denmark France France Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Hungary Ireland Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Latvia Latvia Moldova Moldova Morocco Norway Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Serbia Serbia Serbia Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s.s.s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s.s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s.s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s.s.s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. . Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s.s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s.s.s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s.s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s.s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s.s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s.s.

Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s.s.152 Table A1.s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Continued. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s.s.s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s.s.s.s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. entriesa 652 652 652 652 652 602 80 350 350 350 350 350 143 163 163 395 114 114 114 511 114 114 963 114 114 114 511 185 1011 224 255 742 225 2 2 2 2 6 2 2 2 2 3 2 Appendix 1 Species . Borrelia burgdorferi s.s.6.s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia burgdorferi s. Country Administrative region 1 Borrelia burgdorferi s. Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Slovakia Spain Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Turkey Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Ni’avski Pomoravski Ra’ki Sremski Zajecarski Kosicky País Vasco Blekinge Gävleborg Kalmar Skåne Stockholm Neuchâtel Neuchâtel Valais Istanbul Burgenland Kärnten Niederösterreich Niederösterreich Oberösterreich Salzburg Steiermark Tirol Vorarlberg Wien Wien Sofia Primorsko-Goranska Jihocˇeský Jihocˇeský Jihomoravský Královéhradeck Administrative region 2 Stockholm Stolichna Reference ID No.s. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s.s.

Královéhradeck Libereck Moravskoslezský Ústecˇký North Jutland Western Finland Alsace Île-de-France Baden-Württemberg Bayern Bayern Berlin Niedersachsen Nordrhein-Westfalen Baranya Somogy Veszprém Galway Kerry Friuli-Venezia Giulia Lazio Lazio Toscana Toscana Trentino-Alto Adige Trentino-Alto Adige Trentino-Alto Adige Veneto Riga Chisinau Chisinau Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate Gelderland Noord-Holland Overijssel Aust-Agder Haut-Rhin Yvelines Tübingen Berlin Hannover Pisa Trento Trento Trento Belluno Taza Arnhem 230 271 220 550 1026 34 331 753 794 332 333 1294 431 600 341 341 341 380 754 639 831 833 1331 98 1344 609 741 1344 319 528 666 642 365 1050 1050 1323 9 2 5 3 2 Continued 153 Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Denmark Finland France France Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Hungary Hungary Hungary Ireland Ireland Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Latvia Moldova Moldova Morocco Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Norway Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii .

6. entriesa 558 1323 475 603 645 1337 1288 384 738 739 597 597 597 597 597 597 597 597 597 597 597 76 597 597 597 597 597 597 597 35 652 652 652 2 2 2 Appendix 1 Species .154 Table A1. Continued. Country Administrative region 1 Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Norway Norway Norway Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Russia Serbia Serbia Serbia Finnmark Sør-Trøndelag Telemark Greater Poland Greater Poland Lublin Silesian Warmian-Masurian Warmian-Masurian Warmian-Masurian Aveiro Azores Beja Braga Castelo Branco Coimbra Évora Faro Guarda Leiria Lisboa Lisboa Madeira Portalegre Porto Santarém Setúbal Viana do Castelo Viseu Vologda Branicevski Grad Beograd Macvanski Administrative region 2 Hitra Poznan´ Lublin City Tarnowskie Mafra Reference ID No.

Ni’avski Pomoravski Ra’ki Sremski Zajecarski Bratislavsky Kosicky Kosicky Nitriansky Trenciansky Zilinsky La Rioja País Vasco Gävleborg Gotland Halland Jönköping Kalmar Skåne Skåne Skåne Uppsala Uppsala Neuchâtel Neuchâtel Ticino Ticino Ticino Valais Valais Istanbul Sofia North Jutland Pest La Rioja Gotland Kungsbacka Båstad Älvkarleby Tierp Stolichna 652 652 652 652 652 1349 1349 602 1349 1349 1349 315 80 695 350 470 470 426 350 350 696 470 470 470 143 163 1284 163 485 1284 163 395 185 1026 1320 344 2 2 2 3 3 Continued 155 Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Spain Spain Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Turkey Bulgaria Denmark Hungary Hungary Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia garinii Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae .

156 Table A1. Continued. Country Administrative region 1 Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Italy Italy Moldova Moldova Morocco Morocco Poland Poland Portugal Portugal Portugal Romania Romania Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Spain Switzerland Toscana Trentino-Alto Adige Chisinau Chisinau Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate Greater Poland Lublin Lisboa Madeira Setúbal Tulcea Branicevski Macvanski Ni’avski Pomoravski Ra’ki Sremski Zajecarski Zajecarski Banskobystricky Bratislavsky Kosicky Kosicky Nitriansky Trenciansky Trenciansky Zilinsky Zilinsky País Vasco Ticino Administrative region 2 Pisa Trento Taza Lublin City Mafra Grândola Reference ID No.6. entriesa 98 741 528 666 425 642 603 1337 76 238 76 1320 603 652 652 652 652 652 652 652 652 1320 602 1349 1349 602 1349 1349 603 1347 1349 80 1284 2 Appendix 1 Species 2 2 .

Ticino Valais Jendouba Istanbul Gävleborg Kalmar Skåne Bayern Bayern Niedersachsen Burgenland Niederösterreich Oberösterreich Salzburg Vorarlberg Wien Sofia Jihocˇeský Jihomoravský Královéhradeck Královéhradeck Libereck Moravskoslezský Plzenˇský Alsace Bayern Berlin Niedersachsen Nordrhein-Westfalen Galway Kerry Lazio Lazio Toscana Trentino-Alto Adige Trentino-Alto Adige Veneto Hannover Stolichna Haut-Rhin Berlin Hannover Trento Trento Belluno 163 1284 425 395 350 350 350 333 333 431 114 114 114 114 114 114 185 255 742 225 230 271 220 230 331 333 1294 431 600 380 754 831 833 1331 609 741 1344 7 2 2 2 2 2 9 5 3 157 Switzerland Switzerland Tunisia Turkey Sweden Sweden Sweden Germany Germany Germany Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Bulgaria Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic France Germany Germany Germany Germany Ireland Ireland Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia lusitaniae Borrelia miyamotoi Borrelia miyamotoi Borrelia miyamotoi Borrelia spielmanii Borrelia spielmanii Borrelia spielmanii Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Continued .

158 Table A1. Administrative region 2 Belluno Arnhem Lublin City Mafra La Rioja Reference ID No. Continued. entriesa 324 319 528 666 1291 365 1050 1050 603 1337 76 652 652 652 652 652 652 652 652 602 1347 315 80 143 163 368 1284 163 485 1284 163 395 3 2 2 Appendix 1 Species 2 .6. Country Administrative region 1 Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Borrelia valaisiana Italy Latvia Moldova Moldova Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Poland Poland Portugal Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Slovakia Slovakia Spain Spain Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Turkey Veneto Riga Chisinau Chisinau Flevoland Gelderland Noord-Holland Overijssel Greater Poland Lublin Lisboa Branicevski Grad Beograd Macvanski Ni’avski Pomoravski Ra’ki Sremski Zajecarski Kosicky Zilinsky La Rioja País Vasco Neuchâtel Neuchâtel Neuchâtel Ticino Ticino Ticino Valais Valais Istanbul a If more than one.

See Appendix 2 (hosted on http://www. Administrative region 1 Babesia bigemina Babesia bigemina Babesia bigemina Babesia bigemina Babesia bigemina Babesia bigemina Babesia bigemina Babesia bigemina Babesia bigemina Babesia bigemina Babesia bigemina Babesia bigemina Babesia bigemina Babesia bigemina Babesia bigemina Babesia bigemina Babesia bigemina Babesia bigemina Babesia bigemina Babesia bigemina Babesia bigemina Babesia bigemina Babesia bigemina Babesia bigemina Babesia bigemina Babesia bigemina Babesia bovis Babesia bovis Babesia bovis Babesia bovis Babesia bovis Babesia bovis Egypt Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Spain Spain Switzerland Turkey Turkey Egypt Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Al Jizah Apulia Basilicata Calabria Calabria Campania Emilia-Romagna Lazio Lazio Marche Sicily Sicily Sicily Umbria Umbria Veneto Veneto Doukkala-Abda Gharb-Chrarda-Béni Hssen Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz Tadla-Azilal Islas Baleares País Vasco Graubünden Antalya Kayseri Al Jizah Calabria Calabria Campania Emilia-Romagna Lazio Administrative region 2 Crotone Bologna Roma Palermo Ragusa Perugia Padua Crotone Bologna Reference ID No.Table A1.cabi. entriesa 1101 207 207 997 156 207 755 997 755 997 997 366 366 997 755 997 755 291 291 291 291 41 363 434 508 457 1101 997 156 997 755 997 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 3 Continued 159 Country Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Species .org/vetmedresource/) for complete reference indicated by the Reference ID. Geographic distribution data for Babesia spp.7.

entriesa 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 Appendix 1 Species . Continued. Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Babesia bovis Babesia bovis Babesia bovis Babesia bovis Babesia bovis Babesia bovis Babesia bovis Babesia bovis Babesia bovis Babesia bovis Babesia bovis Babesia bovis Babesia bovis Babesia bovis Babesia bovis Babesia bovis Babesia caballi Babesia caballi Babesia caballi Babesia caballi Babesia caballi Babesia caballi Babesia caballi Babesia caballi Babesia caballi Babesia caballi Babesia caballi Babesia caballi Babesia caballi Babesia caballi Babesia caballi Babesia caballi Babesia caballi Babesia canis Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Spain Spain Spain Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Turkey Turkey Hungary Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Spain Spain Turkey Turkey Albania Lazio Marche Sicily Sicily Umbria Umbria Veneto Veneto Islas Baleares País Vasco País Vasco Jendouba Nabeul Nabeul Kayseri Tekirdag Hajdú-Bihar Calabria Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna Lazio Lazio Marche Sardegna Sicily Toscana Umbria Umbria Veneto Galicia País Vasco Ankara Malatya Tiranë Roma Palermo Perugia Padua Bologna Roma Perugia Padua Reference ID 755 997 997 366 997 755 997 755 41 363 364 641 641 641 457 43 441 997 997 755 997 755 997 997 997 606 997 755 755 146 363 390 25 409 No.7.160 Table A1.

Asyut Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg Bayern Bayern Berlin Brandenburg Bremen Hamburg Hessen Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Niedersachsen Nordrhein-Westfalen Rheinland-Pfalz Saarland Sachsen Sachsen-Anhalt Schleswig-Holstein Thüringen Attiki Hajdú-Bihar Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna Friuli-Venezia Giulia Lazio Lazio Lazio Lombardia Marche Sicily Sicily Toscana Umbria Umbria Umbria Freiburg Attica Bologna Bologna Roma Perugia 510 83 576 576 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 476 441 1107 755 755 1107 1107 997 755 997 997 997 999 1107 1107 997 755 3 2 2 3 Continued 161 Egypt Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Greece Hungary Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis .

Country Administrative region 1 Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis Babesia canis canis Babesia canis canis Babesia canis canis Babesia canis canis Babesia canis canis Babesia canis canis Babesia canis canis Babesia canis canis Babesia canis canis Babesia canis canis Babesia canis canis Babesia canis canis Babesia canis canis Babesia canis canis Babesia canis vogeli Babesia canis vogeli Babesia canis vogeli Babesia canis vogeli Babesia canis vogeli Babesia canis vogeli Babesia divergens Babesia divergens Babesia divergens Babesia divergens Babesia divergens Babesia divergens Babesia divergens Babesia divergens Babesia divergens Babesia divergens Italy Italy Poland UK Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Italy Italy Italy Italy Poland Spain Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia Italy Spain Belgium Estonia France Germany Hungary Hungary Italy Italy Poland Slovakia Veneto Veneto Masovian England Bjelovarska-Bilogorska Grad Zagreb Medimurska Varaždinska Budapest Gyor-Moson-Sopron Pest Veszprém Friuli-Venezia Giulia Lazio Umbria Veneto Pomeranian Cataluña Bjelovarska-Bilogorska Grad Zagreb Medimurska Varaždinska Emilia-Romagna Cataluña Flemish Brabant Ida-Viru Rhône-Alpes Bayern Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Heves Sicily Veneto West Pomeranian Bratislavský Administrative region 2 Padua Warsaw Kent Barcelona Barcelona Rhône Palermo Szczecin Reference ID 1107 755 1098 440 88 88 88 88 340 341 341 341 1107 1107 1107 1107 190 978 88 88 88 88 1107 978 321 1335 261 564 442 442 366 997 890 1349 No. Continued.162 Table A1.7. entriesa 2 Appendix 1 Species 2 2 .

Nitrianský País Vasco Graubünden Graubünden Ticino Kayseri Emilia-Romagna Lazio Umbria Veneto Malatya Bjelovarska-Bilogorska Grad Zagreb Medimurska Varaždinska Baden-Württemberg Budapest Cataluña Apulia Basilicata Calabria País Vasco Amasya Giresun Gümüshane Tokat Trabzon Jihomoravský Harju Ida-Viru Pärnu Tartu Tartu Western Finland Emilia-Romagna Bologna Roma Perugia Padua Tübingen Barcelona 1349 364 435 622 435 457 755 755 755 755 25 88 88 88 88 417 323 978 157 157 157 364 46 46 46 46 46 820 1335 1335 1335 1335 1348 34 1107 549 2 2 2 2 2 2 Continued 163 Slovakia Spain Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Turkey Italy Italy Italy Italy Turkey Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia Germany Hungary Spain Italy Italy Italy Spain Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Czech Republic Estonia Estonia Estonia Estonia Estonia Finland Italy Poland Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Babesia divergens Babesia divergens Babesia divergens Babesia divergens Babesia divergens Babesia divergens Babesia equi Babesia equi Babesia equi Babesia equi Babesia equi Babesia gibsoni Babesia gibsoni Babesia gibsoni Babesia gibsoni Babesia gibsoni Babesia gibsoni Babesia gibsoni Babesia major Babesia major Babesia major Babesia major Babesia major Babesia major Babesia major Babesia major Babesia major Babesia microti Babesia microti Babesia microti Babesia microti Babesia microti Babesia microti Babesia microti Babesia microti Babesia microti .

Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Babesia microti Babesia microti Babesia microti Babesia microti Babesia microti Babesia microti Babesia microti Babesia microti Babesia microti Babesia microti Babesia microti Babesia microti Babesia microti Babesia microti Babesia microti Babesia microti Babesia microti Babesia microti Babesia microti Babesia microti Babesia microti Babesia motasi Babesia motasi Babesia ovis Babesia ovis Babesia ovis Babesia ovis Babesia ovis Babesia ovis Babesia ovis Babesia ovis Babesia ovis Babesia ovis Babesia ovis Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Slovakia Slovakia Spain Switzerland Turkey UK Romania Spain Romania Spain Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Lower Silesian Lublin Lublin Lublin Lublin Masovian Podlachian Podlachian Pomeranian Warmian-Masurian Warmian-Masurian Warmian-Masurian West Pomeranian West Pomeranian West Pomeranian Bratislavský Nitrianský La Rioja Graubünden Nig˘de England Tulcea País Vasco Tulcea País Vasco Afyon Diyarbakır Elâzig˘ Elâzig˘ Erzincan Erzurum Ig˘dır Kayseri Malatya Katowice City Parczew Puławy Włodawa Białystok Sopot Szczecin Szczecin La Rioja Northumberland Reference ID 504 1062 1061 1061 1061 504 504 72 504 1046 737 879 504 890 891 1349 1349 315 1305 188 131 59 677 59 677 186 23 23 45 23 23 23 458 23 No.7. Continued. entriesa 8 4 5 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 Appendix 1 Species .164 Table A1.

Babesia spp. Babesia spp. Babesia spp. Babesia spp. Babesia spp. Babesia spp. Babesia spp. Babesia spp. Babesia spp. Babesia spp. Babesia spp. Babesia spp. Babesia spp. Babesia vogeli a If more than one. Babesia spp. Babesia spp. Babesia spp.Turkey Turkey Turkey Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Estonia Estonia Estonia Estonia France Greece Greece Italy Italy Netherlands Netherlands Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Turkey Turkey Mardin Mus S¸anlıurfa Burgenland Kärnten Niederösterreich Oberösterreich Salzburg Salzburg Steiermark Steiermark Tirol Vorarlberg Wien Harju Ida-Viru Pärnu Tartu Nord-Pas-de-Calais Ipeiros Thessalia Calabria Veneto Gelderland Zuid-Holland Graubünden Graubünden Neuchâtel Ticino Valais Zürich Diyarbakır Istanbul Oberwart Wolfsberg Voitsberg Hallein Sankt Johann im Pongau Graz Umgebung Mürzzuschlag Imst Bludenz Wien Nord Ioannina Trikala Belluno Arnhem 23 23 303 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 1335 1335 1335 1335 408 985 985 997 752 447 447 1211 438 166 166 166 166 1066 394 2 2 2 2 2 2 Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Babesia ovis Babesia ovis Babesia ovis Babesia spp. Babesia spp. Babesia spp. Babesia spp. Babesia spp. Babesia spp. Babesia spp. 165 . Babesia spp. Babesia spp. Babesia spp. Babesia spp. Babesia spp. Babesia spp.

Geographic distribution data for Theileria spp.cabi.166 Appendix 1 Table A1. See Appendix 2 (hosted on http://www. entriesa 363 295 301 295 366 366 701 40 41 363 364 641 641 641 641 641 641 282 46 844 845 508 22 282 22 282 282 22 282 46 46 282 456 282 22 282 282 43 46 46 282 156 156 156 366 363 364 641 641 641 254 4 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 4 2 2 2 Continued . org/vetmedresource/) for complete reference indicated by the Reference ID. Species Country Administrative region 1 Theileria annae Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria annulata Theileria buffeli Theileria buffeli Theileria buffeli Theileria buffeli Theileria buffeli Theileria buffeli Theileria buffeli Theileria buffeli Theileria buffeli Theileria buffeli Spain Egypt Egypt Egypt Italy Italy Morocco Spain Spain Spain Spain Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Italy Italy Italy Italy Spain Spain Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Turkey País Vasco Ad Daqahliyah Ad Daqahliyah Al Gharbiyah Sicily Sicily Doukkala-Abda Islas Baleares Islas Baleares País Vasco País Vasco Béja Bizerte Bizerte Jendouba Nabeul Zaghouan Adıyaman Amasya Ankara Ankara Antalya Bingöl Bingöl Elâzig˘ Elâzig˘ Erzincan Erzurum Erzurum Giresun Gümüshane Kars Kayseri Malatya Mus Mus S¸anlıurfa Tekirdag˘ Tokat Trabzon Van Apulia Basilicata Basilicata Sicily País Vasco País Vasco Bizerte Nabeul Zaghouan Ankara Administrative region 2 Palermo Ragusa Foggia Matera Potenza Palermo Reference ID No.8.

Continued.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 167 Table A1. Species Country Administrative region 1 Theileria buffeli Theileria buffeli Theileria buffeli Theileria buffeli Theileria buffeli Theileria caballi Theileria caballi Theileria caballi Theileria caballi Theileria equi Theileria equi Theileria equi Theileria equi Theileria equi Theileria equi Theileria equi Theileria equi Theileria equi Theileria equi Theileria equi Theileria equi Theileria equi Theileria equi Theileria equi Theileria equi Theileria equi Theileria equi Theileria equi Theileria orientalis Theileria orientalis Theileria orientalis Theileria orientalis Theileria ovis Theileria ovis Theileria ovis Theileria ovis Theileria ovis Theileria ovis Theileria ovis Theileria ovis Theileria ovis Theileria ovis Theileria ovis Theileria ovis Theileria ovis Theileria ovis Theileria ovis Theileria ovis Theileria ovis Theileria ovis Theileria sergenti Theileria sergenti Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Spain Spain Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Croatia Spain Spain Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Bingöl Elâzig˘ Erzurum Kayseri Mus Bjelovarska-Bilogorska Grad Zagreb Medimurska Varaždinska Bjelovarska-Bilogorska Grad Zagreb Medimurska Varaždinska Calabria Lazio Marche Sardegna Sicily Toscana Umbria Veneto Fès-Boulemane Grand Casablanca Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate Galicia País Vasco Ankara Bingöl Elâzig˘ Erzurum Mus Splitsko-Dalmatinska País Vasco País Vasco Aksaray Bingöl Çankırı Çankırı Diyarbakır Elâzig˘ Elâzig˘ Erzincan Erzurum Kars Malatya Mardin Mersin Mus Van Bingöl Elâzig˘ Administrative region 2 Fès Rabat Marrakech Taza Reference ID No.8. entriesa 22 22 22 456 22 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 997 997 997 997 997 606 997 997 800 800 800 800 146 363 390 22 22 22 22 277 363 677 1353 1353 1353 1353 44 1353 21 44 44 44 44 44 1353 44 1353 22 22 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Continued .

See Appendix 2 (hosted on http:// www. Geographic distribution data for equine piroplasmoses. Continued.cabi. Table A1.9. Theileria spp. Species Country Administrative region 1 Theileria caballi Theileria equi Theileria caballi Theileria equi Theileria caballi Theileria equi Theileria caballi Theileria equi Ehrlichia equi Babesia caballi Babesia caballi Theileria equi Babesia caballi Babesia caballi Babesia equi Babesia caballi Theileria equi Babesia caballi Babesia equi Babesia caballi Theileria equi Babesia caballi Theileria equi Babesia caballi Theileria equi Babesia caballi Theileria equi Babesia caballi Theileria equi Babesia caballi Babesia equi Theileria equi Babesia caballi Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia Denmark Hungary Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Bjelovarska-Bilogorska Bjelovarska-Bilogorska Grad Zagreb Grad Zagreb Medimurska Medimurska Varazdinska Varazdinska North Jutland Hajdú-Bihar Calabria Calabria Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna Lazio Lazio Lazio Lazio Marche Marche Sardegna Sardegna Sicily Sicily Toscana Toscana Umbria Umbria Umbria Umbria Veneto Veneto Administrative region 2 Bologna Bologna Roma Roma Perugia Perugia Padua Reference ID No. Theileria spp.168 Appendix 1 Table A1. Theileria spp. Theileria spp.8. Species Country Administrative region 1 Theileria sergenti Theileria sergenti Theileria spp.org/vetmedresource/) for complete reference indicated by the Reference ID. entriesa 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 946 441 997 997 997 755 755 997 997 755 755 997 997 997 997 997 997 606 606 997 997 755 755 997 755 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Continued . entriesa 22 22 1211 438 46 46 46 46 46 a If more than one. Theileria spp. Theileria spp. Turkey Turkey Switzerland Switzerland Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Erzurum Mus Graubünden Graubünden Amasya Giresun Gümüshane Tokat Trabzon Administrative region 2 Reference ID No.

Reference ID entriesa 1194 304 304 1179 1179 1179 1179 1246 1182 1181 830 1182 1182 1182 1195 1237 1161 1177 1138 1138 1138 763 1128 1261 1175 2 2 4 2 4 Continued . Continued.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 169 Table A1. Geographic distribution data for Bartonella spp.9. cabi. Species Country Bartonella henselae Bartonella henselae Bartonella henselae Bartonella henselae Bartonella henselae Bartonella henselae Croatia Denmark Denmark France France France Bartonella henselae Bartonella henselae Bartonella henselae Bartonella henselae Bartonella henselae France Greece Italy Italy Italy Bartonella henselae Bartonella henselae Bartonella henselae Bartonella henselae Bartonella henselae Bartonella henselae Bartonella henselae Bartonella henselae Bartonella henselae Bartonella henselae Bartonella henselae Bartonella henselae Bartonella henselae Bartonella henselae Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Norway Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Spain Spain Turkey Administrative region 1 Zadarska Frederiksborg Fyn Île-de-France Lorraine Provence-AlpesCôte-d’Azur Rhône-Alpes Kriti Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna Friuli-Venezia Giulia Lombardia Sardegna Toscana Toscana Toscana Sør-Trøndelag Lódz Lublin Masovian Masovian Andalucía Cataluña Ankara Administrative region 2 Helsingør Søndersø Meurthe-et-Moselle Bouches-du-Rhône Rhône Modena Warsaw Barcelona No.org/vetmedresource/) for complete reference indicated by the Reference ID. See Appendix 2 (hosted on http://www. Table A1. Species Country Babesia equi Theileria equi Theileria equi Theileria equi Italy Morocco Morocco Morocco Theileria equi Morocco Babesia caballi Theileria equi Babesia caballi Theileria equi Babesia caballi Theileria equi Babesia caballi Babesia equi Spain Spain Spain Spain Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Veneto Fès-Boulemane Grand Casablanca Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz Taza-Al HoceimaTaounate Galicia Galicia País Vasco País Vasco Ankara Ankara Malatya Malatya Padua Fès Rabat Marrakech 755 800 800 800 Taza 800 Reference ID No.10. entriesa 146 146 363 363 390 390 25 25 3 2 2 2 a If more than one.

11. Reference ID entriesa 1206 1265 Bouches-du-Rhône Masovian Tiranë Alger Biskra Mascara Tiaret Jihomoravský Prague Nord-Pas-deCalais Thessalia Apulia Basilicata Andalucía Fyn Nord 1195 1177 1138 409 1167 1167 1167 1167 427 4 4 4 4 4 427 2 408 Thessaloniki Taranto 1191 1191 1191 1128 304 Søndersø 2 2 a If more than one.10. Geographic distribution data for Francisella tularensis. See Appendix 2 (hosted on http:// www. Bartonella spp. Bartonella vinsonii Greece Italy Italy Spain Denmark Bartonella spp. Continued.cabi. Bartonella spp. Bartonella spp. Bartonella spp. Bartonella spp. entriesa 5 2 7 2 4 3 Continued .170 Appendix 1 Table A1. Italy Poland Poland Albania Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Czech Republic Czech Republic France Bartonella spp. Bartonella spp. Table A1. Bartonella spp. Administrative region 1 Île-de-France Provence-AlpesCôte-d’Azur Toscana Administrative region 2 No. Species Country Bartonella quintana Bartonella quintana France France Bartonella quintana Bartonella quintana Bartonella quintana Bartonella spp. Bartonella spp. Country Administrative region 1 Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Croatia Czech Republic Czech Republic France Germany Germany Slovakia Slovakia Spain Spain Spain Spain Sweden Sweden Burgenland Niederösterreich Niederösterreich Niederösterreich Niederösterreich Niederösterreich Steiermark Koprivnicko-Krizevacka Jihomoravský Jihomoravský Pays de la Loire Hessen Niedersachsen Banskobystrický Trnavský Castilla y León Castilla y León Castilla y León Castilla y León Dalarna Gävleborg Administrative region 2 Gänserndorf Gänserndorf Korneuburg Mistelbach Vendée Soria Valladolid Valladolid Reference ID 259 259 1053 401 401 1053 259 656 1053 171 882 509 509 401 401 39 31 617 91 300 300 No. Bartonella spp.org/vetmedresource/) for complete reference indicated by the Reference ID.

entriesa 300 300 560 19 19 19 710 19 250 19 825 19 19 250 19 19 19 250 19 19 a If more than one.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 171 Table A1. See Appendix 2 (hosted on http://www. Country Administrative region 1 Sweden Sweden Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Jämtland Västernorrland Amasya Ankara Antalya Bursa Düzce Edirne Edirne Kars Kars Kastamonu Kırklareli Kırklareli Kocaeli Samsun Tekirdag˘ Tekirdag˘ Van Zinguldak Administrative region 2 Reference ID No. Geographic distribution data for Coxiella burnetii. Table A1. Country Albania Albania Albania Albania Albania Albania Albania Albania Albania Albania Albania Albania Albania Albania Algeria Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Administrative region 1 Berat Dibër Dibër Elbasan Elbasan Elbasan Fier Fier Gjirokastër Gjirokastër Korçë Lezhë Tiranë Tiranë Sétif Antwerp East Flanders Flemish Brabant Hainaut West Flanders Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina Administrative region 2 Dibrës Matit Gramshit Librazhdit Lushnjës Përmetit Kolonjës Kavajës Tiranës Reference ID No.12.org/vetmedresource/) for complete reference indicated by the Reference ID.11. Continued. entriesa 1174 1174 1174 1174 1174 1174 1174 1174 1174 1174 1174 1174 1174 1174 1221 1198 1198 1198 1198 1198 1209 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 3 9 Continued . cabi.

12. Country Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Cyprus Cyprus Cyprus Cyprus Cyprus Cyprus Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Egypt Egypt Egypt France Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Administrative region 1 Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina Republika Srpska Sofia Famagusta Larnaca Limassol Nicosia Paphos Århus Frederiksborg Fyn North Jutland Ribe Ringkøbing South Jutland Storstrøm Vejle Vestsjælland Viborg Al Jizah Qina Shamal Sina’ Centre Baden-Württemberg Bayern Berlin Brandenburg Bremen Hamburg Hessen MecklenburgVorpommern Niedersachsen Nordrhein-Westfalen Rheinland-Pfalz Saarland Sachsen Sachsen-Anhalt Schleswig-Holstein Thüringen Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Administrative region 2 Reference ID No. Continued.172 Appendix 1 Table A1. entriesa 1276 Botevgrad 1276 1254 1118 777 777 777 777 777 1149 1149 1149 1149 1149 1149 1149 1149 1149 1149 1149 1343 1343 1343 1164 599 599 599 599 599 599 599 599 Drama 599 599 599 599 599 599 599 599 1254 Evros 1254 Kavala 1254 Rodopi 1254 Xanthi 1254 4 4 3 4 5 Continued .

Continued.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 173 Table A1. entriesa 1254 1254 1254 1254 1254 1254 1254 1254 1254 1254 1254 1254 1252 1275 1257 1247 1257 1259 1354 1354 1354 1197 1300 1300 1236 999 1300 1222 1222 1222 1222 1222 1222 1222 1222 1222 1222 1222 1271 1271 1184 1193 1250 1158 989 1153 1201 1266 78 79 1159 1214 3 2 12 2 3 3 Continued . Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Israel Israel Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Montenegro Montenegro Montenegro Montenegro Montenegro Montenegro Montenegro Montenegro Montenegro Montenegro Montenegro Netherlands Netherlands Poland Slovakia Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Tunisia Turkey Dytiki Makedonia Dytiki Makedonia Dytiki Makedonia Dytiki Makedonia Dytiki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Haifa Jerusalem Apulia Apulia Basilicata Campania Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna Lombardia Lombardia Lombardia Sardegna Sicily Veneto Žabljak Andrijevica Berane Cetinje Danilovgrad Mojkovac Nikoic Pljevlja Plužine Podgorica Ulcinj Gelderland Noord-Brabant Lublin Košický Castilla y León Castilla-La Mancha Castilla-La Mancha Cataluña País Vasco País Vasco País Vasco País Vasco Sousse Ankara Florina Grevena Grevena Kastoria Kozani Imathia Khalkidiki Kilkis Pella Pieria Serrai Thessaloniki Bari Modena Parma Reggio Nell’Emilia Cremona Mantua Padua Soria Albacete Toledo Barcelona Reference ID No.12.

174 Appendix 1 Table A1.12. entriesa 1216 1160 1204 1215 1213 1160 1214 1214 1160 1203 1239 1239 1239 1239 1239 1239 1239 1239 1239 1239 1239 1239 1239 a If more than one. See Appendix 2 (hosted on http://www. Country Administrative region 1 Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK Ankara Antalya Antalya Aydın Bolu Diyarbakır Kayseri Nig˘de Samsun Tokat Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Administrative region 2 Antrim Ballymena Banbridge Craigavon Derry Down Dungannon Fermanagh Limavady Magherafelt Moyle Omagh Strabane Reference ID No.org/vetmedresource/) for complete reference indicated by the Reference ID. Table A1. cabi. Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Algeria Armenia Armenia Armenia Armenia Egypt Egypt Egypt Egypt Egypt Egypt Egypt Egypt Egypt Egypt Egypt Egypt Egypt Egypt Egypt El Tarf Lake Sevan Lori Shirak Tavush Ad Daqahliyah Al Buhayrah Al Gharbiyah Al Iskandariyah Al Isma’iliyah Al Jizah Al Minufiyah Al Qahirah Al Qalyubiyah Ash Sharqiyah Bur Sa’id Dumyat Kafr ash Shaykh Matruh Shamal Sina’ Ain El Assel Reference ID 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1101 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Continued . Continued. Geographic distribution data for Ornithodoros spp.13.

Continued.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 175 Table A1. Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Georgia Israel Israel Israel Israel Israel Israel Israel Jordan Jordan Jordan Jordan Jordan Jordan Jordan Jordan Jordan Lebanon Lebanon Lebanon Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Palestine Palestine Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Abkhazia Ajaria Guria Imereti Kakheti Kvemo Kartli Mtskheta-Mtianeti Racha-Lechkhumi-Kvemo Svaneti Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti Samtskhe-Javakheti Shida Kartli Tbilisi Golan HaDarom Haifa HaMerkaz HaZafon Jerusalem Tel Aviv Ajlun Amman Aqaba Balqa Irbid Jarash Karak Madaba Tafilah An Nabatiyah Beirut South Lebanon Chaouia-Ouardigha Doukkala-Abda Gharb-Chrarda-Béni Hssen Grand Casablanca Guelmim-Es-Semara Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz Oriental Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer Souss-Massa-Draâ Tadla-Azilal Tanger-Tétouan Gaza West Bank Beja Castelo Branco Coimbra Faro Leiria Lisboa Portalegre Santarém Gagra Batumi Chokhatauri Bagdati Akhmeta Bolnisi Akhalgori Ambrolauri Abasha Adigeni Gori Tbilisi Ajloun Amman Aqaba Al-Balqa Aghwar Shamaliyyeh Jarash Ayy Dhiban Bsaira Hasbaya Beirut Jezzine Ben Slimane El Jadida Kénitra Casablanca Assa-Zag Al Haouz Berkane Taourirt Khémisset Agadir-Ida ou Tanane Azilal Chefchaouen Deir Al-Balah Bethlehem Aljustrel Belmonte Arganil Albufeira Alcobaça Alenquer Alter do Chão Mação Reference ID 1398 1398 1398 1398 1398 1398 1398 1398 1398 1398 1398 1398 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Continued .13.

176 Appendix 1 Table A1. See Appendix 2 (hosted on http://www.14. Geographic distribution data for Ixodes ricinus. entriesa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 5 1 Continued . Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Portugal Portugal Russia Russia Russia Russia Spain Spain Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Turkey Turkey Turkey Setúbal Évora Chechnya Ingush Kabardin-Balkar North Ossetia Andalucía Extremadura Ariana Ben Arous (Tunis Sud) Bizerte Béja Gabès Jendouba Manubah Médenine Nabeul Tunis Zaghouan Artvin Rize Trabzon Alcácer do Sal Alandroal Achkhoy-Martanovskiy rayon Malgobekskiy rayon Baksanskiy rayon Alagirskiy rayon Almería Badajoz Ariana Médina Ben Arous Bizerte Nord Amdoun Gabès Médina Aïn Draham Borj El Amri Ben Guerdane Beni Khalled Bab Bhar Bir Mchergua Reference ID 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Table A1.cabi. org/vetmedresource/) for complete reference indicated by the Reference ID. Continued.13. Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Alger Constantine Guelma Guelma Tlemcen Burgenland Burgenland Kärnten Kärnten Niederösterreich Oberösterreich Oberösterreich Salzburg Salzburg Steiermark Steiermark Steiermark Steiermark Steiermark Tirol Tirol Vorarlberg Ain Benian Didouche Mourad Hammam Debagh Hammam Debagh Tlemcen Oberpullendorf Oberwart Villach Wolfsberg Mistelbach Braunau am Inn Urfahr Umgebung Hallein Sankt Johann im Pongau Deutschlandsberg Graz Umgebung Mürzzuschlag Voitsberg Weiz Imst Schwaz Bludenz Reference ID No.

14. Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Austria Belgium Belgium Belgium Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Croatia Croatia Croatia Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Vorarlberg Antwerp Liège West Flanders Blagoevgrad Blagoevgrad Burgas Burgas Burgas Burgas Dobrich Grad Sofiya Kardzhali Kardzhali Kyustendil Lovech Montana Pazardzhik Pazardzhik Plovdiv Plovdiv Sliven Smolyan Sofia Sofia Stara Zagora Stara Zagora Stara Zagora Varna Vidin Vratsa Yambol Medimurska Primorsko-Goranska Varaždinska Jihocˇeský Jihocˇeský Jihocˇeský Jihocˇeský Jihocˇeský Jihomoravský Jihomoravský Jihomoravský Jihomoravský Jihomoravský Jihomoravský Jihomoravský Jihomoravský Jihomoravský Jihomoravský Jihomoravsky Kraj Vysocˇina Feldkirch Turnhout Liège Brugge Gotse Delchev Sandanski Burgas Kameno Malko Tarnovo Tsarevo Shabla Stolichna Kirkovo Momchilgrad Rila Letnitsa Montana Pazardzhik Strelcha Krichim Plovdiv Sliven Zlatograd Svoge Zlatitsa Chirpan Haskovo Pavel Banya Valchi Dol Belogradchik Vratsa Bolyarovo Ceské Budejovice Jindrichuv Hradec Písek Tábor Blansko Breclav Brno Brno Brno-Venkov Vyškov Znojmo Žd’ár nad Sázavou Reference ID 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 69 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 216 0 0 0 0 1082 427 490 742 0 0 0 472 0 0 0 0 No. entriesa 4 2 12 2 2 2 10 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 8 2 2 6 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 10 4 4 4 4 2 6 12 4 6 3 13 Continued .Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 177 Table A1. Continued.

14.178 Appendix 1 Table A1. Continued. Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Kraj Vysocˇina Královéhradecký Královéhradecký Královéhradecký Královéhradecký Liberecký Liberecký Liberecký Moravskoslezský Moravskoslezský Moravskoslezský Olomoucký Olomoucký Olomoucký Pardubický Pardubický Plzenˇský Plzenˇský Plzenˇský Plzenˇský Plzenˇský Plzenˇský Plzenˇský Prague Prague Strˇedocˇeský Strˇedocˇeský Strˇedocˇeský Strˇedocˇeský Strˇedocˇeský Strˇedocˇeský Zlínský Århus Århus Århus Århus Bornholm Copenhagen Copenhagen Copenhagen Frederiksborg Frederiksborg Fyn North Jutland Ribe Ringkøbing Roskilde South Jutland Storstrøm Vejle Vestsjælland Vestsjælland Trebíc Náchod Trutnov Trutnov Trutnov Liberec Liberec Bruntál Opava Jeseník Olomouc Prostejov Ústí nad Orlicí Ústí nad Orlicí Domaûlice Klatovy Plzen Plzenˇ-Jih Plzenˇ-Sever Rokycany Tachov Benešov Beroun Kolín Praha-v chod Praha-západ Príbram Kromerí Ebeltoft Hammel Skanderborg Helsinge Korsør Reference ID 0 0 0 620 621 271 0 472 220 0 0 0 0 0 0 472 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 216 427 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 888 0 0 0 888 478 479 888 888 0 888 888 888 888 888 888 888 888 888 973 No. entriesa 3 2 24 5 4 4 2 6 7 2 2 5 3 2 2 2 4 2 2 Continued .

. adult female dorsal view (c) and ventral view (d). 7d 7a 7b 6b 18b 18c 18d 19a 19c 6a 18a 8a 8b 8c 8d 9a 9b 19b 19d Plate 18. Plate 9. data for 2000–2010.  Smallest administrative region or territorial unit for statistics (NUTS). adult female dorsal view (c) and ventral view (d). Haemaphysalis punctata: adult male dorsal view (a) and ventral view (b). • Coordinate (latitude/longitude).Plate 6. historical data (before 2000). Plate 8. Plate 7. Dermacentor marginatus: adult male dorsal view (a) and ventral view (b). Ixodes canisuga: adult female dorsal view (a) and ventral view (b). Ixodes uriae: adult male dorsal view (a) and ventral view (b). Plate 19. 7c Plate 20. Haemaphysalis concinna: adult male dorsal view (a) and ventral view (b). Dermacentor reticulatus: adult male dorsal view (a) and ventral view (b). adult female dorsal view (c) and ventral view (d). Reported occurrence of Ixodes ricinus. data for 2000–2010. • Coordinate (latitude/longitude). adult female dorsal view (c) and ventral view (d).

adult female dorsal view (c) and ventral view (d). adult female dorsal view (c) and ventral view (d). data for 2000–2010. data for 2000–2010.Plate 23. Argas reflexus: adult male dorsal view (a) and ventral view (b).  Smallest administrative region or territorial unit for statistics (NUTS). Reported occurrence of Dermacentor marginatus. Rhipicephalus sanguineus: adult male dorsal view (a) and ventral view (b). • Coordinate (latitude/longitude). Hyalomma scupense: adult male dorsal view (a) and ventral view (b). . Plate 14. Argas persicus: adult male dorsal view (a) and ventral view (b). Plate 3. Plate 1. 3a 3b 2a 2b 1a 1b 13a 13b 14a 14b 13c 13d 14c 14d Plate 13. Ornithodoros erraticus: adult (sex undermined) dorsal view (a) and ventral view (b). Plate 2. • Coordinate (latitude/longitude). historical data (before 2000).

adult female dorsal view (c) and ventral view (d). 4c 4d Plate 22. 15a 15b 12a 12b 15c 15d 12c 12d 4b .  Smallest administrative region or territorial unit for statistics (NUTS). data for 2000–2010. Hyalomma excavatum: adult male dorsal view (a) and ventral view (b). • Coordinate (latitude/longitude). data for 2000–2010. historical data (before 2000). Reported occurrence of Rhipicephalus bursa.Plate 4. • Coordinate (latitude/longitude). Ixodes ricinus: adult male dorsal view (a) and ventral view (b). adult female dorsal view (c) and ventral view (d). Plate 12. adult male dorsal view (a) and ventral view (b).  Smallest administrative region or territorial unit for statistics (NUTS). Rhipicephalus turanicus. adult female dorsal view (c) and ventral view (d). historical data (before 2000). 4a Plate 15.

data for 2000–2010. • Coordinate (latitude/longitude). data for 2000–2010. Rhipicephalus annulatus: adult male dorsal view (a) and ventral view (b). Rhipicephalus bursa: adult male dorsal view (a) and ventral view (b). Reported occurrence of Hyalomma marginatum. adult female dorsal view (c) and ventral view (d). adult female dorsal view (c) and ventral view (d). Ixodes hexagonus: adult male dorsal view (a) and ventral view (b). adult female dorsal view (c) and ventral view (d). 5d 5c 5b 5a 11a • Coordinate (latitude/longitude). historical data (before 2000).  Smallest administrative region or territorial unit for statistics (NUTS). Hyalomma marginatum: adult male dorsal view (a) and ventral view (b). .Plate 21. adult female dorsal view (c) and ventral view (d). 10 16a 16b 16c 16d 11b 17a 11c 17b 11d 17c Plate 10. Plate 11. Plate 5. 17d Plate 16. Plate 17. Haemaphysalis inermis: adult female ventral view.

Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 179 Table A1.14. Continued. Country Administrative region 1 Denmark Estonia Estonia Estonia Estonia Estonia Estonia Estonia Estonia Estonia Estonia Estonia Estonia Viborg Harju Hiiu Järva Jıgeva Lääne Lääne-Viru Pärnu Põlva Rapla Saare Tartu Valga 888 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Estonia Estonia Faroe Islands Finland France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France Viljandi Vıru 0 0 471 0 0 0 331 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 132 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Southern Finland Alsace Alsace Alsace Aquitaine Aquitaine Aquitaine Aquitaine Aquitaine Auvergne Auvergne Auvergne Auvergne Auvergne Basse-Normandie Basse-Normandie Basse-Normandie Bourgogne Bourgogne Bourgogne Bourgogne Bretagne Bretagne Bretagne Bretagne Centre Centre Centre Centre Centre Centre Champagne-Ardenne Champagne-Ardenne Champagne-Ardenne Champagne-Ardenne Corse Administrative region 2 Uusimaa Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Haut-Rhin Dordogne Gironde Landes Lot-et-Garonne Pyrénées-Atlantiques Allier Cantal Haute-Loire Puy-de-Dôme Puy-de-Dôme Calvados Manche Orne Côte-d’Or Nièvre Saône-et-Loire Yonne Côtes-d’Armor Finistère Ille-et-Vilaine Morbihan Cher Eure-et-Loir Indre Indre-et-Loire Loir-et-Cher Loiret Ardennes Aube Haute-Marne Marne Corse-du-Sud Reference ID No. entriesa 27 13 18 13 17 26 30 8 23 24 11 12 17 11 5 2 60 28 39 21 24 7 18 33 31 7 7 22 24 14 11 9 45 30 88 37 43 50 30 10 21 29 12 10 3 38 24 16 2 Continued .

Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France Franche-Comté Franche-Comté Franche-Comté Haute-Normandie Haute-Normandie Île-de-France Île-de-France Île-de-France Île-de-France Île-de-France Île-de-France Île-de-France Languedoc-Roussillon Languedoc-Roussillon Languedoc-Roussillon Languedoc-Roussillon Limousin Limousin Limousin Lorraine Lorraine Lorraine Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Nord-Pas-de-Calais Nord-Pas-de-Calais Pays de la Loire Pays de la Loire Pays de la Loire Pays de la Loire Pays de la Loire Picardie Picardie Picardie Poitou-Charentes Poitou-Charentes Poitou-Charentes Poitou-Charentes Provence-Alpes-Côte-d’Azur France France France France France France Provence-Alpes-Côte-d’Azur Provence-Alpes-Côte-d’Azur Provence-Alpes-Côte-d’Azur Provence-Alpes-Côte-d’Azur Provence-Alpes-Côte-d’Azur Rhône-Alpes Doubs Haute-Saône Jura Eure Seine-Maritime Essonne Seine-et-Marne Val-d’Oise Val-de-Marne Ville de Paris Yvelines Yvelines Aude Gard Hérault Pyrénées-Orientales Corrèze Creuse Haute-Vienne Meurthe-et-Moselle Meuse Vosges Ariège Aveyron Gers Haute-Garonne Hautes-Pyrénées Lot Tarn Tarn-et-Garonne Nord Pas-de-Calais Loire-Atlantique Maine-et-Loire Mayenne Sarthe Vendée Aisne Oise Somme Charente Charente-Maritime Deux-Sèvres Vienne Alpes-De-HauteProvence Alpes-Maritimes Bouches-du-Rhône Hautes-Alpes Var Vaucluse Ain Reference ID No. entriesa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1024 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 8 15 20 4 18 31 10 8 8 40 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 2 10 14 21 4 24 50 19 17 20 11 13 14 2 8 4 6 2 23 16 14 24 7 18 26 2 11 9 8 10 6 4 14 8 10 2 208 Continued .180 Appendix 1 Table A1. Continued.14.

entriesa 6 27 87 159 4 4 83 36 18 16 17 2 5 6 52 29 2 14 4 4 294 5 5 114 3 2 15 12 121 2 15 9 12 2 3 12 Continued . Continued.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 181 Table A1.14. Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 France France France France France France France Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg Bayern Bayern Bayern Bayern Bayern Bayern Bayern Bayern Bayern Bayern Berlin Brandenburg Brandenburg Hessen Hessen Hessen Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Ardèche Drôme Haute-Savoie Isère Loire Rhône Savoie Freiburg Karlsruhe Stuttgart Tübingen Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Niedersachsen Nordrhein-Westfalen Nordrhein-Westfalen Nordrhein-Westfalen Nordrhein-Westfalen Rheinland-Pfalz Rheinland-Pfalz Saarland Sachsen Sachsen Sachsen-Anhalt Sachsen-Anhalt Sachsen-Anhalt Thüringen Thüringen Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Dytiki Makedonia Dytiki Makedonia Dytiki Makedonia Mittelfranken Niederbayern Oberbayern Oberfranken Oberpfalz Schwaben Unterfranken Brandenburg Darmstadt Gieflen Kassel MecklenburgVorpommern Braunschweig Köln Munster Koblenz Rheinhessen-Pfalz Saarland Chemnitz Leipzig Dessau Halle Magdeburg Thüringen Drama Evros Kavala Rodopi Florina Grevena Reference ID 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 332 333 564 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 236 236 0 496 0 0 0 0 600 857 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 268 0 735 0 0 0 0 735 0 0 No.

Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Ireland Ireland Ireland Ireland Ireland Ireland Ireland Ireland Ireland Ireland Ireland Ireland Dytiki Makedonia Ipeiros Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Bács-Kiskun Bács-Kiskun Bács-Kiskun Baranya Baranya Baranya Békés Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Budapest Csongrád Fejér Fejér Gyor-Moson-Sopron Gyor-Moson-Sopron Gyor-Moson-Sopron Hajdú-Bihar Hajdú-Bihar Heves Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok Komárom-Esztergom Pest Pest Somogy Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg Vas Veszprém Veszprém Zala Cavan Clare Cork Donegal Dublin Galway Galway Kerry Kerry Kerry Kerry Kilkenny Kozani Preveza Khalkidiki Khalkidiki Kilkis Pieria Serrai Thessaloniki Reference ID No. entriesa 0 0 735 0 1303 0 0 0 0 0 322 341 0 322 341 341 0 322 341 443 322 341 0 322 0 322 341 0 322 0 0 341 0 344 341 341 341 0 341 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 380 0 419 420 754 0 8 2 3 6 3 16 8 24 7 2 2 2 5 8 2 7 4 3 3 3 2 5 2 3 10 8 Continued . Continued.14.182 Appendix 1 Table A1.

14. Country Administrative region 1 Ireland Ireland Ireland Ireland Ireland Ireland Ireland Ireland Ireland Ireland Ireland Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Limerick Longford Mayo Meath Monaghan Offaly Roscommon Sligo Waterford Wexford Wicklow Abruzzo Abruzzo Apulia Apulia Basilicata Basilicata Calabria Calabria Campania Campania Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna Friuli-Venezia Giulia Friuli-Venezia Giulia Friuli-Venezia Giulia Friuli-Venezia Giulia Lazio Lazio Lazio Lazio Lazio Liguria Liguria Liguria Lombardia Lombardia Lombardia Lombardia Lombardia Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Lombardia Lombardia Lombardia Piemonte Piemonte Piemonte Administrative region 2 L’Aquila Teramo Bari Lecce Matera Potenza Catanzaro Reggio di Calabria Avellino Bologna Ferrara Forlì-Cesena Parma Piacenza Ravenna Reggio nell’Emilia Rimini Pordenone Trieste Udine Frosinone Latina Rieti Roma Viterbo Genova Imperia Savona Brescia Como Lecco Monza and Brianza Pavia Sondrio Varese Alessandria Biella Cuneo Reference ID 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 802 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 215 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 847 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 No. entriesa 2 2 6 2 2 2 32 4 2 2 6 8 2 2 8 12 3 12 9 6 2 2 10 7 9 5 18 10 23 13 8 2 12 4 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 6 Continued . Continued.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 183 Table A1.

entriesa 0 0 0 0 0 242 1331 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 160 609 741 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 346 0 0 0 126 0 126 0 126 0 126 0 126 126 126 0 126 0 126 0 126 0 126 12 8 2 2 6 3 6 2 6 2 2 28 150 11 6 2 9 2 2 9 14 4 8 7 4 3 5 5 Continued . Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Piemonte Piemonte Piemonte Sardegna Sicily Sicily Toscana Toscana Toscana Toscana Toscana Toscana Toscana Toscana Trentino-Alto Adige Trentino-Alto Adige Trentino-Alto Adige Trentino-Alto Adige Trentino-Alto Adige Umbria Umbria Veneto Veneto Veneto Veneto Veneto Veneto Gnjilane Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Prizren Prizren Kurzeme Kurzeme Kurzeme Kurzeme Kurzeme Kurzeme Kurzeme Kurzeme Kurzeme Kurzeme Latgale Latgale Riga Riga Riga Riga Riga Riga Riga Riga Novara Torino Vercelli Oristano Palermo Palermo Florence Grosseto Livorno Lucca Pisa Pistoia Siena Bolzano Trento Trento Trento Trento Perugia Terni Belluno Padua Treviso Verona Verona Vicenza Kosovska Kamenica Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Dragaö Prizren Kuldiga Kuldiga Liepaja Liepaja Saldus Saldus Talsi Talsi Ventspils Ventspils Daugavpils Kraslava Limbaži Limbaži Ogre Ogre Riga Riga Tukums Tukums Reference ID No.184 Appendix 1 Table A1. Continued.14.

Continued.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 185 Table A1. entriesa 0 0 126 0 126 0 126 0 126 0 126 0 126 0 126 0 0 0 732 0 732 0 732 733 0 732 0 732 0 732 0 732 733 0 732 0 732 0 732 0 732 0 0 732 0 0 732 0 733 0 732 0 2 4 4 3 2 4 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 Continued .14. Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Latvia Vidzeme Cesis Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Libya Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Lithuania Vidzeme Vidzeme Vidzeme Vidzeme Vidzeme Vidzeme Zemgale Zemgale Zemgale Zemgale Zemgale Zemgale Zemgale Zemgale Al Hizam Al Akhdar Alytaus Alytaus Alytaus Kauno Kauno Kauno Kauno Klaipe˙dos Klaipe˙dos Klaipe˙dos Klaipe˙dos Klaipe˙dos Klaipe˙dos Klaipe˙dos Marijampoles Marijampoles Panevezio Panevezio Panevezio Panevezio Panevezio Šiauliai Šiauliai Šiauliai Šiauliai Šiauliai Šiauliai Šiauliai Utenos Utenos Utenos Utenos Vilniaus Vilniaus Vilniaus Vilniaus Cesis Cesis Valka Valka Valmiera Valmiera Aizkraukle Aizkraukle Bauska Bauska Dobele Dobele Jelgava Jelgava Alytaus Varenos Varenos Kauno Kauno Prienu Prienu Klaipe˙dos Klaipe˙dos Neringos Neringos Šilutes Šilutes Marijampoles Marijampoles Paneveûio Paneveûio Rokiökio Rokiökio Joniökio Joniökio Kelmes Kelmes Pakruojo Šiauliu Šiauliu Ignalinos Utenos Utenos Zarasu Ukmerges Ukmerges Vilniaus Reference ID No.

Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Lithuania Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Vilniaus Anenii Noi Balti Basarabeasca Bender Briceni Cahul Calarasi Cantemir Causeni Chisinau Cimislia Criuleni Donduseni Drochia Dubasari Edinet Falesti Floresti Gagauzia Glodeni Hîncesti Ialoveni Leova Nisporeni Ocnita Orhei Rezina Rîscani Sîngerei Soldanesti Soroca Stefan Voda Straseni Taraclia Telenesti Transnistria Ungheni Chaouia-Ouardigha Gharb-Chrarda-Béni Hssen Meknès-Tafilalet Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer Tadla-Azilal Tanger-Tétouan Drenthe Friesland Friesland Friesland Gelderland Gelderland Gelderland Gelderland Vilniaus Ben Slimane Kénitra Ifrane Khémisset Azilal Chefchaouen Westerveld Ameland Opsterland Terschelling Brummen Buren Epe Nijkerk Reference ID 732 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 No.14.186 Appendix 1 Table A1. entriesa 13 2 7 13 3 3 2 2 Continued . Continued.

Continued.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 187 Table A1. Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Gelderland Noord-Brabant Noord-Brabant Noord-Brabant Noord-Holland Noord-Holland Noord-Holland Overijssel Overijssel Overijssel Utrecht Utrecht Utrecht Utrecht Utrecht Utrecht Utrecht Utrecht Zeeland Zeeland Zeeland Zuid-Holland Zuid-Holland Zuid-Holland Akershus Akershus Ãstfold Ãstfold Ãstfold Ãstfold Ãstfold Aust-Agder Aust-Agder Aust-Agder Aust-Agder Aust-Agder Aust-Agder Aust-Agder Aust-Agder Aust-Agder Aust-Agder Buskerud Hordaland Hordaland Hordaland Hordaland Hordaland Hordaland Hordaland Hordaland Hordaland Hordaland Nunspeet Halderberge Moerdijk Oisterwijk Amsterdam Heemskerk Hilversum Deventer Raalte Zwolle Bunnik De Bilt Doorn Leersum Maarn Soest Utrecht Zeist Middelburg Schouwen-Duiveland Sluis Pijnacker-Nootdorp Waddinxveen Warmond Aurskog-Høland Sørum Aremark Halden Marker Sarpsborg Spydeberg Arendal Birkenes Birkenes Froland Grimstad Lillesand Lillesand Tvedestrand Vegårshei Flesberg Bergen Eidfjord Etne Kvinnherad Kvinnherad Lindås Masfjorden Masfjorden Modalen Odda Reference ID 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 733 0 0 732 0 0 0 732 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 732 0 0 0 0 0 No. entriesa 3 4 2 4 2 2 4 Continued .14.

Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Hordaland Hordaland Hordaland Hordaland Hordaland Møre og Romsdal Møre og Romsdal Møre og Romsdal Møre og Romsdal Møre og Romsdal Møre og Romsdal Møre og Romsdal Møre og Romsdal Rogaland Rogaland Rogaland Rogaland Rogaland Rogaland Rogaland Sogn og Fjordane Sogn og Fjordane Sogn og Fjordane Sogn og Fjordane Sogn og Fjordane Sogn og Fjordane Sogn og Fjordane Sogn og Fjordane Sogn og Fjordane Sogn og Fjordane Sør-Trøndelag Telemark Telemark Telemark Telemark Telemark Telemark Vest-Agder Vest-Agder Vest-Agder Vest-Agder Vest-Agder Vest-Agder Vest-Agder Vest-Agder Vest-Agder Vest-Agder Vest-Agder Vestfold Vestfold Vestfold Vestfold Samnanger Ullensvang Vaksdal Vaksdal Voss Norddal Ørsta Rauma Sunndal Surnadal Ulstein Volda Bjerkreim Gjesdal Hjelmeland Lund Sandnes Sauda Suldal Askvoll Aurland Førde Gaular Gloppen Gulen Gulen Hyllestad Hyllestad Stryn Hitra Drangedal Drangedal Kragerø Kragerø Skien Audnedal Flekkefjord Hægebostad Kristiansand Kristiansand Kvinesdal Marnardal Songdalen Vennesla Larvik Vaale Reference ID 0 0 0 0 0 1116 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 732 0 732 0 1323 1116 0 732 0 732 0 1116 733 0 0 0 0 732 0 0 0 0 1116 810 0 0 No. Continued.14. entriesa 4 8 2 2 2 3 3 2 8 3 2 8 2 2 2 7 2 Continued .188 Appendix 1 Table A1.

entriesa 2 2 4 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 13 3 3 4 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 4 4 12 3 2 5 2 Continued .14.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 189 Table A1. Continued. Country Administrative region 1 Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Greater Poland Kuyavian-Pomeranian Kuyavian-Pomeranian Kuyavian-Pomeranian Kuyavian-Pomeranian Kuyavian-Pomeranian Kuyavian-Pomeranian Kuyavian-Pomeranian Kuyavian-Pomeranian Kuyavian-Pomeranian Kuyavian-Pomeranian Kuyavian-Pomeranian Lesser Poland Lesser Poland Lesser Poland Lesser Poland Lesser Poland Lesser Poland Lesser Poland Lesser Poland Lesser Poland Administrative region 2 Chodziez Czarnków-Trzcianka Gniezno Gostyn Gostyn Grodzisk Wielkopolski Kalisz Kalisz City Kepno Koscian Krotoszyn Leszno Miedzychód Nowy Tomys´l Oborniki Ostrów Wielkopolski Ostrzeszów Pleszew Poznan Poznan Poznan Poznan City Rawicz Słupca S´rem S´roda Wielkopolska Turek Wa˛growiec Wolsztyn Zlotów Bydgoszcz City Chelmno Grudziadz Grudziadz City Inowrocław Lipno Nakło Rypin S´wiecie Torun City Tuchola Bochnia Brzesko Brzeg Chrzanów Gorlice Kraków Kraków City Limanowa Miechów Mys´lenice Reference ID 603 645 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 644 645 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 No.

190 Appendix 1 Table A1.14. Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Lesser Poland Lesser Poland Lesser Poland Lesser Poland Lesser Poland Lesser Poland Lesser Poland Lesser Poland Lesser Poland Lesser Poland Lódz Lódz Lódz Lódz Lódz Lódz Lódz Lódz Lower Silesian Lower Silesian Lower Silesian Lower Silesian Lower Silesian Lower Silesian Lower Silesian Lower Silesian Lower Silesian Lower Silesian Lower Silesian Lower Silesian Lower Silesian Lower Silesian Lower Silesian Lower Silesian Lower Silesian Lower Silesian Lower Silesian Lublin Lublin Lublin Lublin Lublin Lublin Lublin Lublin Lublin Lublin Lublin Lublin Lublin Lublin Lublin Nowy Sa˛cz Nowy Targ Olkusz Os´wie˛cim Proszowice Sucha Tarnów Tarnów City Tatra Wieliczka Kutno Lowicz LÛdz Pabianice Sieradz TomaszÛw Mazowiecki WieruszÛw Zgierz Bolesławiec Dzierzoniów Jelenia Góra Kłodzko Legnica Lubin Lwówek S´la˛ski Milicz Oles´nica S´roda S´la˛ska Strzelin S´widnica Trzebnica Wołów Wrocław Wrocław Wrocław Za˛bkowice Zgorzelec Bilgoraj Chelm Hrubieszów Janów Krasnik Lubartów Lublin Lublin City Puławy Radzyn Tomaszów Reference ID 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 513 0 0 102 104 105 953 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 No. Continued. entriesa 3 6 5 4 3 2 4 2 3 3 4 4 8 2 4 2 6 4 3 3 2 4 2 2 4 4 2 2 3 3 Continued .

Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Lublin Lublin Lubusz Lubusz Lubusz Lubusz Lubusz Lubusz Lubusz Masovian Masovian Masovian Masovian Masovian Masovian Masovian Masovian Masovian Masovian Masovian Masovian Masovian Masovian Masovian Masovian Masovian Masovian Masovian Masovian Opole Opole Opole Opole Opole Opole Opole Podlachian Podlachian Podlachian Podlachian Podlachian Podlachian Podlachian Podlachian Podlachian Podlachian Podlachian Podlachian Podlachian Podlachian Pomeranian Pomeranian Włodawa Zamosc Gorzów Miedzyrzecz Slubice Strzelce-Drezdenko Sule˛cin ´ wiebodzin S Zielona Góra Ciechanów Garwolin Legionowo Losice Minsk Mława Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki Ostrołe˛ka Otwock Piaseczno Płock Przysucha Radom Warsaw Warsaw Warsaw West Wegrów Wyszków Zuromin Glubczyce Ke˛dzierzyn-Koz´le Namysłów Nysa Opole Prudnik Strzelce Augustów Białystok Bielsk Grajewo Hajnówka Hajnówka Lomza Monki Siemiatycze Sokółka Suwałki Zambrów Bytów Reference ID No. entriesa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 964 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1099 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1340 464 0 0 0 0 0 385 0 0 0 0 0 0 843 0 5 6 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 3 4 3 4 2 3 9 4 3 2 8 2 5 2 2 4 Continued . Continued.14.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 191 Table A1.

Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Pomeranian Pomeranian Pomeranian Pomeranian Pomeranian Pomeranian Pomeranian Pomeranian Pomeranian Pomeranian Pomeranian Pomeranian Pomeranian Pomeranian Pomeranian Pomeranian Pomeranian Pomeranian Pomeranian Silesian Silesian Silesian Silesian Silesian Silesian Silesian Silesian Silesian Silesian Silesian Silesian Silesian Silesian Silesian Silesian Subcarpathian Subcarpathian Subcarpathian Subcarpathian Subcarpathian Subcarpathian Subcarpathian Subcarpathian Subcarpathian Subcarpathian Subcarpathian Subcarpathian S´wie˛tokrzyskie S´wie˛tokrzyskie S´wie˛tokrzyskie S´wie˛tokrzyskie S´wie˛tokrzyskie Chojnice Czluchów Gdansk Gdansk City Gdynia Kartuzy Koscierzyna Kwidzyn Lebork Malbork Nowy Dwór Gdanski Puck Słupsk Słupsk City Sopot Starogard Sztum Tczew Wejherowo Bytom Chorzów Cieszyn Czestochowa Gliwice Katowice City Kłobuck Lubliniec Mikolów Myslowice Myszków Rybnik Siemianowice Slaskie Zabrze Zawiercie Zywiec Bieszczady Jasło Kolbuszowa Krosno Lesko Lezajsk Lubaczów Nisko Przemys´l Przeworsk Rzeszów City Sanok Busko Kielce Kielce City Sandomierz Skarzysko Reference ID 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 No.14. entriesa 5 3 6 3 5 9 5 4 4 2 6 7 5 3 2 2 9 4 3 2 2 3 7 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 Continued . Continued.192 Appendix 1 Table A1.

Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal S´wie˛tokrzyskie Warmian-Masurian Warmian-Masurian Warmian-Masurian Warmian-Masurian Warmian-Masurian Warmian-Masurian Warmian-Masurian Warmian-Masurian Warmian-Masurian Warmian-Masurian Warmian-Masurian Warmian-Masurian Warmian-Masurian Warmian-Masurian Warmian-Masurian Warmian-Masurian Warmian-Masurian Warmian-Masurian Warmian-Masurian Warmian-Masurian Warmian-Masurian West Pomeranian West Pomeranian West Pomeranian West Pomeranian West Pomeranian West Pomeranian West Pomeranian West Pomeranian West Pomeranian West Pomeranian West Pomeranian West Pomeranian West Pomeranian West Pomeranian West Pomeranian West Pomeranian West Pomeranian West Pomeranian West Pomeranian West Pomeranian West Pomeranian West Pomeranian West Pomeranian Braga Évora Évora Faro Faro Lisboa Lisboa StaszÛw Bartoszyce Braniewo Działdowo Elbla˛g Ełk Gizycko Iława Ketrzyn Lidzbark Mragowo Nidzica Olecko Olsztyn Olsztyn Olsztyn City Ostróda Pisz Szczytno Wegorzewo Białogard Choszczno Drawsko Goleniów Gryfice Gryfino Kamien Kołobrzeg Koszalin Koszalin City Lobez Mys´libórz Police Pyrzyce Sławno Stargard S´widwin Szczecin Szczecin Szczecin Szczecin Szczecinek Wałcz Montemor-o-Novo Viana do Alentejo Monchique Vila do Bispo Mafra Reference ID 0 738 739 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 546 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 138 893 894 0 0 1143 0 0 0 0 1143 0 No. Continued.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 193 Table A1.14. entriesa 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 18 4 5 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 8 3 2 2 2 8 5 2 8 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 Continued .

entriesa 2 2 8 2 6 2 10 2 6 4 4 2 2 3 Continued . Country Administrative region 1 Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Russia Russia Russia Serbia Madeira Portalegre Portalegre Santarém Setúbal Setúbal Setúbal Setúbal Setúbal Setúbal Viana do Castelo Alba Arad Arges Bihor Botosani Braila Buzau Calarasi Caras-Severin Cluj Constanta Covasna Dâmbovita Dolj Galati Giurgiu Gorj Hunedoara Iasi Mehedinti Mures Satu Mare Suceava Suceava Suceava Suceava Teleorman Teleorman Timis Timis Tulcea Tulcea Tulcea Tulcea Tulcea Vâlcea Vrancea City of St Petersburg Kaliningrad Moskva Grad Beograd Administrative region 2 Avis Alpiarça Alcácer do Sal Barreiro Grândola Montijo Palmela Arcos de Valdevez Reference ID 1143 1143 0 0 1143 0 0 0 0 0 0 769 769 769 769 769 769 769 769 769 769 769 0 460 769 769 769 769 0 0 769 769 769 0 460 462 769 460 462 0 177 0 198 460 603 769 0 769 35 35 522 654 No. Continued.14.194 Appendix 1 Table A1.

Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 195 Table A1.14. Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Grad Beograd Grad Beograd Grad Beograd Grad Beograd Grad Beograd Moravicki Moravicki Ni’avski Ni’avski Pirotski Ra’ki Ra’ki Šumadijski Šumadijski Šumadijski Zajecarski Zajecarski Zajecarski Zapadno-Backi Zlatiborski Zlatiborski Zlatiborski Banskobystrický Banskobystrický Banskobystrický Banskobystrický Banskobystrický Bratislavský Bratislavský Bratislavský Bratislavský Košický Košický Košický Košický Košický Košický Košický Nitrianský Nitrianský Nitrianský Nitrianský Nitrianský Nitrianský Prešovský Prešovský Trencˇianský Trencˇianský Trencˇianský Trencˇianský Trencˇianský Trencˇianský Grocka Mladenovac Rakovica Stari Grad Voûdovac Cacak Gornji Milanovac Aleksinac Svrljig Bela Palanka Kraljevo Novi Pazar Arandelovac Kragujevac Topola Boljevac Knjaževac Zajecar Sombor Bajina Baöta Priboj Prijepolje Žarnovica Žiar nad Hronom Bratislava II Malacky Senec Koöice I Koöice III Koöice IV Koöice-okolie Levice Nitra Nové Zámky Topolcany Zlaté Moravce Kežmarok Stará Lubovna Ilava Myjava Nové Mesto nad Váhom Partizánske Reference ID 0 0 785 785 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 140 449 0 0 0 0 0 1349 140 602 914 0 0 0 0 1349 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 140 603 0 0 0 0 No. Continued. entriesa 2 2 2 6 3 2 2 10 14 16 5 5 9 2 3 5 2 2 4 4 4 Continued .

entriesa 4 3 3 3 3 3 8 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 8 4 12 12 8 3 2 6 2 9 9 Continued .196 Appendix 1 Table A1. Continued. Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Trencˇianský Trencˇianský Trencˇianský Trencˇianský Trnavský Trnavský Trnavský Trnavský Trnavský Trnavský Žilinský Žilinský Žilinský Žilinský Žilinský Žilinský Gorenjska Gorenjska Gorenjska Gorenjska Gorenjska Gorenjska Goriška Goriška Jugovzhodna Slovenija Jugovzhodna Slovenija Notranjsko-kraška Notranjsko-kraška Obalno-kraška Obalno-kraška Obalno-kraška Obalno-kraška Osrednjeslovenska Osrednjeslovenska Osrednjeslovenska Osrednjeslovenska Osrednjeslovenska Osrednjeslovenska Savinjska Savinjska Zasavska Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía Aragón Aragón Cantabria Castilla y León Považská Bystrica Prievidza Púchov Trencín Dunajská Streda Piešt’any Senica Skalica Trnava Bytca Cadca Martin Námestovo Tvrdošín Bled Cerklje na Gorenjskem Cerklje na Gorenjskem Železniki Gorenja Vas-Poljane Preddvor Brda Cerkno Kocevje Sodrazica Ilirska Bistrica Pivka Divaca Hrpelje-Kozina Koper Grosuplje Kamnik Ljubljana Medvode Medvode Velike Lašcˇ Mozirje Tabor Zagorje ob Savi Cádiz Córdoba Granada Huelva Jaén Jaén Málaga Huesca Zaragoza Cantabria Burgos Reference ID 0 0 0 0 140 0 0 0 0 0 140 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 527 0 0 0 0 0 0 527 0 0 527 0 0 0 0 527 0 0 527 0 527 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 611 0 0 0 0 0 No.14.

14.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 197 Table A1. Continued. entriesa 0 821 0 821 0 0 0 0 0 0 1345 0 315 77 0 0 0 821 616 1339 350 1339 1339 350 1339 470 1339 470 470 1339 1339 1339 350 1339 1339 1339 1339 1339 350 470 584 1339 1339 470 470 350 1339 470 470 470 1339 1339 3 2 2 2 4 4 14 51 2 21 17 38 9 41 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Continued . Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Castilla y León Castilla y León Castilla-La Mancha Castilla-La Mancha Cataluña Cataluña Comunidad Foral de Navarra Extremadura Extremadura Galicia Islas Baleares La Rioja La Rioja País Vasco País Vasco País Vasco País Vasco Principado de Asturias Región de Murcia Blekinge Blekinge Dalarna Gävleborg Gävleborg Gotland Gotland Halland Halland Halland Jämtland Jönköping Kalmar Kalmar Kronoberg Norrbotten Orebro Östergötland Skåne Skåne Skåne Skåne Södermanland Stockholm Stockholm Stockholm Stockholm Uppsala Uppsala Uppsala Uppsala Värmland Västerbotten León Toledo Ciudad Real Cuenca Barcelona Girona Navarra Badajoz Cáceres Lugo Baleares La Rioja La Rioja Álava Guipúzcoa Vizcaya Murcia Gotland Kungsbacka Varberg Kalmar Båstad Simrishamn Norrtälje Nynäshamn Stockholm Älvkarleby Tierp Uppsala Reference ID No.

entriesa 2 2 7 7 5 2 2 2 3 6 8 2 4 19 2 6 2 7 10 3 3 3 2 3 2 5 3 4 7 12 5 3 4 Continued .14. Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey UK UK Västerbotten Västerbotten Västernorrland Västmanland Västra Götaland Aargau Basel-Landschaft Bern Fribourg Graubünden Jura Lucerne Neuchâtel Neuchâtel Neuchâtel Sankt Gallen Schaffhausen Ticino Ticino Valais Valais Valais Vaud Zürich Béja Béja Béja Béja Bizerte Jendouba Jendouba Jendouba Jendouba Kairouan Le Kef Siliana Siliana Sousse Tataouine Zaghouan Artvin Burdur Burdur Giresun Istanbul Istanbul Rize Samsun Sinop Trabzon England England Umeå Umeå Béja Nord Mejez El Bab Nefza Testour Sejnane Aïn Draham Balta Bou Aouane Ghardimaou Tabarka Chebika Nebeur Bouarada Kesra Kondar Ghomrassen Zriba Bedfordshire Berkshire Reference ID 1322 470 1339 1339 1339 0 524 0 0 435 0 0 0 450 487 0 0 0 435 0 1284 1321 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1008 0 0 145 0 0 0 0 0 0 No.198 Appendix 1 Table A1. Continued.

entriesa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 559 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1297 0 0 131 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 15 17 17 13 41 2 12 3 28 7 2 7 4 2 2 53 5 3 20 2 3 2 2 4 4 17 8 Continued .14. Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England England Buckinghamshire Cambridgeshire Cheshire Cornwall Croydon Cumbria Derbyshire Devon Dorset Durham East Sussex Essex Gloucestershire Hampshire Herefordshire Hounslow Isle of Wight Kensington and Chelsea Kent Kingston upon Thames Lambeth Lancashire Lancashire Leicester Leicestershire Lincolnshire Luton Merseyside Merton Milton Keynes Norfolk North Somerset North Yorkshire North Yorkshire Northamptonshire Northumberland Northumberland Nottinghamshire Oxfordshire Peterborough Plymouth Poole Portsmouth Richmond upon Thames Somerset Staffordshire Suffolk Surrey Sutton Thurrock Torbay Tyne and Wear Reference ID No.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 199 Table A1. Continued.

200 Appendix 1 Table A1.14. Aberdeen Aberdeenshire Angus Argyll and Bute Dumfries and Galloway East Ayrshire Eilean Siar Fife Highland Moray North Ayshire Perthshire and Kinross Renfrewshire Scottish Borders Shetland Islands South Ayrshire South Lanarkshire Stirling West Dunbartonshire Anglesey Bridgend Cardiff Carmarthenshire Ceredigion Conwy Denbighshire Gwynedd Monmouthshire Neath Port Talbot Pembrokeshire Powys Swansea Torfaen Vale of Glamorgan Reference ID 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1114 302 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 631 0 0 No. entriesa 2 12 8 4 19 8 40 17 2 5 104 5 6 17 11 3 4 2 8 2 6 14 19 5 30 2 2 9 16 2 . Continued. Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK UK England England England England England Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Scotland Wales Wales Wales Wales Wales Wales Wales Wales Wales Wales Wales Wales Wales Wales Wales Waltham Forest Warwickshire West Sussex Wiltshire Worcestershire Down Dungannon Fermanagh Newry and Mourne Omagh (*) If more than one.

entriesa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 277 781 0 0 1280 0 1280 0 1280 0 1280 0 0 1280 0 1280 0 0 1280 1280 1280 0 0 0 1280 1280 0 1280 0 0 0 1280 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 7 5 2 7 10 3 Continued . Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Albania Albania Albania Albania Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Bulgaria Bulgaria Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France Elbasan Gjirokastër Korçë Vlorë Alger Bouira Bouira Bouira Médéa Relizane Sétif Tiaret Tizi Ouzou Tizi Ouzou Tlemcen Montana Vratsa Karlovacka Splitsko-Dalmatinska Splitsko-Dalmatinska Splitsko-Dalmatinska Zadarska Aquitaine Aquitaine Aquitaine Aquitaine Aquitaine Aquitaine Aquitaine Aquitaine Auvergne Auvergne Basse-Normandie Bourgogne Bourgogne Centre Centre Centre Centre Corse Corse Corse Île-de-France Île-de-France Île-de-France Île-de-France Île-de-France Languedoc-Roussillon Languedoc-Roussillon Languedoc-Roussillon Languedoc-Roussillon Limousin Elbasanit Gjirokastrës Pogradecit Vlorës Bouzareah Ain el Hadjar Ain Turk Lakhdaria Medea Oued Rhiou Ain Arnat Sougueur Boghni Tizi-Ghenif Tlemcen Montana Vratsa Dordogne Dordogne Gironde Gironde Landes Landes Pyrénées-Atlantiques Pyrénées-Atlantiques Puy-de-Dôme Puy-de-Dôme Manche Côte-d’Or Côte-d’Or Eure-et-Loir Indre Indre Indre-et-Loire Corse-du-Sud Haute-Corse Seine-et-Marne Seine-et-Marne Seine-Maritime Val-de-Marne Ville de Paris Aude Hérault Pyrénées-Orientales Pyrénées-Orientales Haute-Vienne Reference ID No.15.org/vetmedresource/) for complete reference indicated by the Reference ID.cabi. Geographic distribution data for Haemaphysalis punctata.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 201 Table A1. See Appendix 2 (hosted on http://www.

Continued.15.202 Appendix 1 Table A1. Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Pays de la Loire Poitou-Charentes Provence-Alpes-Côte-d’Azur Provence-Alpes-Côte-d’Azur Provence-Alpes-Côte-d’Azur Provence-Alpes-Côte-d’Azur Provence-Alpes-Côte-d’Azur Provence-Alpes-Côte-d’Azur Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Attiki Dytiki Makedonia Dytiki Makedonia Ipeiros Ipeiros Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Stereá Elláda Stereá Elláda Abruzzo Abruzzo Abruzzo Apulia Apulia Campania Campania Campania Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna Lazio Lazio Lazio Lazio Liguria Aveyron Aveyron Lot Lot Tarn Vendée Vienne Alpes-de-Haute-Provence Alpes-de-Haute-Provence Alpes-Maritimes Bouches-du-Rhône Hautes-Alpes Var Ain Ain Ardèche Drôme Isère Savoie Drama Evros Kavala Attica Grevena Kozani Ioannina Preveza Khalkidiki Kilkis Pella Pieria Serrai Thessaloniki Boeotia Evritania Chieti L’Aquila Teramo Foggia Lecce Avellino Caserta Ferrara Forlì-Cesena Modena Parma Piacenza Latina Rieti Roma Viterbo Genova Reference ID No. entriesa 0 1280 0 1280 0 0 1280 0 1280 0 0 0 0 0 1280 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 802 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 4 7 9 7 3 3 2 8 14 3 6 6 6 2 10 5 2 2 2 3 3 8 3 2 26 5 5 3 4 2 2 2 3 3 10 3 2 Continued .

Continued. Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Libya Libya Libya Libya Macedonia Macedonia Macedonia Macedonia Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Montenegro Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Lombardia Marche Molise Piemonte Sardegna Sardegna Sardegna Sardegna Sardegna Sardegna Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Toscana Toscana Toscana Toscana Trentino-Alto Adige Trentino-Alto Adige Umbria Umbria Veneto Kosovska Mitrovica Pristina Uroöevac Ajdabiya Al Jabal al Akhdar An Nuqat al Khams Tarhunah-Masallatah Pelagonia Polog Skopje Southwestern Cahul Cantemir Causeni Cimislia Leova Taraclia Kolacin Gharb-Chrarda-Béni Hssen Grand Casablanca Meknès-Tafilalet Meknès-Tafilalet Meknès-Tafilalet Évora Lisboa Santarém Setúbal Setúbal Setúbal Varese Ancona Isernia Alessandria Cagliari Carbonia-Iglesias Nuoro Olbia-Tempio Oristano Sassari Palermo Palermo Palermo Palermo Trapani Florence Pisa Pistoia Bolzano Trento Perugia Terni Verona Kosovska Mitrovica Priötina Uroöevac Bitola Tetovo Centar Ohrid Kénitra Mohammedia Ifrane Khénifra Meknès Montemor-o-Novo Coruche Alcácer do Sal Grândola Reference ID No.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 203 Table A1. entriesa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 242 366 998 0 1331 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 667 667 667 667 667 667 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1143 0 1143 0 0 2 3 4 11 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 Continued .15.

Country Administrative region 1 Romania Serbia Serbia Serbia Slovakia Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Switzerland Switzerland Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Timis Macvanski Pcinjski Toplicki Košický Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía Aragón Aragón Aragón Cantabria Castilla y León Castilla y León Castilla y León Cataluña Cataluña Cataluña Comunidad Foral de Navarra Extremadura Extremadura Islas Baleares La Rioja País Vasco País Vasco País Vasco País Vasco Principado de Asturias Blekinge Gotland Kalmar Västra Götaland Ticino Ticino Ariana Béja Béja Béja Bizerte Bizerte Bizerte Jendouba Jendouba Le Kef Nabeul Nabeul Zaghouan Aksaray Ankara Ankara Elâzig˘ a If more than one.204 Appendix 1 Table A1. Administrative region 2 Ljubovija Surdulica Prokuplje Cádiz Córdoba Granada Huelva Jaén Jaén Huesca Teruel Zaragoza Cantabria Burgos Burgos Soria Girona Lleida Tarragona Navarra Badajoz Cáceres Baleares La Rioja Álava Guipúzcoa Vizcaya Kalaat El Andalous Béja Nord Nefza Téboursouk Bizerte Sud Mateur Sejnane Aïn Draham Ghardimaou Nebeur Haouaria Menzel Temime Zriba Reference ID No. entriesa 177 0 0 0 140 0 0 0 0 0 611 0 0 0 0 0 821 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1345 0 77 0 0 0 821 1339 1339 1339 1339 435 435 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1353 0 1353 0 5 5 3 2 7 3 2 2 2 3 3 6 3 2 4 25 14 15 2 2 2 3 2 8 . Continued.15.

Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 205 Table A1.16. Geographic distribution data for Haemaphysalis concinna.org/vetmedresource/) for complete reference indicated by the Reference ID. See Appendix 2 (hosted on http://www.cabi.org/vetmedresource/) for complete reference indicated by the Reference ID. Country Administrative region 1 Czech Republic France France France France France France France France France France Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Romania Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Spain Spain Jihomoravský Aquitaine Aquitaine Centre Centre Île-de-France Île-de-France Limousin Midi-Pyrénées Picardie Poitou-Charentes Bacs-Kiskun Baranya Csongrad Fejer Nograd Somogy Zala Timis Banskobystrický Bratislavský Bratislavský Nitrianský Trencˇianský Trnavský País Vasco Principado de Asturias Administrative region 2 Landes Pyrénées-Atlantiques Indre Indre-et-Loire Seine-et-Marne Seine-Maritime Haute-Vienne Ariège Oise Vienne Reference ID 490 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1417 1417 1417 1417 1417 1417 1417 177 140 1349 1349 1349 1349 900 77 821 Table A1. See Appendix 2 (hosted on http:// www.17. Geographic distribution data for Haemaphysalis inermis. Country Administrative region 1 Bulgaria Bulgaria France France France France France France Hungary Hungary Hungary Italy Portugal Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Spain Smolyan Yuzhen tsentralen Centre Centre Île-de-France Languedoc-Roussillon Limousin Poitou-Charentes Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen Fejer Heves Campania Lisboa Banskobystrický Bratislavský Košický Trencˇianský Zilinský País Vasco Administrative region 2 Reference ID 884 Indre Indre-et-Loire Seine-et-Marne Pyrénées-Orientales Haute-Vienne Vienne 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1417 1417 1417 802 1143 140 1349 1349 1349 1349 77 .cabi.

cabi. entriesa 2 3 2 3 2 2 Continued .206 Appendix 1 Table A1.18. Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Albania Albania Albania Albania Albania Albania Albania Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Elbasan Elbasan Korçë Korçë Lezhë Vlorë Vlorë Aïn Defla Aïn Defla Aïn Defla Aïn Témouchent Alger Alger Annaba Batna Batna Batna Batna Batna Batna Beja Biskra Biskra Biskra Biskra Blida Blida Blida Bouira Bouira Bouira Bouira Bouira Bouira Boumerdès Boumerdès Boumerdès Chlef Chlef Chlef Chlef Chlef Chlef Constantine Constantine Djelfa El Tarf Guelma Guelma Jijel Jijel Elbasanit Librazhdit Korçës Pogradecit Lezhës Sarandës Vlorës Ain Benian Ain Lechiakh Arib Ain Kihel Ain Benian Ouled Chebel Annaba Ain Touta Batna Chemora Ksar Bellezma Ras El Aioun Seriana Bejaia Besbes El Ouitaya Ouled Djellal Tolga Bouaarfa Bouinan Soumaa Ain El Hadjar Ain Turk Djebahia El Asnam Lakhdaria Sour El Ghouzlane Boudouaou Corso Isser Bouzeghaia Chlef Sendjas Sidi Akkacha Taougrit Tenes Constantine El Khroub M’Liliha El Aioun Ain Rekada Hammam Debagh Chekfa Jijel Reference ID 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 No. Geographic distribution data for Hyalomma marginatum.org/vetmedresource/) for complete reference indicated by the Reference ID. See Appendix 2 (hosted on http:// www.

Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Jijel Jijel Laghouat M’Sila Mascara Médéa Médéa Médéa Mila Oran Oran Oum el Bouaghi Relizane Relizane Jijel Jijel Laghouat Ain Errich Ain Ferah Berrouaghia Boughezoul Medea Chelghoum Laid Oran Oued Tlelat Meskiana Relizane Sidi M’Hamed Benaouda Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Sétif Sétif Sétif Sétif Sétif Sétif Sétif Sétif Sétif Sidi Bel Abbès Skikda Tébessa Tébessa Tébessa Tiaret Tipaza Tissemsilt Tissemsilt Tizi Ouzou Tizi Ouzou Tizi Ouzou Tizi Ouzou Tizi Ouzou Tizi Ouzou Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina Blagoevgrad Burgas Burgas Burgas Haskovo Kardzhali Kardzhali Kardzhali Kyustendil Lovech Montana Ain Arnat Ain Lahdjar El Eulma Guellal Mezloug Ouled Saber Setif Dhaya Ouled Attia Bir El Ater Boulhaf Dyr Tebessa Hadjout Lardjem Theniet El Had Boghni Draa-Ben-Khedda Tadmait Tizi Ouzou Tizi-Ghenif Zekri Tuzla Bansko Karnobat Malko Tarnovo Tsarevo Svilengrad Ardino Kardzhali Momchilgrad Rila Troyan Montana Reference ID No.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 207 Table A1. entriesa 110 110 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 110 110 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 129 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 4 2 2 2 2 Continued .18. Continued.

Country Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia Cyprus Cyprus Cyprus France France France France France France France France France France France France Germany Greece Greece Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Pazardzhik Pernik Pleven Plovdiv Plovdiv Shumen Sliven Sofia Sofia Stara Zagora Stara Zagora Stara Zagora Varna Varna Varna Vidin Vratsa Yambol Yambol Grad Zagreb Istarska Karlovacka Primorsko-Goranska Šibensko-Kninska Splitsko-Dalmatinska Splitsko-Dalmatinska Zadarska Famagusta Nicosia Paphos Aquitaine Aquitaine Centre Corse Corse Corse Languedoc-Roussillon Languedoc-Roussillon Provence-Alpes-Côted’Azur Provence-Alpes-Côted’Azur Provence-Alpes-Côted’Azur Provence-Alpes-Côted’Azur Baden-Württemberg Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Pazardzhik Breznik Pleven Plovdiv Saedinenie Preslav Sliven Samokov Zlatitsa Chirpan Haskovo Radnevo Dolni Chiflik Provadiya Varna Dimovo Vratsa Tundzha Yambol Pyrénées-Atlantiques Pyrénées-Atlantiques Indre-et-Loire Corse-du-Sud Haute-Corse Lozère Pyrénées-Orientales Alpes-Maritimes Reference ID 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 69 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 781 0 0 0 0 0 1280 0 1280 0 0 0 1280 0 Bouches-du-Rhône 0 Var 0 Var 1280 Freiburg 1302 735 No. Continued.18.208 Appendix 1 Table A1. entriesa 3 3 2 2 3 3 6 2 2 2 14 7 7 735 Continued .

Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 209 Table A1. Continued.18. Country Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Dytiki Makedonia Dytiki Makedonia Dytiki Makedonia Dytiki Makedonia Ipeiros Ipeiros Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kriti Peloponnisos Peloponnisos Stereá Elláda Stereá Elláda Stereá Elláda Thessalia Abruzzo Abruzzo Apulia Apulia Apulia Apulia Apulia Apulia Basilicata Calabria Calabria Campania Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna Friuli-Venezia Giulia Lazio Lazio Lazio Lazio Liguria Liguria Lombardia Drama 0 4 Evros 0 5 Kavala 0 4 Grevena Kozani Ioannina Preveza Khalkidiki Khalkidiki Khalkidiki Khalkidiki Kilkis Pella Serrai Thessaloniki Heraklion Arcadia Messinia Boeotia Euboea Fthiotis Larisa L’Aquila Teramo Bari Barletta-Andria-Trani Brindisi Foggia Lecce Taranto Matera Cosenza Reggio di Calabria Napoli Forlì-Cesena Parma Ravenna Rimini Udine Latina Rieti Roma Viterbo Genova Savona Brescia Reference ID 735 735 0 0 0 0 735 0 1303 1303 1303 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 No. entriesa 3 5 4 2 3 3 2 11 2 2 19 2 2 7 3 3 4 3 8 14 5 2 Continued .

Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Libya Macedonia Macedonia Macedonia Macedonia Macedonia Macedonia Macedonia Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Marche Molise Piemonte Piemonte Piemonte Sardegna Sardegna Sardegna Sardegna Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Toscana Toscana Toscana Toscana Trentino-Alto Adige Umbria Umbria Veneto Veneto D ¯ akovica Gnjilane Gnjilane Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Pristina Pristina Al Marqab Eastern Pelagonia Polog Skopje Southeastern Southwestern Vardar Chaouia-Ouardigha Chaouia-Ouardigha Doukkala-Abda Doukkala-Abda Fès-Boulemane Macerata Campobasso Alessandria Torino Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Cagliari Carbonia-Iglesias Ogliastra Oristano Agrigento Enna Messina Palermo Palermo Palermo Palermo Palermo Palermo Palermo Ragusa Trapani Florence Grosseto Pisa Trento Perugia Terni Venezia Verona Decˇani Gnjilane Vitina Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica Lipljan Priötina Pehcevo Bitola Tetovo Centar Lake Dojran Ohrid Kavadartsi Ben Slimane Settat El Jadida Safi Zouagha-Moulay Yacoub Reference ID 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 242 366 366 366 366 998 366 0 1331 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 346 346 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 No. Continued.18. entriesa 6 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 5 2 2 3 3 3 Continued .210 Appendix 1 Table A1.

18.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 211 Table A1. entriesa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 769 769 769 0 0 460 769 1144 1144 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 241 3 3 6 5 2 7 4 3 2 2 4 15 8 3 3 2 2 2 6 Continued . Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Russia Russia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Spain Spain Gharb-Chrarda-Béni Hssen Grand Casablanca Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz Meknès-Tafilalet Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer Souss-Massa-Draâ Tanger-Tétouan Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate Aveiro Coimbra Évora Évora Guarda Leiria Lisboa Portalegre Porto Santarém Santarém Setúbal Setúbal Setúbal Setúbal Viana do Castelo Alba Bucharest Constanta Dolj Gorj Mehedinti Mures Timis Tulcea Tulcea Tulcea Stavropol Stavropol Borski Macvanski Pcinjski Pirotski Ra’ki Ra’ki Toplicki Andalucía Andalucía Kénitra Mohammedia Al Haouz El Kelaâ des Sraghna Marrakech Marrakech Meknès Khémisset Skhirate-Témara Taroudannt Chefchaouen Al Hoceïma Taza Oliveira de Azeméis Coimbra Montemor-o-Novo Portel Guarda Peniche Alenquer Marvão Marco de Canaveses Benavente Coruche Alcácer do Sal Grândola Palmela Setúbal Paredes de Coura Kladovo Ljubovija Surdulica Pirot Novi Pazar Vrnjacka Banja Kuröumlija Cádiz Cádiz Reference ID No. Continued.

Country Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Sweden Sweden Sweden Switzerland Switzerland Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía Aragón Castilla y León Castilla y León Castilla y León Castilla-La Mancha Castilla-La Mancha Castilla-La Mancha Castilla-La Mancha Castilla-La Mancha Comunidad Foral de Navarra Extremadura Extremadura Gotland Kalmar Skåne Ticino Ticino Ariana Ariana Ariana Béja Béja Béja Béja Ben Arous (Tunis Sud) Bizerte Bizerte Bizerte Bizerte Gabès Gabès Gafsa Jendouba Jendouba Jendouba Kairouan Kairouan Kebili Le Kef Mahdia Manubah Manubah Manubah Médenine Monastir Cádiz Cádiz Córdoba Granada Jaén Sevilla Zaragoza Salamanca Toledo Toledo Albacete Ciudad Real Cuenca Toledo Toledo Navarra Badajoz Cáceres Ettadhamen Kalaat El Andalous Sidi Thabet Amdoun Béja Nord Béja Sud Nefza Ezzahra Bizerte Nord Bizerte Sud Ghar El Melh Ghazala Hamma Matmata Ksar Aïn Draham Fernana Tabarka Kairouan Sud Sbikha Kebili Nord Sakiet Sidi Youssef Chebba El Battan Oued Ellil Tebourba Houmt Souk Jammel Reference ID 241 821 0 0 0 0 0 0 821 821 821 246 821 0 989 0 0 0 1339 1339 1339 1284 1284 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 No.212 Appendix 1 Table A1. entriesa 3 3 5 8 8 14 50 3 3 2 2 2 Continued .18. Continued.

entriesa 2 3 2 2 25 2 6 3 2 3 8 2 12 45 6 a If more than one.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 213 Table A1.org/vetmedresource/) for complete reference indicated by the Reference ID. sanguineus and Rh. See Appendix 2 (hosted on http://www. Geographic distribution data for Rhipicephalus sanguineus group (Rh. Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Nabeul Nabeul Nabeul Nabeul Sidi Bou Zid Tunis Tunis Tunis Zaghouan Zaghouan Aksaray Ankara Ankara Ankara Ankara Artvin Balıkesir Burdur Çorum Elâzig˘ Erzurum Giresun Gümüshane ˙I zmir Kayseri Kırklareli Ordu Samsun Sivas Tokat Yozgat Haouaria Korba Soliman Takelsa Meknassi Cité El Khadra La Goulette Sidi El Béchir Fahs Zriba Reference ID 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1353 0 1353 1353 844 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 No. Species Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Algeria Alger Algeria El Tarf El Tarf Bulgaria Stara Zagora Haskovo Egypt Al Jizah Egypt Al Wadi al Jadid Reference ID No.cabi. entriesa 110 110 69 2 1101 595 Continued .19. Table A1. Continued.18. turanicus).

214 Appendix 1 Table A1. Continued.19. Species Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus France Aquitaine Dordogne 1280 France Aquitaine Gironde 1280 France Aquitaine Landes 1280 France Aquitaine Lot-et-Garonne 1280 France Auvergne Allier 1280 France Bourgogne Côte-d’Or 1280 France Corse France Corse Corse-du-Sud 1306 France Île-de-France 1280 France Île-de-France Seine-SaintDenis Ville de Paris France Alpes-Maritimes 1280 Bouches-duRhône Var 1280 France Provence-AlpesCôte-d’Azur Provence-AlpesCôte-d’Azur Provence-AlpesCôte-d’Azur Rhône-Alpes Isère 1280 Greece Dytiki Makedonia 735 Greece 735 Greece Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Stereá Elláda Hungary Nógrád 445 Hungary Nógrád 829 Italy Sicily Palermo 242 Italy Sicily Palermo 998 Italy Toscana Kosovo Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica France France Greece Greece Kosovo Reference ID No. entriesa 1280 4 1280 1280 2 735 Khalkidiki Fokis 1303 778 1331 Kosovska Mitrovica Kosovska Mitrovica 346 346 Continued .

entriesa 177 Baleares 77 Murcia 616 1339 2 2 Continued .Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 215 Table A1. Continued.19. Species Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Romania Timis Spain Andalucía Jaén 611 Spain Andalucía Sevilla 614 Spain Toledo 989 2 Spain Castilla-La Mancha Islas Baleares 1345 2 Spain País Vasco Spain Sweden Región de Murcia Östergötland Sweden Södermanland 1339 Sweden Stockholm 1339 Sweden Uppsala 1339 Sweden Västernorrland 1339 Sweden Västmanland 1339 Turkey Afyon 186 Turkey Elâzigˇ 22 Turkey Erzurum 32 Turkey Istanbul 145 Turkey S¸anlıurfa 303 Albania Durrës Durrësit 0 Albania Elbasan Librazhdit 0 Albania Gjirokastër Përmetit 0 Albania Korçë Korçës 0 Albania Lezhë Lezhës 0 Reference ID No.

entriesa 2 2 Continued . Species Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Albania Shkodër Shkodrës 0 Albania Tiranë Tiranës 0 2 Albania Vlorë Sarandës 0 2 Albania Vlorë Vlorës 0 2 Algeria Aïn Témouchent Oued Sebbah 0 Algeria Alger Ain Benian 0 Algeria Alger Bouzareah 0 Algeria Alger Ouled Chebel 0 Algeria Batna Ain Touta 0 Algeria Batna Chemora 0 Algeria Batna Ras El Aioun 0 Algeria Béchar Beni Abbes 0 Algeria Blida Blida 0 Algeria Blida Boufarik 0 Algeria Bouira Ain Turk 0 Algeria Bouira Guerrouma 0 Algeria Bouira Lakhdaria 0 Reference ID No. Continued.19.216 Appendix 1 Table A1.

Continued.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 217 Table A1.19. Species Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Algeria Bouira Sour El Ghouzlane 0 Algeria Chlef Chlef 0 Algeria El Bayadh Boualem 0 Algeria El Bayadh Bougtoub 0 Algeria El Bayadh El Bayadh 0 Algeria El Bayadh Stitten 0 Algeria Guelma Hammam Debagh 0 Algeria Jijel Chekfa 0 Algeria Laghouat Hassi R’Mel 0 Algeria Laghouat Laghouat 0 Algeria M’Sila Sidi M’Hamed 0 Algeria Mascara Mascara 0 Algeria Mostaganem Mostaganem 0 Algeria Oran Oran 0 Algeria Relizane Sidi M’Hamed Benaouda 0 Algeria Sétif Ain Arnat 0 Algeria Sétif Setif 0 Reference ID No. entriesa 3 2 2 Continued .

entriesa 3 Continued .218 Appendix 1 Table A1. Species Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Algeria Sidi Bel Abbès Dhaya 0 Algeria Souk Ahras Ouled Moumen 0 Algeria Tiaret Meghila 0 Algeria Tindouf Tindouf 0 Algeria Tissemsilt Theniet El Had 0 Algeria Tizi Ouzou Ain El Hammam 0 Bulgaria Burgas Burgas 0 6 Bulgaria Burgas Malko Tarnovo 0 3 Bulgaria Burgas Primorsko 0 Bulgaria Kardzhali Ardino 0 Bulgaria Kardzhali Momchilgrad 0 4 Bulgaria Shumen Shumen 0 3 Bulgaria Smolyan Dospat 0 Bulgaria Sofia Ihtiman 0 Bulgaria Sofia Zlatitsa 0 2 Croatia DubrovackoNeretvanska 0 3 Croatia Istarska 0 Reference ID No.19. Continued.

Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Reference ID No.19.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 219 Table A1. entriesa SplitskoDalmatinska 0 2 Croatia Zadarska 0 4 Cyprus Famagusta 0 4 Cyprus Larnaca 0 Cyprus Limassol 0 Cyprus Nicosia 0 2 Cyprus Paphos 0 3 Egypt Al Bahr al Ahmar 0 3 Egypt Al Iskandariyah 0 Egypt Al Jizah 0 4 Egypt Al Minufiyah 0 9 Egypt Al Minya 0 Egypt Aswan 0 3 Egypt Bani Suwayf 0 2 Egypt Janub Sina’ 0 6 France Alsace Bas-Rhin 0 4 France Aquitaine Dordogne 0 Species Country Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Croatia Continued . Continued.

220 Appendix 1 Table A1. entriesa Gironde 0 2 Aquitaine Lot-et-Garonne 0 2 France Aquitaine PyrénéesAtlantiques 0 France Auvergne Allier 0 France Auvergne Cantal 0 France Auvergne Puy-de-Dôme 0 France BasseNormandie Calvados 0 France BasseNormandie Orne 0 France Centre Indre 0 France Centre Indre-et-Loire 0 France ChampagneArdenne Ardennes 0 France ChampagneArdenne Marne 0 2 France Corse Corse-du-Sud 0 8 France Corse Haute-Corse 0 4 France Franche-Comté Doubs 0 France Île-de-France Hauts-de-Seine 0 France Île-de-France Seine-et-Marne 0 2 2 Continued . Continued.19. Species Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group France Aquitaine France Reference ID No.

Continued. entriesa 2 Continued . Species Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group France Île-de-France Seine-SaintDenis 0 France Île-de-France Val-de-Marne 0 5 France Île-de-France Ville de Paris 0 3 France Île-de-France Yvelines 0 2 France LanguedocRoussillon Aude 0 2 France LanguedocRoussillon Gard 0 8 France LanguedocRoussillon Hérault 0 3 France LanguedocRoussillon PyrénéesOrientales 0 10 France Lorraine Meurthe-etMoselle 0 France Midi-Pyrénées Ariège 0 2 France Midi-Pyrénées Aveyron 0 2 France Midi-Pyrénées Haute-Garonne 0 France Midi-Pyrénées Lot 0 France Midi-Pyrénées Tarn 0 France Midi-Pyrénées Tarn-et-Garonne 0 France Pays de la Loire Vendée 0 France Picardie 0 Somme Reference ID No.19.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 221 Table A1.

Alpes-Maritimes Côte-d’Azur 0 11 France Provence-Alpes.Vaucluse Côte-d’Azur 0 24 France Rhône-Alpes Ain 0 France Rhône-Alpes Ardèche 0 11 France Rhône-Alpes Drôme 0 5 France Rhône-Alpes Isère 0 2 France Rhône-Alpes Loire 0 France Rhône-Alpes Rhône 0 Greece Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Attiki Drama 0 2 Evros 0 4 Kavala 0 5 Attica 0 Greece Dytiki Makedonia Grevena 0 Greece Dytiki Makedonia Kastoria 0 Species Country Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group France Greece Greece Greece 3 Continued .Var Côte-d’Azur 0 26 France Provence-Alpes.Alpes-de-HauteCôte-d’Azur Provence 0 8 France Provence-Alpes.222 Appendix 1 Table A1.Bouches-duCôte-d’Azur Rhône 0 35 France Provence-Alpes. Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Reference ID No.19. entriesa Provence-Alpes. Continued.

entriesa 4 Continued . Species Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Greece Ionioi Nisoi Corfu 0 Greece Ionioi Nisoi Kefallinia 0 2 Greece Ipeiros Ioannina 0 2 Greece Kentriki Makedonia Imathia 0 Greece Kentriki Makedonia Khalkidiki 0 10 Greece Kentriki Makedonia Kilkis 0 5 Greece Kentriki Makedonia Pella 0 Greece Kentriki Makedonia Pieria 0 8 Greece Kentriki Makedonia Serrai 0 2 Greece Kentriki Makedonia Thessaloniki 0 13 Greece Notio Aigaio Cyclades 0 Greece Peloponnisos Arcadia 0 Greece Peloponnisos Messinia 0 Greece Stereá Elláda Boeotia 0 Greece Thessalia Larisa 0 Greece Thessalia Magnesia 0 Greece Voreio Aigaio Lesvos 0 Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Reference ID No.19.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 223 Table A1. Continued.

entriesa 802 Continued .224 Appendix 1 Table A1.19. Continued. Species Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Italy Abruzzo L’Aquila 0 Italy Abruzzo Teramo 0 6 Italy Apulia Bari 0 29 Italy Apulia Barletta-AndriaTrani 0 4 Italy Apulia Brindisi 0 20 Italy Apulia Foggia 0 49 Italy Apulia Lecce 0 11 Italy Apulia Taranto 0 8 Italy Basilicata Matera 0 18 Italy Basilicata Potenza 0 Italy Calabria Cosenza 0 12 Italy Calabria Reggio di Calabria 0 10 Italy Campania Italy Campania Avellino 0 2 Italy Campania Caserta 0 2 Italy EmiliaRomagna Forlè-Cesena 0 2 Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Italy EmiliaRomagna Modena 0 Reference ID No.

Continued.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 225 Table A1. Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Italy EmiliaRomagna Parma 0 Italy EmiliaRomagna Ravenna 0 Italy EmiliaRomagna Reggio nell’Emilia 0 Italy Friuli-Venezia Giulia Udine 0 Italy Lazio Latina 0 4 Italy Lazio Rieti 0 2 Italy Lazio Roma 0 14 Italy Lazio Viterbo 0 3 Italy Liguria Genova 0 3 Italy Liguria Imperia 0 2 Italy Marche Ascoli Piceno 0 2 Italy Molise Campobasso 0 15 Italy Piemonte Cuneo 0 Italy Sardegna Cagliari 0 Italy Sardegna Carbonia-Iglesias 0 Italy Sardegna Nuoro 0 Italy Sardegna Ogliastra 0 Species Country Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Reference ID No. entriesa 3 2 Continued .19.

entriesa Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Italy Sardegna Olbia-Tempio 0 3 Italy Sardegna Oristano 0 Italy Sardegna Sassari 0 Italy Sicily Agrigento 0 Italy Sicily Catania 0 Italy Sicily Enna 0 Italy Sicily Palermo 0 17 Italy Sicily Trapani 0 6 Italy Toscana Florence 0 2 Italy Toscana Grosseto 0 5 Italy Toscana Livorno 0 Italy Toscana Pisa 0 Italy Umbria Perugia 0 Italy Umbria Terni 0 Italy Veneto Belluno 0 Italy Veneto Verona 0 Libya Ajdabiya 8 2 2 0 Continued .226 Appendix 1 Table A1. Species Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Reference ID No. Continued.19.

entriesa Al Butnan 0 3 Libya Al Hizam al Akhdar 0 13 Libya Al Jabal al Akhdar 0 Libya Al Jabal al Akhdar 0 3 Libya Al Kufrah 0 2 Libya Al Marj 0 3 Libya Al Marqab 0 Libya Al Qubbah 0 3 Libya Al Wahah 0 2 Libya An Nuqat al Khams 0 Libya Ghadamis 0 Libya Gharyan 0 Libya Misratah 0 5 Libya Nalut 0 3 Libya Surt 0 2 Libya Tajura’ wa an Nawahi al Arba 0 Libya Tarabulus 0 2 2 Continued . Species Country Administrative region 1 Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Libya Administrative region 2 Reference ID No.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 227 Table A1. Continued.19.

Sidi Kacem Béni Hssen 0 Morocco Grand Casablanca Mohammedia 0 2 Morocco Guelmim-EsSemara Assa-Zag 0 2 Morocco Guelmim-EsSemara Guelmim 0 4 Morocco MarrakechTensift-Al Haouz MarrakechTensift-Al Haouz MarrakechTensift-Al Haouz MarrakechTensift-Al Haouz MeknèsTafilalet Al Haouz 0 2 El Kelaâ Des Sraghna 0 4 Essaouira 0 Marrakech 0 5 Ifrane 0 2 MeknèsTafilalet Khénifra 0 Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Reference ID No.Kénitra Béni Hssen 0 4 Morocco Gharb-Chrarda.228 Appendix 1 Table A1. entriesa Species 2 Continued . Continued. Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Country Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Libya TarhunahMasallatah 0 Libya Yafran-Jadu 0 Monaco Monaco 0 Morocco ChaouiaOuardigha Ben Slimane 0 3 Morocco ChaouiaOuardigha Settat 0 4 Morocco Fès-Boulemane Zouagha-Moulay Yacoub 0 2 Morocco Gharb-Chrarda.19.

Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 229 Table A1. entriesa Meknès 0 4 Oujda Angad 0 3 2 3 2 Continued . Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Morocco MeknèsTafilalet Morocco Oriental Morocco Rabat-SaléKhémisset Zemmour-Zaer 0 4 Morocco Rabat-SaléSkhirate-Témara Zemmour-Zaer 0 3 Morocco Souss-MassaDraâ Agadir-Ida Ou Tanane 0 4 Morocco Souss-MassaDraâ Chtouka-Aït Baha 0 Morocco Souss-MassaDraâ Ouarzazate 0 Morocco Souss-MassaDraâ Taroudannt 0 Morocco Souss-MassaDraâ Zagora 0 Morocco Tadla-Azilal Azilal 0 Morocco Tadla-Azilal Béni Mellal 0 Morocco Tanger-Tétouan Chefchaouen 0 Morocco Tanger-Tétouan Larache 0 Morocco Tanger-Tétouan Tanger-Assilah 0 Morocco Taza-Al Hocei.Taounate ma-Taounate 0 Portugal Beja Beja 0 Portugal Beja Ferreira do Alentejo 0 Species Country Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Reference ID No.19. Continued.

Continued. entriesa 7 3 1143 3 3 2 1143 2 Continued .19. Species Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Portugal Beja Mértola 0 Portugal Beja Odemira 0 Portugal Braga Cabeceiras de Basto 0 Portugal Bragança Portugal Castelo Branco Idanha-a-Nova 0 Portugal Évora Montemor-oNovo 0 Portugal Évora Portel 0 Portugal Faro Lagos 0 Portugal Faro Loulé 0 Portugal Faro Monchique 0 Portugal Faro Vila do Bispo 0 Portugal Faro Vila Real de Santo António 0 Portugal Guarda Guarda 0 Portugal Leiria Portugal Leiria Ansião 0 Portugal Leiria Ansião 0 Portugal Leiria Pombal 0 Reference ID No.230 Appendix 1 Table A1.

Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 231 Table A1. Continued. entriesa 2 1143 3 1143 3 1143 Continued .19. Species Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Portugal Lisboa Sintra 0 Portugal Lisboa Sobral de Monte Agraço 0 Portugal Lisboa Torres Vedras 0 Portugal Portalegre Portugal Portalegre Marvão 0 Portugal Portalegre Ponte de Súr 0 Portugal Porto Matosinhos 0 Portugal Santarém Portugal Santarém Benavente 0 Portugal Santarém Coruche 0 Portugal Santarém Santarém 0 Portugal Setúbal Portugal Setúbal Alcácer do Sal 0 12 Portugal Setúbal Almada 0 2 Portugal Setúbal Barreiro 0 2 Portugal Setúbal Grândola 0 7 Portugal Setúbal Moita 0 Reference ID No.

Ljubljana ska 0 Spain Andalucía Almería 0 Spain Andalucía Cádiz 0 Spain Andalucía Granada 0 18 Spain Andalucía Huelva 0 3 Spain Andalucía Jaén 0 4 Spain Andalucía Málaga 0 Piran 2 0 Continued . Species Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Portugal Setúbal Portugal Reference ID No.232 Appendix 1 Table A1.19. Continued. entriesa Palmela 0 18 Setúbal Seixal 0 5 Portugal Setúbal Setúbal 0 3 Portugal Setúbal Sines 0 Portugal Viana do Castelo Melgaço 0 Portugal Viana do Castelo Ponte da Barca 0 Romania Constanta 0 4 Romania Dolj 0 2 Romania Timis 0 2 Slovenia Obalno-kraška Slovenia Osrednjesloven.

19.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 233 Table A1. Species Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Spain Andalucía Spain Reference ID No. entriesa Sevilla 0 3 Aragón Zaragoza 0 2 Spain Castilla y León Soria 0 Spain Castilla y León Valladolid 0 Spain Castilla y León Zamora 0 Spain Castilla-La Mancha Guadalajara 0 Spain Cataluña Barcelona 0 5 Spain Cataluña Girona 0 12 Spain Cataluña Lleida 0 2 Spain Cataluña Lleida 0 Spain Cataluña Tarragona 0 8 Spain Extremadura Badajoz 0 8 Spain Extremadura Cáceres 0 46 Spain País Vasco Álava 0 3 Spain País Vasco Vizcaya 0 3 Tunisia Ariana Sidi Thabet 0 2 Tunisia Béja Amdoun 0 Continued . Continued.

entriesa 2 2 Continued . Species Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Tunisia Béja Béja Nord 0 Tunisia Béja Mejez El Bab 0 Tunisia Ben Arous (Tunis Sud) Fouchana 0 Tunisia Bizerte Bizerte Sud 0 Tunisia Bizerte Ghar El Melh 0 Tunisia Bizerte Sejnane 0 Tunisia Gabès Gabès Médina 0 Tunisia Gabès Gabès Ouest 0 Tunisia Gabès Hamma 0 3 Tunisia Gabès Matmata 0 3 Tunisia Gafsa Ksar 0 2 Tunisia Gafsa Metlaoui 0 2 Tunisia Jendouba Aïn Draham 0 Tunisia Jendouba Tabarka 0 Tunisia Kairouan Bouhajla 0 Tunisia Kairouan Kairouan Sud 0 Tunisia Kairouan Sbikha 0 Reference ID No.19.234 Appendix 1 Table A1. Continued.

Species Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Tunisia Kebili Faouar 0 Tunisia Kebili Kebili Nord 0 Tunisia Le Kef Kef Ouest 0 Tunisia Médenine Houmt Souk 0 Tunisia Nabeul Menzel Temime 0 Tunisia Nabeul Soliman 0 Tunisia Nabeul Takelsa 0 3 Tunisia Sfax Sfax Sud 0 2 Tunisia Sidi Bou Zid Meknassi 0 2 Tunisia Siliana Siliana Nord 0 Tunisia Tataouine Tataouine Nord 0 Tunisia Tozeur Tamaghza 0 Tunisia Tozeur Tozeur 0 Tunisia Tunis Carthage 0 Tunisia Tunis La Goulette 0 Tunisia Tunis Sidi El Béchir 0 7 Turkey Ankara 0 21 Reference ID No.19. entriesa 2 Continued . Continued.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 235 Table A1.

236 Appendix 1 Table A1.Bouches-duCôte-d’Azur Rhône Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Kentriki Makedonia Reference ID No.19. entriesa 110 69 2 277 595 1280 735 2 735 Continued . Continued. Species Country Administrative region 1 Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus sanguineus group Rhipicephalus turanicus Rhipicephalus turanicus Rhipicephalus turanicus Rhipicephalus turanicus Rhipicephalus turanicus Rhipicephalus turanicus Turkey Burdur 0 14 Turkey Çorum 0 2 Turkey Edirne 0 3 Turkey Elâzigˇ 0 14 Turkey Erzincan 0 Turkey Kayseri 0 4 Turkey Kırklareli 0 3 Turkey Samsun 0 Turkey Sivas 0 4 Turkey Tokat 0 4 Turkey Van 0 8 Turkey Yozgat 0 Algeria Tizi Ouzou Tizi Ouzou Bulgaria Stara Zagora Haskovo Croatia SplitskoDalmatinska Al Isma’iliyah Rhipicephalus turanicus Egypt France Greece Greece Administrative region 2 Provence-Alpes.

Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Khalkidiki Greece Kentriki Makedonia Stereá Elláda Israel Jerusalem Italy Sicily Palermo 242 2 Spain Andalucía Jaén 611 2 Spain Andalucía Jaén 611 Spain Islas Baleares Baleares Turkey Afyon Turkey Aksaray 1353 Turkey Ankara 1353 Turkey S¸anlıurfa Species Country Rhipicephalus turanicus Rhipicephalus turanicus Rhipicephalus turanicus Rhipicephalus turanicus Rhipicephalus turanicus Rhipicephalus turanicus Rhipicephalus turanicus Rhipicephalus turanicus Rhipicephalus turanicus Rhipicephalus turanicus Rhipicephalus turanicus Greece Reference ID No.20.org/vetmedresource/) for complete reference indicated by the Reference ID.cabi.19. See Appendix 2 (hosted on http:// www. Continued.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 237 Table A1. entriesa 2 3 2 4 Continued . Table A1. Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Reference ID Albania Albania Albania Albania Albania Albania Albania Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Durrës Elbasan Korçë Lezhë Tiranë Vlorë Vlorë Aïn Defla Aïn Defla Aïn Defla Aïn Defla Aïn Defla Aïn Témouchent Aïn Témouchent Alger Alger Alger Alger Alger Batna Biskra Durrësit Librazhdit Korçës Lezhës Tiranës Sarandës Vlorës Ain Benian Ain Lechiakh Arib Ben Allal Rouina Ain Kihel Terga Ain Benian Ain Benian Bordj El Kiffan Bouzareah Ouled Chebel Ain Touta El Ouitaya 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 No. entriesa 1303 3 Fokis 778 1071 1345 2 186 2 303 a If more than one. Geographic distribution data for Rhipicephalus bursa.

238 Appendix 1 Table A1. Continued. entriesa 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 Continued . Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Blida Bouira Bouira Bouira Boumerdès Boumerdès Boumerdès Boumerdès Boumerdès Chlef Chlef Chlef Chlef Chlef Chlef Chlef Constantine Djelfa El Tarf Guelma Jijel Jijel M’Sila M’Sila Mascara Médéa Mila Oran Oran Relizane Relizane Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Sétif Sétif Sidi Bel Abbès Sidi Bel Abbès Tébessa Tébessa Tiaret Tiaret Tiaret Tipaza Tissemsilt Tizi Ouzou Tizi Ouzou Tizi Ouzou Tizi Ouzou Tizi Ouzou Tizi Ouzou Tizi Ouzou Tizi Ouzou Tizi Ouzou Tlemcen Boufarik Ain Turk Lakhdaria Sour El Ghouzlane Boudouaou Corso Dellys Isser Sidi Daoud Abou El Hassen Boukadir Bouzeghaia Chlef Ouled Fares Sidi Akkacha Tenes Constantine Benhar El Aioun Hammam Debagh Jijel Taher Ain Errich Sidi M’Hamed Ain Ferah Medea Mila Misserghin Oran Relizane Sidi M’Hamed Benaouda Ain Arnat Setif Dhaya Sidi Bel Abbes Bir El Ater Tebessa Meghila Sougueur Douaouda Theniet El Had Ain-El-Hammam Boghni Draa-Ben-Khedda Larbaa-Nath-Irathen Tadmait Tizi Ouzou Tizi-Rached Zekri Tlemcen Reference ID 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 129 0 0 0 0 110 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 No.20.

entriesa 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 5 0 0 0 0 0 277 781 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 5 6 2 2 2 5 1280 0 1280 0 0 0 12 9 3 0 6 0 0 0 2 3 0 4 Continued .Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 239 Table A1. Country Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia Cyprus Egypt France France France France France France France France France France France France France France Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Blagoevgrad Petrich Blagoevgrad Sandanski Burgas Burgas Burgas Kameno Burgas Malko Tarnovo Kardzhali Ardino Montana Montana Pazardzhik Septemvri Plovdiv Asenovgrad Shumen Preslav Shumen Shumen Stara Zagora Haskovo Stara Zagora Pavel Banya Veliko Tarnovo Veliko Tarnovo Vratsa Vratsa Yambol Tundzha Yambol Yambol BjelovarskaBilogorska DubrovackoNeretvanska Grad Zagreb Istarska Primorsko-Goranska Splitsko-Dalmatinska Splitsko-Dalmatinska Splitsko-Dalmatinska Varaždinska Zadarska Famagusta Al Wadi al Jadid Aquitaine Dordogne Aquitaine Landes Aquitaine PyrénéesAtlantiques Aquitaine PyrénéesAtlantiques Bourgogne Saône-et-Loire Corse Corse Corse-du-Sud Corse Haute-Corse LanguedocAude Roussillon LanguedocPyrénées-Orientales Roussillon Midi-Pyrénées Aveyron Midi-Pyrénées Lot Provence-AlpesAlpes-de-HauteCôte-d’Azur Provence Provence-AlpesBouches-du-Rhône Côte-d’Azur Reference ID 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 69 0 0 0 0 0 0 No.20. Continued.

Country France France France France France Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Israel Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Provence-AlpesCôte-d’Azur Provence-AlpesCôte-d’Azur Provence-AlpesCôte-d’Azur Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Attiki Dytiki Ellada Dytiki Makedonia Dytiki Makedonia Dytiki Makedonia Dytiki Makedonia Dytiki Makedonia Dytiki Makedonia Ipeiros Ipeiros Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kriti Stereá Elláda Stereá Elláda Stereá Elláda Thessalia Thessalia Jerusalem Abruzzo Abruzzo Abruzzo Apulia Apulia Apulia Apulia Apulia Apulia Bouches-du-Rhône Reference ID 1280 Var 0 Vaucluse 0 Ardèche Drôme No.240 Appendix 1 Table A1. entriesa 3 0 0 735 2 4 2 Drama 0 10 Evros 0 9 Kavala 0 10 0 0 735 735 0 0 0 0 0 0 735 0 1303 1303 1303 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 778 0 0 1071 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 2 Attica Achaea Florina Grevena Kastoria Kozani Ioannina Preveza Khalkidiki Khalkidiki Khalkidiki Khalkidiki Kilkis Pella Pieria Serrai Thessaloniki Rethymnon Boeotia Euboea Fokis Karditsa Larisa Chieti L’Aquila Teramo Bari Barletta-Andria-Trani Brindisi Foggia Lecce Taranto 10 2 8 3 13 8 4 5 14 12 7 7 7 7 2 8 2 17 3 26 2 7 Continued . Continued.20.

Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Kosovo Lebanon Libya Macedonia Macedonia Macedonia Macedonia Macedonia Macedonia Macedonia Montenegro Morocco Morocco Basilicata Calabria Calabria Campania Campania Campania Emilia-Romagna Lazio Lazio Lazio Liguria Liguria Marche Molise Molise Sardegna Sardegna Sardegna Sardegna Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Toscana Toscana Toscana Umbria Veneto Veneto ¯Dakovica Kosovska Mitrovica Pristina Uroöevac Mount Lebanon Al Jabal al Akhdar Pelagonia Polog Skopje Skopje Southeastern Southwestern Vardar Rožaje Doukkala-Abda Fès-Boulemane Matera Cosenza Reggio di Calabria Morocco Gharb-ChrardaBéni Hssen Avellino Caserta Ravenna Latina Rieti Roma Genova Savona Ascoli Piceno Campobasso Isernia Cagliari Carbonia-Iglesias Oristano Sassari Agrigento Enna Palermo Palermo Palermo Palermo Palermo Palermo Palermo Trapani Grosseto Livorno Pisa Perugia Treviso Verona Deçani Kosovska Mitrovica Obilic Uroöevac Matn Bitola Tetovo Centar Zelenikovo Lake Dojran Ohrid Kavadartsi Safi Zouagha-Moulay Yacoub Kénitra Reference ID No.20. entriesa 0 0 0 802 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 242 366 366 366 366 998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 0 3 4 3 4 14 7 6 2 4 2 10 3 2 2 3 3 2 4 2 2 2 2 6 Continued .Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 241 Table A1. Continued.

Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Al Haouz 0 3 El Kelaâ des Sraghna Essaouira 0 5 0 Marrakech 0 Meknès Béni Mellal Chefchaouen Fahs Anjra Tanger-Assilah Tétouan Taounate 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Taza 0 Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Marrakech-TensiftAl Haouz Marrakech-TensiftAl Haouz Marrakech-TensiftAl Haouz Marrakech-TensiftAl Haouz Meknès-Tafilalet Tadla-Azilal Tanger-Tétouan Tanger-Tétouan Tanger-Tétouan Tanger-Tétouan Taza-Al HoceimaTaounate Taza-Al HoceimaTaounate Braga Castelo Branco Évora Évora Portalegre Portalegre Porto Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Serbia Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Santarém Setúbal Setúbal Viana do Castelo Constanta Dâmbovita Dolj Timis Tulcea Borski Juûno-Backi Moravicki Ni’avski Pcinjski Pirotski Ra’ki Ra’ki Ra’ki Rasinski Zlatiborski Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía Country Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Castelo Branco Montemor-o-Novo Portel Marvão Marco de Canaveses Coruche Alcácer do Sal Palmela Arcos de Valdevez Kladovo Bac Cacak Doljevac Surdulica Pirot Kraljevo Novi Pazar Vrnjacka Banja Brus Uûice Cádiz Cádiz Córdoba Granada Huelva Jaén Jaén Reference ID 1143 0 0 0 1143 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 460 0 0 769 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 821 0 0 0 0 611 No. Continued.20. entriesa 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 7 5 4 4 2 2 3 21 14 9 12 Continued .242 Appendix 1 Table A1.

entriesa 12 2 3 2 3 3 5 3 17 110 10 8 5 20 Continued .20. Country Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Andalucía Jaén Andalucía Jaén Andalucía Jaén Andalucía Sevilla Aragón Huesca Aragón Teruel Aragón Zaragoza Castilla y León Salamanca Castilla y León Toledo Castilla y León Toledo Castilla y León Ávila Castilla y León Zamora Castilla-La Mancha Albacete Castilla-La Mancha Albacete Castilla-La Mancha Ciudad Real Castilla-La Mancha Guadalajara Castilla-La Mancha Toledo Cataluña Girona Cataluña Tarragona Ceuta y Melilla Ceuta Comunidad Foral de Navarra Navarra Extremadura Badajoz Extremadura Cáceres La Rioja La Rioja País Vasco País Vasco Álava País Vasco Guipúzcoa País Vasco Vizcaya Principado de Asturias Ariana Kalaat El Andalous Béja Béja Sud Béja Nefza Bizerte Bizerte Sud Bizerte Ghazala Bizerte Sejnane Jendouba Aïn Draham Jendouba Ghardimaou Jendouba Jendouba Nord Jendouba Tabarka Le Kef Nebeur Le Kef Sakiet Sidi Youssef Nabeul Soliman Nabeul Takelsa Sidi Bou Zid Meknassi Tunis Carthage Tunis Sidi El Béchir Zaghouan Fahs Afyon Aksaray Ankara Ankara Reference ID 611 611 611 0 0 0 0 0 821 821 0 0 0 821 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 77 0 0 0 821 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 186 1353 0 1353 No. Continued.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 243 Table A1.

21. Country Albania Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria Bulgaria Bulgaria Egypt Egypt Egypt Egypt Egypt Egypt Egypt Egypt Egypt France Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Tiranë Alger Guelma Mascara Sidi Bel Abbès Tiaret Montana Vratsa Al Iskandariyah Al Iskandariyah Al Isma’iliyah Al Isma’iliyah Al Jizah Al Jizah Al Minufiyah Al Minya Bur Sa’id Corse Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Tiranës Ain Benian Hammam Debagh Mascara Sidi Bel Abbes Reference ID No. entriesa Drama 0 0 0 0 0 129 0 0 0 595 1039 595 0 1101 0 0 595 1280 0 Kavala 0 4 735 0 1303 0 0 0 2 Montana Vratsa Khalkidiki Khalkidiki Kilkis Serrai Thessaloniki 2 3 3 2 2 2 Continued . Continued. See Appendix 2 (hosted on http://www. Geographic distribution data for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus.cabi.org/vetmedresource/) for complete reference indicated by the Reference ID. entriesa 16 2 2 4 18 8 5 a If more than one. Country Administrative region 1 Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Ankara Artvin Burdur Burdur Çorum Elazig Giresun Gümüshane Istanbul Kayseri Mus Ordu Samsun Sivas Tokat Van Yozgat Administrative region 2 Reference ID 1353 0 0 1008 0 0 0 0 145 0 22 0 0 0 0 0 0 No.20.244 Appendix 1 Table A1. Table A1.

entriesa 2 2 2 2 3 0 769 0 241 821 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 22 0 22 0 0 22 0 0 0 3 2 9 2 2 3 3 2 4 7 95 7 . Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Thessalia Sicily Al Butnan Al Hizam Al Akhdar Al Jifarah Al Wahah Chaouia-Ouardigha Gharb-Chrard-Béni Hssen Grand Casablanca Marrakech-TensiftAl Haouz Marrakech-TensiftAl Haouz Meknès-Tafilalet Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer Tanger-Tétouan Tanger-Tétouan Taza-Al HoceimaTaounate Taza-Al HoceimaTaounate Tulcea Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía Bizerte Jendouba Jendouba Le Kef Nabeul Tozeur Tunis Zaghouan Ankara Artvin Burdur Çorum Edirne Elâzigˇ Elâzigˇ Erzurum Erzurum Kayseri Kırklareli Mus Samsun Sivas Tokat Larisa Palermo Ben Slimane Kénitra Reference ID 0 366 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mohammedia El Kelaâ des Sraghna Marrakech 0 0 Meknès Khémisset 0 0 Larache Tanger-Assilah Taounate 0 0 0 Taza 0 Cádiz Cádiz Cádiz Huelva Sevilla Sejnane Fernana Tabarka Nebeur Takelsa Tozeur Sidi El Béchir Zriba No.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 245 Table A1.21. Continued. Country Greece Italy Libya Libya Libya Libya Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Morocco Romania Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey a If more than one.

cabi. Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Albania Algeria Algeria Algeria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia France France France France France France France France France France France Vlorë Mostaganem Naâma Tlemcen Grad Sofiya Montana Stara Zagora Vratsa Primorsko-Goranska Splitsko-Dalmatinska Splitsko-Dalmatinska Zadarska Alsace Aquitaine Aquitaine Aquitaine Aquitaine Aquitaine Aquitaine Aquitaine Aquitaine Aquitaine Aquitaine Vlorës Mostaganem El Biod Tlemcen Stolichna Montana Haskovo Vratsa France Aquitaine France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France Auvergne Auvergne Auvergne Auvergne Auvergne Bourgogne Bourgogne Bourgogne Bourgogne Bourgogne Bourgogne Bourgogne Bretagne Bretagne Bretagne Centre Centre Centre Centre Centre Centre Centre ChampagneArdenne Bas-Rhin Dordogne Dordogne Gironde Gironde Landes Landes Lot Lot-et-Garonne Lot-et-Garonne PyrénéesAtlantiques PyrénéesAtlantiques Allier Allier Cantal Puy-de-Dôme Puy-de-Dôme Côte-d’Or Côte-d’Or Nièvre Nièvre Saône-et-Loire Yonne Yonne Ille-et-Vilaine Ille-et-Vilaine Morbihan Cher Cher Eure-et-Loir Indre Indre-et-Loire Indre-et-Loire Loiret Aube Reference ID 0 0 0 0 0 0 69 0 0 0 781 0 0 0 1280 0 1280 0 1280 1280 0 1280 0 No.22. entriesa 2 2 3 4 11 17 7 1280 0 1280 0 0 1280 0 1280 0 1280 0 0 1280 0 1280 0 0 1280 0 0 0 1280 0 0 2 3 3 10 2 3 9 2 2 2 2 2 Continued .246 Appendix 1 Table A1. Geographic distribution data for Dermacentor marginatus.org/vetmedresource/) for complete reference indicated by the Reference ID. See Appendix 2 (hosted on http://www.

Country France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 ChampagneArdenne Corse Corse Corse Franche-Comté Île-de-France Île-de-France Île-de-France Île-de-France Aube Île-de-France Île-de-France Île-de-France Île-de-France Île-de-France Île-de-France Île-de-France LanguedocRoussillon LanguedocRoussillon LanguedocRoussillon LanguedocRoussillon LanguedocRoussillon LanguedocRoussillon Limousin Limousin Limousin Lorraine Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Pays de la Loire Pays de la Loire Pays de la Loire Pays de la Loire Pays de la Loire Corse-du-Sud Haute-Corse Jura Essonne Hauts-de-Seine Seine-et-Marne Seine-SaintDenis Val-d’Oise Val-d’Oise Val-de-Marne Val-de-Marne Ville de Paris Ville de Paris Yvelines Aude Reference ID No.22.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 247 Table A1. Continued. entriesa 1280 1280 0 0 0 1280 1280 0 1280 10 6 4 5 0 1280 0 1280 0 1280 1280 0 3 Gard 0 9 Hérault 0 3 Hérault 1280 PyrénéesOrientales PyrénéesOrientales Creuse Haute-Vienne Haute-Vienne Moselle Ariège Aveyron Aveyron Gers Gers Haute-Garonne Haute-Garonne Hautes-Pyrénées Lot Tarn Tarn Tarn-et-Garonne Loire-Atlantique Loire-Atlantique Maine-et-Loire Maine-et-Loire Mayenne 0 3 20 1280 0 0 1280 1280 0 0 1280 0 1280 0 1280 0 0 0 1280 1280 0 1280 0 1280 0 4 2 12 3 5 3 5 2 2 Continued .

Country Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 France France France France France Pays de la Loire Picardie Poitou-Charentes Poitou-Charentes Poitou-Charentes France Poitou-Charentes France France France France Poitou-Charentes Poitou-Charentes Poitou-Charentes Provence-AlpesCôte-d’Azur Provence-AlpesCôte-d’Azur Provence-AlpesCôte-d’Azur Provence-AlpesCôte-d’Azur Provence-AlpesCôte-d’Azur Provence-AlpesCôte-d’Azur Provence-AlpesCôte-d’Azur Provence-AlpesCôte-d’Azur Provence-AlpesCôte-d’Azur Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Baden-Württemberg Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki Attiki Dytiki Makedonia Dytiki Makedonia France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France Germany Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Reference ID No.22.248 Appendix 1 Table A1. Continued. entriesa Vendée Oise Charente Charente CharenteMaritime CharenteMaritime Deux-Sèvres Vienne Vienne Alpes-de-HauteProvence Alpes-Maritimes 0 0 0 1280 0 7 Alpes-Maritimes 1280 Bouches-duRhône Bouches-duRhône Hautes-Alpes 2 4 1280 0 0 1280 0 26 0 15 0 4 2 20 1280 0 14 Var 0 21 Var 1280 Vaucluse Ain Ain Ardèche Ardèche Drôme Drôme Haute-Savoie Isère Isère Loire Rhône Rhône Savoie Drama 0 8 0 1280 0 1280 0 1280 0 0 1280 0 0 1280 0 948 0 24 18 23 3 34 4 2 3 2 Evros 0 3 Kavala 0 3 Attica Florina Grevena 0 0 0 2 9 Continued .

Country Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Hungary Hungary Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Macedonia Macedonia Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Administrative region 1 Administrative region 2 Dytiki Makedonia Dytiki Makedonia Ipeiros Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Kentriki Makedonia Peloponnisos Stereá Elláda Stereá Elláda Stereá Elláda Borsod-AbaújZemplén Budapest Apulia Campania Campania Campania Emilia-Romagna Emilia-Romagna Lazio Lazio Lazio Marche Molise Molise Piemonte Sardegna Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Sicily Toscana Toscana Umbria Skopje Skopje Anenii Noi Balti Basarabeasca Bender Briceni Cahul Calarasi Cantemir Causeni Chisinau Cimislia Kastoria Kozani Preveza Khalkidiki Kilkis Pella Pieria Serrai Thessaloniki Arcadia Euboea Evritania Fthiotis Foggia Avellino Caserta Forlè-Cesena Ravenna Latina Rieti Roma Macerata Campobasso Isernia Cuneo Nuoro Palermo Palermo Palermo Palermo Palermo Palermo Florence Perugia Centar Zelenikovo Reference ID 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 443 322 0 802 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 242 366 366 366 998 1331 0 0 0 0 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 No. entriesa 3 3 3 4 3 2 8 2 2 2 2 2 2 5 Continued . Continued.22.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 249 Table A1.

Country Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Morocco Morocco Administrative region 1 Morocco Morocco Portugal Criuleni Donduseni Drochia Dubasari Edinet Falesti Floresti Gagauzia Glodeni Hîncesti Ialoveni Leova Nisporeni Ocnita Orhei Rezina Rîscani Sîngerei Soldanesti Soroca Stefan Voda Straseni Taraclia Telenesti Transnistria Ungheni Meknès-Tafilalet Rabat-SaléZemmour-Zaer Rabat-SaléZemmour-Zaer Tanger-Tétouan Tanger-Tétouan Aveiro Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Romania Beja Bragança Castelo Branco Évora Leiria Lisboa Portalegre Santarém Santarém Santarém Santarém Setúbal Setúbal Setúbal Setúbal Setúbal Suceava Morocco Administrative region 2 Reference ID No.250 Appendix 1 Table A1. entriesa 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 0 0 2 4 Skhirate-Témara 0 2 Larache Tanger-Assilah Oliveira de Azeméis Mértola 0 0 0 Ifrane Khémisset Castelo Branco Évora Benavente Coruche Santarém Alcácer do Sal Grândola Grândola Palmela 0 1143 0 0 1143 1143 1143 1143 0 0 0 1143 0 0 1143 0 460 4 6 10 6 Continued .22. Continued.

entriesa 7 12 11 9 3 4 2 2 4 0 2 0 0 1345 0 77 0 0 0 435 435 435 0 0 0 0 0 8 19 3 4 5 3 2 2 Continued .Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 251 Table A1. Country Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Serbia Serbia Serbia Slovakia Slovakia Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Administrative region 1 Suceava Teleorman Teleorman Timis Tulcea Macvanski Ni’avski Zlatiborski Košický Zilinský Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía Andalucía Aragón Aragón Castilla y León Castilla y León Castilla-La Mancha Castilla-La Mancha Castilla-La Mancha Castilla-La Mancha Castilla-La Mancha Castilla-La Mancha Cataluña Cataluña Cataluña Comunidad de Madrid Comunidad Foral de Navarra Extremadura Extremadura Islas Baleares La Rioja País Vasco País Vasco País Vasco País Vasco Graubünden Graubünden Graubünden Béja Jendouba Nabeul Nabeul Zaghouan Administrative region 2 Ljubovija Aleksinac Priboj Cádiz Córdoba Granada Huelva Jaén Jaén Jaén Málaga Sevilla Huesca Zaragoza Soria Toledo Albacete Albacete Cuenca Guadalajara Toledo Toledo Girona Lleida Tarragona Madrid Navarra Badajoz Cáceres Baleares La Rioja Álava Guipúzcoa Vizcaya Nefza Aïn Draham Haouaria Takelsa Zriba Reference ID 462 460 462 177 460 0 0 0 1349 1349 0 0 0 0 0 611 611 0 0 0 0 0 821 0 821 821 821 989 989 0 0 0 0 No. Continued.22.

cabi. Country Administrative region 1 Czech Republic France France France France France France Jihomoravsky Alsace Aquitaine Aquitaine Aquitaine Aquitaine Aquitaine France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France Auvergne Auvergne Bourgogne Bourgogne Bourgogne Bourgogne Bretagne Bretagne Bretagne Centre Centre Haute-Normandie Île-de-France Île-de-France Île-de-France Île-de-France Administrative region 2 Bas-Rhin Dordogne Gironde Landes Lot-et-Garonne PyrénéesAtlantiques Allier Haute-Loire Côte-d’Or Nièvre Saône-et-Loire Yonne Côtes-d’Armor Finistère Ille-Et-Vilaine Indre Indre-et-Loire Eure Essonne Hauts-de-Seine Seine-et-Marne Seine-Saint-Denis Reference ID No.252 Appendix 1 Table A1. entriesa 20 3 9 6 3 3 3 8 a If more than one. Continued. Table A1. Geographic distribution data for Dermacentor reticulatus.22.23. See Appendix 2 (hosted on http:// www. Country Administrative region 1 Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Turkey Aksaray Ankara Ankara Ankara Bolu Burdur Burdur Çorum Elâzigˇ Giresun Izmir Kayseri Konya Nevs¸ehir Samsun Sivas Tokat Van Administrative region 2 Reference ID 1353 0 1353 1353 0 0 1008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 No.org/vetmedresource/) for complete reference indicated by the Reference ID. entriesa 427 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 3 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 Continued .

23.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 253 Table A1. Continued. Country France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France France Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Moldova Administrative region 1 Île-de-France Île-de-France Île-de-France Île-de-France Limousin Limousin Lorraine Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Midi-Pyrénées Nord-Pas-de-Calais Pays de la Loire Pays de la Loire Pays de la Loire Poitou-Charentes Poitou-Charentes Poitou-Charentes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Rhône-Alpes Baden-Württemberg Bayern Bayern Berlin Brandenburg Hessen Sachsen Sachsen-Anhalt Thüringen Bács-Kiskun Baranya Borsod-AbaújZemplén Budapest Csongrád Fejér Fejér Gyor-Moson-Sopron Gyor-Moson-Sopron KomáromEsztergom Somogy Szabolcs-SzatmárBereg Vas Veszprém Anenii Noi Administrative region 2 Val-d’Oise Val-de-Marne Ville de Paris Yvelines Corrèze Haute-Vienne Moselle Ariège Aveyron Gers Haute-Garonne Hautes-Pyrénées Tarn-et-Garonne Pas-de-Calais Loire-Atlantique Maine-et-Loire Sarthe Charente Charente-Maritime Vienne Ain Drôme Isère Loire Rhône Oberpfalz Reference ID 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 576 236 1075 236 236 236 236 236 576 341 322 341 322 341 322 341 322 341 341 No. entriesa 3 3 4 3 4 4 2 2 3 2 341 341 341 341 667 Continued .

Continued.23. Country Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Moldova Netherlands Netherlands Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Portugal Romania Romania Romania Romania Romania Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Spain Spain a If more than one.254 Appendix 1 Table A1. entriesa 2 3 12 29 5 5 4 . Administrative region 1 Calarasi Chisinau Criuleni Hîncesti Ialoveni Nisporeni Orhei Straseni Ungheni Zeeland Zuid-Holland Lublin Lublin Lublin Masovian Podlachian Podlachian Podlachian Warmian-Masurian Warmian-Masurian Bragança Buzau Caras-Severin Gorj Mures Tulcea Banskobystrický Košický Trencˇianský Trnavský Žilinský País Vasco Principado de Asturias Administrative region 2 Warsaw Hajnówka Gizycko Gizycko Reference ID 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 667 686 686 103 105 1282 1099 1282 464 385 118 120 1143 769 769 769 769 769 140 140 140 140 140 77 821 No.

Gonella-Legall. sheep. Cahani. Niikura.. (eds) Crimean Congo Haemorrhagic Fever: A Global Perspective. S. G. C. Xinjung. 31–33.. Journal of Virological Methods 108. T. M.A. E.. (1996) Seroprevalence of five arboviruses in Zebu cattle in the Central African Republic. 2536–2543. Fend. (2009) A serosurvey of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in dairy cattle in Iran.S. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 9... E. Lotfollahzadeh. Dai. S. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 90. A.M. G. Lei. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 7. X. surveillance donkeys..M.. M. (2007) Epidemiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in the Balkans.. Mokhber Dezfouli. China. Nikbakht Boroujeni. and Zhang. Legall. and Chinikar. Saijo. pigs.. W. Hang. H. E.A. Goya. Sun. C. Ikegami. 343–350. I. Serology Year/s Reference Albania Goats Serological surveillance 2003–2005 Central African Republic Zebu cattle Serological surveillance 1992–1993 China Sheep. Papadimitriou.M.. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 47. Dordrecht. (2008) Surveillance and laboratory detection system of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Iran.. W. Afzali. M. Maeda.A.. M. Haghdoost. and Vincent. Wang. A.. 111–116. S. Keyvanfar. Guilherme. and Bino. Serological cattle. Springer. M.R. Omar. Continued Greece 1971–1976 255 Species Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Location . I. pp. M.Z. Kurane. M. Hu.. Meshkat. and Morikawa... Darwish.M. A. S. and Whitehouse. H.. 156–163... and Meshkat. R.. mules. M.. Zoonoses and Public Health 58. T. S. A. S. (2008) Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever in northeast of Iran... Imam. F.. M.. H. Haeri. Nakoume. Y. Meng. Zeinali. Velo. Z. goats Serological surveillance 2003–2005 Papa. Bokaie.. Davari. F. dogs Sheep Serological surveillance 1977 Iran Dairy cattle Serological surveillance 2006–2008 Iran Livestock Serological surveillance 2000–2007 Iran Sheep. Avšicˇ-Županc.... 713–716. Qing. and Hoogstraal. Mirahmadi. Zhang. Chinikar. M... Ashian. M.. and Bokaei. Rahpeyma. 75–88. Moradi. S. (2003) Detection of immunoglobulin G to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in sheep sera by recombinant nucleoprotein-based enzyme linked immunosorbent and immunofluorescence assays.R. A.24. M. M. T.. C.. (2009) Ecology of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever endemic area in Albania.. (1977) A seroepidemiological survey for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in humans and domestic animals in Egypt.Table A1. J. 54–59. Gooya.E.R. Mostafavi. Data from serological surveillance of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in domestic animals. camels Serological surveillance 2004–2005 China Sheep Serological surveillance 2001 Egypt Domestic buffaloes.. F.. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 55. Ö. E. S. J. In: Ergönül. 200–204. M. horses.. Ghiasi. X. Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 52.. N. M.. goats. C. Kota. (2009) Epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever viruses in Xinjiang.. Shirzadi.

91–93. sheep. (1998) Rapid detection of Congo-Crimean haemorrhagic fever antibodies. (1995) Antibodies to hemorrhagic fever viruses in domestic livestock in Niger: Rift Valley fever and CrimeanCongo hemorrhagic fever. A. A. Research in Virology 145. Zahirnia.. (2008) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: a seroepidemiological and molecular survey in Bahar. Al-Busaidy. R. goat. J.. Serological camels surveillance 1984–1988 Saudi Arabia Sheep and goats 1993–1994 Senegal Birds Serological surveillance Serological surveillance 1995–2009 1991–1992 Humolli. H..P. Morrill. H. and Chinikar. Oman Cattle. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal 39. cattle 1977 Kosovo Cattle.... and Camicas.D. M. M. Mehta. Al-Awaidy.. A. Medicinski Arhiv 64. Zeller..A. goats. A. Species Serology Year/s Reference Iran Sheep Serological surveillance 2008 Iran Cattle. F. sheep Serological surveillance Serological surveillance Telmadarraiy.L. Zupanac. and Ksiazek. S. International Journal of Zoonoses 8. see Greece above for full reference. Haeri.O. S. I. goats Serological surveillance 1975 Kosovo Sheep. S.. and Muçaj. Z.24. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 53.H. (1981) Antibodies to CrimeanCongo haemorrhagic fever virus in domestic animals in Iraq: a seroepidemiological survey.O. Peters. S. sheep. Oshaghi. (2000) Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever: a seroepidemiological and tick survey in the Sultanate of Oman. serological and herd immunity of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Kosovo. T.R. and Faghih. G. sheep.. Tantawi. Maupin.. and Ksiazek. camels Serological surveillance 1995–1996 Niger Cattle.S. Saidi.. (1975) Crimean hemorrhagic feverCongo (CHF-C) virus antibodies in man.R. I.. 115–120. H.J.H.. Mariner. Casals. K..G. Cornet.. Conitnued. 353–357. J. Avšicˇ-Županc (2007). goats Serological surveillance 1975 Iraq Cattle. Moradi. Shony. Dedushaj. Tropical Medicine and International Health 5. C. (2010) Epidemiological. 99–106.256 Table A1. and in domestic and small mammals. A. J.G. A.C.A. J. and Al-Tikriti. 105–109. Agag. in Iran.A. E. Williams. Appendix 1 Location ..J.J. Vatandoost. T. Hamadan Province of Iran.G. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 24. M. S.. Suleiman.E. T. (1994) Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus infection in birds: field investigations in Senegal. J.. Khan. Wagoner. 280–291.. sheep. Mostafavi. 217–221.K. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 3. S. 321–327.

(1987). Khan. C. H.. Guillaud. Gonzalez. P. Swanepoel...A. Noor. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 91.P. A. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 43. O. R. Y. R. Haddad.. L.J.G. Epidemiology and Infection 111. T. L. goats Serological surveillance 1994–1995 Zimbabwe Cattle Serological surveillance 1981–1984 Wilson.M...J. and Braack. Leman. Rollin. LeGuenno. Swanepoel.G. Hassanein. Desoutter. Maupin. and Gill. S. J. Shepherd. D.. wild vertebrates Serological surveillance 1993 South Africa Cattle Serological surveillance 1981–1984 South Africa Ostriches Serological surveillance 1984 Sudan Ruminants Serological surveillance 1997 United Arab Emirates Cattle. El-Azazy. Leman.M. 557–566.. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 57.J. Yousef. 1994–1995. S. (1997).M. sheep. Burt. A.Sheep Serological surveillance 1986–1987 South Africa Sheep and cattle. G.J... (1987) Field and laboratory investigation of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (Nairovirus.H. R.P. A..L. Shepherd. B. Peters.. 356–537. Searle.O. F. Shalabi. D. An outbreak of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in the United Arab Emirates. Erasmus. Ijaz. K.A. (1997) Detection of CrimeanCongo haemorrhagic fever virus antibodies in humans and imported livestock in Saudia Arabia. H. and Camicas. Wasef. (1987) Epidemiologic and clinical features of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in southern Africa. J.. P. A. M. P.A.M. A.M.. Swanepoel et al.. Shurie. Shepherd..S. Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Senegal 257 . 1004–1007. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 36. 519–525. K... and Shepherd.J.. see South Africa above for full reference.E. Sadek. family Bunyaviridae) infection in birds. G.. 120–132. M.E.M. (1990) Distribution of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever viral antibody in Senegal: environmental and vectorial correlates. 547–558. and Ksiazek. R. S.O.. (1993) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of antibody to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in the sera of livestock and wild vertebrates. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 81...L.. Swanepoel.. McGillivray.P. M.E.

Marseille. Plovdiv. massiliae Northern Algeria (Tizi Ouzou) R. aeschlimannii R. helvetica R.25.) sulcata Rh. ricinus NA Rh. reticulatus No R. turanicus No Ixodes ricinus NAa No Yes Dermacentor marginatus I. Country Rickettsia species Algeria R. I. slovaca R. Haskovo. helvetica R. marginatum. aeschlimannii R. Data were extracted from the references that are listed by country at the end of the table. sanguineus No I. Rh. turanicus D. monacensis R. raoulti Marne region D. helvetica Central France. marginatus Rh. sibirica mongoliti. No Sisteron turanicus R. slovaca R. conorii Malish South of France. Tafaraoui) R. monacensis Northern Algeria (El Tarf) R. ricinus NA Hy. marginatum NA D. Pazardzhik. Puy-de. ricinus No Bavaria Continued . conorii Malish Oran. helvetica R.I. helvetica R. Marseille R. hoogstraali Croatia Croatia Cyprus Denmark Egypt Egypt Egypt R. Northern Algeria (Algiers. No rufipes (on migratory birds) R. reticulatus Haemaphysalis (Ha. ricinus Hy. I. El Tarf) R. slovaca Southern France D. marginatus Yes R. Varna Sofia region Sofia region NA Southern Croatia Dalmatia region. Split North-western Croatia North-western Croatia North-western Croatia Southern Croatia NA Jutland county NA NA NA Identified vector Human disease (reported cases) Hyalomma (Hy. Hy. Stara Zagora. conorii Malish R. marginatum Rhipicephalus (Rh. Jijel. NA Yes monae Camargue. sibirica mongolitimonae R. ricinus No Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria R. Rh. Geographic distribution data for Rickettsia spp. slovaca R.258 Appendix 1 Table A1. Corsica Rh. conorii Malish Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Croatia Croatia Croatia Croatia R. sanguineus Yes R. aeschlimannii Algeria Algeria Algeria Algeria France France France France France France France Germany Germany Germany All mainland Alpine region Burgas. aeschlimannii Region Armenia Northern Algeria (Ain Ennoussour. monacensis Southern Germany. Hy.) detritum. aeschlimannii Saxony-Anhalt. sanguineus. sibirica mongoliti. helvetica Southern Germany. slovaca Armenia Austria Austria Bulgaria R. conorii Malish R. rhipicephali R. conorii Malish R.Southern Algeria monae R. ricinus I. massiliae Camargue.) sanguineus Rh. ricinus Yes Dôme R. Zerbst D. reticulatus No R. sanguineus I. marginatum NA NA Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes No No No Yes NA No No Yes Yes Corsica Hy.Southern France.

sanguineus. conorii Malish Taza region (between Babboudir and Babezhare) NA Israel Israel Italy Italy Italy Italy Identified vector Human disease (reported cases) D. monacensis Italy Italy R. sanguineus. turanicus I. turanicus Rh. raoulti R. massiliae Sardinia. marginatus. aeschlimannii Sardinia. conorii Astrakhan R. marginatum Rh. Tuscany Italy Kosovo Libya Malta Moldova Rickettsia PoTi 169 R. turanicus No No No Yes Yes Rh. reticulatus D. marginatum Yes Yes Yes Rh. monacensis NA R. punctata Rh. ricinus (on migratory birds) I. conorii ISF R. anatolicum No Yes NA No I. sibirica mongoliti. Rh. conorii Malish All mainland. helvetica Sardinia NA NA NA NA Moldova R. Rh. sanguineus NA NA I. sibirica mongoliti. conorii Malish All mainland. massiliae NA R. D. turanicus No Rh. spotted fever (ISF) Hadera–Caesarea. monacensis NA Morocco R. Continued. No No Hy. massiliae Central Greece. anatolicum Rh. Ha. ricinus (on migratory birds) Hy. Sicily R. Kfar Saba. Cephalonia Island. slovaca Central and northeastern Italy (Drena) Tuscany Sicily. Crete Island R. conorii ISF Sicily R. Cephalonia Island R. sanguineus Rh. sanguineus. marginatus D. reticulatus D. Sicily R. raoulti R. conorii Malish R. Kibbutz. sanguineus No Yes Rh. sanguineus Yes No NA Yes Yes No No Continued . helvetica Central and northeastern Italy R. ricinus D. reticulatus Rh.South Israel (Or Haner) monae R. rhipicephali Cephalonia Island R. Sardinia. turanicus Hyalomma sp. helvetica NA R. marginatus No No Hy. aeschlimannii Morocco R. ricinus I. raoulti NA R. Reim– Tzeelim R. Sicily (Palermo) Italy R. Country Rickettsia species Germany Germany R. conorii Israeli Beersheva. ricinus Yes No No D. turanicus I. slovaca Northern Greece (Halkidiki) R. Rh. ricinus No Yes Yes Rh. slovaca Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Greece Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Israel Region Southern Germany Southern Germany. slovaca NA Italy R. sanguineus Hy. Broil Hail. strain Haifa Bay. aeschlimannii Cephalonia Island R.Crete Island (Sitia) monae R.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 259 Table A1.25. marginatus. Alpine region R.

slovaca Central and southern Poland R.25. marginatus No Netherlands R. sanguineus Rh. conorii ISF All mainland R. ricinus No I. massiliae R. hexagonus. marginatus No Morocco R. Warszawa) R. pumilio No R. helvetica Taza region (between Babboudir and Babezhare) NA Taza region (between Babboudir and Babezhare) Taza region (between Babboudir and Babezhare) Taza region (between Babboudir and Babezhare) NA No Netherlands Poland R. reticulatus I. helvetica I. raoulti Alentejo and Trás-osMontes regions R. helvetica Alentejo and Lisbon regions Alentejo and Trás-osR. I. Continued. raoulti R. marginatus. D. massiliae Montes regions R. I. conorii Malish Southern Romania R. ricinus. reticulatus. slovaca D. Coimbra mongolitimonae and Lisbon districts R. punctata No Continued . sanguineus No I. Radomsko. conorii Astrakhan Astrakhan region strain No No D. pumilio. conorii Malish All mainland R. Coimbra district Rickettsia PoTi 169 Alentejo region R. ricinus No H. sanguineus I. aeschlimannii NA Ha. ricinus No No Morocco R. raoulti Eastern. marginatum No Rh. pusillus NA Rh. sanguineus No Yes Yes R. monacensis Alentejo and Lisboa regions. ventalloi No Yes Yes No Rh. helvetica I. aeschlimannii Alentejo R. ricinus No H. central and southern Poland (Białowiez˙a. ricinus No Morocco Morocco R. Rh. I. raoulti D. ricinus Poland Poland Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Romania Russia (Astrakhan region) Russia (Astrakhan region) Russia (European part) NA Central and southern Poland R. Country Rickettsia species Region Identified vector Human disease (reported cases) Morocco R. slovaca Alentejo and Trás-osMontes regions. reticulatus Yes Rh. sanguineus I. pusillus Yes D. marginatum Rh.260 Appendix 1 Table A1. sibirica Alentejo region. ricinus D. monacensis Rh. Madeira Island R. raoulti Astrakhan region Rh.

Jaen. monacensis R. Mallorca Island Castilla y Léon. Cas. Catalonia. helvetica R. marginatus. Castilla y Léon. Ha. Ha. marginatum. inermis. sanguineus No Continued . aeschlimannii NA NA NA Castilla y Léon. punctata. helvetica Alpine region I. D. Yes tilla y Léon. turanicus Rh. Castilla Ha. punctata. D. marginatus No R. Madrid. Madrid. turanicus R. D. Jaen Catalonia Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Sweden Switzerland Switzerland D. Canary Islands. ventalloi No Rh. marginatus. massiliae Canton Ticino Rh. helvetica R. raoulti Voronezh D. monacensis Basque country. reticulatus D. ricinus No R. slovaca NA NA NA North-eastern (Becherov) and southwestern (Pounajske) regions Białowiez˙a NA Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Spain R. Rh. conorii R.25. ricinus I. Rioja Spain R. Rh.Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 261 Table A1. marginatus. Castilla-La Mancha. ricinus Rh.D. monacensis NA I. Rh. reticulatus No R. Rh. pusillus Yes monae R. ricinus I.NA Rh. ricinus. Rh. Rioja R. reticulatus Jaen. Ha. I. raoulti Basque country. Country Rickettsia species Region Identified vector Human disease (reported cases) Russia (European part) Russia (European part) Serbia Serbia Serbia Slovakia R. sanguineus No No Yes Yes No No No Yes I. rioja NA NA Yes R. sibirica mongoliti. ricinus Ha. Rioja R. sanguineus I. Yes Rioja reticulatus. Hy. sanguineus. ricinus Yes y Léon. I. ricinus NA No Slovakia Slovakia R. No sanguineus. inermis. conorii Malish Spain Spain R. punctata. massiliae Andalucía. slovaca Castilla-La Mancha. Continued. conorii Malish R. punctata R. D. ricinus I. pusillus. helvetica NA I. I. bursa. helvetica R. Granada. reticulatus. Jaen. Madrid. raoulti R. slovaca NA D. ricinus Yes R. monacensis R. Ha.

Lepidi. 561–563. D. M. Algeria Bitam.E. Narodoslavsky-Gföller.25. N. monacensis R. conorii Malish R. M. Boubidi. ricinus D. 2). aeschlimannii. 1814–1815. 290–301. Vector-Borne Zoonotic Diseases 8. monacensis Eastern Ukraine I. P. and Raoult. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 13. Mokrani. Armenia Balayeva. P. I. not available. ricinus No a NA. Bensouilah. (2009) Mediterranean spotted fever in Algeria – new trends. L. (2008) First detection of Rickettsia helvetica in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Austria. S.. and Raoult. 261–262. conorii Rh. (2009) First detection of Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma aegyptium from Algeria. M. I.. B. monacensis R. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 15(Suppl. ricinus Hy. Bitam. conorii. Acta Virologica 37. (1993) Rickettsiae and their ecology in the Alpine region. Dalichaouche. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1078. (2009) First description of Rickettsia monacensis in Ixodes ricinus in Algeria. Parola. Blaschitz. Algeria. helvetica Basin of the Black and Caspian Seas Eastern Ukraine I. Parola. Kanzler. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 15(Suppl. ricinus NA I. J. aeschlimannii NA Alpine region Sfax Monastir. K. List of scientific papers from which data were extracted for the table above. N. Dib. Parola. conorii ISF R. Walochnik. ricinus No R. (2006) First molecular detection of R. and Raoult. marginatus NA Rh.. Crimea R. J. Belkaid. R.M.. H.. Matsumoto.. Parola. Parola. Continued. P. (1994) Genomic identification of Rickettsia slovaca among spotted fever group rickettsia isolates from Dermacentor marginatus in Armenia. D. (2008) Rickettsia aeschlimannii infection. sanguineus I.. D. Acta Virologica 38. T. 2). I.262 Appendix 1 Table A1. M. G. .. N... conorii Malish R.. D. and Raoult..C. Tebbal. M.. Harrat. and R. M. sanguineus Yes R. Z. Crimea Ukraine. Crimea Ukraine. massiliae in ticks from Algeria.. 227–235. Austria Rehácek. 253–254.. Emerging Infectious Diseases 14. Bitam.. 321–325. Z. marginatum No No Yes Yes No Yes No No R. Eremeeva.. Mouffok. Sousse. A.. P. Aouati. Crimea Ukraine.... Baziz. Tunis NA Trakya NA NA I. Kernif. D. M. and Stanek. D. 368–372.M. Harrat.. Rolain. P. helvetica R. slovaca R. J.. and Raoult. and Raoult. S. Country Rickettsia species Region Identified vector Human disease (reported cases) Switzerland Switzerland Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia Turkey UK Ukraine.

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Hungary
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Israel
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Italy
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Kosovo
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Libya
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Malta
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Moldova
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Morocco
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Netherlands
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Poland
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Portugal
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Romania
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Russia, Ukraine and Astrakhan region
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Serbia
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Slovakia
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two spotted fever rickettsial strains from patients in Catalonia, Spain. American Journal of Tropical
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(2004) Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy: clinical and epidemiological features of a new tick-borne disease. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 10, 327–331.
Oteo, J.A., Portillo, A., Santibáñez, S., Pérez-Martínez, L., Blanco, J.R., Jiménez, S., Ibarra, V., Pérez-Palacios,
A. and Sanz, M. (2006) Prevalence of spotted fever group Rickettsia species detected in ticks in La Rioja,
Spain. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1078, 320–323.
Portillo, A., Ibarra, V., Santibáñez, S., Pérez-Martínez, L., Blanco, J.R. and Oteo, J.A. (2009) Genetic characterisation of ompA, ompB and gltA genes from Candidatus Rickettsia rioja. Clinical Microbiology and
Infection 15(Suppl. 2), 307–308.
Toledo, A., Olmeda, A.S., Escudero, R., Jado, I., Valcárcel, F., Casado-Nistal, M.A., Rodríguez-Vargas, M.,
Gil, H. and Anda, P. (2009) Tick-borne zoonotic bacteria in ticks collected from central Spain. American
Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 81, 67–74.

Sweden
Nilsson, K. (2009) Septicaemia with Rickettsia helvetica in a patient with acute febrile illness, rash and
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Nilsson, K., Elfving, K. and Pahlson, C. (2010) Rickettsia helvetica in patient with meningitis, Sweden, 2006.
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Severinsson, K., Jaenson, T.G., Pettersson, J., Falk, K. and Nilsson, K. (2010) Detection and prevalence of
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Skarphédinsson, S., Lyholm, B.F., Ljungberg, M., Søgaard, P., Kolmos, H.J. and Nielsen, L.P. (2007) Detection
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Switzerland
Beati, L., Péter, O., Burgdorfer, W., Aeschlimann, A. and Raoult, D. (1993) Confirmation that Rickettsia
helvetica sp. nov. is a distinct species of the spotted fever group of rickettsiae. International Journal of
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Beati, L., Humair, P.F., Aeschlimann, A. and Raoult, D. (1994) Identification of spotted fever group rickettsiae
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Bernasconi, M.V., Casati, S., Péter, O. and Piffaretti, J.C. (2002) Rhipicephalus ticks infected with
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Rehácek, J. (1993) Rickettsiae and their ecology in the Alpine region. Acta Virologica 37, 290–301.

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Romdhane, F.B., Loussaief, C., Toumi, A., Yahia, S.B., Khaiyrallah, M., Bouzouaïa, N. and Chakroun, M.
(2009) Mediterranean spotted fever: a report of 200 cases in Tunisia. Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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Sfar, N., M’ghirbi, Y., Letaïef, A., Parola, P., Bouattour, A. and Raoult, D. (2008) First report of Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia helvetica from Tunisia. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 102, 561–564.
Sfar, N., Kaabia, N., Letaïef, A., Rolain, J.M., Parola, P., Bouattour, A. and Raoult, D. (2009) First molecular
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. 220–221. . and Medlock.. Akata.. (2011) Molecular confirmation of human infection caused by Israeli spotted fever rickettsia in Tunisia.. Fonville. Tugrul... and Raoult. (2009) Prospective evaluation of rickettsioses in the Trakya (European) Region of Turkey in 2005. F..Distribution for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 271 Znazen. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 15(Suppl.D.M.. Hammami. P.. Epidemiology and Infection 139. A. Emerging Infectious Diseases 17. 2). UK Tijsse-Klasen. Tugrul. and Hammami. Turkey Kuloglu. M. and Raoult. H. Fournier. Jameson. Celik.. F. M. A...E. A. 609–614. D. Ben-Jemaa. Kuloglu. E. 1328–1330. J.M. Sprong. F. M. F. D. 524–529. Leach.J.M. S. Rolain.. Lahiani. J. J. L. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 23.. D. Rolain. (2004) First isolation of Rickettsia conorii from humans in the Trakya (European) region of Turkey. (2011) First detection of spotted fever group rickettsiae in Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in the UK. M. B.. Akata.

cabi. .cabi. Appendix 3 List of Scientific Papers That Could Not Be Retrieved (hosted on http://www.org/resources/tatbd).272 Appendix 2 and 3 Appendices 2 and 3 Appendix 2 List (By ID Number) of References from which Geographic Data Were Extracted (hosted on http://www.org/ resources/tatbd).

Spain. and 3Institute of Tropical Medicine. South Africa 2 3 The reliable determination of the genera and species of 1 ticks that are involved is the first step towards any further knowledge on the ecology. and their importance may be overlooked by focusing only on adult stages. It must also be stressed that the investigation of immature4 stages might provide more information than that of adults. Immature stages are more abundant. that our work provides information only about the species of ticks that have an impact on domestic animals. Tarrés-Call) 273 . distribution or epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens. UK. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (eds M. as well as those which are similar and could be easily confused. however. ©CAB International 2013. Belgium and University of Pretoria. 2University of Edinburgh. Walker2 and Maxime Madder3 University of Zaragoza. The ‘old-fashioned’ methods using a stereomicroscope and systematic keys are still the best5 approach to determining tick taxonomy.1 Alan R. Scotland. It must be understood. Current DNAbased methods are not yet accurate enough to be systematically used for this purpose.Appendix 4 Keys for Genera and Species of Ticks in the Mediterranean Basin 1 Agustín Estrada-Peña. Antwerp. We want to provide in this work an overview of the most important features of interest that can be used to identify the ticks present in the Mediterranean basin and most of Europe. Salman and J.

coxae IV are very large (12) and coxae I have large and equal paired spurs. and ventral plates in males are indistinct (10) as flat plates posterior to the anus. The first is a common parasite present in Mediterraneantype areas. Spiracular plates are large (9) and ventral plates are absent in males (10). Eyes are present (7) and festoons are present in males (8). Dermacentor ticks (Plate B) are medium sized (see 1) with anterior mouthparts (2) and broad palpal articles (3) with straight lateral margins (4). The anal groove (11) is posterior to the anus. Legs have no pale rings (5) and the conscutum has enamel (6). 10 The only ornate ticks that are in Europe or regions in its proximity are the adults of the genera Amblyomma and Dermacentor. The 7 former is absent in Europe. the mouthparts are anterior (2) and palpal articles II are longer than articles I and III (3). coxae IV are of normal size (12) and coxae I have unequal paired spurs (13).0 mm B The genus Dermacentor 3 8 13 6 1 3. Two species of the genus Dermacentor are very common in Europe. The size of Amblyomma ticks (Plate A) is large (see 1). reticulatus. Spiracular plates are large (9). Eyes and festoons are present (7). marginatus and 8 D.274 Appendix 4 Keys for genera: Amblyomma (A) and Dermacentor (B) 2 3 4 A The genus Amblyomma 5 1 6 6.5 mm 13 12 9 11 The basis capituli has straight lateral margins (4). while the second is a serious concern because of repeated reports of its spread into areas that were formerly free of the species. although isolated specimens have been collected in northern Africa. An anal groove is posterior to the anus (11). namely D.0 mm 9 12 9 11 10 . 2 3 4 7 5 1 6 4. Legs usually have pale rings (5) with enamel ornamentation in the scutum (6).

Keys for Ticks in the Mediterranean Basin

275

Keys for genera: Rhipicephalus (A) and Haemaphysalis (B)
Adults of the genus
Rhipicephalus are some of the
most common ticks in the
Mediterranean region (Plate
A). They are medium sized
(see 1) and mouthparts are
anterior (2). The palp articles
are all small (3) and the basis
capituli has distinctly angular
lateral margins, making a
hexagonal shape of the entire
basis capituli (4), which is a
diagnostic character. Legs
have no pale rings (5) and the
scutum has no enamel (6).
Eyes are present (7) and
festoons are present in males
(8) and in females but unclear
if fed. Spiracular plates are
large (9) and ventral plates
are present in the males (10),
usually as two pairs of plates.
Anal groove is posterior to
anus (11), coxae IV are of
normal size (12) and coxae I
have large and equal paired
spurs (13).
Adults of the genus
Haemaphysalis (Plate B) are
small (see 1), with anterior
mouthparts (2) and broad
palpal articles (3). The basis
capituli has straight lateral
margins (4). Legs have no pale
rings (5) and the scutum lacks
ornamentation (6). Eyes are
always absent (7) and festoons
are always present (8) but may
be difficult to see in engorged
females. The spiracular plates
are large (9) and ventral plates
are absent from the males (10).
The anal groove is posterior to
the anus (11), coxae IV are of
normal size (12) and coxae I
have no paired spurs – there is
only one single spur present (13).

A
The genus Rhipicephalus
3
2
4
7

6

1
5

6
4.0 mm
8
6
7

8
13

13

12

12

9

9
11

10

11
10

3

2

4
5
7
6

1
3.0 mm

8
13
B
The genus
Haemaphysalis
12
9
11

10

276

Appendix 4

Keys for genera: Hyalomma (A) and Ixodes (B)
2

3

Both Hyalomma and Ixodes are genera of ticks with long mouthparts
and which lack enamel in the
scutum.

4
5

1

Ticks in the genus Hyalomma (Plate
A) are large (see 1) with anterior
mouthparts (2) and palp articles II
longer than articles I and III (3). The
basis capituli has medium angular
lateral margins (4) and the legs have
pale rings (5). The scutum has no
ornamentation (6) but Hy. lusitanicum may be an exception to this in
some specimens. The eyes are
always very convex (7) and festoons
are present in both sexes (8), but
difficult to see in engorged females.
Spiracular plates are large (9) and
ventral plates are present only in
males, usually as three distinct pairs
(10). The anal groove is posterior to
the anus (11), coxae IV are of normal size (12) and coxae I have large
and equal paired spurs (13).
7

6
5.5 mm

8
13
A
The genus Hyalomma

12
9
11

2

10

3
4

5

1

6

3.5 mm

8
B
The genus Ixodes
13

12

Adults of the genus Ixodes (Plate B)
are medium sized (see 1) with anterior mouthparts (2) and palp arti7
cles II longer than articles I and III
(3). The basis capituli has straight
lateral margins (4). Legs never have
pale rings (5) and the scutum lacks
enamel (6). Eyes and festoons are
always absent (7 and 8). Spiracular
plates are large (9) and ventral
plates are present in males only (10)
in the form of large flat plates. The
anal groove forms a loop anterior to
the anus, and in some species forms
a circle around the anus.
9
10

11

Keys for Ticks in the Mediterranean Basin

277

Keys for species
1

6

2
1

3

2

4

1 mm

1 mm

5

4
A
The genus Argas

Three main species of soft ticks (family
Argasidae) are commonly reported in the
western Palaearctic. The genera Argas and
Ornithodoros are characterized by their
ventral mouthparts (Plate A, right, 1; Plate B,
right 3) and the lack of a scutum or
conscutum (Plate A, left, 2) in the adults.

3

B
The genus Ornithodoros
1

2

3

4
8
5

6

1 mm
7

Two of these species are part of the genus
Argas, a tick commonly found on birds,
which is illustrated in plate A. The genus
Argas can be separated from the genus
Ornithodoros by the presence of a lateral
margin, which is marked by rectangular
plates in A. persicus and by lateral fine ridges
in A. reflexus (Plate A, left, 3 and 4). Such a
lateral suture is absent in the genus
Ornithodoros (Plate B, left, 1). Both genera
have a mammillate pattern on the dorsum
(Plate B, 2), which in Argas is convoluted,
with raised discs present, smoothly flat and
well defined.

278

Appendix 4

2

2

3

2

3

1

1

4

7

7

3

1

4

4
7

6
6

6

5

5
1 mm

1 mm

5

1 mm

5

3

3
3
2

4

2
4

4

2

5

5

1

1

1

6

6
6

The females of the genus Rhipicephalus, including
Rh. bursa (left), Rh. sanguineus (centre) and
Rh. turanicus (right). The female of Rh. annulatus is
illustrated below this legend.

1

1 mm

It is difficult to distinguish between
females of different species of the
genus Rhipicephalus. A first separation can be made by the use of the
relative size of the spurs in coxae I
(not illustrated). They are very short
and indistinct in Rh. annulatus and
very large and well visible (even
with the naked eye) for the rest of
the species. The separation of
the females of the other species can
be achieved by investigating the
details of the genital opening, the
spiracular plate, the size and position of the eyes, and the dorsal punctations in the scutum, as illustrated
herein. Females of Rh. bursa are commonly easily separated because the
large size of their dorsal punctations.
More difficult is an adequate and
reliable separation of Rh. sanguineus
and Rh. turanicus. If difficulties are
found, it is preferably to report these
species as ‘Rh. sanguineus complex’
to avoid confusion.

Keys for Ticks in the Mediterranean Basin

3

3

The males of the
genus
Rhipicephalus

4

279

4

2

2
5

5
1

10

C

6
1

9

6

B
12

12

A

11
10

11
10
7
7

9

8

9

8

D

As with the females, differentiating between males of species of the genus Rhipicephalus in
the western Palaearctic may represent a considerable challenge. Special attention must to
be paid details such as the size and distribution of the conscutum punctations (Plates A, C,
E, 1), the observation of coxae I anterior spurs from a top position (Plates A, C, F, 3) the size
and shape of the adanal plates (Plates B, D, 7, 8), the presence or absence of a caudal
appendage (Plates B, D, E, F, 9) and the aspect of the spiracular plates (Plates B, D, E, F, 10).
All these features are illustrated herein. The final determination of species depends not
only on the presence or absence of a given character, but also on the combination of the
different features of each species. Illustrated are the dorsal and ventral views of the males
of Rh. bursa (Plates A, B), Rh. sanguineus (Plates C, D), Rh. turanicus (Plates E, F) and
Rh. annulatus (Plates G, H).

3

E

4

G

1

2
5
9

1
6

F

6

12

5
11

3
9

8

7

4

1 mm

2

10

H

The males of the
genus
Rhipicephalus

280

Appendix 4

The females of the genus Hyalomma
1

1
2

2

5

A

B

5
3

4
3

4
1 mm
1 mm

1

2

2

1
5

C

3

3

D

6
4
5
1 mm
1 mm

4

2
1
1
5
E

2
3

6

3 F

4
1 mm
5
1 mm

4

The scutum is dark coloured (2). The leg colouration is with pale rings (5) and there are also patches of pale colour along the dorsal surfaces of the central segments of all legs. The female of H. Egypt) or Turkey. The distribution of punctation is localized. which is pale coloured (2). The scutum is dark coloured but has faint white enamel ornamentation on the scapulae (2). species in the genus Hyalomma are very difficult to determine to a high degree of reliability. . the scapular grooves profile is shallow (1) and the grooves reach the posterior margin of scutum. The leg colouration is without pale rings (5) although there may be pale patches on the dorsal surface of leg segments. In Hy. The scutum posterior margin is distinctly sinuous. avoid engorged specimens. Punctation size is small and distribution of punctation is sparse (5). dromedarii is an introduced species. It is important to obtain adequate material for differentiation of species. which is dark coloured (2). often joined together and with a rough internal surface. which may be not present in the whole European Mediterranean.e. with medium numbers mainly on the anterior of the scutum (5). In Hy. Hy. which is dark coloured (2). giving it a smooth shiny appearance. The size of punctations is small (6) and their distribution is sparse. The leg colouration is with pale rings (4). dromedarii (Plate D on the previous page).e. which is dark coloured (2). but they reach the posterior margin of the scutum. These large punctations are shallow. The drawings on the previous page refer to the females of Hy. marginatum (Plate F on the previous page) has a steep scapular grooves profile (1) and the grooves do not reach the posterior margin of the scutum. and their distribution is localized (6) with small numbers on the anterior of the scutum. Hy. scupense (Plate C). The size of punctations is size is small. turanicum are not illustrated. so the rings may be difficult to observe. the most useful are to left to moult and the newly moulted adults are examined. the scapular grooves profile is shallow (1) and the grooves reach the posterior margin of the scutum.Keys for Ticks in the Mediterranean Basin 281 The previous page illustrates the females of the genus Hyalomma. marginatum (Plate F). rufipes and Hy. The scutum posterior margin is smooth (3) and the leg colouration has pale rings (4). Similar species. If engorged immature stages are available. leg colouration is with pale rings (4) and the legs are mainly dark. with distinctly concave outlines posterior to the eyes (3). lusitanicum (Plate E) and Hy. We have included herein the drawings of six species of the genus. The scutum posterior margin is slightly sinuous (3). As for the genus Rhipicephalus. lusitanicum (Plate E on the previous page) has a steep scapular grooves profile (1) and the grooves are obscured by lines or large punctations. with morphological similarities to other species in the genus. and a parasite of the one-humped camel. The distribution of punctation is localized. Hy. The scutum posterior margin is slightly sinuous (3). Punctation size is large (5) but there are some small ones and some large ones. anatolicum (Plate A on the previous page). Hy. The leg colouration is with white enamel (4) as irregular patterns on the dorsal and lateral leg surfaces. although they may be found in places like northern Africa (i. In Hy. The scutum posterior margin is slightly sinuous (3). with the large ones in the cervical fields and central areas. The female of Hy. but the legs are also pale. Hy. The precise distribution of all these species is not yet well known. scupense (Plate C on the previous page). The illustrations in the following two pages include males of the genus Hyalomma. anatolicum (Plate A). such as Hy. The scutum posterior margin is distinctly sinuous (3). excavatum (Plate B). the scapular grooves profile is steep (1) and the grooves reach the posterior margin of the scutum. The size of punctations is large (5) and their distribution is sparse. but are common in the African coast. excavatum (Plate B on the previous page) the scapular grooves profile is steep (1) and the grooves reach close the posterior margin of the scutum. i. In Hy. dromedarii (Plate D).

paracentral festoons are joined anteriorly (6) and a posteromedian groove is present (7). There are two posterior ridges (4) and a caudal depression is present (5). The paracentral festoons are separated anteriorly (6) with a posteromedian groove that is long and narrow (7). Its cervical fields depression is apparent (1). There is a posteromedian groove (6). The central 5 4 festoon is pale (5). 87 6 6 6 5 4 The male of Hy. C 1 9 8 4 7 6 5 . sparse (10). scupense is pictured in Plate C. this page) has cervical fields with evident depression (1). Paramedian grooves 2 are small (7). 5 The male of Hy.282 Appendix 4 The males of genus Hyalomma 1 2 1 2 A B 10 10 39 8 9 7 6 3 4 5 4 The male of Hy. a pale coloured conscutum (2) and short lateral grooves (3). There are two posterior ridges (4) and a caudal depression is present. Legs are mainly dark and the pale rings are well visible (9). Lateral grooves are short (3) but distinct with a rough surface. The central festoon is pale coloured (but may be dark) and paracentral festoons are separated anteriorly. The legs are pale in a patchy or marbled pattern (9) and punctations are small and their distribution. The paramedian grooves are small or indistinct (8). with a dark coloured conscutum (2) and long lateral grooves (3). Leg colouration is without pale rings (8). anatolicum (Plate A. Punctations are 3 small (9). The paramedian grooves are small (8). Posterior ridges number four (4) and a caudal depression is present. Punctations are large (10). excavatum (Plate B) has an apparent cervical depression (1) with the conscutum dark and heavily sclerotized (2).

A posteromedian groove is present. The posteromedian groove is present (6). there are also patches of pale colour along the dorsal surfaces of the legs (8). Punctations are large (although there are also small and very large punctations) and their distribution is localized (8). The central festoon is pale coloured (but may be dark coloured). Posterior ridges number two and a caudal depression is present (4). marginatum is shown in Plate C. The male of Hy. There is an apparent depression in the cervical fields (1) and a dark coloured conscutum (2) which may have faint white enamel ornamentation on the scapulae. Lateral grooves are short (3) and the posterior ridges number four (4). Posterior ridges number two and a caudal depression is present but shallow (4). but all the posterior grooves are shallow and may be indistinct. Paracentral festoons are separate anteriorly (5) and a posteromedian groove is present (6). lusitanicum is pictured in Plate B. The central festoon is pale coloured (5). The central festoon is dark coloured (5). The paracentral festoons are separate anteriorly. Lateral grooves are short (3). Lateral grooves are long and they continue towards the eyes as lines of punctations (3). dromedarii (Plate A. There is an apparent cervical depression (1) and the conscutum is dark coloured (2). Paramedian grooves are small (7). Paramedian grooves are absent (6). Leg colouration is with enamel ornamentation. the paramedian grooves are large (7). Punctations are large and sparse (9). Punctations are small and their distribution is sparse (9). this page) the cervical field depression is apparent (1) and the conscutum is dark coloured (2). as irregular patterns of marbling on the dorsal and lateral leg surfaces (7). The leg colouration is with pale rings (8). .Keys for Ticks in the Mediterranean Basin 283 The males of genus Hyalomma 1 2 2 1 1 9 9 2 8 3 8 3 4 3 4 7 6 7 6 7 8 5 5 6 4 5 6 6 4 5 7 A 4 6 5 4 5 B C In the male of Hy. Leg colouration is with pale rings. A caudal depression is present but partially obscured by posterior ridges. Paracentral festoons are separate anteriorly (5). The male of Hy.

Both are large.284 Appendix 4 The males of the genus Dermacentor A There are only two species of ticks in the genus Dermacentor in the western Palaearctic. The posterior spur on trochanter I is long on the dorsal surface (5). very ornate ticks whose identities are easily determined. The posterior spur on trochanter I is short on the dorsal surface (5). The posterior spur on palpal articles II is long on the dorsal surface (2). B The male of D. and the external spur is as long as the internal spur (3). the gap between external and internal spurs is narrow. namely D. The lateral groove is in the form of punctations only (there is no groove visible) (4). In coxae I. only more conspicuous than the punctations (4). reticulatus (Plate B). The males of D. the gap between internal and external spurs is medium. and the external spur is slightly shorter than the internal spur (3). . marginatus (Plate A) and D. The lateral groove is indistinct. reticulatus (Plate B) has long cornua (1). The posterior spur on palpal articles II is short on the dorsal surface (2). In coxae I. marginatus (Plate A) have short cornua (1).

and the external spur is slightly shorter than the internal spur (3). 285 The females of the genus Dermacentor 2 A 1 3 4 1 mm The females of D. which is truncated posteriorly (4). and they are slanting (1). reticulatus have porose areas shaped in a broad oval. The posterior spur of palp articles II is present on the dorsal surface (2). marginatus. differentiating between females of the two species of the genus Dermacentor in the western Palaearctic is easy because they are the only ornate ticks found. and the external spur is as long as the internal spur. the gap between the external and internal spurs is medium. The posterior spur of palp articles II is absent from the dorsal surface (2). the shape of the porose areas is a narrow oval. marginatus (Plate A) and D. In the females of D. reticulatus (Plate B). 2 B 1 3 4 1 mm . Both species are included in this page: D.Keys for Ticks in the Mediterranean Basin As with the males. The posterior lips of the genital aperture have a narrow V shape (4) and are not truncated at the posterior margin. In coxae I. The posterior lips of the genital aperture have a broad U shape. The gap between coxae I external and internal spurs is narrow. as displayed in (3). pattern (1). nearly circular.

and only one is enclosed by a lateral groove (6). The spurs of coxae IV are long. namely Ha. Ha. punctata have a short lateral extension (1) on palp articles II. punctata (Plate A) and Ha. and the dorsal spur is absent from these articles (2). and curving outwards (4). The cornua are long (8). Other species. Ha. the lateral extension of palp segments II is longer than in Ha. The ventral spur is also absent from palp segments II (3). as far as we know currently.286 Appendix 4 There are two prominent species of the genus Haemaphysalis in the western Palaearctic. Distribution of the punctuations is sparse (7). concinna. extending to the level of the posterior margin of the anus. The cornua are short (8). are not so common or of importance to the health of domestic animals or humans. The spurs of coxae IV are long. erinacei. sulcata. extending to the level of the posterior margin of the anus and curving inwards (4). Distribution of the punctuations is dense (7). punctata (1) and the dorsal spur is absent from these articles (2). New studies and additional collections of these species will most likely provide interesting data about the importance and distribution of this tick genus. There are 11 festoons (5). and two of these are enclosed by a lateral groove (6). The male of the genus Haemaphysalis A 3 2 1 8 7 The males of Ha. . 4 6 5 B 3 1 2 8 7 4 6 5 In the males of Ha. such as Ha. numidiana. Palp segments 2 The ventral spur is also absent from palp segments II (3). sulcata (Plate B). etc. There are nine festoons (5).

this page). and much more common in Europe. the lateral extension of palp articles II is small (1). the lateral extension to palp articles II is small (1) and the dorsal spur is absent from these articles (2). and only one festoon is enclosed by each lateral groove (6). 1 2 4 7 6 1 mm 5 . In the females of Ha. I. Illustrations of the females of the genus Ixodes are included on the next page (Plates A to F) in both dorsal (A. D. They are rare in northern Africa. punctata (Plate A. this page). and for the species I. The ventral spur is present on palp articles III (3). ricinus. The spurs of coxae I to III are short and those of coxae IV are indistinct (4). Details are given here for female ticks only. hexagonus. E) and ventral views (B. sulcata (Plate B. and the dorsal spur is absent (2).Keys for Ticks in the Mediterranean Basin In the females of Ha. F). The distribution of punctation is sparse (7). There are nine festoons (5). C. There are 11 festoons (5) and three of these are enclosed by each lateral groove (6). and those of coxae IV are distinct (4). The distribution of punctuation is dense (7). gibbosus and I. The spurs of coxae I to II are of medium length. 287 The females of the genus Haemaphysalis 3 1 A 2 4 7 1 mm 6 5 3 B There are several species of the genus Ixodes in the western Palaearctic. The ventral spur of palp segments III is also absent (3).

4 but there are important differences in the tarsi. 1 1 4 56 7 6 1 mm C 3 5 D 2 2 1 4 1 5 7 6 1 mm E In female I. ricinus has coxae of normal type (1). and the genital aperture is between coxae III (6). D) is very similar to that of I. external spurs of coxae II to IV are indistinct (4). which are very tapered Plate C. palp alignment slopes inward (2). On the ventral surface (Plate F). the tarsi are blunt stepped towards the taris (3). ricinus. scapular grooves are present (1). 5). setae on the alloscutum are thin and colourless (6). and the scutum posterior margin is slightly sinuous (7). the tarsi are slightly tapered towards the claws (3). the auriculae are short (Plate D. coxae II to IV external spurs are distinct (4). and the genital aperture is between coxae IV (6). ricinus (Plate A). . palp alignment slopes inward (2). The dorsal surface (Plate E) scapular grooves are absent (1). hexagonus is a very different spe3 cies (Plates E. setae are present on the scutum but small and sparse (5). punctations are 4 distinct (4). F). coxae I internal spurs are very long (3). setae on the alloscutum are thin and colourless (6). The posterior alignment of the anal groove is long and converging (D. posterior alignment of the anal groove is long and diverging (5). 3). punctations are distinct (4). gibbosus (Plates C. auriculae are indistinct (2). On its ventral surface (Plate B). 2) and the internal spurs of coxae I are shorter. internal spurs of coxae I are short (3). alignment of the posterior anal groove is long and diverging (5). 6 F 5 I. coxae are of normal type (1).288 Appendix 4 The females of the genus Ixodes 3 2 2 1 3 4 1 4 5 7 6 1 mm 6 A 5 B 3 2 2 3 The female of I. auriculae are distinct (2). setae are present on the scutum (5). I.

persicus. 8 nocturnal and endophilic. 33–34 non-infected pig population. 8–9 eight-legged nymph instar. 7 gnathosoma. polonicus. 7 Ornithodoros ASFV. 35–36 infected warthogs. 8 Ar. 39 Anaplasma bovis. 6 sac-like appearance. 7 leathery cuticle and nymphal stages. 7 unsclerotized. 7–8 larvae. 39–40 intraerythrocytic bacteria. 7 xerophilic arthropods. 57–58 African swine fever (ASF) virus (ASFV) Asfarviridae family. 4 289 . moubata group. 34 Anaplasmoses alphaproteobacteria. 89–90 O. 10 identification. 7 Astrakhan fever (AF). 42 Anaplasma phagocytophilum.Index African horse sickness (AHS). 7 spiracular plates. 7 no treatment/effective vaccine. 6 Boophilus ticks. 39–41 Anaplasma platys. 33–34 genetic diversification. 33 Mediterranean basin. 20 Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus (CCHFV) crop rotation and land fallowing. erraticus. 9 Ar. 11 Malawi strain. 10 O. 41–42 Anaplasma marginale. 42–43 hard ticks transmitted. 7 economic and medical impact. 34 Ornithodoros porcinus. 34 viral swine disease. 10 occurrence. 36–37 domestic pigs. 48 babesioses. 34 tonsils and mandibular lymph node. 7 oval shaped and dorsoventrally flattened. 10–11 discrepancies concerning infection. reflexus. 39 Argasidae Argas Ar. 33 virus-tick interaction. 42 Anaplasma centrale. 41 Anaplasma ovis. 10 sexual dimorphism. 34 occurrence. 7 unfed adults. 9–11 Ornithodoros moubata. moubata/porcinus ticks. 33 CCHF. 34 swine haemorrhagic diseases. 53–54 basic biology and geographical distribution Argasidae (see argasidae) Ixodidae (see Ixodidae) Nutalliellidae. 35 wild pigs. 9–10 O. 77 Ornithodoros. 34 wild pigs and soft ticks.

3 land use changes. punctata. 18 Dermacentor D. 17 Hyalomma marginatum. 49 Rickettsia monacensis. 48 Rickettsia slovaca. 96 D. 16 Ixodes host-seeking behaviour. 16 IgM and IgG positivity rates. 44–45 TBE group (see Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) ) tularaemia. 3 epidemic of. variegatum. 36 Ehrlichioses Ehrlichia canis. marginatum. 51–52 piroplasmoses babesioses. 58–59 Recurrent (relapsing) fever. 93 Ha. 13 I. 21–22. 12 Ixodidae Amblyomma Am. 18 Am. 76 Israeli spotted fever (ISF). 13 I. 20–21. persulcatus. centrale. 53–54 theilerioses. 37 potential vertebrate host reservoirs. 15–16 Hy. 13 I. scupense. 36–37 Ehrlichioses (see Ehrlichioses) hepatozoonosis. 12 Hepatozoon transmission. 14 Ha. americanum. 15 parasites of livestock. 91–92 Ha. 38 eco-epidemiology. 12 endophilic species. 54–56 Q fever. 96–97 ornate patterning. 18 Am. 2 Rickettsia monacensis. 49–50 Rickettsia conorii (see Rickettsia conorii) Rickettsia helvetica. 90–91 Palaearctic region. excavatum. 36 S-. 86 Greek goat encephalitis virus (GGEV). 13 three-host ticks. 16 pale rings. 28 pH inactivation. sulcata. 3 tick-borne zoonotic infection. gibbosus. 2 three-host tick. 16 morphological characteristics. maculatum. marginale. A. 47 Ixodes ricinus Anaplasma phagocitophylum. 18 ornate eyes and coxal spurs. 92. tick-borne infections African horse sickness (AHS). 16 genetic instability. 38 louping ill virus primary vector and virus reservoir. 14. 50 Rickettsia massiliae. 14. 15 festoons. 37 Francisella tularensis infection. 17–18 immature stage identification. 57–58 anaplasmoses (see anaplasmoses) ASF (see African swine fever (ASF) ) Bartonella infections. inermis.290 Index Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus (CCHFV) (continued) distribution map. 14 Hyalomma capituli. 39 Lyme disease. 56 louping ill virus (LIV). 48–49 Rickettsia species. 16. 92 Ha. 15. anatolicum. 18 parasitize reptiles. 3 Hyalomma anatolicum. 12 vegetation. 20 Haemaphysalis capitulum. 17 Hy. marginatus. 59–60 Flaviviridae. hexagonus. 43 Europe and Mediterranean basin. hebraeum. frontalis. 13 I. 36 Thrace region. 2 occurence. M-and L-RNA segments. 18–19 Am. 14 parasitize livestock. canisuga. 12 . A. 52 rickettsioses Rickettsia aeschlimannii. 2 zoonoses. 12 I. 50 TBEV and TBE. 41 castor bean/sheep tick. 50 Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae strain. concinna. 56 Lyme borrelioses (LB). 17 Hy. 43 Ehrlichia ruminantium. 39 Integrated Consortium on Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases. reticulatus. 58 Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF). 93 Hy.

19 hexagonal basis capituli. 100 random sampling. 103–104 definition. 108 mark-and-recapture method. 38–39 neurological syndrome. 37 louping ill virus (LIV). annulatus. 80 African swine fever (ASF). 81 Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF). 20. 19 Rh. 101 disease identification. 19–20 louping ill virus (LIV). 94–95 Rh. 100 storage and tracking methods. 37. 78 tick-borne pathogens occurrence anaplasmoses and ehrlichioses. ricinus. 99 data collection methods. 104 vaccine. 81–82 Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF). 54–56 tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus (TBEV) aetiological agent. uriae. 82–83 bartonelloses. 76 Nutalliella namaqua. 104–106 genetic resistance. 99–100 disease-positive animal. 108 pheromone/hormone-assisted control. 47. 29–30 exotic and wildlife species. 99 scratching technique. 45–46 monitoring and surveillance system (MoSS). 38 viral subtypes. 11 one nymphal stage. 100 goals and objectives identification. 109 integrated tick management. sanguineus. 29 migratory birds. 109–110 personal protection. 29 climate changes. 6 Ornate sheep tick. 99 theilerioses. 110 data collection methods. 98 hard ticks control options acaricides. 13 I. 52 Rickettsia conorii Astrakhan fever (AF). 12 morphology. 98 tick specimens collection. 37 I. 28 surveillance and control measures action-oriented programme. 38–39 Q fever. 107–108 habitat modification. 27–28 land use changes. bursa. 20. 106–107 chemical control of ticks on animals. 11 Rhipicephalus brown ticks. 95–96 Rh. 104 biological control. 39 human infections. 37 Greek goat encephalitis virus (GGEV). 37 Apodemus flavicollis. 19–20 Rh. turanicus. 45–46 spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae. 13 prostriate hard ticks. 101 sample populations. 51–52 Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF). 110 predefined threshold.Index I. 77–78 equine piroplasmosis. 84–85 . 98–99 flag/drag cloth. 100 hazards. 85–86 borrelioses. 38 Flavivirus. 77 babesioses. 19 parasitize wild and domestic artiodactyls. 38 Clethrionomys glareolus. 46 291 soft ticks (see Argasidae) spread and distribution animals movement domestic animals movement. 94 Rh. 99 argasidae. 106 tick prophylaxis. 37–38 Kumlinge virus. 101 Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics (NUTS). 98 MoSS (see monitoring and surveillance system (MoSS) ) ornithodoros. 38–39 Lyme borrelioses (LB). ricinus (see Ixodes ricinus) I. 20–21 Ovine encephalitis/encephalomyelitis virus. 101–102 serological testing. 48 Israeli spotted fever (ISF). trianguliceps. 19–20. 100 public health and socio-economic impact. camicasi. 58–59 recurrent (relapsing) fever.

76 Q fever. 86 tularaemia.292 tick-borne pathogens occurrence (continued) Integrated Consortium on Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases. 86–87 Index rickettsioses. 83. 76 NUTS. 80–81 theilerioses. 84 tick-borne encephalitis group viruses. 59–60 . 78–80 tularaemia.