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TM

575+French Verbs
by Gail Stein

TM

575+French Verbs
by Gail Stein

Websters New World 575+ French Verbs


Copyright 2005 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
Published simultaneously in Canada
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:
Stein, Gail
Websters New World 575+ French verbs / by Gail Stein.1st ed.
p. cm.
Includes index.
ISBN-10 0-7645-7771-9 (pbk.)
ISBN-13 978-0-7645-7771-0 (pbk.)
1.French languageVerb. 2. French languageIdioms. I. Title: 575+ French verbs. II. Title.
PC2271.S74 2005
448.2421dc22
2004030066

Manufactured in the United States of America


10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

any thanks to my wonderful editors on the Wiley team, Roxane Cerda,


Elizabeth Kuball, and Julie Foss. I couldnt have done it without all your

help.

DEDICATION
This book is dedicated to my loving husband, Douglas; my two wonderful sons,
Eric and Michael; and to Katherine Bensen-Piscopo, my future daughter-in-law,
who will be the daughter I always wanted.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Verb Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Appendix A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635
Appendix B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 663
Appendix C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 669
Appendix D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675
Appendix E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 679

INTRODUCTION

ebsters 575+ French Verbs is an invaluable tool that will enable students,
travelers, and business people alike, to communicate proficiently and
effectively in any given situation. Being able to effectively use verbs correctly
will give your French more polish and shine. If youre seeking a more in-depth
command of the language, one that will enable you to speak, read, and write like
a native, one that will allow you to express your thoughts easily and confidently,
then this book is for you. Websters 575+ French Verbs not only provides a quick,
simple-to-read reference to the conjugation of the 575 most frequently used
French verbs but also illustrates their everyday, colloquial, and idiomatic usage
in explicit examples (with English equivalents) using a variety of different moods
and tenses. Websters 575+ French Verbs is divided into three distinct sections: Verb
Usage Review (which explains the various moods and tenses used in French), verb
charts (containing 576 fully conjugated verbs with example sentences), and five
appendices with over 1,800 additional verbs, idiomatic and colloquial expressions,
irregular verb forms, common reflexive verbs, as well as an English-French Verb
Index.

Verb Usage Review


This section provides a comprehensive review of French verbs, where moods and tenses of
regular, verbs with spelling changes, and irregular verbs are defined and illustrated through
examples. To encourage independence from the verb charts, this section teaches you everything you need to know about French verbs and their varying usages, so that you can confidently communicate on your own without a crutch.
To get you off to a good start, the French Subject Pronouns section is presented so that you
will be able to choose the correct pronoun to use no matter what the circumstances. Each
subject pronoun requires its own specific ending based upon the subject of the sentence and
the time period in which the action is occurring (past, present, or future). The verb charts are
divided into two columns: singular ( je -I, tu-you, il-he/elle-she/on- one) and plural (nous-we,
vous-you, ils-they/elles-they).
The Verbals section explains the formation and use of present participles; the formation,
use, and agreement of past participles; and the use of the present and past infinitive, the
unconjugated to be form of the verb. Comprehensive lists are provided with verbs that
are immediately followed by the infinitive, verbs that require before the infinitive, verbs
that require de before the infinitive, and verbs that require other prepositions before the
infinitive.
In Tenses and Moods, the difference between the two is explained. Then each French
simple tense or mood and its corresponding compound tense or mood (refer to Table 9,
p. 18), as well as their English equivalents, are illustrated in detail in independent sections.
Many examples are provided to foster understanding of the rules.
The Imperative section explains how to form affirmative and negative commands and how
to make suggestions. All explanations are followed by illustrative examples both in French
and in English.
The Passive Voice section is presented with directions on substitute constructions that may
be used as an alternative. (The passive voice is not as widely used in French as it is in English.) Examples are provided for easier understanding.

2 / Websters New World 575+ French Verbs


The Verb Usage Review ends with the special of uses of certain verbs: verbs where the
meaning is changed based on the tense that is used. Examples illustrate the differences for
each verb.

Verb Charts
The alphabetical Verb Charts section, arranged by infinitives, contains 576 fully conjugated
verbs. Each chart identifies the French infinitive, its English meaning(s), the present
participle, the past participle, and the imperative forms. In the case of reflexive verbs,
reflexive pronouns are shown. Then each verb is shown in its simple and compound tenses
in both the indicative and subjunctive moods. All charts are followed by a series of example
sentences in French and English that show the different usage and meaning of the specific
verb.
cuisiner
to cook
Present participle: cuisinant Past participle: cuisin
Imperative: cuisine, cuisinez, cuisinons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

The present participle in


French has an English
ing verb ending equivalent. The French present
participle may not be
used as a gerund.

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

cuisine
cuisines
cuisine
Imperfect

cuisinons
cuisinez
cuisinent

ai cuisin
as cuisin
a cuisin
Pluperfect

avons cuisin
avez cuisin
ont cuisin

The past participle is


used with either avoir or
tre to form compound
tenses. It may also be
used as an adjective.

cuisinais
cuisinais
cuisinait
Pass Simple

cuisinions
cuisiniez
cuisinaient

avais cuisin
avais cuisin
avait cuisin
Pass Antrieur

avions cuisin
aviez cuisin
avaient cuisin

The imperative is used


to give a command or a
suggestion.

cuisinai
cuisinas
cuisina
Future

cuisinmes
cuisintes
cuisinrent

eus cuisin
eus cuisin
eut cuisin
Future Perfect

emes cuisin
etes cuisin
eurent cuisin

cuisinerai
cuisineras
cuisinera
Conditional

cuisinerons
cuisinerez
cuisineront

aurai cuisin
auras cuisin
aura cuisin
Conditional Perfect

aurons cuisin
aurez cuisin
auront cuisin

cuisinerais
cuisinerais
cuisinerait
Present

cuisinerions
cuisineriez
cuisineraient

aurais cuisin
aurais cuisin
aurait cuisin
Past

aurions cuisin
auriez cuisin
auraient cuisin

cuisine
cuisines
cuisine
Imperfect

cuisinions
cuisiniez
cuisinent

aie cuisin
aies cuisin
ait cuisin
Pluperfect

ayons cuisin
ayez cuisin
aient cuisin

cuisinasse
cuisinasses
cuisint

cuisinassions
cuisinassiez
cuisinassent

eusse cuisin
eusses cuisin
et cuisin

eussions cuisin
eussiez cuisin
eussent cuisin

EXAMPLES
Cuisinez-vous bien?
Ne lui parle pas quand elle cuisine.
Jai cuisin hier soir.
tais-tu surpris que jaie cuisin ce repas?

Do you cook well?


Dont talk to her while she is cooking.
I cooked last night.
Were you surprised that I cooked that
meal?

The indicative mood


states facts in the past,
present, or future tense.
The subjunctive mood is
used when there is wishing, emotion, or doubt.
The pass simple and
the pass antrieur are
only used and seen in
literary works.
The imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive are
only used and seen in
literary works.

Introduction / 3

Appendix of Additional Verbs


The Appendix of Additional Verbs contains over 1,500 French verbs with a quick page
reference to a fully conjugated verb in the verb charts. This allows you to have command of a
huge selection of verbs in the language.

Appendix of Irregular Verb


Forms
The Appendix of Irregular Verb Forms helps you to locate the infinitive from which a conjugated verb was formed. In many instances, this conjugated form bears little resemblance to
the infinitive, and its meaning might prove to be deceptive.

Appendix of Idiomatic and


Colloquial Expressions
This appendix lists idiomatic and colloquial expressions with a variety of high-frequency
French verbs. This appendix is an invaluable tool for those who want to perfect their use of
French and who want to use the language the way a native would.

Common Reflexive Verbs


This appendix provides the most commonly used French reflexive verbs and their English
equivalents. You should expect to encounter these verbs in everyday conversational or written French. Make sure to follow the rules on reflexive verbs when using these verbs.

English-French Verb Index


The English-French Verb Index alphabetically lists English verbs followed by their French
equivalents, with a page reference that will point you to the proper verb conjugation chart for
the French verb. Use this index to select a verb that enables you to express what you would
like to say. Make sure to double-check usage in a bilingual dictionary.

VERB USAGE
REVIEW

his section will help you understand and internalize the rules for conjugating
(changing the verb so that it agrees with the subject noun or pronoun) regular,
spelling-change, and irregular French verbs in all tenses and moods. Youll be given
the guides you need to readily convert English forms to their French equivalent so
that the process will quickly become routine. Your goal should be to become so
familiar with French verbs that you can use them automatically, the way a native
speaker would. Read this section first for a better understanding of which verbs
will follow a regular pattern, which will require an internalized change to maintain
proper pronunciation, and which will have to be memorized due to their irregular
nature. After you study this information, youll have an easier time understanding
the verb charts that follow.

Subject Pronouns
Proper verb conjugation requires an understanding of subject nouns and pronouns and how
they are used. A subject noun identifies who or what is performing the action of the verb and
may be a person, place, thing, idea, or quality. A subject pronoun, which may replace the
subject noun, allows for a more fluid conversation by eliminating unnecessary repetition of
the same noun:
Carole is my friend. She lives next door to me.
Honesty is the best policy. It has always served me well.

Subject pronouns indicate the endings needed to conjugate verbs in all tenses and moods.
French subject pronouns have a numbersingular (one) or plural (more than one)and
a gendermasculine or feminine. They may identify any noun. In French, the verb ending
must agree with the subject noun or pronoun. Table 1 shows the French subject pronouns
and their equivalent English meanings.
Table 1 Subject Pronouns

Person

Singular

Plural

1st

je (I)

nous (we)

2nd

tu (you)

vous (you)

3rd

il (he, it)

ils (they)

elle (she, it)

elles (they)

on (one, you, we, they)

Note the following about the French subject pronouns:

Je (I) is capitalized only when used at the beginning of a sentence. Je becomes j


before a vowel or vowel sound (y and unaspirated h, which means that no puff of air
is emitted when producing the h sound). This is known as elision.
Jaime le franais.
Jhabite New York.

I like French.
I live in New York.

6 / The Basics on Verbs

Tu is the singular informal or familiar pronoun that expresses you. Tu is used to


address a friend, relative, child, or pet. The u from tu is never dropped for purposes of
elision:
Tu es formidable.

Vous is the formal or polite pronoun that expresses you. In the singular, vous is
used to show respect and to address an older person, a stranger, or someone whom
you dont know well. Vous is the only pronoun that expresses you in the plural,
regardless of the degree of familiarity:
Monsieur, vous tes trs optimiste.
Vous tes mes bons amis.

Jacques est tomb. (Jack fell.)


Larbre est tomb. (The tree fell.)

Il est tomb. (He fell.)


Il est tomb. (It fell.)

Lisette est arrive. (Lisette arrived.)


La lettre est arrive. (The letter arrived.)

Elle est arrive. (She arrived.)


Elle est arrive. (It arrived.)

On refers to an indefinite person and may express: you, we, they, one, or
people in general. On is often used to replace nous:
Shall we go out?

Ils (they) and elles (they) refer to groups of people. Elles is used only to refer to a
group of females. Ils, however, may refer to a group of males or to a combined group
consisting of males and females (despite the number of each within the group):
Lise et Luc dansent. (Lise and Luke dance.)
Sue et Lise dansent. (Sue and Lise dance.)

Sir, you are very optimistic.


You are my good friends.

Il (he) and elle (she) may refer to a person or a thing:

On sort?

You are terrific.

Ils dansent. (They dance.)


Elles dansent. (They dance.)

Ce (C before a vowel) (it, he, she, this, that, these, those) is most frequently used
before the verb tre (to be) and replaces il, elle, ils, and elles in the following cases:

Before a modified noun: Cest un bon professeur. (Hes a good teacher.)


Before a name: Cest Marie. (Its Marie.)
Before a pronoun: Cest moi. (It is me.)
Before a superlative: Cest le moins cher. (Its the least expensive.)
In dates: Cest le onze juillet. (Its July 11th.)
In reference to a previous mentioned idea or action: Il est juste. Cest clair. (He is
fair. Thats clear.)
Before an adjective + + verb infinitive (to + unconjugated verb): Cest inutile
faire. (Thats useless to do.)

The Basics on Verbs


A verb expresses action, feeling, or existence and serves to command, emphasize, declare,
or deny something. In dictionaries, verbs are shown in their infinitive, the basic form of the
verb that is not conjugated and expresses to + action. French verbs must agree in number
(singular or plural) with their subjects in order to express tense (past, present, future), and
mood (indicative, imperative, conditional, subjunctive). The tense of the verb indicates

Verbals / 7
the time when an action occurred, while the mood indicates an attitude on the part of the
subject. The indicative mood states a fact. The imperative gives a command. The conditional
expresses what would happen under certain circumstances. The subjunctive expresses,
among other things, wishing, emotion, and doubt. The infinitive mood, the to form of the
verb, does not require agreement with a subject.
French verb infinitives consist of a stem and an infinitive ending. There are three regular
infinitive endings that categorize the three main verb families: er, ir, and re. Additionally
there are seven regular verbs ending in oir or evoir. Each regular verb within its respective
family follows the same rules of conjugation in all tenses and moods. If, therefore, you memorize the pattern for the er family, you then know the pattern for every single verb within
that family: parler (to speak), danser (to dance), chanter (to sing), just to name a few. Verbs
belonging to the er family that end in cer, ger, yer, e + consonant + er, and + consonant
+ er undergo internal spelling changes in certain tenses to preserve the sound of the conjugated verb form. Irregular verbs follow no particular pattern and must be memorized. Some
verbs have irregularities in only some tenses.

Verbals
In English, verbals (gerunds, participles, infinitives) are words that are derived from verbs
but are generally used as nouns or adjectives. Both present participles and gerunds end in
ing and are distinguishable only by their use in a sentence. A present participle is used only
as an adjective and a gerund is used only as a noun:
I saw an amusing film. (amusing = adjective = present participle)
Skiing is his favorite pastime. (skiing = noun = gerund)
In French, a present participle may be used as an adjective or after the preposition en to
express while or by:
Jai vu un film amusant.
Il parlait en regardant la tl.

I saw an amusing film.


He was speaking while watching television.

In French, because a present participle may not be used as a noun, gerunds are expressed by
the infinitive:
Faire du ski est son passetemps favori.

FORMING

THE

Skiing is his favorite pastime.

PRESENT PARTICIPLE

The present participle of all French verbs ends in ant, the English equivalent of ing. The
present participle of most French verbs, whether regular or irregular, is formed by dropping
the ons ending from the nous form of the present tense of the verb and adding ant, as
shown in Table 2.

8 / Verbals
Table 2 Forming the Present Participle

Infinitive

Nous Form of Present

Present Participle

parler (to speak)

nous parlons

parlant (speaking)

finir (to finish)

nous finissons

finissant (finishing)

attendre (to wait)

nous attendons

attendant (waiting)

aller (to go)

nous allons

allant (going)

boire (to drink)

nous buvons

buvant (drinking)

commencer (to begin)

nous commenons

commenant (beginning)

dire (to say, to tell)

nous disons

disant (saying)

faire (to do)

nous faisons

faisant (doing)

manger (to eat)

nous mangeons

mangeant (eating)

sortir (to go out)

nous sortons

sortant (going out)

venir (to come)

nous venons

venant (coming)

voir (to see)

nous voyons

voyant (seeing)

There are only three irregular present participles in French:

Verb

Nous Form

Present Participle

avoir (to have)

nous avons

ayant (having)

tre (to be)

nous sommes

tant (being)

savoir (to know)

nous savons

sachant (knowing)

USING

THE

PRESENT PARTICIPLE

The present participle is used:

With the preposition en to imply simultaneous actions:


Elle est tomb en courant. (She fell [while, when, upon, on, as she was] running.)
Tout may be used before en to add emphasis:
Il parle tout en mangeant. (He speaks even while eating.)

En + present participle may mean by. With the verbs commencer and finir, par +
infinitive is used provided there is no direct object:
Ils apprennent beaucoup en voyageant. (They learn a lot by traveling.)
As-tu commenc par parler franais? (Did you begin by speaking French?)
Elle finit par rire. (She ends up laughing.)
BUT:
Il finit lhistoire en riant. (He finishes the story by laughing.)

Without the preposition en to show a cause, a reason, a motive, a condition, a result,


an incidental circumstance, or an action that took place at the same moment as or
immediately before the action of the main verb. When used as a verb, the present
participle is invariablemeaning that there is no agreement of the present participle
with the subject:
tant fatigu, jai cess de travailler. (Being tired, I stopped working.)
Il est sorti, oubliant son portefeuille. (He went out, forgetting his wallet.)
Faisant ses devoirs, il a beaucoup appris. (Doing his homework, he learned a lot.)
Nous parlions en regardant le film. (We were speaking while watching the film.)
Elle est arrive pleurant. (She arrived crying.)

Verbals / 9

Some present participles may be used as adjectives and must, therefore, agree in
number and gender with the nouns or pronouns they modify. They generally follow
the noun or pronoun:
Nous avons entendu des nouvelles surprenantes. (We heard surprising news.)
Jai trouv ce livre intrigant. (I found that book intriguing.)

The present participle can, but rarely does, replace a relative clause (qui + verb):
Elle cherche des gens qui parlent franais. (She is looking for people who speak
French.)
Elle cherche des gens parlant franais. (She is looking for people speaking French.)

The present participle cannot be used:

To express the English present progressive form: to be + present participle. To


express that an action is in progress, use the present tense or tre en train de +
infinitive:
Ils jouent. (They are playing.)
Ils sont en train de jouer. (They are playing.)

To replace an English gerund (a noun ending in ing):


Aimes-tu le ski? (Do you like skiing?)
Faire des gteaux est une science. (Baking is a science.)
Nous le cacherons sans quelle le sache. (Well hide it without her knowing it.)

FORMING

THE

PAST PARTICIPLE

The past participle of regular French verbs is formed by dropping the infinitive ending and
adding the endings shown in Table 3.
Table 3 Forming the Past Participle

Verb Family

Infinitive

Past Participle

er

travailler

travaill (worked)

ir

choisir

choisi (chosen)

re

perdre

perdu (lost)

Some French verbs have irregular past participles that fall into the following groups:

Those ending in i:
rire (to laugh)
suffire (to suffice)
suivre (to follow)

ri
suffi
suivi

Those ending in is:


acqurir (to acquire)
asseoir (to seat)
conqurir (to conquer)
mettre (to put)
prendre (to take)

acquis
assis
conquis
mis
pris

10 / Verbals

Those ending in it:


conduire (to drive)
construire (to construct)
cuire (to cook)
dtruire (to destroy)
dire (to say, to tell)
crire (to write)
produire (to produce)
traduire (to translate)

Those ending in u:
apercevoir (to notice)
avoir (to have)
boire (to drink)
connatre (to know)
courir (to run)
croire (to believe)
devoir (to have to)
lire (to read)
paratre (to appear)
plaire (to please)
pouvoir (to be able to)
recevoir (to receive)
savoir (to know)
se taire (to be quiet)
tenir (to hold)
valoir (to be worth)
venir (to come)
vivre (to live)
vouloir (to want)

ouvert
offert
souffert

Those ending in int:


atteindre (to attain)
craindre (to fear)
teindre (to extinguish)
joindre (to join)
peindre (to paint)
plaindre (to pity)

aperu
eu
bu
connu
couru
cru
d
lu
paru
plu
pu
reu
su
tu
tenu
valu
venu
vcu
voulu

Those ending in ert:


ouvrir (to open)
offrir (to offer)
souffrir (to suffer)

conduit
construit
cuit
dtruit
dit
crit
produit
traduit

atteint
craint
teint
joint
peint
plaint

Those totally irregular:


tre (to be)
faire (to make, to do)
mourir (to die)
natre (to be born)

t
fait
mort
n

Any compound infinitive, an infinitive comprised of a prefix + a verb, forms its past participle according to the list above, for example:
comprendre (to understand)
couvrir (to cover)
permettre (to permit)
sourire (to smile)
soutenir (to support)

compris
couvert
permis
souri
soutenu

Verbals / 11

USING

THE

PAST PARTICIPLE

In French, as in English, the past participle is used to form the seven compound (perfect)
tenses, to form the passive voice with tre (to be), and as an adjective:
Jai tudi pour mon examen.
Le lit na pas t fait.
Les fentres sont ouvertes.

I studied for my test.


The bed wasnt made.
The windows are open.

In French, compound tenses may be formed with avoir or tre as the helping (auxiliary) verb
that precedes the past participle. In order to select the correct helping verb, keep the following in mind:

The overwhelming majority of verbs require avoir as their helping verb.


Reflexive verbs (those whose infinitive is preceded by the reflexive pronoun sesee
Appendix D) always use tre as their helping verb: Je me suis lav la figure. (I washed
my face.)
The most common intransitive verbs (those that do not take a direct object) use tre
as their helping verb. These verbs generally show motion or change of place, state, or
condition and include those shown in Table 4.

Table 4 Verbs That Use tre as Their Helping Verb

Infinitive

Meaning

Past Participle

aller

to go

all

arriver

to arrive

arriv

descendre *

to go down

descendu

devenir

to become

devenu

entrer

to enter

entr
mont

monter *

to go up

mourir

to die

mort

natre

to be born

partir

to leave

parti

passer *

to pass by

pass

rentrer *

to return home

rentr

rester

to remain

rest

retourner *

to return

retourn

revenir

to come back

revenu

sortir *

to go out

sorti

tomber

to fall

tomb

venir

to come

venu

Verbs with an asterisk in Table 4 use avoir instead of tre when they are followed by a direct
object. Note the difference in meaning:
Jai descendu lescalier.
Jai descendu mon livre.
Je suis descendu vite.

I went downstairs.
I took my book downstairs.
I went down quickly.

Il a mont lescalier.
Il a mont son livre.
Il est mont lentement.

He went upstairs.
He took his book upstairs.
He went up slowly.

12 / Verbals
Jai pass une semaine Paris.
Je suis pass par ta maison.

I spent a week in Paris.


I passed by your house.

Elle a rentr son chat.


Elle est rentre tt.

She brought her cat in.


She came home early.

A-t-il retourn la table?


Est-il retourn du Japon?

Did he turn the table over?


Did he return from Japan?

Elles ont sorti leur argent.


Elles sont sorties.

They took out their money.


They went out.

AGREEMENT

OF

PAST PARTICIPLES

Past participles of verbs conjugated with avoir agree in gender (add e for the feminine) and
number (add s for the plural) with a preceding direct object noun, pronoun, or antecedent
unless the direct object is linked to the infinitive and not to the conjugated verb:
Je ne lai pas entendu(e).
Regarde la lettre que jai crite.
Ces films? Je ne les ai pas encore vus.

I didnt hear him (her).


Look at the letter I wrote.
Those films? I havent seen them yet.

Les filles? Je les ai entendu chanter.

The girls? I heard them singing.

BUT:

Past participles of verbs conjugated with tre agree in gender and number with the subject:
Elle est arrive en retard.
Nous sommes venu(e)s lheure.

She arrived late.


We came on time.

Past participles of reflexive verbs agree with the reflexive pronoun only when that pronoun
is acting as a direct object. When the reflexive pronoun serves as an indirect object (the direct
object follows the verb), there is no agreement:
Elles se sont laves.
Elles se sont lav les cheveux.

They washed themselves.


They washed their hair.

THE INFINITIVE
Although the infinitive is a verb form, it may be used as a subject:
Mentir est un pch.

Lying is a sin.

As a command (generally on signs and in recipes):


vendre.
Ne pas toucher.

For sale.
Dont touch.

Laisser refroidir.
Faire bouillir leau.
Faire venir le docteur.

Allow to cool.
Boil the water.
Send for the doctor.

Verbals / 13
Or as part of a question or an exclamation:
Quoi faire?
Oh, avoir encore vingt ans!

What should we do?


Oh, to be twenty again!

Certain French verbs are followed by the infinitive, as shown in Table 5.


Table 5 Verbs Followed by the Infinitive
aimer

to like, to love

aimer mieux

to prefer

aller

to go

compter

to intend

dsirer

to wish, to want

dtester

to hate

devoir

to have to

entendre

to hear

envoyer

to send

esprer

to hope

faillir

to almost do, to just miss doing

faire

to make

falloir

to be necessary

laisser

to let, to allow

oser

to dare

penser

to intend

pouvoir

to be able

prfrer

to prefer

prtendre

to claim

savoir

to know how to

souhaiter

to wish

valoir mieux

to be better

venir

to come

voir

to see

vouloir

to wish, to want

Jaime danser.
Sais-tu cuisiner?

I like to dance.
Do you know how to cook?

The infinitive is used after all prepositions except en (which is followed by a present participle) and aprs (which is followed by the past infinitive). Many verbs require the preposition
before the infinitive, as shown in Table 6.
Table 6 Verbs Requiring Before the Infinitive
aider

to help

samuser

to have fun

apprendre

to learn (teach) to

arriver

to succeed in

sattendre

to expect to

avoir

to have to

chercher

to try to

14 / The Basics on Verbs


commencer

to begin to

consentir

to consent to

consister

to consist of

continuer

to continue to

se dcider

to decide to

se disposer

to be disposed

demander

to ask to

encourager

to encourage to

enseigner

to teach to

forcer

to force to

shabituer

to get used to

hsiter

to hesitate to

inciter

to incite to

sintresser

to be interested in

inviter

to invite to

se mettre

to begin to

obliger

to oblige to

passer (du temps)

to spend (time)

penser

to think about

persister

to persist in

se plaire

to take pleasure in, to enjoy

se prparer

to prepare to

renoncer

to give up

rester

to remain to

russir

to succeed in

servir

to serve to

songer

to think about

suffire

to be enough to

tenir

to insist on

travailler

to work to

Il commence pleuvoir.
a ne sert rien.

It is beginning to rain.
That serves no purpose.

Some verbs require the preposition de before the infinitive, as shown in Table 7.
Table 7 Verbs Requiring de Before the Infinitive
accepter de

to accept

accuser de

to accuse of

sagir de

to be a question of

achever de

to finish

sarrter de

to stop

blamer de

to blame

cesser de

to stop

choisir de

to choose

se contenter de

to be satisfied with

continuer de

to continue

convenir de

to be fitting

Verbals / 15
dcider de

to decide

dfendre de

to forbid

se dpcher de

to hurry

sefforcer de

to strive

empcher de

to prevent from

essayer de

to try

stonner de

to be surprised at

viter de

to avoid

fliciter de

to congratulate on

finir de

to finish

se garder de

to take care not to

menacer de

to threaten

mriter de

to deserve

ngliger de

to neglect

soccuper de

to take care of

offrir de

to offer

oublier de

to forget

parler de

to speak about

se passer de

to do without

persuader de

to persuade

se plaindre de

to complain about

prier de

to beg, to ask

promettre de

to promise

proposer de

to propose

recommander de

to recommend

refuser de

to refuse

regretter de

to regret

remercier de

to thank for

reprocher de

to reproach

rver de

to dream about

rire de

to laugh at

risquer de

to risk

se souvenir de

to remember

suggrer de

to suggest

tcher de

to try

se vanter de

to boast of

venir de

to have just

Jai oubli de te tlphoner.


Lenfant tche de nager.

I forgot to call you.


The child is trying to swim.

Some verbs require the pattern quelquun + de before the infinitive, as shown in Table 8.
Table 8 Verbs Requiring quelquun + de
commander quelquun de

to order (someone) to (do something)

conseiller quelquun de

to advise (someone) to (do something)

dfendre quelquun de

to forbid (someone) to (do something)

demander quelquun de

to ask (someone) to (do something)

16 / Verbals
dire quelquun de

to tell (someone) to (do something)

crire quelquun de

to write (to someone) to (do something)

interdire quelquun de

to forbid (someone) to (do something)

offrir quelquun de

to offer (someone) to (do something)

ordonner quelquun de

to order (someone) to (do something)

permettre quelquun de

to allow (someone) to (do something)

promettre quelquun de

to promise (someone) to (do something)

proposer quelquun de

to propose (to someone) to (do something)

recommander quelquun de

to recommend (to someone) to (do something)

reprocher quelquun de

to reproach (someone) for something

suggrer quelquun de

to suggest (to someone) to (do something)

tlphoner quelquun de

to telephone (someone) to (do something)

La mre permet ses enfants de sortir.


Jai suggr mon amie de maider.

The mother allows her children to go out.


I suggested that my friend help me.

Two verbs that require quelquun + before an infinitive are


enseigner quelquun
apprendre quelquun

to teach (someone) to (do something)


to teach (someone) to (do something)

Japprends mon neveu conduire.

I am teaching my nephew to drive.

Some prepositions are commonly followed by an infinitive.


afin de
au lieu de
avant de
pour
sans

in order to
instead of
before
in order to, for the purpose of
without

Paul regarde la tl au lieu de faire


ses devoirs.

Paul watches television instead of doing


his homework.

Note:

After verbs of motion, the preposition pour is generally omitted.


Il est descendu couter la radio.

He came downstairs to listen to the radio.

Par may follow commencer and finir in certain idiomatic expressions.


Il a commenc par parler franais.
Elles ont fini par rire.

He began (by) speaking French.


They ended up (by) laughing.

Most nouns and adjectives are followed by de before an infinitive.


Cest une bonne ide de savoir nager.
Elle est heureuse de rentrer.

Its a good idea to know how to swim.


She is happy to go home.

Note:

Certain adjectives and nouns may be followed by before an infinitive that implies a
passive meaning.
Ce livre est difficile comprendre.
Ce tricot est facile tricoter.

This book is hard to understand.


This sweater is easy to knit.

French Tenses and Moods / 17

The preposition is used with certain nouns before an infinitive to express purpose or
function:
Regarde ma chambre coucher.
On nemploie plus une machine crire.

Look at my bedroom.
We no longer use a typewriter.

The preposition is used before an infinitive after le dernier (the last), le seul (the
only), le premier (the first), and other numerals, and after a few adjectives showing
tendency, fitness, and purpose, such as habile (skillful), lent (slow), and prt (ready).
Il est le dernier arriver.
Nous sommes prts partir.

He is the last to arrive.


We are ready to leave.

THE PAST INFINITIVE


The past infinitive is used to express a previous action regardless of the English translation
and also after the preposition aprs. It is formed by using the correct helping verb (avoir or
tre) in its infinitive form and the past participle of the verb showing the action.
On la punie pour avoir menti.
Elle est partie sans avoir dit merci.
Aprs avoir dormi, ils se sont habills.
Aprs tre arrive, elle sest assise.

NEGATING

They punished her for lying.


She left without saying thank you.
After having eaten, they got dressed.
After having arrived, she sat down.

THE INFINITIVE

Both parts of a negative precede the present infinitive.


Je vous conseille de ne rien faire.
Le docteur a dit de ne pas manger.

I advise you not to do anything.


The doctor said not to eat.

With the past infinitive, both parts of a negative may precede the helping verb (avoir or tre)
or the second part of the negative may be placed between the helping verb and the past
participle.
Il regrette de ne pas mavoir dit au revoir.
Il regrette de ne mavoir pas dit au revoir.

He regrets not saying good-bye to me.

Note: Personne, nul, and aucun always follow the infinitive or the past participle.
Elle est triste de ne rencontrer personne.
Elle est triste de navoir rencontr personne.

She is sad not to meet anyone.


She is sad not to have met anyone.

French Tenses and Moods


There are seven simple and seven corresponding compound tenses and moods in French.
Tense refers to a time periodpresent, past, or futurewhereas a mood shows how the subject views the action. The tenses in French are the present, the imperfect, the past definite,
and the future. The moods in French are the indicative (states a fact), the conditional (states
what would happen under certain circumstances), the subjunctive (expresses a subjective
response or attitude), the infinitive (the to form of the verb), and the imperative (command). A simple tense or mood consists of one verb tense form to express an action whereas

18 / French Tenses and Moods


a compound tense requires the use of the appropriate helping verb (avoir or tre) followed by
a past participle expressing the action. Table 9 compares seven simple and compound tenses
and moods in French.
Table 9

Simple Tenses and Corresponding Compound Tenses/Moods

Simple Tense/Mood

Compound Tense/Mood

Present

Past Indefinite (Compound Past)

le prsent

le pass compos

do/does; am/are/is

have, did + past participle

Je parle.

Jai parl.

I speak, I do speak, I am speaking.

I spoke, I have spoken, I did speak.

Imperfect

Pluperfect

limparfait

le plus-que-parfait

was; used to

had + past participle

Tu parlais.

Tu avais parl.

You were speaking. You used to speak.

You had spoken.

Past Definite (Simple Past)

Past Anterior

le pass simple

le pass antrieur

have, did

had + past participle

Il parla.

Il eut parl.

He spoke.

He had spoken.

Future

Future Perfect (Future Anterior)

le futur

le futur antrieur

will

will have + past participle

Nous parlerons.

Nous aurons parl.

We will speak.

We will have spoken.

Conditional

Conditional Perfect

le conditionnel

le conditionnel pass

would

would have + past participle

Vous parleriez.

Vous auriez parl.

You would speak.

You would have spoken.

Present Subjunctive

Past Subjunctive

le prsent du subjonctif

le pass du subjonctif

do/does; am/are/is; will; may

have/did/may have + past participle

ils parlent

ils aient parl

they (do, are, will, may) speak(ing)

they (did speak), (will, may) have spoken

Imperfect Subjunctive

Pluperfect Subjunctive

limparfait du subjonctif

le plus-que-parfait du subjonctif

have/did/might

had/might have + past participle

on parlt

on et parl

they (have, did, might) speak

they (had spoken) might have spoken

Note the following:

Each compound tense requires a form of the helping verbavoir or tre (which is
conjugated in the corresponding simple tense) and a past participle. See page 139 for
the complete conjugation of avoir and page 54 for the complete conjugation of tre.
The imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive appear only in literary and historical works
and should be learned only for the purpose of recognition in those works.

French Tenses and Moods / 19

THE PRESENT

AND THE

PASS COMPOS

The present indicative is a simple tense that expresses what is happening now. Its corresponding compound is the pass compos, a tense expressing an action or state of being that
occurred at a particular time in the past.

Forming the Present Tense of Regular Verbs


To form the present tense of a regular verb in either the er, ir, or re family, simply drop the
infinitive ending and add the appropriate endings for each subject shown in Table 10.
Table 10 The Present Tense of Regular Verbs

parler (to speak)

finir (to finish)

vendre (to sell)

je parle

je finis

je vends

tu parles

tu finis

tu vends

il/elle/on parle

il/elle/on finit

il/elle/on vend

nous parlons

nous finissons

nous vendons

vous parlez

vous finissez

vous vendez

ils/elles parlent

ils/elles finissent

ils/elles vendent

The verb rompre (to break) and other compound verbs that include rompre in their stems,
such as corrompre (to corrupt) and interrompre (to interrupt), add t to the third person singular form: il rompt, il corrompt, il interrompt.
Jaime le franais.
Vous maigrissez.
Il rompt toujours ses promesses.

I like French.
You are getting thin.
He always breaks his promises.

Forming the Present of oir and evoir Verbs


To form the present tense of the seven regular verbs that end in oir and evoir, drop the oir
or evoir infinitive ending and add the endings shown in Table 11. All other verbs ending in
oir (avoir, voir, etc.) are irregular and require memorization. Verbs ending in cevoir change
c to before o and u to preserve the soft s sound.
Table 11 The Present of oir and evoir Verbs

Infinitive

Meaning

Subject

Ending

apercevoir

to notice

je

ois

Conjugated Verb
aperois

concevoir

to conceive

tu

ois

conois

dcevoir

to deceive

il

oit

doit

devoir

to owe, have to

elle

oit

doit

percevoir

to perceive

on

oit

peroit

recevoir

to receive

nous

evons

recevons

redevoir

to still owe

vous

evez

redevez

recevoir

to receive

ils

oivent

reoivent

Tu dois tudier.
Je reois le journal chaque jour.

You have to study.


I receive the newspaper every day.

20 / French Tenses and Moods

Forming the Present of Verbs with Spelling


Changes
Regular verbs with spelling changes all belong to the er verb family. They are often called
shoe verbs because their changes often occur in the je, tu, il, and ils forms, creating the
effect of a shoe:
je

nous

tu

vous

il, elle, on

ils, elles

There are five categories of verbs that require spelling changes:

Verbs ending in cer: Change c to before a or o to maintain a soft sound. In the


present, this occurs only in the nous form:

prononcer (to prononce): je prononce, tu prononces, il prononce, nous prononons,


vous prononcez, ils prononcent
Other cer verbs include annoncer, avancer, commencer, effacer (to erase), lancer (to
throw), menacer, placer (to place), remplacer (to replace), and renoncer (to give
up).

Nous commenons la leon.


Je renonce fumer.

Verbs ending in ger: Insert a silent e between g and a and g and o to maintain a soft
sound. In the present, this occurs only in the nous form:

manger (to eat): je mange, tu manges, il mange, nous mangeons, vous mangez, ils
mangent
Other ger verbs include arranger, changer, corriger (to correct), dmnager (to
move), dranger (to disturb), diriger (to direct), nager (to swim), obliger, partager (to
divide), plonger (to dive), ranger (to tidy), songer (to think about), and voyager.

Manges-tu des legumes?


Tu ne me drange pas.

Do you eat vegetables?


You arent bothering me.

Verbs ending in yer: Change y to i before silent e in all shoe forms:

employer (to use): jemploie, tu emploies, il emploie, nous employons, vous


employez, ils emploient
Other yer verbs include ennuyer (to bother), envoyer (to send), essuyer (to wipe),
nettoyer (to clean), and renvoyer (to fire).
Verbs that end in ayer may or may not change the y to i before a silent e. These
verbs include essayer (to try) and payer.

Je te paie demain.
Nettoie ta chambre.

We begin the lesson.


Im giving up smoking.

I will pay you tomorrow.


Clean your room.

Verbs ending in e + consonant + er: Change the silent e before the infinitive ending
to for all forms within the shoe:

acheter (to buy): je achte, tu achtes, il achte, nous achetons, vous achetez, ils
achtent
Other e + consonant + er verbs include achever (to finish), amener (to bring),
lever (to bring up, to raise), emmener (to lead away), enlever (to remove), geler (to
freeze), lever (to raise), peser (to weigh), and promener (to walk).
Two common verbs, appeler (to call) and jeter (to throw), along with any related
compound verb, such as rappeler (to recall), rejeter (to reject), projeter (to project),
double the consonant before the infinitive ending in all forms within the shoe:
appeler: jappelle, tu appelles, il appelle, nous appelons, vous appelez, ils appellent
jeter: je jette, tu jettes, il jette, nous jetons, vous jetez, ils jettent

French Tenses and Moods / 21


Jachte un cadeau mon amie.
Luc promne son chien dans le parc.

Im buying a gift for my friend.


Luke is walking his dog in the park.

Verbs ending in + consonant + er: Change to within the shoe:

clbrer (to celebrate): je clbre, tu clbres, il clbre, nous clbrons, vous clbrez,
ils clbrent
Other + consonant + er verbs include clbrer, esprer (to hope), possder (to
possess), prfrer, protger (to protect), and rpter (to repeat).
Je clbre mon anniversaire en mai.
I celebrate my birthday in May.
Nous prfrons aller au cinema.
We prefer going to the movies.

The Present of Irregular Verbs


Irregular verbs do not adhere to any set pattern of rules and, therefore, must be memorized.
The most common present tense irregular verbs, which can be found in the charts that follow, are

aller (to go)


asseoir (to seat)
avoir (to have)
battre (to beat)
boire (to drink)
conduire (to drive)
Verbs like conduire include construire (to construct), inscrire (to register), produire (to
produce), and traduire (to translate).
connatre (to know, to be acquainted with)
Verbs like connatre include paratre (to appear), disparatre (to disappear), and
reconnatre (to recognize).
courir (to run)
craindre (to fear)
Verbs like craindre include atteindre (to reach), teindre (to extinguish), joindre (to
join), peindre (to paint), and plaindre (to pity).
croire (to believe)
cueillir (to pick)
devoir (to have to, to owe)
dire (to say, to tell)
distraire (to distract)
dormir (to sleep)
Verbs like dormir keep the consonant before the ir ending in all plural forms:
endormir (to put to sleep), mentir (to lie), partir (to go away), sentir (to feel, to smell),
servir (to serve), sortir (to go out).
crire (to write)
tre (to be)
faire (to make, to do)
falloir (to be necessary)
fuir (to flee)
lire (to read)
mettre (to put [on])
Verbs like mettre include commettre (to commit), permettre (to permit), promettre (to
promise), and remettre (to put back).
offrir (to offer)
ouvrir (to open)
paratre (to seem)
A verb like paratre is apparatre (to appear).
plaire (to please)
pleuvoir (to rain)

22 / French Tenses and Moods

pouvoir (to be able to)


prendre (to take)
Verbs like prendre include apprendre (to learn), comprendre (to understand), reprendre
(to take back), and surprendre (to surprise).
recevoir (to receive)
Verbs like recevoir include apercevoir (to notice) and concevoir (to conceive).
rire (to laugh)
A verb like rire is sourire (to smile).
savoir (to know [a fact])
suivre (to follow):
A verb like suivre is poursuivre (to pursue).
tenir (to hold)
Verbs like tenir include appartenir (to belong to), obtenir (to obtain), and retenir (to
retain)
vaincre (to defeat)
A verb like vaincre is convaincre (to convince).
valoir (to be worth)
venir (to come)
Verbs like venir include devenir (to become) and revenir (to come back).
vivre (to live)
A verb like vivre is survivre (to survive).
voir (to see)
vouloir (to wish, to want)
Nous avons une grande maison.
Je suis amricaine.
Il fait chaud aujourdhui.

We have a big house.


I am American.
Its hot today.

The Present of Impersonal Verbs


Some verbs are only conjugated in the third person singular in all tenses where il means it.
Consult the charts that follow to find these verbs in other tenses.
advenir

il advient

it happens

bruiner

il bruine

its drizzling

convenir

il convient

its suitable

dgeler

il dgle

its thawing

falloir

il faut

its necessary

geler

il gle

its freezing

grler

il grle

its hailing

importer

il importe

its important

neiger

il neige

its snowing

pleuvoir

il pleut

its raining

regeler

il regle

its freezing again

tonner

il tonne

its thundering

Il faut tudier pour russir.


Il pleut verse.

It is necessary to study to succeed.


Its raining cats and dogs.

French Tenses and Moods / 23

The Present of Reflexive Verbs


A reflexive verb, one that shows that the subject is acting upon itself, can be identified by the
reflexive pronoun se that precedes the infinitive. In the reflexive construction the subject
and the reflexive pronoun refer to the same person. The reflexive pronoun may act either as
a direct or an indirect object. Reflexive verbs, like all other verbs, are conjugated in the various tenses according to their infinitive ending and to any spelling changes or irregularities.
Reflexive verbs, unlike other verbs however, must be preceded by their appropriate reflexive
pronoun:
Je me lave.
Tu te rases.
Il ne se lve pas.
Elle ne se maquille pas.

Nous prparons-nous bien?


Vous brossez-vous les cheveux?
Ne samusent-ils pas?
Ne se reposent-elles pas?

Many verbs can be non-reflexive or reflexive depending upon whether the subject is acting
upon itself or upon someone or something else.
Elle lave le chien.
Elle se lave.

She is washing the dog.


She is washing herself.

When there is one subject that is followed by a conjugated verb and an infinitive, the reflexive pronoun is placed before the infinitive:
Je vais me rveiller tt.
Il ne doit pas se peigner.

Im going to wake up early.


He doesnt have to comb his hair.

A list of common reflexive verbs appears in Appendix D.

Uses of the Present Tense


The present tense is used to:

Express what the subject does or is doing at the current time:


Jean regarde la tlvision.

Express an action that will take place in the near future:


Je te tlphone ce soir.

Ill call you tonight.

Ask for instructions:


Je viens midi?

John watches television.


John is watching television.
John does watch television.

Shall I come at noon?

Express an action or event that began in the past and is continuing in the present:
Depuis quand (combien de temps)
habites-tu Paris?
Jhabite Paris depuis un an.

How long have you been living in Paris?


Ive been living in Paris for a year.

Other ways to express the same question and answer are


Combien de temps y a-t-il que tu habites Paris?
Il y a un an que jhabite Paris.
a fait combien de temps que tu habites Paris?
a fait un an que jhabite Paris.
Voil un an que jhabite Paris.

24 / French Tenses and Moods

Forming the Pass Compos


The pass compos (the compound past), also referred to as the past indefinite, is comprised
of two parts: a helping verb conjugated in the present tense (avoir: jai, tu as, il a, elle a, nous
avons, vous avez, ils ont, elles ont OR tre: je suis, tu es, il est, elle est, nous sommes, vous tes,
ils sont, elles sont) and a past participle (refer to Tables 3 and 4):
Henri a mang.
Elles sont alles au cinma.
Nous nous sommes rveills tt.

Henry ate.
They went to the movies.
We woke up early.

The pass compos is negated by placing ne and the other negative word around pronouns
that precede it and the conjugated helping verb:
Henri na rien mang.
Elles ne sont jamais alles au cinma.
Nous ne nous sommes pas rveills tt.

Henry didnt eat anything.


They never went to the movies.
We didnt wake up early.

Inversion may be used to form a question in the pass compos by reversing the order of the
subject pronoun and the conjugated helping verb:
Henri (n) a-t-il (rien) mang?
Did(nt) Henry eat (anything)?
(Ne) sont-elles (jamais) alles au cinma? Did(nt) they (ever) go to the movies?
(Ne) nous sommes-nous (pas) rveills tt? Did(nt) we wake up early?

Uses of the Pass Compos


The pass compos is used to express:

A specific action or event that was started and completed at a definite time in the past
(even if the time isnt mentioned):
Nous avons jou au football.
La petite fille est tombe.
Ils se sont dpchs.

A specific action or event that occurred at a specific point in past time:


Mavez-vous tlphon hier?
Il est arriv deux heures.
Ne tes-tu pas couch avant minuit?

We played soccer.
The little girl fell.
They hurried.

Did you call me yesterday?


He arrived at two oclock.
Did you go to bed before midnight?

A specific action or event that was repeated for a stated number of times:
Jai lu ce roman trois fois.
Ils sont alls en Europe deux fois.
Il sest ras une seule fois hier.

I read that book three times.


They went to Europe twice.
He shaved only once yesterday.

The following words and expressions often require the use of the pass compos because they
specify a definite past time:

lanne passe (last year)


avant-hier (the day before yesterday)
dabord (at first)
enfin (finally)
ensuite (then, next)
lt pass/lhiver pass (last summer/last winter)
finalement (finally)
une fois (one time)

French Tenses and Moods / 25

hier (yesterday)
hier soir (last night)
lautre jour (the other day)
ce jour-l (that day)
un jour (one day)
le mois pass (dernier) (last month)
la semaine passe (dernire) (last week)
soudain (suddenly)
tout dun () coup (suddenly)
Je suis all au match de football hier.
Tout dun coup elle a ternu.
Je me suis couch tt hier soir.

I went to the soccer match yesterday.


All of a sudden she sneezed.
I went to bed early last night.

For reflexive verbs in the pass compos and in all compound tenses, the reflexive pronoun
is placed before the conjugated helping verb (tre). The past participle agrees in number
and gender with the preceding reflexive pronoun only when that pronoun serves as a direct
object. When the reflexive pronoun serves as an indirect object, there is no agreement of the
past participle.
Elle sest lave.
Elle sest lav la figure.

THE IMPERFECT

She washed herself.


She washed her face.

AND THE

PLUPERFECT

The imperfect is a simple tense that expresses or describes continuous, repeated, habitual, or
incomplete actions, situations, or events in the past. The imperfect describes what was going
on at an unspecific time in the past or what used to happen. Its corresponding compound is
the pluperfect, a tense expressing an action or state of being that had taken place and that
had been completed in the past before another action took place.

Forming the Imperfect of Regular Verbs


To form the imperfect tense of a regular verb in either the er, ir, or re family, simply drop
the ons ending from the nous form of the present tense and add the appropriate endings for
each subject shown in Table 12.
Table 12 The Imperfect of Regular Verbs

parler (to speak)

finir (to finish)

perdre (to lose)

nous parlons

nous finissons

nous perdons

je parlais

je finissais

je perdais

tu parlais

tu finissais

tu perdais

il/elle/on parlait

il/elle/on finissait

il/elle/on perdait

nous parlions

nous finissions

nous perdions

vous parliez

vous finissiez

vous perdiez

ils/elles parlaient

ils/elles finissaient

ils/elles perdaient

Je regardais les enfants jouer.


Il choisissait toujours la glace comme
dessert.
Ce marchand vendait les vtements
de sport.

I was watching the children play.


He would always choose ice cream as
dessert.
This merchant used to sell sports
clothes.

26 / French Tenses and Moods


Note: Verbs such as tudier (to study), rire (to laugh), sourire (to smile), and vrifier (to check)
end in ions in the present. When ons is dropped to form the imperfect, two is are present
in the nous and vous forms:
Nous tudiions.
Riiez-vous?

We were studying.
Were you laughing?

Forming the Present Imperfect of Verbs


with Spelling Changes
Verbs ending in cer change c to before a to maintain the soft c sound in the je, tu, il
(elle), and ils (elles) forms:
Je lanais la balle.
Effaais-tu les fautes?
Le spectacle commenait.
Les voitures avanaient rapidement.

I was throwing the ball.


Were you erasing the mistakes?
The show was beginning.
The cars were advancing quickly.

Verbs ending in ger change g to ge before a to maintain the soft g sound in the je, tu, il
(elle), and ils (elles) forms:
Quand jtais jeune, je mangeais peu.
Voyageais-tu beaucoup?
Ma soeur me drangeait toujours.
Dirigeaient-ils une grande enterprise?

When I was young, I would eat little.


Did you used to travel a lot?
My sister would always bother me.
Did they manage a big company?

The Imperfect of Irregular Verbs


All remaining verbs, including reflexive verbs, follow the same rules for the formation of the
imperfect as do regular verbs, except for the verb tre. A list of the nous form of the most
common irregular verbs follows. Simply drop the ons ending and add the imperfect endings
shown above:

aller (to go): nous allons


avoir (to have): nous avons
boire (to drink): nous buvons
conduire (to drive): nous conduisons
connatre (to know): nous connaissons
courir (to run): nous courons
craindre (to fear): nous craignons
croire (to believe): nous croyons
devoir (to have to): nous devons
dire (to say, to tell): nous disons
dormir (to sleep): nous dormons
crire (to write): nous crivons
faire (to make, to do): nous faisons
lire (to read): nous lisons
mettre (to put): nous mettons
offrir (to offer): nous offrons
ouvrir (to open): nous ouvrons
plaire (to please): nous plaisons
pouvoir (to be able to): nous pouvons
prendre (to take): nous prenons
recevoir (to receive): nous recevons

French Tenses and Moods / 27

savoir (to know): nous savons


suivre (to follow): nous suivons
tenir (to hold): nous tenons
valoir (to be worth): nous valons
venir (to come): nous venons
vivre (to live): nous vivons
voir (to see): nous voyons
vouloir (to wish, to want): nous voulons
Ils venaient toujours lheure.
Savais-tu les rgles?

They always came on time.


Did you know the rules?

Notes:

For tre, use the imperfect endings with the stem: t: jtais, tu tais, il (elle) tait,
nous tions, vous tiez, ils (elles) taient.
Nous tions heureux.

We were happy.

For reflexive verbs, simply place the reflexive pronoun before the verb.
Ils se dpchaient.

They were hurrying.

The Imperfect of Impersonal Verbs


For verbs conjugated in the third person singular where il means it, consult the chart that
follows to find these verbs in the imperfect.
advenir

il advenait

it was happening

bruiner

il bruinait

it was drizzling

convenir

il convenait

it was suitable

dgeler

il dgelait

it was thawing

falloir

il fallait

it was necessary

geler

il gelait

it was freezing

grler

il grlait

it was hailing

importer

il importait

it was important

neiger

il neigeait

it was snowing

pleuvoir

il pleuvait

it was raining

regeler

il regelait

it was freezing again

tonner

il tonnait

it was thundering

Il importait faire le mnage.


Il neigeait.

It was important to do the housework.


It was snowing.

Uses of the Imperfect


The imperfect is used to:

Describe ongoing, continuous, habitual, or repeated actions or events in the past


(which may or may not have been completed):
Je travaillais tous les jours.

I worked (used to work, would work) every day.

28 / French Tenses and Moods

Describe what was going on when something else happened:


Je travaillais quand il ma tlphon.

Describe a person, place, thing, or state of mind:


Les oiseaux chantaient.

The birds were singing.

Express the day, month, or time of day:


Ctait samedi.

I was working when he called.

It was Saturday.

Express an action or event that began in the past and continued for some time in the
past:
Depuis quand (combien de temps)
habitais-tu Paris?
Jhabitais Paris depuis un an.

How long had you been living


in Paris?
I had been living in Paris for a year.

Other ways to express the same question and answer are


Combien de temps y avait-t-il que tu habitais Paris?
Il y avait un an que jhabitais Paris.
a faisait combien de temps que tu habitais Paris?
a faisait un an que jhabitais Paris.
Voil un an que jhabitais Paris.

Express two actions occurring simultaneously:


Elle riait pendant que je pleurais.

She was laughing while I was crying.

The following words and expressions often require the use of the imperfect because they usually imply repetitious or habitual past actions:

autrefois (formerly)
chaque jour (semaine, mois, anne) (each [every] day [week, month, year])
de temps autre (from time to time)
de temps en temps (from time to time)
dhabitude (usually)
dordinaire (usually, generally)
en ce temps-l (at that time)
en gnral (generally)
frquemment (frequently)
gnralement (generally)
habituellement (habitually)
parfois (sometimes)
quelquefois (sometimes)
souvent (often)
toujours (always)
tous les jours (mois) (every day [month])
tout le temps (all the time)
Mon mari jouait au golf tout le temps.
Nous allions souvent en France.

My husband used to play golf all the time.


We often went to France.

Verbs that indicate a state of mind in the past are generally used in the imperfect. When the
state of mind occurred at a specific time in the past, however, the pass compos is used:

aimer (to like, to love)


croire (to believe)
dsirer (to desire)
esprer (to hope)
tre (to be)

French Tenses and Moods / 29

penser (to think)


pouvoir (to be able to)
prfrer (to prefer)
regretter (to regret, to be sorry)
savoir (to know [how])
vouloir (to want)
Je ne pouvais pas continuer travailler.
Soudain, je nai pas pu continuer
travailler.

I wasnt able to continue working.


Suddenly I wasnt able to continue
working.

Forming the Pluperfect


The pluperfect is comprised of two parts: a helping verb conjugated in the present tense
(avoir: javais, tu avais, il avait, elle avait, nous avions, vous aviez, ils avaient, elles avaient OR
tre: jtais, tu tais, il tait, elle tait, nous tions, vous tiez, ils taient, elles taient) and a past
participle (refer to Tables 3 and 4):
Ils avaient parl.
Elle est arrive tt.
Tu ttais prpar avec soin.

They had spoken.


She had arrived early.
You had prepared yourself carefully.

The pluperfect is negated by placing ne and the other negative word around pronouns that
precede it and the conjugated helping verb:
Ils navaient pas parl.
Elle ntait jamais arrive tt.
Tu ne ttais pas prpar avec soin.

They hadnt spoken.


She had never arrived early.
You hadnt prepared yourself carefully.

Inversion may be used to form a question in the pluperfect by reversing the order of the subject pronoun and the conjugated helping verb:
(N) Avaient-ils (pas) parl?
(N) tait-elle (jamais) arrive tt?
(Ne) Tes-tu (pas) prpar avec soin.

Had(nt) they spoken?


Had(nt) she (ever) arrived early?
Had(nt) you prepared yourself carefully?

Use of the Pluperfect


The pluperfect is used to express a specific action or event that had taken place and had been
completed before another action (not necessarily mentioned, but if so, generally in the pass
compos or the imperfect) took place.
Y aviez-vous rflchi avant dagir ?
Il tait rest la maison.
Quand je me suis habill, je mtais
dj lav.
Quand jallais lcole, mes parents
taient dj partis au bureau.

THE PAST DEFINITE

Had you thought about it before acting?


He had stayed home.
When I got dressed, I had already washed
myself.
When I would go to school, my parents had
already left for the office.

AND THE

PAST ANTERIOR

The past definite (pass simple) is a simple tense that is used primarily in formal, literary,
and historical writings to express completed actions, situations, or events in the past. The
pass compos is used in conversation and informal writing. The corresponding compound

30 / French Tenses and Moods


of the past definite is the past anterior (pass antrieur), a tense expressing an action or state
of being that had taken place and that had been completed in the past before another action
took place.

Forming the Past Definite of Regular Verbs


To form the past definite of a regular verb in either the er, ir, or re family, simply drop the
infinitive ending and add the appropriate endings for each subject shown in Table 13.
Table 13 The Past Definite of Regular Verbs

travailler (to work)

choisir (to choose)

rpondre (to answer)

je travaillai

je choisis

je rpondis

tu travaillas

tu choisis

tu rpondis

il/elle/on travailla

il/elle/on choisit

il/elle/on rpondit

nous travaillmes

nous choismes

nous rpondmes

vous travailltes

vous choistes

vous rpondtes

ils/elles travaillrent

ils/elles choisirent

ils/elles rpondirent

Larme franaise gagna la bataille.


Vous trahtes votre patrie.
Le village perdit sa libert.

The French army won the battle.


You betrayed your country.
The village lost its freedom.

For reflexive verbs, simply place the reflexive pronoun before the verb.
Elle se rveillrent.
Je me dpchai.

They awakened.
I hurried.

Forming the Past Definite of Verbs


with Spelling Changes
Verbs ending in cer change c to before a to maintain the soft c sound in all forms except
ils:
La guerre commena.
Ces gens dnoncrent leur gouvernement.

The war began.


Those people denounced their government.

Verbs ending in ger change g to ge before a to maintain the soft g sound in all forms
except ils:
Elle prsagea lavenir.
Ils ngligrent leurs responsabilits.

She foresaw the future.


They neglected their responsibilities.

The Past Definite of Irregular Verbs


Verbs with irregular stems in the pass simple generally end in i or u and have the following
endings:
je
tu
il

s
s
t

nous
vous
ils

mes
tes
rent

French Tenses and Moods / 31


Table 14 lists the most common irregular verbs in the past definite and their stems. Note that
many of these stems are the same as, or closely resemble, the past participle of the verb:
Table 14 Past Definite Irregular Verbs Stems

Verb Infinitive

Past Definite Stem

avoir (to have)

eu

boire (to drink)

bu

connatre (to know)

connu

construire (to build)

construis

courir (to run)

couru

craindre (to fear)

craigni

croire (to believe)

cru

devoir (to have to)

du

dire (to say, to tell)

di

crire (to write)

crivi

tre (to be)

fu

faire (to do)

fi

joindre (to join)

joigni

lire (to read)

lu

mettre (to put)

mi

mourir (to die)

mouru

natre (to be born)

naqui

ouvrir (to open)

ouvri

peindre (to paint)

peigni

plaire (to please)

plu

pouvoir (to be able to)

pu

prendre (to take)

pri

recevoir (to receive)

reu

rompre (to break)

rompu

savoir (to know)

su

tenir *(to hold)

tin

traduire (to translate)

traduisi

vaincre (to vanquish)

vainqui

venir *(to come)

vin

vivre (to live)

vcu

voir (to see)

vi

vouloir (to wish, to want)

voulu

Note: There are special nous and vous forms for tenir, venir, and their related verbs: nous
tnmes, nous vnmes, vous tntes, vous vntes.
Les deux pays eurent une dispute.
Sartre vcut au vingtime sicle.

The two countries had a dispute.


Sartre lived in the twentieth century.

32 / French Tenses and Moods

The Past Definite of Impersonal Verbs


For verbs conjugated in the third person singular where il means it, consult the chart that
follows to find these verbs in the past definite.
advenir

il advint

it happened

bruiner

il bruina

it drizzled

convenir

il convint

it was suitable

dgeler

il dgela

it thawed

falloir

il fallut

it was necessary

geler

il gela

it froze

grler

il grla

it hailed

importer

il importa

it was important

neiger

il neigea

it snowed

pleuvoir

il plut

it rained

regeler

il regela

it froze again

tonner

il tonna

Il lui convint rester en ville.


Il grla.

it thundered

It was suitable to stay in town.


It hailed.

Use of the Past Definite


The past definite is used to express completed actions in formal writing:
Napolon fut empreur de la France.
Cette femme aida les pauvres.

Napoleon was an emperor of France.


That woman helped the poor.

Forming the Past Anterior


The past anterior (pass antrieur) is comprised of two parts: a helping verb conjugated in the
present tense (avoir: jeus, tu eus, il eut, elle eut, nous emes, vous etes, ils eurent, elles eurent
OR tre: je fus, tu fus, il fut, elle fut, nous fmes, vous ftes, ils furent, elles furent) and a past
participle (refer to Tables 3 and 4 above):
Il eut aid le prsident.
Elle fut morte jeune.
Ils se furent dfendus.

He had helped the president.


She had died young.
They had defended themselves.

The past anterior is negated by placing ne and the other negative word around pronouns that
precede it and the conjugated helping verb:
Il neut jamais aid le prsident.
Elle ne fut pas morte jeune.
Ils ne se furent pas dfendus.

He had never helped the president.


She hadnt died young.
They hadnt defended themselves.

Inversion may be used to form a question in the past anterior by reversing the order of the
subject pronoun and the conjugated helping verb:
(N) Eut-il (jamais) aid le prsident?
(Ne) Fut-elle (pas) morte jeune?
(Ne) Se furent-ils (pas) dfendus ?

Had(nt) he ever helped the president?


Had(nt) she died young?
Had(nt) they defended themselves?

French Tenses and Moods / 33

Use of the Past Anterior


The past anterior, like the pluperfect, is used to express a specific action or event that had
taken place and had been completed before another action took place (expressed in the past
definite) and follows conjunctions of time: aussitt que, ds que (as soon as) and lorsque,
quand (when). Like the past definite, the past anterior is used primarily in formal and literary works.
Aussitt que le gouverneur eut
salu la foule, il partit.
Quand la princesse fut arrive
au chateau, elle se reposa.

THE NEAR FUTURE,


FUTURE PERFECT

As soon as the governor had greeted the


crowd, he left.
When the princess had arrived at the castle,
she rested.

THE

FUTURE,

AND THE

The near future expresses what the subject is going to do or what is going to take place in
the not-too-distant future. The future is a simple tense that expresses what will happen. Its
corresponding compound is the future perfect, a tense expressing an action or state of being
that will have been completed in the future.

Forming the Near Future


Events or actions that are going to take place in the immediate future may be expressed in
the following manner:

By using the present:


Jarrive dans une heure.

Ill be arriving in an hour.

By using the conjugated form of the irregular verb aller: to go (je vais, tu vas, il va, elle
va, nous allons, vous allez, ils vont, elles vont) followed by the infinitive of the verb:
Je vais arriver dans une heure.
Allez-vous mattendre?
(Ne) Vas-tu (pas) sortir ce soir?

Im going to arrive in an hour.


Are you going to wait for me?
Are(nt) you going to go out tonight?

Forming the Future Tense of Regular Verbs


To form the future tense of a regular verb, add the endings shown in Table 15 to the infinitive
stem. Note that re verbs drop the final e before adding these endings. For reflexive verbs,
simply place the reflexive pronoun before the conjugated verb.
Table 15 The Future Tense of Regular Verbs

gagner (to speak)

choisir (to finish)

entendre (to hear)

je gagnerai

je choisirai

je entendrai

tu gagneras

tu choisiras

tu entendras

il/elle/on gagnera

il/elle/on choisira

il/elle/on entendra

nous gagnerons

nous choisirons

nous entendrons

vous gagnerez

vous choisirez

vous entendrez

ils/elles gagnerent

ils/elles choisiront

ils/elles entendront

34 / French Tenses and Moods


Je noublierai rien.
Nous obirons.
Perdront-elles patience?
Elle se maquillera.

I wont forget anything.


We will obey.
Will they lose patience?
She will put on her makeup.

Forming the Future of oir and evoir Verbs


The future of verbs that end in oir and evoir drops the oi from the infinitive ending and
adds the endings shown in Table 16. All other verbs ending in oir (avoir, voir, etc.) are irregular and require memorization. Verbs ending in cevoir change c to before o and u to preserve the soft s sound.
Table 16 The Future of oir and evoir Verbs

Infinitive

Meaning

Future Stem

apercevoir

to notice

apercevr

concevoir

to conceive

concevr

dcevoir

to deceive

dcevr

devoir

to owe, have to

devr

percevoir

to perceive

percevr

recevoir

to receive

recevr

redevoir

to still owe

redevr

Tu devras travailler plus dur.


Vous recevrez un beau cadeau.

You will have to work harder.


You will receive a pretty gift.

Forming the Future of Verbs with Spelling


Changes
There are two categories of verbs that require spelling changes in the future:

Verbs ending in yer: (except envoyer, to send, which is irregular) Change y to i in all
future forms. For verbs ending in ayer this change is optional.

employer (to use): jemploierai, tu emploieras, il emploiera, nous emploierons, vous


emploierez, ils emploieront

payer (to pay): je payerai (paierai), tu payeras (paieras), il payera (paiera), nous
payerons (paierons), vous payerez (paierez), ils payeront (paieront)

Verbs ending in e + consonant + er: (not those ending in + consonant + er)


Change the silent e before the infinitive ending to in all future forms:

acheter (to buy): je achterai, tu achteras, il achtera, nous achterons, vous


achterez, ils achteront

French Tenses and Moods / 35

In the future, verbs like appeler and jeter double the consonant before the infinitive
ending:

appeler (to call): jappellerai, tu appelleras, il appellera, nous appellerons, vous


appellerez, ils appelleront

Elle se lvera bientt.


Je jetterai les ordures.

She will get up soon.


Ill throw out the garbage.

The Future of Irregular Verbs


The most common future tense irregular verbs, which can be found in the list that follows,
are:
Infinitive

Future Stem

aller (to go)

ir

asseoir (to seat)

assir or assoir

avoir (to have)

aur

courir (to run)

courr

cueillir (to pick)

cueiller

envoyer (to send)

enverr

tre (to be)

ser

faire (to make, to do)

fer

mourir (to die)

mourr

pouvoir (to be able to)

pourr

savoir (to know)

saur

tenir (to hold)

tiendr

valoir (to be worth)

vaudr

venir (to come)

viendr

voir (to see)

verr

vouloir (to wish, to want)

voudr

Je serai chez toi midi.


Il menverra un paquet.

Ill be at your house at noon.


He will send me a package.

The Future of Impersonal Verbs


Consult the list at the top of the next page to find these verbs in the future tenses.

36 / French Tenses and Moods

advenir

il adviendra

it will happen

bruiner

il bruinera

it will drizzle

convenir

il conviendra

it will be suitable

dgeler

il dgelera

it will thaw

falloir

il faudra

it will be necessary

geler

il gelera

it will freeze

grler

il grlera

it will hail

importer

il importera

it will be important

neiger

il neigera

it will snow

pleuvoir

il pleuvra

it will rain

regeler

il regelera

it will freeze again

tonner

il tonnera

it will thunder

Il faudra y aller.
Il ne bruinera pas.

It will be necessary to go there.


It will not drizzle.

Uses of the Future Tense


The future tense is used

To express future time:


Je ne toublierai jamais.

I will never forget you.

After quand (when), lorsque (when), ds que (as soon as), aussitt que (as soon as),
tant que (while), and pendant que (while) when the future is implied, even though the
present may be used in English:
Je regarderai la television pendant que tu
feras tes devoirs.

Ill watch television while you do your


homework.

Forming the Future Perfect


The future perfect is comprised of two parts: a helping verb conjugated in the future tense
(avoir: jaurai, tu auras, il aura, elle aura, nous aurons, vous aurez, ils auront, elles auront OR
tre: je serai, tu seras, il sera, elle sera, nous serons, vous serez, ils seront, elles seront) and a
past participle (refer to Tables 3 and 4 above):
Il aura parl avant mon arrive.
Ils seront rentrs avant moi.
Elle se sera habille avant huit heures.

He will have spoken before my arrival.


They will have gone home before me.
She will have dressed before 8 oclock.

The future perfect is negated by placing ne and the other negative word around pronouns
that precede it and the conjugated helping verb:
Il naura pas parl avant mon arrive.
Ils ne seront pas rentrs avant moi.
Elle ne se sera pas habille avant
huit heures.

He will not have spoken before my arrival.


They will not have gone home before me.
She will not have dressed before 8 oclock.

Inversion may be used to form a question in the future perfect by reversing the order of the
subject pronoun and the conjugated helping verb:

French Tenses and Moods / 37


(N) Aura-t-il (pas) parl avant mon
arrive?
(Ne) Seront-ils (pas) rentrs avant moi?
(Ne) Se sera-t-elle (pas) habille avant
huit heures?

Will he (not) have spoken before my


arrival?
Will they (not) have gone home before
me?
Will she (not) have dressed before eight
oclock?

Uses of the Future Perfect


The future perfect is used

After quand (when), lorsque (when), ds que (as soon as), aussitt que (as soon as),
tant que (while), and pendant que (while) when the future is in the main clause.
Ds que nos invites seront arrives,
nous mangerons.

As soon as our guests have arrived,


we will eat.

To express probability or supposition in the past:


Il ne ma pas envoy de cadeau.
Il aura oubli mon anniversaire.
Elles ne sont pas venues.
Il sera arriv quelque chose.

THE CONDITIONAL
PERFECT

He didnt send me a gift.


He must have forgotten my birthday.
They havent arrived.
Something must have happened.

AND THE

CONDITIONAL

Both the conditional and the conditional perfect are not tenses and, therefore, do not relate
to any period of time. The conditional is a simple mood that expresses what would happen
or what the subject would do given certain circumstances or suppositions. Its corresponding compound is the conditional perfect, a mood expressing an action or state of being that
would have been completed had something else had or had not occurred.

Forming the Conditional of Regular Verbs


To form the conditional tense of a regular verb, add the imperfect endings shown in Table 17
to the infinitive (future) stem. Note that re verbs drop the final e before adding these endings. For reflexive verbs, simply place the reflexive pronoun before the conjugated verb.
Table 17 The Conditional of Regular Verbs

arriver (to arrive)

dsobir (to disobey)

attendre (to wait)

je arriverais

je dsobirais

je attendrais

tu arriverais

tu dsobirais

tu attendrais

il/elle/on arriverait

il/elle/on dsobirait

il/elle/on attendrait

nous arriverions

nous dsobirions

nous attendrions

vous arriveriez

vous dsobiriez

vous attendriez

ils/elles arriveraient

ils/elles dsobiraient

ils/elles attendraient

Je taiderais.
Les enfants obiraient.
Il me dfendrait.
Te dtendrais-tu?

I would help you.


The children would obey.
He would defend me.
Would you relax?

38 / French Tenses and Moods

Forming the Conditional of oir and evoir Verbs


The conditional of verbs that end in oir and evoir drops the oi from the infinitive ending
and adds the endings shown in Table 18. All other verbs ending in oir (avoir, voir, etc.) are
irregular and require memorization. Verbs ending in cevoir change c to before o and u to
preserve the soft s sound.
Table 18

The Conditional of oir and evoir Verbs

Infinitive

Meaning

Future Stem

apercevoir

to notice

apercevr

concevoir

to conceive

concevr

dcevoir

to deceive

dcevr

devoir

to owe, have to

devr

percevoir

to perceive

percevr

recevoir

to receive

recevr

redevoir

to still owe

redevr

recevoir

to receive

recevr

Il ne devrait pas revenir.


Sapercevraient-ils de cette erreur?

He wouldnt have to come back.


Would they notice that error?

Forming the Conditional of Verbs with Spelling


Changes
There are two categories of verbs that require spelling changes in the conditional:

Verbs ending in yer: (except envoyer, to send, which is irregular) Change y to i in all
future forms. For verbs ending in ayer this change is optional.

employer (to use): jemploierais, tu emploierais, il emploirait, nous emploierions,


vous emploieriez, ils emploieraient
payer (to pay): je payerais (paierais), tu payerais (paierais), il payerait (paierait),
nous payerions (paierions), vous payeriez (paieriez), ils payeraient (paieraient)

Verbs ending in e + consonant + er: (not those ending in + consonant + er)


Change the silent e before the infinitive ending to in all future forms:

acheter (to buy): je achterais, tu achterais, il achterait, nous achterions, vous


achteriez, ils achteraient

In the future, verbs like appeler and jeter double the consonant before the infinitive
ending:

appeler (to call): jappellerais, tu appellerais, il appellerait, nous appellerions, vous


appelleriez, ils appelleraient

Il amnerait sa mere au lyce.


Appelleriez-vous vos parents ?

He would bring his mother to school.


Would you call your parents?

The Conditional of Irregular Verbs


The most common irregular verbs in the conditional, which can be found in the list that follows, are

French Tenses and Moods / 39


Infinitive

Conditional Stem

aller (to go)

ir

asseoir (to seat)

assir or assoir

avoir (to have)

aur

courir (to run)

courr

cueillir (to pick)

cueiller

envoyer (to send)

enverr

tre (to be)

ser

faire (to make, to do)

fer

mourir (to die)

mourr

pouvoir (to be able to)

pourr

savoir (to know)

saur

tenir (to hold)

tiendr

valoir (to be worth)

vaudr

venir (to come)

viendr

voir (to see)

verr

vouloir (to wish, to want)

voudr

Je ne courrais pas.
Serais-tu content?

I wouldnt run.
Would you be happy?

The Conditional of Impersonal Verbs


Consult the list that follows to find these verbs in the conditional.
advenir

il adviendrait

it would happen

bruiner

il bruinerait

it would drizzle

convenir

il conviendrait

it would be suitable

dgeler

il dgelerait

it would thaw

falloir

il faudrait

it would be necessary

geler

il gelerait

it would freeze

grler

il grlerait

it would hail

importer

il importerait

it would be important

neiger

il neigerait

it would snow

pleuvoir

il pleuvrait

it would rain

regeler

il regelerait

it would freeze again

tonner

il tonnerait

it would thunder

On ne savait pas ce quil en adviendrait.


Il ne faudrait pas rendre cette
marchandise.

Nobody knew how it would turn out.


It wouldnt be necessary to return that
merchandise.

Uses of the Conditional


Note the following about when and when not to use the conditional in French:

Distinguish between would as used in the conditional and would as used in the
imperfect, to express used to:
Nous irions en France.
Nous allions souvent en France.

We would go to France.
We would (used to) go to France often.

40 / French Tenses and Moods

Distinguish between would as used to form the conditional and the verb vouloir
in the imperfect or in the pass compos to express would in the sense of to be
willing:
Sous ces conditions, il ferait le travail.
Il ne voulait pas faire le travail.
OR Il na pas voulu faire le travail.

Under those conditions, he would do the


work.
He wouldnt (wasnt willing to) do the work.

The conditional of the verb pouvoir (to be able to) is used when could means
should be able to:
Je pourrais apprendre ces verbes.
I could (should be able to) learn these verbs.
Je pouvais apprendre ces verbes.
I could (was able) to learn these verbs.
OR Jai pu apprendre ces verbes.

The conditional is used after the following conjunctions of time when the verb in the
main clause is in the conditional, even if English uses the past tense:

quand, lorsque, au moment o (when)


ds que, aussitt que (as soon as)
pendant que, tandis que (while)

Elle se reposerait lorsqu (quand, au


moment o) elle ne serait pas occupe.
Ds que (Aussitt que) je le lui
donnerais, il le mangerait.

Could you explain it to me?


I would like to see you.
She would like to leave.

The conditional is used to express a possible action or condition in the present:


Quel temps ferait-il? Il ferait chaud.

She wont buy it in case it is too small.

The conditional is used to soften a request, a desire, or a demand:


Pourriez-vous me lexpliquer?
Jaimerais te voir.
Elle voudrait partir.

As soon as I gave it to him, he would eat it.

The conditional is used after au cas o (in case) even if English uses the present:
Elle ne lachtera pas au cas o il
serait trop petit.

She would rest when she wasnt busy.

What could the weather be like? It could be


hot.

The conditional may be used by reporters and journalists to describe an action that is
unsure or not known to be true:
Le roi abdiquererait son trne.

It is rumored [alleged, said] that the king


will abdicate his throne.

Forming the Conditional Perfect


The conditional perfect is comprised of two parts: a helping verb conjugated in the conditional (avoir: jaurais, tu aurais, il aurait, elle aurait, nous aurions, vous auriez, ils auraient,
elles auraient OR tre: je serais, tu serais, il serait, elle serait, nous serions, vous seriez, ils
seraient, elles seraient) and a past participle (refer to Tables 3 and 4 above):
Elle aurait travaill ltranger.
Vous seriez descendus en ville.
Il se serait ras le matin.

She would have worked abroad.


You would have gone downtown.
He would have shaved in the morning.

French Tenses and Moods / 41


The conditional perfect is negated by placing ne and the other negative word around
pronouns that precede it and the conjugated helping verb:
Elle n aurait pas travaill ltranger.
Vous ne seriez pas descendus en ville.
Il ne se serait pas ras le matin.

She wouldnt have worked abroad.


You wouldnt have gone downtown.
He wouldnt have shaved in the morning.

Inversion may be used to form a question in the conditional perfect by reversing the order of
the subject pronoun and the conjugated helping verb:
(N) Aurait-elle (pas) travaill ltranger? Would(nt) she have worked abroad?
(Ne) Seriez-vous (pas) descendus en ville? Would(nt) you have gone downtown?
(Ne) Se serait-il (pas) ras le matin?
Would(nt) he have shaved in the morning?

Uses of the Conditional Perfect


Like the conditional, the conditional perfect is used to express a possible action in the past:
Seraient-ils rentrs avant moi?

Could they have returned home before me?

Also like the conditional, the conditional perfect is used by reporters and journalists to
describe an action that is unsure:
Cet acteur aurait sign un contrat hier.

It is reported [alleged, rumored, said] that


that actor signed a contract yesterday.

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
A conditional sentence is comprised of two clauses: a si (if) clause (also known as a
conditional clause) and a result or main clause. The four French tenses that generally follow
a si clause are the present, the pass compose, the imperfect, and the pluperfect. The tense
used in the main clause varies according to the rules stated below.

Real Conditions
A real condition is one that is possible or likely to occur in the present or past. The
sequence of tenses for real conditions are shown in Table 19.
Table 19 Sequence of Tenses for Real Conditions

Condition

Tense in Si Clause

Tense/Mood in Main
Clause

A real possibility in the present


or future

Present

Present
Future (perfect)
Imperative (command)

A real possibility in the past

Pass compos

Same tense as English

In the examples below, either clause may begin the sentence, but in the si clause, the subject
must be followed by the present or the pass compos. Note that si elides with il or ils to
become sil and sils, respectively, but does not elide with elle (si elle) or elles (si elles).

42 / French Tenses and Moods


Si followed by the present:
Si elle a faim, elle prend un sandwich.
Tu parleras bien le franais, si tu
tudies beaucoup.
Si tu ne te mets pas en route
maintenant, tu ne seras pas arriv
avant minuit.
Si vous voulez me parler,
tlphonez-moi.

If shes hungry she eats a sandwich.


You will speak French well, if you study
a lot.
If you dont start out now, you will not
have arrived before midnight.
If you want to speak to me, call me.

Si followed by the pass compos:


Elle na rien compris, si elle vous a
crit cette lettre.
Si jai fait une faute, je la corrigerai.

She didnt understand anything,


if she wrote you that letter.
If I made a mistake, I will correct it.

Contrary-to-Fact Conditions
A contrary-to-fact or unreal conditional sentence describes a situation or event that is
unlikely. The sequence of tenses for contrary-to-fact conditions are shown in Table 20.
Table 20 Sequence of Tenses for Contrary-to-Fact Conditions

Condition

Tense in Si Clause

Tense/Mood in Main
Clause

Unrealized, unreal, contraryto-fact, or unlikely in the present or future

Imperfect

Generally the conditional, but


may be the same as in English

Unrealized, unreal, contraryto-fact, or unlikely in the past

Pluperfect

Generally the past conditional,


but may be the same as the
tense used in English.

Either clause may begin the sentence, but in the si clause, the subject must be followed by
the imperfect or the pluperfect.
Si followed by the imperfect:
Si javais le temps, je voyagerais.

If I had the time, I would travel.

Si followed by the pluperfect:


Je taurais rendu visite, si jtais
en ville.
Si nous nous tions levs tt, nous
serions arrivs lheure.

I would have paid you a visit, if I were in the


city.
If we had gotton up early, we would
have arrived on time.

In conditional sentences, si always means if. When si means whether, it may be followed
by any tense, just as in English:
Sais-tu sil ira la pharmacie?
Nous ne savions pas si vous viendriez.

Do you know if (whether) he will go to the


drugstore?
We didnt know if (whether) you would
come.

French Tenses and Moods / 43

THE PRESENT

AND THE

PAST SUBJUNCTIVE

The present subjunctive is a mood that expresses a present or future action that is dependent
on a subjective idea, opinion, or condition. Its corresponding compound, the past subjunctive, expresses an action or state of being that occurred at a particular time in the past.

Forming the Present Subjunctive of Regular and


Reflexive Verbs
To form the present subjunctive of a regular verb, drop the ent ending from the third person
plural (ils/elles) of the present tense and add the appropriate endings for each subject shown
in Table 21.
Table 21 The Present Subjunctive of Regular Verbs

accepter (to accept)

jouir (to enjoy)

rpandre (to spread)

je accepte
tu acceptes
il/elle/on accepte
nous acceptions
vous acceptiez
ils/elles acceptent

je jouisse
tu jouissses
il/elle/on jouisse
nous jouissions
vous jouissiez
ils/elles jouissent

je rpande
tu rpandes
il/elle/on rpande
nous rpandions
vous rpandiez
ils/elles rpandent

Il faut que nous vrifiions le moteur.


Il est ncessaire que je finisse ce travail.
Il est urgent que tu rpondes cette lettre.

We have to check the motor.


I have to finish this work.
It is urgent that you answer this letter.

In the subjunctive, the reflexive pronoun precedes the conjugated verb:


Il est important que nous nous dpchions.

It is important that we hurry.

Present Subjunctive Verbs with Two Stems


Regular verbs ending in oir and evoir, some verbs with spelling changes, and some irregular verbs use two different stems to form the present subjunctive:

The ils stem of the present tense is used for je, tu, il (elle), and ils (elles).
The nous stem of the present tense is used for nous and vous.

Table 22 illustrates the different stems to which the subjunctive endings are added:
Table 22 The Present Subjunctive of Regular Verbs

Verb

Meaning

Ils Stem

Nous Stem

devoir
recevoir
envoyer
acheter
appeler
jeter
prfrer
boire
croire
mourir
prendre
tenir
venir
voir

to have to
to receive
to send
to buy
to call
to throw
to prefer
to drink
to believe
to die
to take
to hold
to come
to see

doiv
reoiv
envoi
acht
appell
jett
prfr
boiv
croi
meur
prenn
tienn
vienn
voie

dev
recev
envoy
achet
appel
jet
prfr
buv
croy
mour
pren
ten
ven
voy

44 / French Tenses and Moods

The Present Subjunctive of Irregular Verbs


The verbs that follow are completely irregular in the subjunctive and must be memorized:
Verbs with one stem:

faire (to make, do): je fasse, tu fasses, il fasse, nous fassions, vous fassiez, ils fassent
pouvoir (to be able to, can): je puisse, tu puisses, il puisse, nous puissions, vous
puissiez, ils puissent
savoir (to know): je sache, tu saches, il sache, nous sachions, vous sachiez, ils sachent

Verbs with two stems:

aller (to go): jaille, tu ailles, il aille, nous allions, vous alliez, ils aillent
valoir (to be worth): je vaille, tu vailles, il vaille, nous valions, vous valiez, ils vaillent
vouloir (to wish, want): je veuille, tu veuilles, il veuille, nous voulions, vous vouliez, ils
veuillent

Completely irregular verbs:

avoir (to have): jaie, tu aies, il ait, nous ayons, vous ayez, ils aient
tre (to be): je sois, tu sois, il soit, nous soyons, vous soyez, ils soient

The Present Subjunctive of Impersonal Verbs


Consult the chart that follows to find the present subjunctive of these verbs:
advenir

il advienne

bruiner

il bruine

it happens
its drizzling

convenir

il convienne

it is suitable

dgeler

il dgle

its thawing

falloir

il faille

it is necessary
its freezing

geler

il gle

grler

il grle

its hailing

importer

il importe

it is important

neiger

il neige

its snowing

pleuvoir

il pleuve

its raining

regeler

il regle

its freezing again

tonner

il tonne

its thundering

Il est incroyable quil regle.

Its incredible that its freezing again.

Uses of the Present Subjunctive


The present subjunctive is used when the following conditions are met:

The sentence contains two clauses (a main clause and a dependent clause) each
having different subjects.
The two clauses are joined by que (that) or, in special cases, by qui (who).
One of the clauses shows, among other possibilities, wishing, wanting, need, necessity,
emotion, doubt, or denial.
Il faut que tu sois prudent.
Il veut que nous fassions attention.

You have to be careful.


He wants us to pay attention.

French Tenses and Moods / 45

The Present Subjunctive After Impersonal


Expressions
The subjunctive is used after the impersonal expressions listed below:
Impersonal Expression

Meaning

Il convient que

It is fitting that

Il est absurde que

It is absurd that

Il est amusant que

It is amusing that

Il est bien que

It is nice that

Il est bon que

It is good that

Il est curieux que

It is strange that

Il est dommage que

It is a pity that

Il est douteux que

It is doubtful that

Il est essentiel que

It is essential that

Il est tonnant que

It is amazing that

Il est trange que

It is strange that

Il est impratif que

It is imperative that

Il est important que

It is important that

Il est impossible que

It is impossible that

Il est improbable que

It is improbable that

Il est incroyable que

It is incredible that

Il est indispensable que

It is indispensable that

Il est injuste que

It is unfair that

Il est intressant que

It is interesting that

Il est ironique que

It is ironic that

Il est juste que

It is fair that

Il est naturel que

It is natural that

Il est ncessaire que

It is necessary that

Il est normal que

It is normal that

Il est possible que

It is possible that

Il est prfrable que

It is preferable that

Il est raisonnable que

It is reasonable that

Il est rare que

It is rare that

Il est regrettable que

It is regrettable that

Il est remarquable que

It is remarkable that

Il est surprenant que

It is surprising that

Il est temps que

It is time that

Il est triste que

It is sad that

Il est urgent que

It is urgent that

Il est utile que

It is useful that

Il faut que

It is necessary that

Il se peut que

It could be that

Il semble que

It seems that (il semble que is most often followed by the


indicative)

Il suffit que

It is enough that

Il vaut mieux que

It is better that

46 / French Tenses and Moods


Il est regrettable quelle soit malade.
Il est incroyable que tu aies trente ans.

It is regrettable that she is sick.


It is incredible that you are 30 years old.

When an impersonal expression shows probability or certainty, the subjunctive is not used:
Impersonal Expression

Meaning

il parat
il est certain
il est clair
il est vident
il est exact
il est probable
il est sr
il est vrai

it appears
it is certain (sure)
it is clear
it is evident
it is exact
it is probable
it is sure
it is true

Il est clair que vous faites de votre mieux. It is clear that you are trying your best.
Il est vrai que nous allons en Afrique.
It is true that we are going to Africa.
In the negative or in the interrogative, however, these expressions show doubt or denial and
require the subjunctive:
Il nest pas clair que vous fassiez de
votre mieux.
Est-il vrai que nous allions en Afrique?

It is not clear that you are trying


your best.
Is it true that we are going to Africa?

The Subjunctive After Certain Verbs


The subjunctive is used after que in the clause following verbs that express a wish, request,
command, permission, prohibition, fear, preference, suggestion, advice, demand, emotion,
hope, or desire.
French Verb

Meaning

aimer mieux
commander
conseiller
consentir
craindre
dfendre
demander
dsirer
douter
empcher
exiger
se fcher
insister
interdire
ordonner
permettre
prfrer
regretter
stonner
se rjouir
souhaiter
suggrer
vouloir

to prefer
to command, order
to advise
to consent
to fear
to forbid
to ask
to desire, want
to doubt
to prevent
to require, demand
to become angry
to insist
to prohibit
to order
to permit
to prefer
to be sorry, to regret
to be astonished
to rejoice
to wish
to suggest
to wish, want

Papa interdit que Jean conduise


la voiture.

Dad forbids John from driving


the car.

French Tenses and Moods / 47


Le professeur insiste que Marie
crive
les devoirs au tableau.

The teacher insists that Marie write the


homework on the board.

After verbs of opinion or knowledge, such as penser (to think), croire (to believe), esprer (to
hope), affirmer (to affirm), assurer (to assure), remarquer (to notice), and estimer (to esteem)
the indicative or the subjunctive may be used depending upon the degree of certainty or
uncertainty that the speaker wishes to convey. If the speaker views the action as one that
may or may not occur, the subjunctive is called for. If, on the other hand, the speaker has no
doubt about the action, then the indicative is needed. Used affirmatively, these verbs generally require the indicative because they show belief, conviction, or knowledge on the part of
the speaker. Used negatively or interrogatively, these verbs usually (but not always) take the
subjunctive because they convey doubt or uncertainty.
Penses-tu quil puisse le faire?
Penses-tu quil peut le faire?
Je pense quil peut le faire.
Je ne pense pas quil puisse le faire.

Do you think he can do it? (Speaker has doubts.)


Do you think he can do it? (Speaker has no
doubts.)
I think he can do it.
I dont think he can do it.

The Present Subjunctive After Adjectives


The subjunctive is used after adjectives expressing feelings and emotions:
French

Adjective

agac(e)

annoyed

content(e)

happy

dsol(e)

sorry

embarrass(e)

embarrassed

enchant(e)

delighted

nerv(e)

irritated

ennuy(e)

bored

tonn(e)

astonished, surprised

fch(e)

angry

fier (fire)

proud

flatt(e)

flattered

furieux (furieuse)

furious

gn(e)

embarrassed, bothered

heureux (heureuse)

happy

irrit(e)

irritated

malheureux (malheureuse)

unhappy

mcontent(e)

displeased

ravi(e)

delighted

surpris

surprised

triste

sad

Je suis tonn que tu sois fch.


I am astonished that you are angry.
Nous sommes contents quil vienne. We are happy that he is coming.
The subjunctive is also used after nouns that express feelings, such as peur, crainte (fear), and
honte (shame):

48 / French Tenses and Moods


As-tu peur quil ne finisse pas la tche?
Le garon craint que son frre ne
lobisse pas.
Cette femme a honte que sa fille ne
russisse pas.

Are you afraid that he wont finish the task?


The boy fears that his brother wont listen
to him.
That woman is ashamed that her daughter
isnt succeeding.

The Subjunctive After Conjunctions


Conjunctions connect and relate words, phrases, and clauses within a sentence. The
subjunctive is used after conjuctions that express:

Time: jusqu ce que (until), avant que (before), en attendant que (until), aussi loin que
(far from)
Je te rappellerai avant que tu partes.

Purpose or result: pour que (in order that), afin que (in order that), de manire que
(so that), de sorte que (so that), de faon que (so that)
Elle parle lentement pour que nous
puissons la comprendre.

I will listen to you provided that you dont


contradict me.

Fear: de crainte que (for fear that), de peur que (for fear that)
Elle pleure de crainte que son amie
se fasse mal.

He will help her even though she is lazy.

Condition: condition que (provided that), pourvu que (provided that), moins que
(unless)
Je tcouterai pouvu que tu ne me
contredise pas.

She speaks slowly so that we can


understand her.

Concession: bien que (although), quoique (although), encore que (although), malgr
que (although)
Il laidera bien quelle soit paresseuse.

I will call you back before you leave.

She cries for fear that her friend will hurt


herself.

Negation: sans que (without)


Elle ouvre la porte sans quil le sache.

She opens the door without his knowing it.

The conjunctions moins que, avant que, de peur que, de crainte que, de manire que, and de
sorte que may be followed by ne (which has no meaning) before the verb in an affirmative
sentence. Ne + another negative word are used in the negative:
Elle coute son pre de peur
quil ne la punisse.

She listens to her father for fear that he will


punish her.

The following conjunctions take the indicative:

aprs que (after)


aussitt que (as soon as)
ds que (as soon as)
parce que (because)
pendant que (while)
peut-tre que (perhaps)
puisque (since)
tandis que (while, whereas)
Je laiderai parce quil est mon ami.

I will help him because he is my friend.

French Tenses and Moods / 49

The Subjunctive After Superlative Expressions


The subjunctive is used after superlative expressions and lunique (the only), le seul (the only),
le premier (the first), le dernier (the last), and ne . . . que (only) when these expressions show
opinion, emotion, or exaggeration.
Cest la meilleure voiture quon
puisse acheter.
Il ny a quune personne qui
sache la rponse cette question.

Thats the best car you can buy.


There is only one person who knows the
answer to that question.

The indicative is used when a fact is stated:


Cest sa meilleur amie qui
lui dise la vrit.

Its her best friend who tells her the truth.

The Subjunctive After Certain Indefinites


The subjunctive is used after certain indefinite words:

de quelque manire que (however)


o que (wherever)
quel(le)(s) que (whatever)
quelque . . . que (however)
qui que (whoever)
quoi que (whatever)
si . . . que (however)
soit que . . . soit que (whether . . . or)

For example:
Soit que tu fasses le travail, soit
que tu ne le fasses pas, je le ferai.
Quelles que soient ses penses,
je ne les couterai pas.

Whether or not you do the work, Ill do it.


Whatever his ideas may be, I wont listen to
them.

The Subjunctive in Relative Clauses


The subjunctive is used in relative clauses if the person or thing mentioned in the main
clause is indefinite, nonexistent, or desired but not yet found. Compare the following
sentences:
Elle cherche un petit ami qui
soit sincre.
Elle a un petit ami qui est sincre.
Connaissez-vous quelquun qui
puisse rparer ma voiture?
Je connais quelquun qui
peut rparer votre voiture.

She is looking for a sincere boyfriend. [She


may never find one.]
She has a boyfriend who is sincere. [He
exists.]
Do you know someone who can fix my car?
[There may not be anyone.]
I know someone who can fix your car.
[There is such a person.]

50 / French Tenses and Moods

The Subjunctive in Third-Person Commands


The subjunctive is used in third-person (il, elle, ils, elles) commands or wishes:
Vive le roi!
Quil attende!
Quils reoivent de bonnes nouvelles!

Long live the king!


Let him wait!
May they receive good news!

Forming the Past Subjunctive


The past subjunctive is comprised of two parts: a helping verb conjugated in the present
subjunctive (avoir: jaie, tu aies, il ait, elle ait, nous ayons, vous ayez, ils aient, elles aient OR
tre: je sois, tu sois, il soit, elle soit, nous soyons, vous soyez, ils soient, elles soient) and a past
participle (refer to Tables 3 and 4 above):
Il est important quelle tait parl.
Il est regrettable quil soit venu.
Il est bon que tu te sois dpch.

It is important that she spoke to you.


It is regrettable that he came.
It is good that you hurried.

The past subjunctive is negated by placing ne and the other negative word around pronouns
that precede it and the conjugated helping verb:
Il est important quelle ne tait pas parl.
Il est regrettable quil ne soit pas venu.
Il est bon que tu ne te sois pas dpch.

It is important that she didnt speak to you.


It is regrettable that he didnt come.
It is good that you didnt hurry.

Use of the Past Subjunctive


The past subjunctive is used, like the pass compos, to express a specific action or event that
has already taken place in the past.
Il est douteux que les lves aient fini
tous les exercices.
Il est incroyable que ces femmes
soient arrives lheure.
Je suis heureux que tu te sois repos.

THE IMPERFECT
SUBJUNCTIVE

AND THE

It is doubtful that the students finished all


the exercises.
It is unbelievable that those women arrived
on time.
I am happy that you rested.

PLUPERFECT

The imperfect and the pluperfect subjunctive are used in literature, not in speaking. It is
important to learn them solely for the purpose of recognition.

Forming and Using the Imperfect Subjunctive


To form the imperfect subjunctive, drop the final letter of the je form of the past indefinite
(the pass simple), and add the endings shown in Table 23.

French Tenses and Moods / 51


Table 23 The Imperfect Subjunctive

Subject

Ending

Past Definite
ending begins with
a

Past Definite ending begins with


i

Past Definite
ending begins with
u

trouvai

grandis

bus

je

sse

trouvasse

grandisse

busse

tu

sses

trouvasses

grandisses

busses

il

^t

trouvt

grandt

bt

nous

ssions

trouvassions

grandissions

bussions

vous

ssiez

trouvassiez

grandissiez

bussiez

ils

ssent

trouvassent

grandissent

bussent

In literary works, the imperfect subjunctive is used to express an incomplete action in the
past.
Le professeur expliquait les rgles
llve pour quil pt faire le travail.

The teacher was explaining the rule to the


student so that he might do the work.

Forming and Using the Pluperfect Subjunctive


The pluperfect subjunctive is formed by combining the imperfect subjunctive of the helping
verb (avoir: jeusse, tu eusses, il et, elle et, nous eussions, vous eussiez, ils eussent, elles eussent) or tre ( je fusse, tu fusses, il ft, elle ft, nous fussions, vous fussiez, ils fussent, elles fussent) + the past participle of the verb expressing the action. In literary works, the pluperfect
subjunctive is used only when the main clause occurs in any time other than the present and
if the action was completed.
tait-il sr quelles furent arrives?

Was he sure that they had returned?

Avoiding the Subjunctive


It is best to avoid the subjunctive whenever possible. This may be accomplished as follows:

If the subjects of both clauses are the same in meaning, the two clauses are combined
by dropping que and by using the infinitive:
Je voudrais faire un voyage Paris.
Je voudrais que tu fasses un voyage
Paris.
Il ne parle pas de peur de tomber.
Il ne parle pas de peur que nous
ne tombions.

He doesnt speak for fear of falling.


He doesnt speak for fear that we will fall.

If a clause can be replaced by a noun:


Me parleras-tu avant quil arrive?
Me parleras-tu avant son arrive?

I would like to take a trip to Paris.


I would like you to take a trip to Paris.

Will you speak to me before he arrives?


Will you speak to me before his arrival?

If que + clause can be replaced with + person + de + infinitive when using verbs
expressing commands, demands, permission, or refusal of permission:
Il exige que la fille soit polie.
Il exige la fille dtre poli.

He requires that the girl be polite.


He requires that the girl be polite.

52 / French Tenses and Moods

THE IMPERATIVE
The imperative is a mood used for giving a command or an order or for making a request
or a suggestion. The understood subject of a command is you and is omitted in French
in the same way as it is omitted in English. Use the familiar tu form of the verb to make an
informal command to one family member, peer, friend, or pet. Use the polite vous form of
the verb to make a formal command to one person you dont know well, or to any group of
people regardless of their relationship to you. The nous form of the verb is used to make the
suggestion Lets.

Forming a Command
To form a command, simply use the tu, vous, or nous form of the present tense of the verb
without using the subject pronoun. Note that the tu form of regular er verbs or irregular
verbs ending in er drops the final s except when followed by the adverbial pronoun y (there)
or en (some). Negative words are placed around the conjugated verb.
Regarde(z) la liste.
Finis(sez) les devoirs.
Ne perds (perdez) pas patience.
Mange du pain.
Manges-en.
Nen mange pas.
Va au supermarch.
Vas-y.
Allons au thtre.
Jouons au tennis.

Look at the list.


Finish the homework.
Dont lose patience.
Eat some bread.
Eat some.
Dont eat any.
Go to the supermarket.
Go there.
Lets go to the theater.
Lets play tennis.

Three irregular imperatives are:

avoir:
tre:
savoir:

aie, ayez, ayons


sois, soyez, soyons
sache, sachez, sachons

Naie pas honte.


Soyez prudent.
Sache que je ne lui parlerai plus.

Dont be ashamed.
Be careful.
Know that I will no longer speak to him.

The Imperative of Reflexive Verbs


In negative commands, the reflexive pronoun precedes the verb.
Ne te dpche pas.
Ne vous levez pas.
Ne nous reposons pas.

Dont hurry.
Dont get up.
Lets not rest.

In affirmative commands, the reflexive pronoun follows the verb and is attached to it by a
hyphen. Note that the reflexive pronoun te becomes toi in an affirmative command.
Dpche-toi.
Levez-vous.
Reposons-nous.

Hurry up.
Get up.
Lets rest.

French Tenses and Moods / 53

THE PASSIVE VOICE


In the active voice, the subject performs an action. In the passive voice, the subject is acted
upon by someone or something else. The active voice is generally preferred to the passive
voice.
In French, a verb may be used in the passive voice only if its subject could become a direct
object of the verb in the active voice. A direct object must be present to create a passive sentence. An indirect object cannot be the subject of a passive verb.
According to the above explanation, the following sentence can be converted to the passive
voice in French:
Active: That lawyer hired me. (Me is the direct object).
Passive: I was hired by that lawyer. (I is the subject.)
Active: Cet avocat ma embauch.
Passive: Jai t embauch par cet avocat.
According to the above explanation, the following sentence cannot be converted to the passive voice in French:
Active: You told me the truth. (Me is the indirect object).

The Passive with tre


The passive is formed as follows:
subject + tre + past participle + par + agent (if mentioned)
Note the following:

Because the past participle is conjugated with tre, it must agree in number and
gender with the subject.
Par generally, but not always, introduces the agent.
The passive exists in the different tenses and moods (except for the imperative and the
infinitive).
Ce pull est fait de laine.
Ces plats ont t prpars par Marie.
Ces rgles seront lues par le professeur.
tait-il surprenant que cette voiture
ait t rpare par ce mcanicien?

This sweater is made of wool.


These dishes were prepared by Marie.
These rules will be read by the teacher.
Was it surprising that that car was repaired
by that mechanic?

Par may be replaced by de when a verb expresses a condition or an emotion:


Les montagnes sont couvertes
dun manteau blanc de neige.
Elle est admire de tous ses lves.

The mountains are covered with a white


blanket of snow.
She is admired by all of her students.

Replacing the Passive


The passive is used far less in French than it is in English and is generally avoided by writing
or speaking in the active voice. The passive may be replaced in the following ways:

Use the pronoun on followed by the third person singular (il form) of the verb:

54 / French Tenses and Moods


Ici on parle anglais.
On a tout servi?

English is spoken here.


Has everything been served?

Use the third person reflexive construction (se + verb):


Ce plat se mange froid.
Les journaux se vendent ici.

SPECIAL USES

OF

This dish is eaten cold.


Newspapers are sold here.

CERTAIN VERBS

Some verbs have special meanings and uses depending upon the tense in which they are
used.

devoir
Devoir expresses the following:

obligationwhat the subject has to, must, or was supposed to do or, in the
conditional, what the subject should or ought to do:
Je dois faire le mnage.
Je devais la voir hier.
Il devrait me parler.

probability or supposition:
Elle doit tre en retard.
Il a d rater son vol.

I have to (must, am supposed to) do the


housework.
I was supposed to see her yesterday.
He should (ought to) speak to me

She must be late.


He must have missed his flight.

debtwhen devoir is followed by a noun:


Tu me dois cent euros.

You owe me 100 euros.

faire + infinitive
The causative faire is used to show that the subject is causing an action to be done by another
person. In English, this is expressed as to have (make) someone do something or to have
something done (made):
Il ma fait pleurer.
La ville fait riger une statue.
Je me ferai faire une robe.

He made me cry.
The city is having a statue erected.
Ill have a dress made for me.

Note the following about the causative faire:

The unit, faire + infinitive, is not normally broken. Nouns follow the infinitive and
object pronouns precede it:
Il vaut mieux que vous fassiez venir le
docteur chez vous.
Son pre lui fait couper sa moustache.
Il la lui fait couper.

It is better that you have the doctor come


to your house.
His father makes him cut his moustache.
He makes him cut it.

In compound tenses, the past participle of the causative faire does not agree in
number and gender with a preceding direct object:
Jai fait planter des arbres.
Je les ai fait planter.

I had trees planted.


I had them planted.

French Tenses and Moods / 55

A reflexive verb can be used in the causative faire construction to show that the
subject is having something done for itself:
Je me suis fait couper les cheveux.
Je me les suis fait couper.

I had my hair cut.


I had it cut.

To avoid ambiguity, the person or thing performing the action can be introduced by
par, instead of :
Elle fait crire une lettre son collgue.
Elle fait crire la lettre par son collgue.

She has her colleague write a letter.


She has the letter written to her colleague.
She has her colleague write the letter.

falloir
Falloir is an impersonal verb that is followed only by the third person singular of the verb
expressing the action. Falloir, like devoir, expresses necessity, although it is stronger than
devoir.
Tu dois partir maintenant.
Il faut que tu partes maintenant.
Il te faut partir maintenant.

You have to leave now.

Falloir is used:

With an infinitive, or with an indirect object and an infinitive:


Il faut corriger la faute.

It is necessary to correct the mistake.


The mistake has to be corrected.
One must correct the mistake.

Il me fallait corriger la faute.


Il vous faudra corriger la faute.

I had to correct the mistake.


You will have to correct the mistake.

To indicate the subjunctive:


Il faut quelle revienne tout de suite.

She has to come back immediately.

To express need (when followed by noun):


Il te faudra un parapluie.

You will need an umbrella.

pouvoir
Pouvoir is used to express:

ability
Je peux danser bien.

permissibility or possibily
Peux-tu sortir ce soir?

Can you (are you allowed to) go out


tonight?

a suggestion
Je pourrais taider.

I can dance well.

I could help you.

what could or might happen when used in the conditional


Elle pourrait travailler lundi.

She could (might) work on Monday.

56 / French Tenses and Moods

obligation when the infinitive is negated


Tu peux ne pas me rendre visite.

You dont need (arent obligated) to visit me.

idiomatically
Je nen peux plus.
Il ny peut rien.

Im exhausted.
He cant help it.

savoir
Savoir (to know a fact, to know how) express mental ability or know-how:
Je ne sais pas ton adresse.
Sais-tu cuisiner?

I dont know your address.


Do you know how to cook?

When used in the pass compos, savoir means to find out, learn about something:
Nous lavons su temps.

We found out about it in time.

Savoir is used idiomatically in the conditional:


Je ne saurais vous lexpliquer.

I couldnt (wouldnt know how to) explain it to


you.

vouloir
Vouloir expresses the following:

Strong will similar to a command when used in the present:


Je ne veux pas y aller.

A more courteous wish or desire when used in the conditional:


Je voudrais taccompagner au parc.

Please (Would you) excuse me.

An attempt or refusal to do something when used in the pass compos:


Il a voulu russir.
Elle na pas voulu faire son lit.

I would like to go with you to the park.

A polite command when used in its imperative form, veuillez + infinitive:


Veuillez me pardonner.

I will not (dont want to) go there.

He tried to succeed.
She refused to make her bed.

To be good enough to or to be willing when followed by the adverb bien:


Voulez-vous bien ouvrir la porte?
ing)

Would you be good enough (Would you be willto open the door?

VERB CHARTS
The charts in this section identify the French infinitive, its English meaning(s), the present
participle, the past participle, and the imperative forms. All charts are followed by a series
of example sentences in French and English that show the different usages and meanings of
the specific verb.

abaisser / 59

abaisser
to lower, to pull or push down, to reduce
Present participle: abaissant Past participle: abaiss
Imperative: abaisse, abaissez, abaissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

abaisse
abaisses
abaisse
Imperfect

abaissons
abaissez
abaissent

ai abaiss
as abaiss
a abaiss
Pluperfect

avons abaiss
avez abaiss
ont abaiss

abaissais
abaissais
abaissait
Pass Simple

abaissions
abaissiez
abaissaient

avais abaiss
avais abaiss
avait abaiss
Pass Antrieur

avions abaiss
aviez abaiss
avaient abaiss

abaissai
abaissas
abaissa
Future

abaissmes
abaisstes
abaissrent

eus abaiss
eus abaiss
eut abaiss
Future Perfect

emes abaiss
etes abaiss
eurent abaiss

abaisserai
abaisseras
abaissera
Conditional

abaisserons
abaisserez
abaisseront

aurai abaiss
auras abaiss
aura abaiss
Conditional Perfect

aurons abaiss
aurez abaiss
auront abaiss

abaisserais
abaisserais
abaisserait
Present

abaisserions
abaisseriez
abaisseraient

aurais abaiss
aurais abaiss
aurait abaiss
Past

aurions abaiss
auriez abaiss
auraient abaiss

abaisse
abaisses
abaisse
Imperfect

abaissions
abaissiez
abaissent

aie abaiss
aies abaiss
ait abaiss
Pluperfect

ayons abaiss
ayez abaiss
aient abaiss

abaissasse
abaissasses
abaisst

abaissassions
abaissassiez
abaissassent

eusse abaiss
eusses abaiss
et abaiss

eussions abaiss
eussiez abaiss
eussent abaiss

Note: As a reflexive verb, sabaisser (to humble oneself; to drop, fall, go down) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses.
Examples 5, 6, and 7 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Quand il ment il abaisse les yeux.
Les soldats abaisseront le drapeau.
Il faut que tu abaisses la fentre.
A-t-on abaiss lge de la retraite?
Ce store sabaisse-t-il?
Il ne sabaisserait jamais faire ce travail.
Il tait incroyable que le taux de chmage se
soit abaiss.

When he lies, he lowers his eyes.


The soldiers will lower the flag.
You have to lower the window.
Have they lowered the retirement age?
Does this shade go down?
He would never stoop so low as to do that
work.
It was incredible that the unemployment
rate went down.

60 / abandonner

abandonner
to abandon, to desert, to give up
Present participle: abandonnant Past participle: abandonn
Imperative: abandonne, abandonnez, abandonnons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

abandonne
abandonnes
abandonne
Imperfect

abandonnons
abandonnez
abandonnent

ai abandonn
as abandonn
a abandonn
Pluperfect

avons abandonn
avez abandonn
ont abandonn

abandonnais
abandonnais
abandonnait
Pass Simple

abandonnions
abandonniez
abandonnaient

avais abandonn
avais abandonn
avait abandonn
Pass Antrieur

avions abandonn
aviez abandonn
avaient abandonn

abandonnai
abandonnas
abandonna
Future

abandonnmes
abandonntes
abandonnrent

eus abandonn
eus abandonn
eut abandonn
Future Perfect

emes abandonn
etes abandonn
eurent abandonn

abandonnerai
abandonneras
abandonnera
Conditional

abandonnerons
abandonnerez
abandonneront

aurai abandonn
aurons abandonn
auras abandonn
aurez abandonn
aura abandonn
auront abandonn
Conditional Perfect

abandonnerais
abandonnerais
abandonnerait
Present

abandonnerions
abandonneriez
abandonneraient

aurais abandonn
aurais abandonn
aurait abandonn
Past

aurions abandonn
auriez abandonn
auraient abandonn

abandonne
abandonnes
abandonne
Imperfect

abandonnions
abandonniez
abandonnent

aie abandonn
aies abandonn
ait abandonn
Pluperfect

ayons abandonn
ayez abandonn
aient abandonn

abandonnasse
abandonnasses
abandonnt

abandonnassions eusse abandonn


abandonnassiez eusses abandonn
abandonnassent et abandonn

eussions abandonn
eussiez abandonn
eussent abandonn

Note: As a reflexive verb, sabandonner (to let go, to give away to) uses the reflexive pronouns
me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 5, 6,
and 7 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Jabandonne!
Nabandonnez pas vos amis!
Son courage labandonnait.
Cet enfant a t abandonn la naissance.
Elles se sont abandonnes la paresse.
Nous ne sous sommes pas abandonns la
tristesse.
Vous tes-vous abandonn la fatigue?

I give up!
Dont abandon your friends!
His courage was failing him.
That child was abandonned at birth.
They gave themselves up to laziness.
We didnt allow ourselves to give in to
unhappiness.
Did you give in to fatigue?

abattre / 61

abattre
to beat, to knock down, to bring down, to weaken
Present participle: abattant Past participle: abattu
Imperative: abats, abattez, abattons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

abats
abats
abat
Imperfect

abattons
abattez
abattent

ai abattu
as abattu
a abattu
Pluperfect

avons abattu
avez abattu
ont abattu

abattais
abattais
abattait
Pass Simple

abattions
abattiez
abattaient

avais abattu
avais abattu
avait abattu
Pass Antrieur

avions abattu
aviez abattu
avaient abattu

abattis
abattis
abattit
Future

abattmes
abatttes
abattirent

eus abattu
eus abattu
eut abattu
Future Perfect

emes abattu
etes abattu
eurent abattu

abattrai
abattras
abattra
Conditional

abattrons
abattrez
abattront

aurai abattu
auras abattu
aura abattu
Conditional Perfect

aurons abattu
aurez abattu
auront abattu

abattrais
abattrais
abattrait
Present

abattrions
abattriez
abattraient

aurais abattu
aurais abattu
aurait abattu
Past

aurions abattu
auriez abattu
auraient abattu

abatte
abattes
abatte
Imperfect

abattions
abattiez
abattent

aie abattu
aies abattu
ait abattu
Pluperfect

ayons abattu
ayez abattu
aient abattu

abattisse
abattisses
abattt

abattissions
abattissiez
abattissent

eusse abattu
eusses abattu
et abattu

eussions abattu
eussiez abattu
eussent abattu

Note: As a reflexive verb, sabattre (to pull down, to collapse) uses the reflexive pronouns me,
te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 6, 7, and
8 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
On abat cet difice.
Il faut que vous abattiez tout votre jeu
sur la table.
Le vent a abattu larbre.
Sa maladie lavait abattue.
Ne vous laissez pas abattre.
Le toit sest abattu.
Ces femmes se sont abattues.
Loiseau se serait abattu sur sa proie.

They are knocking down that building.


You have to lay all your cards on the table.
The wind knocked down the tree.
Her illness had weakened her.
Dont let things get you down.
The roof went crashing down.
Those women collapsed.
The bird would have swooped down on its
prey.

62 / abolir

abolir
to abolish, to do away with
Present participle: abolissant Past participle: aboli
Imperative: abolis, abolissez, abolissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

abolis
abolis
abolit
Imperfect

abolissons
abolissez
abolissent

ai aboli
as aboli
a aboli
Pluperfect

avons aboli
avez aboli
ont aboli

abolissais
abolissais
abolissait
Pass Simple

abolissions
abolissiez
abolissaient

avais aboli
avais aboli
avait aboli
Pass Antrieur

avions aboli
aviez aboli
avaient aboli

abolis
abolis
abolit
Future

abolmes
aboltes
abolirent

eus aboli
eus aboli
eut aboli
Future Perfect

emes aboli
etes aboli
eurent aboli

abolirai
aboliras
abolira
Conditional

abolirons
abolirez
aboliront

aurai aboli
auras aboli
aura aboli
Conditional Perfect

aurons aboli
aurez aboli
auront aboli

abolirais
abolirais
abolirait
Present

abolirions
aboliriez
aboliraient

aurais aboli
aurais aboli
aurait aboli
Past

aurions aboli
auriez aboli
auraient aboli

abolisse
abolisses
abolisse
Imperfect

abolissions
abolissiez
abolissent

aie aboli
aies aboli
ait aboli
Pluperfect

ayons aboli
ayez aboli
aient aboli

abolisse
abolisses
abolt

abolissions
abolissiez
abolissent

eusse aboli
eusses aboli
et aboli

eussions aboli
eussiez aboli
eussent aboli

EXAMPLES
Il y a des lois abolissant linjustice.
Doit-on abolir la peine de mort?
On a aboli lesclavage.
Il tait juste quon ait aboli certains impts.

There are laws abolishing injustice.


Should they abolish the death penalty?
Slavery was abolished.
It was fair that they abolished certain taxes.

sabonner () / 63

sabonner ()
to subscribe (to)
Present participle: sabonnant Past participle: abonn
Imperative: abonne-toi, abonnez-vous, abonnons-nous

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

mabonne
tabonnes
sabonne
Imperfect

nous abonnons
vous abonnez
sabonnent

me suis abonn(e)
tes abonn(e)
sest abonn(e)
Pluperfect

nous sommes abonn(e)s


vous tes abonn(e)(s)
se sont abonn(e)s

mabonnais
nous abonnions
tabonnais
vous abonniez
sabonnait
sabonnaient
Pass Simple

mtais abonn(e)
ttais abonn(e)
stait abonn(e)
Pass Antrieur

nous tions abonn(e)s


vous tiez abonn(e)(s)
staient abonn(e)s

mabonnai
tabonnas
sabonna
Future

nous abonnmes
vous abonntes
sabonnrent

me fus abonn(e)
te fus abonn(e)
se fut abonn(e)
Future Perfect

nous fmes abonn(e)s


vous ftes abonn(e)(s)
se furent abonn(e)s

mabonnerai
tabonneras
sabonnera
Conditional

nous abonnerons
vous abonnerez
sabonneront

me serai abonn(e)
te seras abonn(e)
se sera abonn(e)
Conditional Perfect

nous serons abonn(e)s


vous serez abonn(e)(s)
se seront abonn(e)s

mabonnerais nous abonnerions


tabonnerais vous abonneriez
sabonnerait sabonneraient
Present

me serais abonn(e)
te serais abonn(e)
se serait abonn(e)
Past

nous serions abonn(e)s


vous seriez abonn(e)(s)
se seraient abonn(e)s

mabonne
tabonnes
sabonne
Imperfect

me sois abonn(e)
te sois abonn(e)
se soit abonn(e)
Pluperfect

nous soyons abonn(e)s


vous soyez abonn(e)(s)
se soient abonn(e)s

me fusse abonn(e)
te fusses abonn(e)
se ft abonn(e)

nous fussions abonn(e)s


vous fussiez abonn(e)
se fussent abonn(e)s

nous abonnions
vous abonniez
sabonnent

mabonnasse nous abonnassions


tabonnasses vous abonnassiez
sabonnt
sabonnassent

EXAMPLES
Je mabonnerai cette revue.
Abonnez-vous au thtre.
Il faut que tu tabonnes au cble.
Elle se serait abonne lInternet.

I will subscribe to that magazine.


Buy a season ticket for the theater.
You must subscribe to cable TV.
She would have subscribed to the Internet.

64 / aboutir

aboutir
to succeed, to lead to, to result in
Present participle: aboutissant Past participle: abouti
Imperative: aboutis, aboutissez, aboutissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

aboutis
aboutis
aboutit
Imperfect

aboutissons
aboutissez
aboutissent

ai abouti
as abouti
a abouti
Pluperfect

avons abouti
avez abouti
ont abouti

aboutissais
aboutissais
aboutissait
Pass Simple

aboutissions
aboutissiez
aboutissaient

avais abouti
avais abouti
avait abouti
Pass Antrieur

avions abouti
aviez abouti
avaient abouti

aboutis
aboutis
aboutit
Future

aboutmes
abouttes
aboutirent

eus abouti
eus abouti
eut abouti
Future Perfect

emes abouti
etes abouti
eurent abouti

aboutirai
aboutiras
aboutira
Conditional

aboutirons
aboutirez
aboutiront

aurai abouti
auras abouti
aura abouti
Conditional Perfect

aurons abouti
aurez abouti
auront abouti

aboutirais
aboutirais
aboutirait
Present

aboutirions
aboutiriez
aboutiraient

aurais abouti
aurais abouti
aurait abouti
Past

aurions abouti
auriez abouti
auraient abouti

aboutisse
aboutisses
aboutisse
Imperfect

aboutissions
aboutissiez
aboutissent

aie abouti
aies abouti
ait abouti
Pluperfect

ayons abouti
ayez abouti
aient abouti

aboutisse
aboutisses
aboutt

aboutissions
aboutissiez
aboutissent

eusse abouti
eusses abouti
et abouti

eussions abouti
eussiez abouti
eussent abouti

EXAMPLES
Elle naboutira jamais rien.
Une telle attitude aboutit loptimisme.
Ses efforts nont pas abouti.
Aprs un an de travail, ses tentatives auront
abouti.

She will never get anywhere.


Such an attitude results in optimism.
His efforts didnt succeed.
After a year of work, his efforts will have
succeeded.

aboyer / 65

aboyer
to bark
Present participle: aboyant Past participle: aboy
Imperative: aboie, aboyez, aboyons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

aboie
aboies
aboie
Imperfect

aboyons
aboyez
aboient

ai aboy
as aboy
a aboy
Pluperfect

avons aboy
avez aboy
ont aboy

aboyais
aboyais
aboyait
Pass Simple

aboyions
aboyiez
aboyaient

avais aboy
avais aboy
avait aboy
Pass Antrieur

avions aboy
aviez aboy
avaient aboy

aboyai
aboyas
aboya
Future

aboymes
aboytes
aboyrent

eus aboy
eus aboy
eut aboy
Future Perfect

emes aboy
etes aboy
eurent aboy

aboierai
aboieras
aboiera
Conditional

aboierons
aboierez
aboieront

aurai aboy
auras aboy
aura aboy
Conditional Perfect

aurons aboy
aurez aboy
auront aboy

aboierais
aboierais
aboierait
Present

aboierions
aboieriez
aboieraient

aurais aboy
aurais aboy
aurait aboy
Past

aurions aboy
auriez aboy
auraient aboy

aboie
aboies
aboie
Imperfect

aboyions
aboyiez
aboient

aie aboy
aies aboy
ait aboy
Pluperfect

ayons aboy
ayez aboy
aient aboy

aboyasse
aboyasses
aboyt

aboyassions
aboyassiez
aboyassent

eusse aboy
eusses aboy
et aboy

eussions aboy
eussiez aboy
eussent aboy

EXAMPLES
Un chien aboie.
Fifi, naboie pas.
Pourquoi est-ce que Champion a aboy?
Il tait surprenant que son chien ait aboy
pendant toute la nuit.

A dog is barking.
Fifi, dont bark.
Why did Champion bark?
It was surprising that his dog barked all
night long.

66 / abriter (de/contre)

abriter (de/contre)
to shelter (from), to house, to shade
Present participle: abritant Past participle: abrit
Imperative: abrite, abritez, abritons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

abrite
abrites
abrite
Imperfect

abritons
abritez
abritent

ai abrit
as abrit
a abrit
Pluperfect

avons abrit
avez abrit
ont abrit

abritais
abritais
abritait
Pass Simple

abritions
abritiez
abritaient

avais abrit
avais abrit
avait abrit
Pass Antrieur

avions abrit
aviez abrit
avaient abrit

abritai
abritas
abrita
Future

abritmes
abrittes
abritrent

eus abrit
eus abrit
eut abrit
Future Perfect

emes abrit
etes abrit
eurent abrit

abriterai
abriteras
abritera
Conditional

abriterons
abriterez
abriteront

aurai abrit
auras abrit
aura abrit
Conditional Perfect

aurons abrit
aurez abrit
auront abrit

abriterais
abriterais
abriterait
Present

abriterions
abriteriez
abriteraient

aurais abrit
aurais abrit
aurait abrit
Past

aurions abrit
auriez abrit
auraient abrit

abrite
abrites
abrite
Imperfect

abritions
abritiez
abritent

aie abrit
aies abrit
ait abrit
Pluperfect

ayons abrit
ayez abrit
aient abrit

abritasse
abritasses
abritt

abritassions
abritassiez
abritassent

eusse abrit
eusses abrit
et abrit

eussions abrit
eussiez abrit
eussent abrit

Note: As a reflexive verb, sabriter (to shelter, to take cover from) uses the reflexive pronouns
me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 5
and 6 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Il courait en abritant ses yeux du soleil.
Cet difice nabrite que vingt bureaux.
Ltable na pas abrit tous les animaux.
Ce muse avait abrit une collection unique.
Je me suis abrit derrire un alibi.
Elles sabritent des regards curieux.

He was running while shading his eyes


from the sun.
This building only houses twenty offices.
The stable didnt shelter all the animals.
That museum had housed a unique
collection.
I hid behind an alibi.
They avoid curious looks.

abstraire (de) / 67

abstraire (de)
to abstract (from), to isolate (from)
Present participle: abstrayant Past participle: abstrait
Imperative: abstrais, abstrayez, abstrayons

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

abstrais
abstrais
abstrait
Imperfect

abstrayons
abstrayez
abstraient

ai abstrait
as abstrait
a abstrait
Pluperfect

avons abstrait
avez abstrait
ont abstrait

abstrayais
abstrayais
abstrayait
Pass Simple

abstrayions
abstrayiez
abstrayaient

avais abstrait
avais abstrait
avait abstrait
Pass Antrieur

avions abstrait
aviez abstrait
avaient abstrait

eus abstrait
eus abstrait
eut abstrait
Future Perfect

emes abstrait
etes abstrait
eurent abstrait

Not used

Subjunctive

Future
abstrairai
abstrairas
abstraira
Conditional

abstrairons
abstrairez
abstrairont

aurai abstrait
auras abstrait
aura abstrait
Conditional Perfect

aurons abstrait
aurez abstrait
auront abstrait

abstrairais
abstrairais
abstrairait
Present

abstrairions
abstrairiez
abstrairaient

aurais abstrait
aurais abstrait
aurait abstrait
Past

aurions abstrait
auriez abstrait
auraient abstrait

abstraie
abstraies
abstraie
Imperfect

abstrayions
abstrayiez
abstraient

aie abstrait
aies abstrait
ait abstrait
Pluperfect

ayons abstrait
ayez abstrait
aient abstrait

eusse abstrait
eusses abstrait
et abstrait

eussions abstrait
eussiez abstrait
eussent abstrait

Not used

Note: As a reflexive verb, sabstraire (to cut oneself off from) uses the reflexive pronouns
me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 4
demonstrates reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Nous abstrairons le problme.
Il a abstrait ses ides de ceux des autres.
Ils auraient abstrait un thme, sils avaient
eu le temps.
Elle sest abstraite de tout.

We will isolate the problem.


He isolated his ideas from those of the
others.
They would have abstracted a theme if they
had had the time.
She cut herself off from everything.

68 / accabler

accabler
to overwhelm
Present participle: accablant Past participle: accabl
Imperative: accable, accablez, accablons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

accable
accables
accable
Imperfect

accablons
accablez
accablent

ai accabl
as accabl
a accabl
Pluperfect

avons accabl
avez accabl
ont accabl

accablais
accablais
accablait
Pass Simple

accablions
accabliez
accablaient

avais accabl
avais accabl
avait accabl
Pass Antrieur

avions accabl
aviez accabl
avaient accabl

accablai
accablas
accabla
Future

accablmes
accabltes
accablrent

eus accabl
eus accabl
eut accabl
Future Perfect

emes accabl
etes accabl
eurent accabl

accablerai
accableras
accablera
Conditional

accablerons
accablerez
accableront

aurai accabl
auras accabl
aura accabl
Conditional Perfect

aurons accabl
aurez accabl
auront accabl

accablerais
accablerais
accablerait
Present

accablerions
accableriez
accableraient

aurais accabl
aurais accabl
aurait accabl
Past

aurions accabl
auriez accabl
auraient accabl

accable
accables
accable
Imperfect

accablions
accabliez
accablent

aie accabl
aies accabl
ait accabl
Pluperfect

ayons accabl
ayez accabl
aient accabl

accablasse
accablasses
accablt

accablassions
accablassiez
accablassent

eusse accabl
eusses accabl
et accabl

eussions accabl
eussiez accabl
eussent accabl

EXAMPLES
Le chef accable son employ de travail.
Des impts excessifs accableront les
citoyens.
Sa perte la accable de chagrin.
Il nous aurait accabls de conseils.

The boss overwhelms his employee with


work.
Excessive taxes will overwhelm the citizens.
Her loss overwhelmed her with grief.
He would have overwhelmed us with
advice.

accepter / 69

accepter
to accept, to agree to
Present participle: acceptant Past participle: accept
Imperative: accepte, acceptez, acceptons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

accepte
acceptes
accepte
Imperfect

acceptons
acceptez
acceptent

ai accept
as accept
a accept
Pluperfect

avons accept
avez accept
ont accept

acceptais
acceptais
acceptait
Pass Simple

acceptions
acceptiez
acceptaient

avais accept
avais accept
avait accept
Pass Antrieur

avions accept
aviez accept
avaient accept

acceptai
acceptas
accepta
Future

acceptmes
accepttes
acceptrent

eus accept
eus accept
eut accept
Future Perfect

emes accept
etes accept
eurent accept

accepterai
accepteras
acceptera
Conditional

accepterons
accepterez
accepteront

aurai accept
auras accept
aura accept
Conditional Perfect

aurons accept
aurez accept
auront accept

accepterais
accepterais
accepterait
Present

accepterions
accepteriez
accepteraient

aurais accept
aurais accept
aurait accept
Past

aurions accept
auriez accept
auraient accept

accepte
acceptes
accepte
Imperfect

acceptions
acceptiez
acceptent

aie accept
aies accept
ait accept
Pluperfect

ayons accept
ayez accept
aient accept

acceptasse
acceptasses
acceptt

acceptassions
acceptassiez
acceptassent

eusse accept
eusses accept
et accept

eussions accept
eussiez accept
eussent accept

EXAMPLES
Acceptez-vous des cartes de crdit?
Son professeur naccepterait pas dexcuses.
Elle nacceptera pas de rater le cours.
Il tait important que vous ayez accept
cette invitation.
Tu as accept tout de ta famille.

Do you accept credit cards?


His teacher wouldnt accept any excuses.
She will not fail the class. (She refuses to
fail the class.)
It was important that you accepted that
invitation.
You put up with everything from your
family.

70 / accompagner

accompagner
to accompany, to go with, to come with
Present participle: accompagnant Past participle: accompagn
Imperative: accompagne, accompagnez, accompagnons
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present
accompagne
accompagnes
accompagne

accompagnons
accompagnez
accompagnent

Imperfect

Indicative

accompagnais
accompagnais
accompagnait

Subjunctive

avions accompagn
aviez accompagn
avaient accompagn

eus accompagn
eus accompagn
eut accompagn

emes accompagn
etes accompagn
eurent accompagn

aurai accompagn
auras accompagn
aura accompagn

aurons accompagn
aurez accompagn
auront accompagn

aurais accompagn
aurais accompagn
aurait accompagn

aurions accompagn
auriez accompagn
auraient accompagn

Past
accompagnions
accompagniez
accompagnent

Imperfect
accompagnasse
accompagnasses
accompagnt

avais accompagn
avais accompagn
avait accompagn

Conditional Perfect
accompagnerions
accompagneriez
accompagneraient

Present
accompagne
accompagnes
accompagne

avons accompagn
avez accompagn
ont accompagn

Future Perfect
accompagnerons
accompagnerez
accompagneront

Conditional
accompagnerais
accompagnerais
accompagnerait

ai accompagn
as accompagn
a accompagn

Pass Antrieur
accompagnmes
accompagntes
accompagnrent

Future
accompagnerai
accompagneras
accompagnera

Plural

Pluperfect
accompagnions
accompagniez
accompagnaient

Pass Simple
accompagnai
accompagnas
accompagna

Singular
Pass Compos

aie accompagn
aies accompagn
ait accompagn

ayons accompagn
ayez accompagn
aient accompagn

Pluperfect
accompagnassions
accompagnassiez
accompagnassent

eusse accompagn
eusses accompagn
et accompagn

eussions accompagn
eussiez accompagn
eussent accompagn

EXAMPLES
Accompagne-moi au parc.
En nous accompagnant au cinma, il est
tomb.
Mes penses vous accompagnent.
Une carte accompagnait le cadeau.
Il tait ncessaire quelle lait accompagn
lhpital.

Come with me to the park.


While accompanying us to the movies, he
fell.
My thoughts are with you.
A card came with the present.
It was necessary for her to accompany him
to the hospital.

accomplir / 71

accomplir
to accomplish, to fulfill, to carry out, to perform
Present participle: accomplissant Past participle: accompli
Imperative: accomplis, accomplissez, accomplissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

accomplis
accomplis
accomplit
Imperfect

accomplissons
accomplissez
accomplissent

ai accompli
as accompli
a accompli
Pluperfect

avons accompli
avez accompli
ont accompli

accomplissais
accomplissais
accomplissait
Pass Simple

accomplissions
accomplissiez
accomplissaient

avais accompli
avais accompli
avait accompli
Pass Antrieur

avions accompli
aviez accompli
avaient accompli

accomplis
accomplis
accomplit
Future

accomplmes
accompltes
accomplirent

eus accompli
eus accompli
eut accompli
Future Perfect

emes accompli
etes accompli
eurent accompli

accomplirai
accompliras
accomplira
Conditional

accomplirons
accomplirez
accompliront

aurai accompli
aurons accompli
auras accompli
aurez accompli
aura accompli
auront accompli
Conditional Perfect

accomplirais
accomplirais
accomplirait
Present

accomplirions
accompliriez
accompliraient

aurais accompli
aurais accompli
aurait accompli
Past

aurions accompli
auriez accompli
auraient accompli

accomplisse
accomplisses
accomplisse
Imperfect

accomplissions
accomplissiez
accomplissent

aie accompli
aies accompli
ait accompli
Pluperfect

ayons accompli
ayez accompli
aient accompli

accomplisse
accomplisses
accomplt

accomplissions
accomplissiez
accomplissent

eusse accompli
eusses accompli
et accompli

eussions accompli
eussiez accompli
eussent accompli

Note: As a reflexive verb, saccomplir (to be fulfilling) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se,
nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 5 demonstrates
reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Jai pu accomplir tout ce que jai dcid de
faire.
Elle accomplira beaucoup dans la vie.
Quest-ce que tu as accompli?
Tu verras, avant la fin de la journe nous
aurons accompli des merveilles.
Nous nous accomplissons dans nos relations
professionnelles.

I was able to accomplish what I had


decided to do.
She will accomplish a lot in life.
What did you accomplish?
You will see, before the end of the day we
will have performed miracles.
We find our professional relationships
fulfilling.

72 / accourir (, vers)

accourir (, vers)
to run up, to run to
Present Participle: accourant Past Participle: accouru
Imperative: accours, accourez, accourons

Indicative

Mode

SImple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

accours
accours
accourt
Imperfect

accourons
accourez
accourent

ai accouru
as accouru
a accouru
Pluperfect

avons accouru
avez accouru
ont accouru

accourais
accourais
accourait
Pass Simple

accourions
accouriez
accouraient

avais accouru
avais accouru
avait accouru
Pass Antrieur

avions accouru
aviez accouru
avaient accouru

accourus
accourus
accourut
Future

accourmes
accourtes
accoururent

eus accouru
eus accouru
eut accouru
Future Perfect

emes accouru
etes accouru
eurent accouru

accourrai
accourras
accourra

accourrons
accourrez
accourront

aurai accouru
auras accouru
aura accouru

aurons accouru
aurez accouru
auront accouru

accourrais
accourrais
accourrait
Present

accourrions
accourriez
accourraient

aurais accouru
aurais accouru
aurait accouru
Past

aurions accouru
auriez accouru
auraient accouru

accoure
accoures
accoure
Imperfect

accourions
accouriez
accourent

aie accouru
aies accouru
ait accouru
Pluperfect

ayons accouru
ayez accouru
aient accouru

accourusse
accourusses
accourt

accourussions
accourussiez
accourussent

eusse accouru
eusses accouru
et accouru

eussions accouru
eussiez accouru
eussent accouru

Subjunctive

Conditional

Conditional Perfect

EXAMPLES
Chaque jour son chien accourt pour le
saluer.
Cest sr que Luc accourra vers la femme
pour laider.
notre appel, il a accouru vers nous tout de
suite.
Jai accouru pour lembrasser.

Every day his dog runs up to greet him.


It is certain that Luke will run up to the
woman to help her.
He came as soon as we called.
I rushed up to hug him.

saccoutumer () / 73

saccoutumer ()
to accustom oneself to, to get used to
Present participle: saccoutumant Past participle: accoutum
Imperative: accoutume-toi, accoutumez-vous, accoutumons-nous
Mode

Simple Tenses

Singular

Compound Tenses

Plural

Present
maccoutume
taccoutumes
saccoutume

nous accoutumons
vous accoutumez
saccoutument

Imperfect

Indicative

maccoutumais
taccoutumais
saccoutumait

Subjunctive

me fus accoutum(e)
te fus accoutum(e)
se fut accoutum(e)

nous tions accoutum(e)s


vous tiez accoutum(e)(s)
staient accoutum(e)s
nous fmes accoutum(e)s
vous ftes accoutum(e)(s)
se furent accoutum(e)s
nous serons accoutum(e)s
vous serez accoutum(e)(s)
se seront accoutum(e)s

Conditional Perfect
nous accoutumerions me serais accoutum(e)
vous accoutumeriez te serais accoutum(e)
saccoutumeraient
se serait accoutum(e)

nous serions accoutum(e)s


vous seriez accoutum(e)(s)
se seraient accoutum(e)s

Past
nous accoutumions
vous accoutumiez
saccoutument

Imperfect
maccoutumasse
taccoutumasses
saccoutumt

nous sommes accoutum(e)s


vous tes accoutum(e)(s)
se sont accoutum(e)s

Future Perfect

Present
maccoutume
taccoutumes
saccoutume

mtais accoutum(e)
ttais accoutum(e)
stait accoutum(e)

nous accoutumerons me serai accoutum(e)


vous accoutumerez
te seras accoutum(e)
saccoutumeront
se sera accoutum(e)

Conditional
maccoutumerais
taccoutumerais
saccoutumerait

me suis accoutum(e)
tes accoutum(e)
sest accoutum(e)

Pass Antrieur
nous accoutummes
vous accoutumtes
saccoutumrent

Future
maccoutumerai
taccoutumeras
saccoutumera

Plural

Pluperfect
nous accoutumions
vous accoutumiez
saccoutumaient

Pass Simple
maccoutumai
taccoutumas
saccoutuma

Singular
Pass Compos

me sois accoutum(e)
te sois accoutum(e)
se soit accoutum(e)

nous soyons accoutum(e)s


vous soyez accoutum(e)(s)
se soient accoutum(e)s

Pluperfect
nous
me fusse accoutum(e)
accoutumassions
te fusses accoutum(e)
vous accoutumassiez se ft accoutum(e)
saccoutumassent

nous fussions accoutum(e)s


vous fussiez accoutum(e)
se fussent accoutum(e)s

EXAMPLES
Accoutume-toi aux rgles.
Elle ne saccoutume facilement rien.
Je me suis vite accoutum me lever tt.
Nous nous tions accoutums arriver bien
lavance.

Get accustomed to the rules.


She doesnt easily get used to anything.
I quickly got accustomed to waking up early.
We had gotten accustomed to arriving well
in advance.

74 / accrotre

accrotre
to increase, to add to
Present participle: accroissant Past participle: accru
Imperative: accrois, accroissez, accroissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

accrois
accrois
accrot
Imperfect

accroissons
accroissez
accroissent

ai accru
as accru
a accru
Pluperfect

avons accru
avez accru
ont accru

accroissais
accroissais
accroissait
Pass Simple

accroissions
accroissiez
accroissaient

avais accru
avais accru
avait accru
Pass Antrieur

avions accru
aviez accru
avaient accru

accrus
accrus
accrut
Future

accrmes
accrtes
accrurent

eus accru
eus accru
eut accru
Future Perfect

emes accru
etes accru
eurent accru

accrotrai
accrotras
accrotra
Conditional

accrotrons
accrotrez
accrotront

aurai accru
auras accru
aura accru
Conditional Perfect

aurons accru
aurez accru
auront accru

accrotrais
accrotrais
accrotrait
Present

accrotrions
accrotriez
accrotraient

aurais accru
aurais accru
aurait accru
Past

aurions accru
auriez accru
auraient accru

accroisse
accroisses
accroisse
Imperfect

accrossions
accrossiez
accroissent

aie accru
aies accru
ait accru
Pluperfect

ayons accru
ayez accru
aient accru

accrusse
accrusses
accrt

accrussions
accrussiez
accrussent

eusse accru
eusses accru
et accru

eussions accru
eussiez accru
eussent accru

EXAMPLES
Quest-ce qui accrot son pouvoir?
Ce joueur accrotra son avance sur son
concurrent.
Il faut que notre usine accroisse sa
production de fer.
Son honntet a accru sa rputation.

What increases ones power?


That player will increase his lead over his
competitor.
It is necessary for our factory to increase its
production of iron.
His honesty enhanced his reputation.

accueillir / 75

accueillir
to welcome, receive
Present participle: accueillant Past participle: accueilli
Imperative: accueille, accueillez, accueillons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

accueille
accueilles
accueille
Imperfect

accueillons
accueillez
accueillent

ai accueilli
as accueilli
a accueilli
Pluperfect

avons accueilli
avez accueilli
ont accueilli

accueillais
accueillais
accueillait
Pass Simple

accueillions
accueilliez
accueillaient

avais accueilli
avais accueilli
avait accueilli
Pass Antrieur

avions accueilli
aviez accueilli
avaient accueilli

accueillis
accueillis
accueillit
Future

accueillmes
accueilltes
accueillirent

eus accueilli
eus accueilli
eut accueilli
Future Perfect

emes accueilli
etes accueilli
eurent accueilli

accueillirai
accueilliras
accueillira
Conditional

accueillirons
accueillirez
accueilliront

aurai accueilli
auras accueilli
aura accueilli
Conditional Perfect

aurons accueilli
aurez accueilli
auront accueilli

accueillirais
accueillirais
accueillirait
Present

accueillirions
accueilliriez
accueilliraient

aurais accueilli
aurais accueilli
aurait accueilli
Past

aurions accueilli
auriez accueilli
auraient accueilli

accueille
accueilles
accueille
Imperfect

accueillions
accueilliez
accueillent

aie accueilli
aies accueilli
ait accueilli
Pluperfect

ayons accueilli
ayez accueilli
aient accueilli

accueillisse
accueillisses
accueillt

accueillissions
accueillissiez
accueillissent

eusse accueilli
eusses accueilli
et accueilli

eussions accueilli
eussiez accueilli
eussent accueilli

EXAMPLES
Ils maccueillent toujours chaudement
chez eux.
Il est impratif quon nacueille jamais
froidement les invits.
Ce restaurant aurait pu accueillir seulement
cinquante clients.
Il aurait bien accueilli ma suggestion.

They always give me a warm welcome at


their house.
It is imperative that one never gives a cool
reception to guests.
That restaurant could have only
accommodated fifty clients.
He would have received my suggestion
well.

76 / acheter

acheter
to buy
Present participle: achetant Past participle: achet
Imperative: achte, achetez, achetons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

achte
achtes
achte
Imperfect

achetons
achetez
achtent

ai achet
as achet
a achet
Pluperfect

avons achet
avez achet
ont achet

achetais
achetais
achetait
Pass Simple

achetions
achetiez
achetaient

avais achet
avais achet
avait achet
Pass Antrieur

avions achet
aviez achet
avaient achet

achetai
achetas
acheta
Future

achetmes
achettes
achetrent

eus achet
eus achet
eut achet
Future Perfect

emes achet
etes achet
eurent achet

achterai
achteras
achtera
Conditional

achterons
achterez
achteront

aurai achet
auras achet
aura achet
Conditional Perfect

aurons achet
aurez achet
auront achet

achterais
achterais
achterait
Present

achterions
achteriez
achteraient

aurais achet
aurais achet
aurait achet
Past

aurions achet
auriez achet
auraient achet

achte
achtes
achte
Imperfect

achetions
achetiez
achtent

aie achet
aies achet
ait achet
Pluperfect

ayons achet
ayez achet
aient achet

achetasse
achetasses
achett

achetassions
achetassiez
achetassent

eusse achet
eusses achet
et achet

eussions achet
eussiez achet
eussent achet

Note: As a reflexive verb, sacheter (to buy for oneself) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se,
nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 6 and 7 demonstrate the reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Achte-lui un joli cadeau danniversaire.
Elle achtera une montre son amie.
On ne peut pas acheter cet agent de police.
Avais-tu achet quelque chose dans cette
boutique auparavant?
Je lui aurais achet un livre si javais su quil
aimait lire.
Je me suis achete une robe.
Un portefeuille sachte dans une maroquinerie.

Buy her a pretty birthday present.


She will buy a watch for her friend.
You cant bribe that police officer.
Had you bought anything in that store
before?
I would have bought him a book if I had
known that he liked to read.
I bought myself a dress.
A wallet can be bought in a fine leather
goods store.

achever / 77

achever
to finish, to complete, to bring to a head, to finish off (destroy)
Present participle: achevant Past participle: achev
Imperative: achve, achevez, achevons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

achve
achves
achve
Imperfect

achevons
achevez
achvent

ai achev
as achev
a achev
Pluperfect

avons achev
avez achev
ont achev

achevais
achevais
achevait
Pass Simple

achevions
acheviez
achevaient

avais achev
avais achev
avait achev
Pass Antrieur

avions achev
aviez achev
avaient achev

achevai
achevas
acheva
Future

achevmes
achevtes
achevrent

eus achev
eus achev
eut achev
Future Perfect

emes achev
etes achev
eurent achev

achverai
achveras
achvera
Conditional

achverons
achverez
achveront

aurai achev
auras achev
aura achev
Conditional Perfect

aurons achev
aurez achev
auront achev

achverais
achverais
achverait
Present

achverions
achveriez
achveraient

aurais achev
aurais achev
aurait achev
Past

aurions achev
auriez achev
auraient achev

achve
achves
achve
Imperfect

achevions
acheviez
achvent

aie achev
aies achev
ait achev
Pluperfect

ayons achev
ayez achev
aient achev

achevasse
achevasses
achevt

achevassions
achevassiez
achevassent

eusse achev
eusses achev
et achev

eussions achev
eussiez achev
eussent achev

EXAMPLES
Il est parti sans achever son travail.
Il faut que tu achves tes devoirs.
Ses remarques achevrent de me plonger
dans le dsespoir.
Cette longue course la achev.

He left without finishing his work.


You have to finish your homework.
His remarks ended by plunging me into
despair.
That long race finished him off.

78 / acqurir

acqurir
to acquire
Present participle: acqurant Past participle: acquis
Imperative: acquiers, acqurons, acqurez

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

acquiers
acquiers
acquiert
Imperfect

acqurons
acqurez
acquirent

ai acquis
as acquis
a acquis
Pluperfect

avons acquis
avez acquis
ont acquis

acqurais
acqurais
acqurait

acqurions
acquriez
acquraient

avais acquis
avais acquis
avait acquis

avions acquis
aviez acquis
avaient acquis

acquis
acquis
acquit
Future

acqumes
acqutes
acquirent

eus acquis
eus acquis
eut acquis
Future Perfect

emes acquis
etes acquis
eurent acquis

acquerrai
acquerras
acquerra
Conditional

acquerrons
acquerrez
acquerront

aurai acquis
auras acquis
aura acquis
Conditional Perfect

aurons acquis
aurez acquis
auront acquis

acquerrais
acquerrais
acquerrait
Present

acquerrions
acquerriez
acquerraient

aurais acquis
aurais acquis
aurait acquis
Past

aurions acquis
auriez acquis
auraient acquis

acquire
acquires
acquire
Imperfect

acqurions
acquriez
acquirent

aie acquis
aies acquis
ait acquis
Pluperfect

ayons acquis
ayez acquis
aient acquis

acquisse
acquisses
acqut

acquissions
acquissiez
acquissent

eusse acquis
eusses acquis
et acquis

eussions acquis
eussiez acquis
eussent acquis

Pass Simple

Pass Antrieur

Note: As a reflexive verb, sacqurir (to acquire) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se, nous,
and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 4 and 5 demonstrate
reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Le roi acquit le trne par succession.
Est-il possible que lavocat acquire la
preuve de linnocence de laccus?
Leur entreprise a acquis un nouveau grant.
Elle sest acquise une mauvaise rputation.
La richesse sacquiert avec le temps.

The king inherited the throne.


Is it possible that the lawyer will acquire
proof of the innocence of the accused?
Their company acquired a new manager.
She acquired a bad reputation.
Wealth is acquired with time.

admettre / 79

admettre
to admit, to allow in, to suppose, to accept
Present participle: admettant Past participle: admis
Imperative: admets, admettez, admettons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

admets
admets
admet
Imperfect

admettons
admettez
admettent

ai admis
as admis
a admis
Pluperfect

avons admis
avez admis
ont admis

admettais
admettais
admettait
Pass Simple

admettions
admettiez
admettaient

avais admis
avais admis
avait admis
Pass Antrieur

avions admis
aviez admis
avaient admis

admis
admis
admit
Future

admmes
admtes
admirent

eus admis
eus admis
eut admis
Future Perfect

emes admis
etes admis
eurent admis

admettrai
admettras
admettra
Conditional

admettrons
admettrez
admettront

aurai admis
auras admis
aura admis
Conditional Perfect

aurons admis
aurez admis
auront admis

admettrais
admettrais
admettrait
Present

admettrions
admettriez
admettraient

aurais admis
aurais admis
aurait admis
Past

aurions admis
auriez admis
auraient admis

admette
admettes
admette
Imperfect

admettions
admettiez
admettent

aie admis
aies admis
ait admis
Pluperfect

ayons admis
ayez admis
aient admis

admisse
admisses
admt

admissions
admissiez
admissent

eusse admis
eusses admis
et admis

eussions admis
eussiez admis
eussent admis

EXAMPLES
Ce cinma nadmet que cent personnes.
Ils nadmettent pas leurs fautes.
En France, les chiens sont admis dans les
restaurants.
Admettons que vous nayez pas menti.
Cette universit a admis mille tudiants.
Elles furent admises dans une grande salle.

That movie theater can only accommodate


one hundred people.
They dont admit their faults.
In France, dogs are admitted into
restaurants.
Lets say you didnt lie.
That university admitted one thousand
students.
They were admitted into a big room.

80 / admirer

admirer
to admire
Present participle: admirant Past participle: admir
Imperative: admire, admirez, admirons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

admire
admires
admire
Imperfect

admirons
admirez
admirent

ai admir
as admir
a admir
Pluperfect

avons admir
avez admir
ont admir

admirais
admirais
admirait
Pass Simple

admirions
admiriez
admiraient

avais admir
avais admir
avait admir
Pass Antrieur

avions admir
aviez admir
avaient admir

admirai
admiras
admira
Future

admirmes
admirtes
admirrent

eus admir
eus admir
eut admir
Future Perfect

emes admir
etes admir
eurent admir

admirerai
admireras
admirera
Conditional

admirerons
admirerez
admireront

aurai admir
auras admir
aura admir
Conditional Perfect

aurons admir
aurez admir
auront admir

admirerais
admirerais
admirerait
Present

admirerions
admireriez
admireraient

aurais admir
aurais admir
aurait admir
Past

aurions admir
auriez admir
auraient admir

admire
admires
admire
Imperfect

admirions
admiriez
admirent

aie admir
aies admir
ait admir
Pluperfect

ayons admir
ayez admir
aient admir

admirasse
admirasses
admirt

admirassions
admirassiez
admirassent

eusse admir
eusses admir
et admir

eussions admir
eussiez admir
eussent admir

EXAMPLES
Admirez-vous cette femme?
Je ladmirerais sil tait plus digne de
confiance.
Les as-tu admirs?
Nous avions admir leur nouvelle maison.

Do you admire that woman?


I would admire him if he were more
reliable.
Did you admire them?
We had admired their new house.

adorer / 81

adorer
to adore
Present participle: adorant Past participle: ador
Imperative: adore, adorez, adorons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

adore
adores
adore
Imperfect

adorons
adorez
adorent

ai ador
as ador
a ador
Pluperfect

avons ador
avez ador
ont ador

adorais
adorais
adorait
Pass Simple

adorions
adoriez
adoraient

avais ador
avais ador
avait ador
Pass Antrieur

avions ador
aviez ador
avaient ador

adorai
adoras
adora
Future

adormes
adortes
adorrent

eus ador
eus ador
eut ador
Future Perfect

emes ador
etes ador
eurent ador

adorerai
adoreras
adorera
Conditional

adorerons
adorerez
adoreront

aurai ador
auras ador
aura ador
Conditional Perfect

aurons ador
aurez ador
auront ador

adorerais
adorerais
adorerait
Present

adorerions
adoreriez
adoreraient

aurais ador
aurais ador
aurait ador
Past

aurions ador
auriez ador
auraient ador

adore
adores
adore
Imperfect

adorions
adoriez
adorent

aie ador
aies ador
ait ador
Pluperfect

ayons ador
ayez ador
aient ador

adorasse
adorasses
adort

adorassions
adorassiez
adorassent

eusse ador
eusses ador
et ador

eussions ador
eussiez ador
eussent ador

EXAMPLES
Je tadore.
Adoreras-tu sa fiance?
Il a ador mon sourire.
Nous laurions ador sil avait t plus
respectueux.

I adore you.
Will you adore his fiance?
He adored my smile.
We would have adored him if he were more
respectful.

82 / adoucir

adoucir
to make milder, to make sweeter
Present participle: adoucissant Past participle: adouci
Imperative: adoucis, adoucissez, adoucissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

adoucis
adoucis
adoucit
Imperfect

adoucissons
adoucissez
adoucissent

ai adouci
as adouci
a adouci
Pluperfect

avons adouci
avez adouci
ont adouci

adoucissais
adoucissais
adoucissait
Pass Simple

adoucissions
adoucissiez
adoucissaient

avais adouci
avais adouci
avait adouci
Pass Antrieur

avions adouci
aviez adouci
avaient adouci

adoucis
adoucis
adoucit
Future

adoucmes
adouctes
adoucirent

eus adouci
eus adouci
eut adouci
Future Perfect

emes adouci
etes adouci
eurent adouci

adoucirai
adouciras
adoucira
Conditional

adoucirons
adoucirez
adouciront

aurai adouci
auras adouci
aura adouci
Conditional Perfect

aurons adouci
aurez adouci
auront adouci

adoucirais
adoucirais
adoucirait
Present

adoucirions
adouciriez
adouciraient

aurais adouci
aurais adouci
aurait adouci
Past

aurions adouci
auriez adouci
auraient adouci

adoucisse
adoucisses
adoucisse
Imperfect

adoucissions
adoucissiez
adoucissent

aie adouci
aies adouci
ait adouci
Pluperfect

ayons adouci
ayez adouci
aient adouci

adoucisse
adoucisses
adouct

adoucissions
adoucissiez
adoucissent

eusse adouci
eusses adouci
et adouci

eussions adouci
eussiez adouci
eussent adouci

Note: As a reflexive verb, sadoucir (to soften) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se, nous,
and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 5 demonstrates
reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Cette couleur adoucit son teint.
Ce savon adoucira la peau.
Le vent du nord avait adouci la temprature.
Ma prsence a adouci ses derniers jours.
Sa voix sest adoucie.

That color softens her complexion.


That soap will soften skin.
The north wind had made the temperature
milder.
My presence made his last days more
comfortable.
Her voice became softer.

adresser / 83

adresser
to address
Present participle: adressant Past participle: adress
Imperative: adresse, adressez, adressons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

adresse
adresses
adresse
Imperfect

adressons
adressez
adressent

ai adress
as adress
a adress
Pluperfect

avons adress
avez adress
ont adress

adressais
adressais
adressait
Pass Simple

adressions
adressiez
adressaient

avais adress
avais adress
avait adress
Pass Antrieur

avions adress
aviez adress
avaient adress

adressai
adressas
adressa
Future

adressmes
adresstes
adressrent

eus adress
eus adress
eut adress
Future Perfect

emes adress
etes adress
eurent adress

adresserai
adresseras
adressera
Conditional

adresserons
adresserez
adresseront

aurai adress
auras adress
aura adress
Conditional Perfect

aurons adress
aurez adress
auront adress

adresserais
adresserais
adresserait
Present

adresserions
adresseriez
adresseraient

aurais adress
aurais adress
aurait adress
Past

aurions adress
auriez adress
auraient adress

adresse
adresses
adresse
Imperfect

adressions
adressiez
adressent

aie adress
aies adress
ait adress
Pluperfect

ayons adress
ayez adress
aient adress

adressasse
adressasses
adresst

adressassions
adressassiez
adressassent

eusse adress
eusses adress
et adress

eussions adress
eussiez adress
eussent adress

Note: As a reflexive verb, sadresser (to speak to, to be aimed at) uses the reflexive pronouns
me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 6, 7,
and 8 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Elle madresse la parole.
Ils nous adressent leurs meilleurs voeux.
Jai adress un colis mon fils.
Il mavait adress un compliment.
Je lui adressai un sourire.
Elle sadresse au publique.
Adressez-vous au directeur.
Cela stait adress toi.

She addresses me.


They send us their best wishes.
I sent a package to my son.
He had given me a compliment.
I smiled at him.
She addresses the public.
Go speak to the principal.
That was addressed to you.

84 / advenir

advenir
to happen, to occur, to come to pass
Present participle: advenant Past participle: advenu
Imperative: viens, venez, venons
Mode

Simple Tenses

Subjunctive

Indicative

Singular
Present

Compound Tenses

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

il advient

il est advenu

Imperfect

Pluperfect

il advenait

il tait advenu

Pass Simple

Pass Antrieur

il advint

il fut advenu

Future

Future Perfect

il adviendra

il sera advenu

Conditional

Conditional Perfect

il adviendrait

il serait advenu

Present

Past

il advienne

il soit advenu

Imperfect

Pluperfect

il advnt

il ft advenu

Plural

EXAMPLES
Advienne que pourra.
Quoi quil advienne, je serai l pour toi.
Quest-il advenu au tmoin?
On ne sait pas ce quil en adviendra.

Come what may.


Whatever may happen, Ill be there for you.
What has happened to the witness?
Nobody knows how it will turn out.

saffaiblir / 85

saffaiblir
to grow weak
Present participle: saffaiblissant Past participle: affaibli
Imperative: affaiblis-toi, affaiblissez-vous, affaiblissons-nous

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

maffaiblis
taffaiblis
saffaiblit
Imperfect

nous affaiblissons
vous affaiblissez
saffaiblissent

me suis affaibli(e)
tes affaibli(e)
sest affaibli(e)
Pluperfect

nous sommes affaibli(e)s


vous tes affaibli(e)(s)
se sont affaibli(e)s

maffaiblissais
taffaiblissais
saffaiblissait
Pass Simple

nous affaiblissions mtais affaibli(e)


vous affaiblissiez ttais affaibli(e)
saffaiblissaient
stait affaibli(e)
Pass Antrieur

nous tions affaibli(e)s


vous tiez affaibli(e)(s)
staient affaibli(e)s

maffaiblis
taffaiblis
saffaiblit
Future

nous affaiblmes
vous affaibltes
saffaiblirent

me fus affaibli(e)
te fus affaibli(e)
se fut affaibli(e)
Future Perfect

nous fmes affaibli(e)s


vous ftes affaibli(e)(s)
se furent affaibli(e)s

maffaiblirai
taffaibliras
saffaiblira
Conditional

nous affaiblirons
vous affaiblirez
saffaibliront

me serai affaibli(e)
nous serons affaibli(e)s
te seras affaibli(e)
vous serez affaibli(e)(s)
se sera affaibli(e)
se seront affaibli(e)s
Conditional Perfect

maffaiblirais
taffaiblirais
saffaiblirait
Present

nous affaiblirions
vous affaibliriez
saffaibliraient

me serais affaibli(e)
te serais affaibli(e)
se serait affaibli(e)
Past

maffaiblisse
taffaiblisses
saffaiblisse
Imperfect

nous affaiblissions me sois affaibli(e)


vous affaiblissiez te sois affaibli(e)
saffaiblissent
se soit affaibli(e)
Pluperfect

nous soyons affaibli(e)s


vous soyez affaibli(e)(s)
se soient affaibli(e)s

maffaiblisse
taffaiblisses
saffaiblt

vous affaiblissions me fusse affaibli(e)


affaiblissiez
te fusses affaibli(e)
saffaiblissent
se ft affaibli(e)

nous fussions affaibli(e)s


vous fussiez affaibli(e)
se fussent affaibli(e)s

nous serions affaibli(e)s


vous seriez affaibli(e)(s)
se seraient affaibli(e)s

EXAMPLES
Ne taffaiblis pas!
Si on ne mange pas bien, on saffaiblira.
Sa voix sest affaiblie.
Pendant sa maladie elle sest beaucoup
affaiblie.

Dont become weak!


If one doesnt eat well, one will become
weak.
His voice grew weaker.
During her illness she became very weak.

86 / affliger

affliger
to afflict, to distress, to grieve
Present participle: affligeant Past participle: afflig
Imperative: afflige, affligez, affligeons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

afflige
affliges
afflige
Imperfect

affligeons
affligez
affligent

ai afflig
as afflig
a afflig
Pluperfect

avons afflig
avez afflig
ont afflig

affligeais
affligeais
affligeait
Pass Simple

affligions
affligiez
affligeaient

avais afflig
avais afflig
avait afflig
Pass Antrieur

avions afflig
aviez afflig
avaient afflig

affligeai
affligeas
affligea
Future

affligemes
affligetes
affligrent

eus afflig
eus afflig
eut afflig
Future Perfect

emes afflig
etes afflig
eurent afflig

affligerai
affligeras
affligera
Conditional

affligerons
affligerez
affligeront

aurai afflig
auras afflig
aura afflig
Conditional Perfect

aurons afflig
aurez afflig
auront afflig

affligerais
affligerais
affligerait
Present

affligerions
affligeriez
affligeraient

aurais afflig
aurais afflig
aurait afflig
Past

aurions afflig
auriez afflig
auraient afflig

afflige
affliges
afflige
Imperfect

affligions
affligiez
affligent

aie afflig
aies afflig
ait afflig
Pluperfect

ayons afflig
ayez afflig
aient afflig

affligeasse
affligeasses
affliget

affligeassions
affligeassiez
affligeassent

eusse afflig
eusses afflig
et afflig

eussions afflig
eussiez afflig
eussent afflig

EXAMPLES
Il a un problme qui lafflige.
Cette maladie naffligera pas ceux qui sont
sains.
Sa maladie lavait afflige dun dos courb.
Il tait triste que la pneumonie lait afflige.

He has a problem that is distressing him.


This illness wont afflict those who are
healthy.
Her illness had afflicted her with a hunched
back.
It is sad that he was afflicted with
pneumonia.

affoler / 87

affoler
to terrify
Present participle: affolant Past participle: affol
Imperative: affole, affolez, affolons
Mode

Simple Tenses

Singular

Compound Tenses

Plural

Subjunctive

Indicative

Present

Singular

Plural

Pass Compos

affole
affoles
affole
Imperfect

affolons
affolez
affolent

ai affol
as affol
a affol
Pluperfect

avons affol
avez affol
ont affol

affolais
affolais
affolait
Pass Simple

affolions
affoliez
affolaient

avais affol
avais affol
avait affol
Pass Antrieur

avions affol
aviez affol
avaient affol

affolai
affolas
affola
Future

affolmes
affoltes
affolrent

eus affol
eus affol
eut affol
Future Perfect

emes affol
etes affol
eurent affol

affolerai
affoleras
affolera
Conditional

affolerons
affolerez
affoleront

aurai affol
auras affol
aura affol
Conditional Perfect

aurons affol
aurez affol
auront affol

affolerais
affolerais
affolerait
Present

affolerions
affoleriez
affoleraient

aurais affol
aurais affol
aurait affol
Past

aurions affol
auriez affol
auraient affol

affole
affoles
affole
Imperfect

affolions
affoliez
affolent

aie affol
aies affol
ait affol
Pluperfect

ayons affol
ayez affol
aient affol

affolasse
affolasses
affolt

affolassions
affolassiez
affolassent

eusse affol
eusses affol
et affol

eussions affol
eussiez affol
eussent affol

Note: As a reflexive verb, saffoler (to panic) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se, nous, and
vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 4 and 5 demonstrate
reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Sa mauvaise attitude maffole.
Un voyage en avion laffolera.
Sa mre a dout que le tonnerre lait affol.
Ne vous affolez pas!
Il est important que tu ne taffoles pas.

His bad attitude terrifies me.


An airplane trip will terrify him.
His mother doubted that the thunder
terrified him.
Dont panic!
Its important not to panic.

88 / agacer

agacer
to annoy, to bother
Present participle: agaant Past participle: agac
Imperative: agace, agacez, agaons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

agace
agaces
agace
Imperfect

agaons
agacez
agacent

ai agac
as agac
a agac
Pluperfect

avons agac
avez agac
ont agac

agaais
agaais
agaait
Pass Simple

agacions
agaciez
agaaient

avais agac
avais agac
avait agac
Pass Antrieur

avions agac
aviez agac
avaient agac

agaai
agaas
agaa
Future

agaames
agaates
agacrent

eus agac
eus agac
eut agac
Future Perfect

emes agac
etes agac
eurent agac

agacerai
agaceras
agacera
Conditional

agacerons
agacerez
agaceront

aurai agac
auras agac
aura agac
Conditional Perfect

aurons agac
aurez agac
auront agac

agacerais
agacerais
agacerait
Present

agacerions
agaceriez
agaceraient

aurais agac
aurais agac
aurait agac
Past

aurions agac
auriez agac
auraient agac

agace
agaces
agace
Imperfect

agacions
agaciez
agacent

aie agac
aies agac
ait agac
Pluperfect

ayons agac
ayez agac
aient agac

agaasse
agaasses
agat

agaassions
agaassiez
agaassent

eusse agac
eusses agac
et agac

eussions agac
eussiez agac
eussent agac

EXAMPLES
Cela est vraiment agaant!
Tu magaces.
Le bruit mavait agac.
Je suis surpris que sa plainte vous ait agac.

Thats really annoying!


You are annoying me.
The noise had annoyed me.
Im surprised that her complaint annoyed
you.

agir / 89

agir
to act
Present participle: agissant Past participle: agi
Imperative: agis, agissez, agissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

agis
agis
agit
Imperfect

agissons
agissez
agissent

ai agi
as agi
a agi
Pluperfect

avons agi
avez agi
ont agi

agissais
agissais
agissait
Pass Simple

agissions
agissiez
agissaient

avais agi
avais agi
avait agi
Pass Antrieur

avions agi
aviez agi
avaient agi

agis
agis
agit
Future

agmes
agtes
agirent

eus agi
eus agi
eut agi
Future Perfect

emes agi
etes agi
eurent agi

agirai
agiras
agira
Conditional

agirons
agirez
agiront

aurai agi
auras agi
aura agi
Conditional Perfect

aurons agi
aurez agi
auront agi

agirais
agirais
agirait
Present

agirions
agiriez
agiraient

aurais agi
aurais agi
aurait agi
Past

aurions agi
auriez agi
auraient agi

agisse
agisses
agisse
Imperfect

agissions
agissiez
agissent

aie agi
aies agi
ait agi
Pluperfect

ayons agi
ayez agi
aient agi

agisse
agisses
agt

agissions
agissiez
agissent

eusse agi
eusses agi
et agi

eussions agi
eussiez agi
eussent agi

EXAMPLES
Il faut agir immdiatement.
Tu agis comme un enfant.
Jagirai au nom de mes parents.
Elles ont agi en amies.

We must act immediately.


You are acting like a child.
I will act in the name of my parents.
They acted like friends.

90 / sagir (de)

sagir (de)
to be a question, to be a matter (of)
Present participle: agissant Past participle: agi
Imperative: Not used
Mode

Simple Tenses

Subjunctive

Indicative

Singular
Present

Compound Tenses

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

il sagit

il sest agi

Imperfect

Pluperfect

il sagissait

il stait agi

Pass Simple

Pass Antrieur

il sagit

il se fut agi

Future

Future Perfect

il sagira

il se sera agi

Conditional

Conditional Perfect

il sagirait

il se serait agi

Present

Past

il sagisse

il se soit agi

Imperfect

Pluperfect

il sagt

il se ft agi

Plural

EXAMPLES
Il sagit de ton bonheur.
Dans ce livre il sagit de trois enfants.
De quoi sagit-il?
Il ne sagit pas dargent.

Its a question of your happiness.


This book is about three children.
Whats it about?
Its not about money.

agiter / 91

agiter
to wave, to shake
Present participle: agitant Past participle: agit
Imperative: agite, agitez, agitons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

agite
agites
agite
Imperfect

agitons
agitez
agitent

ai agit
as agit
a agit
Pluperfect

avons agit
avez agit
ont agit

agitais
agitais
agitait
Pass Simple

agitions
agitiez
agitaient

avais agit
avais agit
avait agit
Pass Antrieur

avions agit
aviez agit
avaient agit

agitai
agitas
agita
Future

agitmes
agittes
agitrent

eus agit
eus agit
eut agit
Future Perfect

emes agit
etes agit
eurent agit

agiterai
agiteras
agitera
Conditional

agiterons
agiterez
agiteront

aurai agit
auras agit
aura agit
Conditional Perfect

aurons agit
aurez agit
auront agit

agiterais
agiterais
agiterait
Present

agiterions
agiteriez
agiteraient

aurais agit
aurais agit
aurait agit
Past

aurions agit
auriez agit
auraient agit

agite
agites
agite
Imperfect

agitions
agitiez
agitent

aie agit
aies agit
ait agit
Pluperfect

ayons agit
ayez agit
aient agit

agitasse
agitasses
agitt

agitassions
agitassiez
agitassent

eusse agit
eusses agit
et agit

eussions agit
eussiez agit
eussent agit

Note: As a reflexive verb, sagiter (to move about restlessly) uses the reflexive pronouns me,
te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 5, 6, and
7 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Quand le bateau part, elle agite son
mouchoir.
Un fort vent agitera les branches de cet
arbre.
Le bateau a t agit par les vagues.
Le chien avait agit sa queue.
Il sagit dans son sommeil.
Les enfants se sont agits sur leurs chaises.
Mes penses sagitaient dans ma tte.

When the boat leaves, she waves her


handkerchief.
A strong wind will shake the branches of
that tree.
The boat was shaken by the waves.
The dog had wagged its tail.
He tosses and turns in his sleep.
The children moved about on their chairs.
My thoughts were moving about in my
head.

92 / agrandir

agrandir
to widen, to enlarge
Present participle: agrandissant Past participle: agrandi
Imperative: agrandis, agrandissez, agrandissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

agrandis
agrandis
agrandit
Imperfect

agrandissons
agrandissez
agrandissent

ai agrandi
as agrandi
a agrandi
Pluperfect

avons agrandi
avez agrandi
ont agrandi

agrandissais
agrandissais
agrandissait
Pass Simple

agrandissions avais agrandi


agrandissiez
avais agrandi
agrandissaient avait agrandi
Pass Antrieur

avions agrandi
aviez agrandi
avaient agrandi

agrandis
agrandis
agrandit
Future

agrandmes
agrandtes
agrandirent

eus agrandi
eus agrandi
eut agrandi
Future Perfect

emes agrandi
etes agrandi
eurent agrandi

agrandirai
agrandiras
agrandira
Conditional

agrandirons
agrandirez
agrandiront

aurai agrandi
auras agrandi
aura agrandi
Conditional Perfect

aurons agrandi
aurez agrandi
auront agrandi

agrandirais
agrandirais
agrandirait
Present

agrandirions
agrandiriez
agrandiraient

aurais agrandi
aurais agrandi
aurait agrandi
Past

aurions agrandi
auriez agrandi
auraient agrandi

agrandisse
agrandisses
agrandisse
Imperfect

agrandissions
agrandissiez
agrandissent

aie agrandi
aies agrandi
ait agrandi
Pluperfect

ayons agrandi
ayez agrandi
aient agrandi

agrandisse
agrandisses
agrandt

agrandissions
agrandissiez
agrandissent

eusse agrandi
eusses agrandi
et agrandi

eussions agrandi
eussiez agrandi
eussent agrandi

Note: As a reflexive verb, sagrandir (to get wider, to get bigger) uses the reflexive pronouns
me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 5
and 6 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Pourriez-vous agrandir cette photo?
On agrandira ce passage.
La couleur de la peinture a agrandi la
chambre coucher.
Il tait urgent que les ouvriers ait agrandi ce
trou.
voir tous les desserts, ses yeux
sagrandirent.
Cette entreprise sest agrandie.

Could you blow up this photo?


They will widen this passageway.
The color of the paint made the bedroom
room look bigger.
It was urgent that the workers widened the
hole.
Upon seeing all the desserts, his eyes got
bigger.
That company expanded.

agrer / 93

agrer
to accept
Present participle: agrant Past participle: agr
Imperative: agre, agrez, agrons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

agre
agres
agre
Imperfect

agrons
agrez
agrent

ai agr
as agr
a agr
Pluperfect

avons agr
avez agr
ont agr

agrais
agrais
agrait
Pass Simple

agrions
agriez
agraient

avais agr
avais agr
avait agr
Pass Antrieur

avions agr
aviez agr
avaient agr

agrai
agras
agra
Future

agrmes
agrtes
agrrent

eus agr
eus agr
eut agr
Future Perfect

emes agr
etes agr
eurent agr

agrerai
agreras
agrera
Conditional

agrerons
agrerez
agreront

aurai agr
auras agr
aura agr
Conditional Perfect

aurons agr
aurez agr
auront agr

agrerais
agrerais
agrerait
Present

agrerions
agreriez
agreraient

aurais agr
aurais agr
aurait agr
Past

aurions agr
auriez agr
auraient agr

agre
agres
agre
Imperfect

agrions
agriez
agrent

aie agr
aies agr
ait agr
Pluperfect

ayons agr
ayez agr
aient agr

agrasse
agrasses
agrt

agrassions
agrassiez
agrassent

eusse agr
eusses agr
et agr

eussions agr
eussiez agr
eussent agr

EXAMPLES
Agre mes excuses sil te plat.
Veuillez agrer, Monsieur, lexpression de
mes sentiments les meilleurs.
Si cela vous agre, je commencerai le travail
demain.
Cela ne lui a pas agr.

Please accept my apology.


Sincerely yours.
If it suits you, Ill begin the work tomorrow.
That didnt suit him.

94 / aider

aider
to help
Present participle: aidant Past participle: aid
Imperative: aide, aidez, aidons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

aide
aides
aide
Imperfect

aidons
aidez
aident

ai aid
as aid
a aid
Pluperfect

avons aid
avez aid
ont aid

aidais
aidais
aidait
Pass Simple

aidions
aidiez
aidaient

avais aid
avais aid
avait aid
Pass Antrieur

avions aid
aviez aid
avaient aid

aidai
aidas
aida
Future

aidmes
aidtes
aidrent

eus aid
eus aid
eut aid
Future Perfect

emes aid
etes aid
eurent aid

aiderai
aideras
aidera
Conditional

aiderons
aiderez
aideront

aurai aid
auras aid
aura aid
Conditional Perfect

aurons aid
aurez aid
auront aid

aiderais
aiderais
aiderait
Present

aiderions
aideriez
aideraient

aurais aid
aurais aid
aurait aid
Past

aurions aid
auriez aid
auraient aid

aide
aides
aide
Imperfect

aidions
aidiez
aident

aie aid
aies aid
ait aid
Pluperfect

ayons aid
ayez aid
aient aid

aidasse
aidasses
aidt

aidassions
aidassiez
aidassent

eusse aid
eusses aid
et aid

eussions aid
eussiez aid
eussent aid

Note: As a reflexive verb, saider (to help each other) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te,
se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 5 and 6
demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Aidez-moi, sil vous plat.
Je taiderai descendre.
Il ma beaucoup aid.
Elle taurait aide.
Les bons amis saident.
En saidant de toutes ses ressources, il a fini
le travail.

Please help me.


Ill help you get down.
He helped me a lot.
She would have helped you.
Good friends help each other.
By using all of his resources, he finished
the work.

aimer / 95

aimer
to like, to love
Present participle: aimant Past participle: aim
Imperative: aime, aimez, aimons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

aime
aimes
aime
Imperfect

aimons
aimez
aiment

ai aim
as aim
a aim
Pluperfect

avons aim
avez aim
ont aim

aimais
aimais
aimait
Pass Simple

aimions
aimiez
aimaient

avais aim
avais aim
avait aim
Pass Antrieur

avions aim
aviez aim
avaient aim

aimai
aimas
aima
Future

aimmes
aimtes
aimrent

eus aim
eus aim
eut aim
Future Perfect

emes aim
etes aim
eurent aim

aimerai
aimeras
aimera
Conditional

aimerons
aimerez
aimeront

aurai aim
auras aim
aura aim
Conditional Perfect

aurons aim
aurez aim
auront aim

aimerais
aimerais
aimerait
Present

aimerions
aimeriez
aimeraient

aurais aim
aurais aim
aurait aim
Past

aurions aim
auriez aim
auraient aim

aime
aimes
aime
Imperfect

aimions
aimiez
aiment

aie aim
aies aim
ait aim
Pluperfect

ayons aim
ayez aim
aient aim

aimasse
aimasses
aimt

aimassions
aimassiez
aimassent

eusse aim
eusses aim
et aim

eussions aim
eussiez aim
eussent aim

Note: As a reflexive verb, saimer (to love each other) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se,
nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 5, 6, and 7
demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Je taime la folie.
Comme cadeau, elle aime les fleurs mais elle
aime mieux les bonbons.
Jaimerais vous parler.
Aimeriez-vous aller au ballet?
Elle ne saime pas avec cette robe.
Ils se sont aims.
Ces deux soeurs ne saiment gure.

I love you madly.


As a gift, she likes flowers but she prefers
candies.
I would like to speak to you.
Would you like to go to the ballet?
She doesnt like herself in that dress.
They loved each other.
Theres no love lost between those two
sisters.

96 / ajouter

ajouter
to add
Present participle: ajoutant Past participle: ajout
Imperative: ajoute, ajoutez, ajoutons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

ajoute
ajoutes
ajoute
Imperfect

ajoutons
ajoutez
ajoutent

ai ajout
as ajout
a ajout
Pluperfect

avons ajout
avez ajout
ont ajout

ajoutais
ajoutais
ajoutait
Pass Simple

ajoutions
ajoutiez
ajoutaient

avais ajout
avais ajout
avait ajout
Pass Antrieur

avions ajout
aviez ajout
avaient ajout

ajoutai
ajoutas
ajouta
Future

ajoutmes
ajouttes
ajoutrent

eus ajout
eus ajout
eut ajout
Future Perfect

emes ajout
etes ajout
eurent ajout

ajouterai
ajouteras
ajoutera
Conditional

ajouterons
ajouterez
ajouteront

aurai ajout
auras ajout
aura ajout
Conditional Perfect

aurons ajout
aurez ajout
auront ajout

ajouterais
ajouterais
ajouterait
Present

ajouterions
ajouteriez
ajouteraient

aurais ajout
aurais ajout
aurait ajout
Past

aurions ajout
auriez ajout
auraient ajout

ajoute
ajoutes
ajoute
Imperfect

ajoutions
ajoutiez
ajoutent

aie ajout
aies ajout
ait ajout
Pluperfect

ayons ajout
ayez ajout
aient ajout

ajoutasse
ajoutasses
ajoutt

ajoutassions
ajoutassiez
ajoutassent

eusse ajout
eusses ajout
et ajout

eussions ajout
eussiez ajout
eussent ajout

EXAMPLES
Ajoute un peu dail.
Je dois ajouter que tu es mon meilleur ami.
As-tu ajout du sel la soupe?
Son bonheur avait ajout au mien.

Add a little garlic.


I should add that you are my best friend.
Did you add any salt to the soup?
His happiness had added to mine.

aller / 97

aller*
to go, to fit, to suit
Present participle: allant Past participle: all
Imperative: va, allez, allons
*Helping verb is tre.

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

vais
vas
va
Imperfect

allons
allez
vont

suis all(e)
es all(e)
est all(e)
Pluperfect

sommes all(e)s
tes all(e)(s)
sont all(e)s

allais
allais
allait
Pass Simple

allions
alliez
allaient

tais all(e)
tais all(e)
tait all(e)
Pass Antrieur

tions all(e)s
tiez all(e)(s)
taient all(e)s

allai
allas
alla
Future

allmes
alltes
allrent

fus all(e)
fus all(e)
fut all(e)
Future Perfect

fmes all(e)s
ftes all(e)(s)
furent all(e)s

irai
iras
ira
Conditional

irons
irez
iront

serai all(e)
seras all(e)
sera all(e)
Conditional Perfect

serons all(e)s
serez all(e)(s)
seront all(e)s

irais
irais
irait
Present

irions
iriez
iraient

serais all(e)
serais all(e)
serait all(e)
Past

serions all(e)s
seriez all(e)(s)
seraient all(e)s

aille
ailles
aille
Imperfect

allions
alliez
aillent

sois all(e)
sois all(e)
soit all(e)
Pluperfect

soyons all(e)s
soyez all(e)(s)
soient all(e)s

allasse
allasses
allt

allassions
allassiez
allassent

fusse all(e)
fusses all(e)
ft all(e)

fussions all(e)s
fussiez all(e)(s)
fussent all(e)s

Note: Aller plus an infinitive can be used to express a future action. Examples 11 and 12
demonstrate this use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Papa va prparer le dner tout lheure.
Va au supermarch.
Comment allez-vous?
Je vais bien.
O va cette route?
Cette jupe et ce pull vont bien ensemble.
On y va?
Oui, allons-y.
Ce chapeau te va bien.
Ce manteau vous va trs bien.
Nallez-vous pas travailler ce soir?
Mais non, nous allons nous reposer.
Elle est alle en France deux fois.

Dad is going to prepare dinner in a little while.


Go to the supermarket.
How are you?
Im fine.
Where does this road go?
This skirt and that sweater go well together.
Shall we go?
Yes, lets go.
That hat looks nice on you.
That coat fits you well.
Arent you going to work tonight?
No, we are going to rest.
She went to France twice.

98 / sen aller

sen aller
to go away
Present participle: sen allant Past participle: all
Imperative: va-ten, allez-vous-en, allons-nous-en

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

men vais
ten vas
sen va
Imperfect

nous en allons
vous en allez
sen vont

men suis all(e)


ten es all(e)
sen est all(e)
Pluperfect

nous en sommes all(e)s


vous en tes all(e)(s)
sen sont all(e)s

men allais
nous en allions
ten allais
vous en alliez
sen allait
sen allaient
Pass Simple

men tais all(e)


ten tais all(e)
sen tait all(e)
Pass Antrieur

nous en tions all(e)s


vous en tiez all(e)(s)
sen taient all(e)s

men allai
ten allas
sen alla
Future

nous en allmes
vous en alltes
sen allrent

men fus all(e)


ten fus all(e)
sen fut all(e)
Future Perfect

nous en fmes all(e)s


vous en ftes all(e)(s)
sen furent all(e)s

men irai
ten iras
sen ira
Conditional

nous en irons
vous en irez
sen iront

men serai all(e)


ten seras all(e)
sen sera all(e)
Conditional Perfect

nous en serons all(e)s


vous en serez all(e)(s)
sen seront all(e)s

men irais
ten irais
sen irait
Present

nous en irions
vous en iriez
sen iraient

men serais all(e)


ten serais all(e)
sen serait all(e)
Past

nous en serions all(e)s


vous en seriez all(e)(s)
sen seraient all(e)s

men aille
ten ailles
sen aille
Imperfect

nous en allions
vous en alliez
sen aillent

men sois all(e)


ten sois all(e)
sen soit all(e)
Pluperfect

nous en soyons all(e)s


vous en soyez all(e)(s)
sen soient all(e)s

men allasse
ten allasses
sen allt

nous en allassions
vous en allassiez
sen allassent

men fusse all(e)


ten fusses all(e)
sen ft all(e)

nous en fussions all(e)s


vous en fussiez all(e)(s)
sen fussent all(e)s

EXAMPLES
Allez-vous-en! (Va-ten!)
Je men vais.
Nous nous en sommes alls en vacances.
Il faut que tu ten ailles.
Ils sen vont de lcole.
Elle sen est alle sans rien faire.

Go away!
Im going.
We went away on vacation.
You have to go.
They are leaving the school.
She left without doing anything.

allumer / 99

allumer
to light, to turn on
Present participle: allumant Past participle: allum
Imperative: allume, allumez, allumons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

allume
allumes
allume
Imperfect

allumons
allumez
allument

ai allum
as allum
a allum
Pluperfect

avons allum
avez allum
ont allum

allumais
allumais
allumait
Pass Simple

allumions
allumiez
allumaient

avais allum
avais allum
avait allum
Pass Antrieur

avions allum
aviez allum
avaient allum

allumai
allumas
alluma
Future

allummes
allumtes
allumrent

eus allum
eus allum
eut allum
Future Perfect

emes allum
etes allum
eurent allum

allumerai
allumeras
allumera
Conditional

allumerons
allumerez
allumeront

aurai allum
auras allum
aura allum
Conditional Perfect

aurons allum
aurez allum
auront allum

allumerais
allumerais
allumerait
Present

allumerions
allumeriez
allumeraient

aurais allum
aurais allum
aurait allum
Past

aurions allum
auriez allum
auraient allum

allume
allumes
allume
Imperfect

allumions
allumiez
allument

aie allum
aies allum
ait allum
Pluperfect

ayons allum
ayez allum
aient allum

allumasse
allumasses
allumt

allumassions
allumassiez
allumassent

eusse allum
eusses allum
et allum

eussions allum
eussiez allum
eussent allum

EXAMPLES
Allume les bougies.
Elle allumait la radio quand le tlphone a
sonn.
Il allumera le feu.
On a allum la cuisine.
a nallume pas.

Light the candles.


She was turning on the radio when the
telephone rang.
He will light the fire.
They put on the light in the kitchen.
The light doesnt go on.

100 / alourdir

alourdir
to weigh down
Present participle: alourdissant Past participle: alourdi
Imperative: alourdis, alourdissez, alourdissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

alourdis
alourdis
alourdit
Imperfect

alourdissons
alourdissez
alourdissent

ai alourdi
as alourdi
a alourdi
Pluperfect

avons alourdi
avez alourdi
ont alourdi

alourdissais
alourdissais
alourdissait
Pass Simple

alourdissions
alourdissiez
alourdissaient

avais alourdi
avais alourdi
avait alourdi
Pass Antrieur

avions alourdi
aviez alourdi
avaient alourdi

alourdis
alourdis
alourdit
Future

alourdmes
alourdtes
alourdirent

eus alourdi
eus alourdi
eut alourdi
Future Perfect

emes alourdi
etes alourdi
eurent alourdi

alourdirai
alourdiras
alourdira
Conditional

alourdirons
alourdirez
alourdiront

aurai alourdi
auras alourdi
aura alourdi
Conditional Perfect

aurons alourdi
aurez alourdi
auront alourdi

alourdirais
alourdirais
alourdirait
Present

alourdirions
alourdiriez
alourdiraient

aurais alourdi
aurais alourdi
aurait alourdi
Past

aurions alourdi
auriez alourdi
auraient alourdi

alourdisse
alourdisses
alourdisse
Imperfect

alourdissions
alourdissiez
alourdissent

aie alourdi
aies alourdi
ait alourdi
Pluperfect

ayons alourdi
ayez alourdi
aient alourdi

alourdisse
alourdisses
alourdt

alourdissions
alourdissiez
alourdissent

eusse alourdi
eusses alourdi
et alourdi

eussions alourdi
eussiez alourdi
eussent alourdi

EXAMPLES
Sa tristesse alourdit son esprit.
Le silence alourdissait lair.
Les bagages ont alourdi la voiture.
Il a les yeux alourdis par le sommeil.

His sadness is weighing down his spirit.


Silence hung heavy in the air.
The suitcases weighed down the car.
His eyes are heavy with sleep.

samaigrir / 101

samaigrir
to become thin
Present participle: samaigrissant Past participle: amaigri
Imperative: amaigris-toi, amaigrissez-vous, amaigrissons-nous
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present

mamaigris
tamaigris
samaigrit

nous amaigrissons
vous amaigrissez
samaigrissent

Imperfect

Indicative

mamaigrissais
tamaigrissais
samaigrissait

mtais amaigri(e)
ttais amaigri(e)
stait amaigri(e)

nous amaigrmes
vous amaigrtes
samaigrirent

me fus amaigri(e)
te fus amaigri(e)
se fut amaigri(e)

Subjunctive

nous fmes amaigri(e)s


vous ftes amaigri(e)(s)
se furent amaigri(e)s

me serai amaigri(e)
te seras amaigri(e)
se sera amaigri(e)

nous serons amaigri(e)s


vous serez amaigri(e)(s)
se seront amaigri(e)s

Conditional Perfect

nous amaigririons
vous amaigririez
samaigriraient

me serais amaigri(e) nous serions amaigri(e)s


te serais amaigri(e) vous seriez amaigri(e)(s)
se serait amaigri(e) se seraient amaigri(e)s
Past

nous amaigrissions
vous amaigrissiez
samaigrissent

Imperfect

mamaigrisse
tamaigrisses
samaigrt

nous tions amaigri(e)s


vous tiez amaigri(e)(s)
staient amaigri(e)s

Future Perfect

nous amaigrirons
vous amaigrirez
samaigriront

Present

mamaigrisse
tamaigrisses
samaigrisse

nous sommes amaigri(e)s


vous tes amaigri(e)(s)
se sont amaigri(e)s

Pass Antrieur

Conditional

mamaigrirais
tamaigrirais
samaigrirait

Plural

Pluperfect

Future

mamaigrirai
tamaigriras
samaigrira

me suis amaigri(e)
tes amaigri(e)
sest amaigri(e)

nous amaigrissions
vous amaigrissiez
samaigrissaient

Pass Simple

mamaigris
tamaigris
samaigrit

Singular
Pass Compos

me sois amaigri(e)
te sois amaigri(e)
se soit amaigri(e)

nous soyons amaigri(e)s


vous soyez amaigri(e)(s)
se soient amaigri(e)s

Pluperfect

nous amaigrissions
vous amaigrissiez
samaigrissent

me fusse amaigri(e) nous fussions amaigri(e)s


te fusses amaigri(e) vous fussiez amaigri(e)
se ft amaigri(e)
se fussent amaigri(e)s

EXAMPLES
Ne tamaigris plus!
Je ne veux pas mamaigrir.
Elles se sont amaigries.
Tu te serais amaigri si tu navais pas mang
autant de bonbons.

Dont get any thinner!


I dont want to become thin.
They got thinner.
You would have become thinner if you
hadnt eaten so many candies.

102 / amliorer

amliorer
to improve
Present participle: amliorant Past participle: amlior
Imperative: amliore, amliorez, amliorons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

amliore
amliores
amliore
Imperfect

amliorons
amliorez
amliorent

ai amlior
as amlior
a amlior
Pluperfect

avons amlior
avez amlior
ont amlior

amliorais
amliorais
amliorait
Pass Simple

amliorions
amlioriez
amlioraient

avais amlior
avais amlior
avait amlior
Pass Antrieur

avions amlior
aviez amlior
avaient amlior

amliorai
amlioras
amliora
Future

amliormes
amliortes
amliorrent

eus amlior
eus amlior
eut amlior
Future Perfect

emes amlior
etes amlior
eurent amlior

amliorerai
amlioreras
amliorera
Conditional

amliorerons
amliorerez
amlioreront

aurai amlior
auras amlior
aura amlior
Conditional Perfect

aurons amlior
aurez amlior
auront amlior

amliorerais
amliorerais
amliorerait
Present

amliorerions
amlioreriez
amlioreraient

aurais amlior
aurais amlior
aurait amlior
Past

aurions amlior
auriez amlior
auraient amlior

amliore
amliores
amliore
Imperfect

amliorions
amlioriez
amliorent

aie amlior
aies amlior
ait amlior
Pluperfect

ayons amlior
ayez amlior
aient amlior

amliorasse
amliorasses
amliort

amliorassions eusse amlior


amliorassiez eusses amlior
amliorassent et amlior

eussions amlior
eussiez amlior
eussent amlior

Note: As a reflexive verb, samliorer (to improve) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se, nous,
and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 4 and 5 demonstrate
reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Rien ne peut amliorer sa situation.
Les vitamines amliorent la sant.
On a amlior les conditions au bureau.
Ltat de sa sant stait amlior.
vrai dire, je mamliore avec lge.

Nothing can improve his situation.


Vitamins improve health.
They improved working conditions.
The state of his health had improved.
To tell the truth, I am improving with age.

amener / 103

amener
to bring, to lead
Present participle: amenant Past participle: amen
Imperative: amne, amenez, amenons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

amne
amnes
amne
Imperfect

amenons
amenez
amnent

ai amen
as amen
a amen
Pluperfect

avons amen
avez amen
ont amen

amenais
amenais
amenait
Pass Simple

amenions
ameniez
amenaient

avais amen
avais amen
avait amen
Pass Antrieur

avions amen
aviez amen
avaient amen

amenai
amenas
amena
Future

amenmes
amentes
amenrent

eus amen
eus amen
eut amen
Future Perfect

emes amen
etes amen
eurent amen

amnerai
amneras
amnera
Conditional

amnerons
amnerez
amneront

aurai amen
auras amen
aura amen
Conditional Perfect

aurons amen
aurez amen
auront amen

amnerais
amnerais
amnerait
Present

amnerions
amneriez
amneraient

aurais amen
aurais amen
aurait amen
Past

aurions amen
auriez amen
auraient amen

amne
amnes
amne
Imperfect

amenions
ameniez
amnent

aie amen
aies amen
ait amen
Pluperfect

ayons amen
ayez amen
aient amen

amenasse
amenasses
ament

amenassions
amenassiez
amenassent

eusse amen
eusses amen
et amen

eussions amen
eussiez amen
eussent amen

EXAMPLES
Amne-le la maison.
Quest-ce qui vous amne ici?
Si nous lavions voulu, ils nous auraient
amen des clients tous les jours.
Le directeur lui a amen les lves
mchants.

Bring him home.


What brings you here?
If we wanted, they would have brought us
clients every day.
The principal brought the nasty students
to him.

104 / samollir

samollir
to weaken, to soften
Present participle: samollissant Past participle: amolli
Imperative: amollis-toi, amollissez-vous, amollissons-nous

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

mamollis
tamollis
samollit
Imperfect

nous amollissons
vous amollissez
samollissent

me suis amolli(e)
tes amolli(e)
sest amolli(e)
Pluperfect

nous sommes amolli(e)s


vous tes amolli(e)(s)
se sont amolli(e)s

mamollissais nous amollissions


tamollissais
vous amollissiez
samollissait
samollissaient
Pass Simple

mtais amolli(e)
ttais amolli(e)
stait amolli(e)
Pass Antrieur

nous tions amolli(e)s


vous tiez amolli(e)(s)
staient amolli(e)s

mamollis
tamollis
samollit
Future

nous amollmes
vous amolltes
samollirent

me fus amolli(e)
te fus amolli(e)
se fut amolli(e)
Future Perfect

nous fmes amolli(e)s


vous ftes amolli(e)(s)
se furent amolli(e)s

mamollirai
tamolliras
samollira
Conditional

nous amollirons
vous amollirez
samolliront

me serai amolli(e)
te seras amolli(e)
se sera amolli(e)
Conditional Perfect

nous serons amolli(e)s


vous serez amolli(e)(s)
se seront amolli(e)s

mamollirais
tamollirais
samollirait
Present

nous amollirions
vous amolliriez
samolliraient

me serais amolli(e)
te serais amolli(e)
se serait amolli(e)
Past

nous serions amolli(e)s


vous seriez amolli(e)(s)
se seraient amolli(e)s

mamollisse
tamollisses
samollisse
Imperfect

nous amollissions
vous amollissiez
samollissent

me sois amolli(e)
te sois amolli(e)
se soit amolli(e)
Pluperfect

nous soyons amolli(e)s


vous soyez amolli(e)(s)
se soient amolli(e)s

mamollisse
tamollisses
samollt

vous amollissions
amollissiez
samollissent

me fusse amolli(e)
te fusses amolli(e)
se ft amolli(e)

nous fussions amolli(e)s


vous fussiez amolli(e)
se fussent amolli(e)s

EXAMPLES
Son nergie samollit.
Ses jambes samollissaient.
Elles se sont amollies.
En coutant les problmes de son ami, son
coeur sest amolli.

His energy is weakening.


His legs were weaking.
They weakened.
While listen to his friends problems, his
heart softened.

samuser () / 105

samuser ()
to have fun, to have a good time
Present participle: samusant Past participle: amus
Imperative: amuse-toi, amusez-vous, amusons-nous
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Subjunctive

Indicative

Present

Singular

Plural

Pass Compos

mamuse
tamuses
samuse
Imperfect

nous amusons
vous amusez
samusent

me suis amus(e)
tes amus(e)
sest amus(e)
Pluperfect

nous sommes amus(e)s


vous tes amus(e)(s)
se sont amus(e)s

mamusais
tamusais
samusait
Pass Simple

nous amusions
vous amusiez
samusaient

mtais amus(e)
ttais amus(e)
stait amus(e)
Pass Antrieur

nous tions amus(e)s


vous tiez amus(e)(s)
staient amus(e)s

mamusai
tamusas
samusa
Future

nous amusmes
vous amustes
samusrent

me fus amus(e)
te fus amus(e)
se fut amus(e)
Future Perfect

nous fmes amus(e)s


vous ftes amus(e)(s)
se furent amus(e)s

mamuserai
tamuseras
samusera
Conditional

nous amuserons
vous amuserez
samuseront

me serai amus(e)
te seras amus(e)
se sera amus(e)
Conditional Perfect

nous serons amus(e)s


vous serez amus(e)(s)
se seront amus(e)s

mamuserais
tamuserais
samuserait
Present

nous amuserions
vous amuseriez
samuseraient

me serais amus(e)
te serais amus(e)
se serait amus(e)
Past

nous serions amus(e)s


vous seriez amus(e)(s)
se seraient amus(e)s

mamuse
tamuses
samuse
Imperfect

nous amusions
vous amusiez
samusent

me sois amus(e)
te sois amus(e)
se soit amus(e)
Pluperfect

nous soyons amus(e)s


vous soyez amus(e)(s)
se soient amus(e)s

mamusasse
tamusasses
samust

nous amusassions
vous amusassiez
samusassent

me fusse amus(e)
te fusses amus(e)
se ft amus(e)

nous fussions amus(e)s


vous fussiez amus(e)
se fussent amus(e)s

Note: Amuser may be used nonreflexively with avoir as its helping verb. Examples 5, 6, and 7
demonstrate the nonreflexive use of this verb.

EXAMPLES
Amuse-toi!
Il samuse jouer au football.
Je me suis bien amuse.
Ils se sont amuss tout laprs-midi.
Cela ne mamuse pas du tout!
Tu mamuses.
Le clown a amus les enfants.

Have a good time! (Have fun!)


He has fun playing soccer.
I had a very good time.
They had a good time all afternoon.
That doesnt amuse me at all.
You amuse me.
The clown amused the children.

106 / anantir

anantir
to annihilate
Present participle: anantissant Past participle: ananti
Imperative: anantis, anantissez, anantissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

anantis
anantis
anantit
Imperfect

anantissons
anantissez
anantissent

ai ananti
as ananti
a ananti
Pluperfect

avons ananti
avez ananti
ont ananti

anantissais
anantissais
anantissait
Pass Simple

anantissions avais ananti


anantissiez
avais ananti
anantissaient avait ananti
Pass Antrieur

avions ananti
aviez ananti
avaient ananti

anantis
anantis
anantit
Future

anantmes
ananttes
anantirent

eus ananti
eus ananti
eut ananti
Future Perfect

emes ananti
etes ananti
eurent ananti

anantirai
anantiras
anantira
Conditional

anantirons
anantirez
anantiront

aurai ananti
auras ananti
aura ananti
Conditional Perfect

aurons ananti
aurez ananti
auront ananti

anantirais
anantirais
anantirait
Present

anantirions
anantiriez
anantiraient

aurais ananti
aurais ananti
aurait ananti
Past

aurions ananti
auriez ananti
auraient ananti

anantisse
anantisses
anantisse
Imperfect

anantissions
anantissiez
anantissent

aie ananti
aies ananti
ait ananti
Pluperfect

ayons ananti
ayez ananti
aient ananti

anantisse
anantisses
anantt

anantissions
anantissiez
anantissent

eusse ananti
eusses ananti
et ananti

eussions ananti
eussiez ananti
eussent ananti

EXAMPLES
On anantit son esprit.
Il anantissait leurs efforts.
La nouvelle nous a anantis.
la fin de la journe, larme aura ananti
tout le village.

They are destroying his spirit.


He was destroying their efforts.
The news destroyed us.
By the end of the day, the army will have
destroyed the entire village.

annoncer / 107

annoncer
to announce, to advertise
Present participle: annonant Past participle: annonc
Imperative: annonce, annoncez, annonons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

annonce
annonces
annonce
Imperfect

annonons
annoncez
annoncent

ai annonc
as annonc
a annonc
Pluperfect

avons annonc
avez annonc
ont annonc

annonais
annonais
annonait
Pass Simple

annoncions
annonciez
annonaient

avais annonc
avais annonc
avait annonc
Pass Antrieur

avions annonc
aviez annonc
avaient annonc

annonai
annonas
annona
Future

annonames
annonates
annoncrent

eus annonc
eus annonc
eut annonc
Future Perfect

emes annonc
etes annonc
eurent annonc

annoncerai
annonceras
annoncera
Conditional

annoncerons
annoncerez
annonceront

aurai annonc
auras annonc
aura annonc
Conditional Perfect

aurons annonc
aurez annonc
auront annonc

annoncerais
annoncerais
annoncerait
Present

annoncerions
annonceriez
annonceraient

aurais annonc
aurais annonc
aurait annonc
Past

aurions annonc
auriez annonc
auraient annonc

annonce
annonces
annonce
Imperfect

annoncions
annonciez
annoncent

aie annonc
aies annonc
ait annonc
Pluperfect

ayons annonc
ayez annonc
aient annonc

annonasse
annonasses
annont

annonassions eusse annonc


annonassiez eusses annonc
annonassent et annonc

eussions annonc
eussiez annonc
eussent annonc

Note: As a reflexive verb, sannoncer (to announce oneself) uses the reflexive pronouns me,
te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 5, 6,
and 7 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Les journaux annoncent leur mariage.
On annonce louverture dune nouvelle
boutique.
Elle nous a annonc les bonnes nouvelles.
On avait annonc un grave accident.
Annoncez-vous lhtesse.
Il sest annonc en sonnant trois fois.
Comment cette situation sannonce-t-elle?

Their marriage is announced in the


newspapers.
They are advertising the opening of a new
boutique.
She announced the good news to us.
A serious accident had been reported.
Make yourself known to the hostess.
He announced himself by ringing the bell
three times.
How is that situation shaping up?

108 / apercevoir

apercevoir
to notice, to see, to perceive
Present participle: apercevant Past participle: aperu
Imperative: aperois, apercevez, apercevons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

aperois
aperois
aperoit
Imperfect

apercevons
apercevez
aperoivent

ai aperu
as aperu
a aperu
Pluperfect

avons aperu
avez aperu
ont aperu

apercevais
apercevais
apercevait
Pass Simple

apercevions
aperceviez
apercevaient

avais aperu
avais aperu
avait aperu
Pass Antrieur

avions aperu
aviez aperu
avaient aperu

aperus
aperus
aperut
Future

apermes
apertes
aperurent

eus aperu
eus aperu
eut aperu
Future Perfect

emes aperu
etes aperu
eurent aperu

apercevrai
apercevras
apercevra
Conditional

apercevrons
apercevrez
apercevront

aurai aperu
auras aperu
aura aperu
Conditional Perfect

aurons aperu
aurez aperu
auront aperu

apercevrais
apercevrais
apercevrait
Present

apercevrions
apercevriez
apercevraient

aurais aperu
aurais aperu
aurait aperu
Past

aurions aperu
auriez aperu
auraient aperu

aperoive
aperoives
aperoive
Imperfect

apercevions
aperceviez
aperoivent

aie aperu
aies aperu
ait aperu
Pluperfect

ayons aperu
ayez aperu
aient aperu

aperusse
aperusses
apert

aperussions
aperussiez
aperussent

eusse aperu
eusses aperu
et aperu

eussions aperu
eussiez aperu
eussent aperu

EXAMPLES
Si tu fais ta tte, japerois des problmes.
On apercevait peine la tour.
Elle a aperu du danger.
Il tait improbable quils aient aperu des
difficults.

If you do as you please, I foresee problems.


One could hardly see the tower.
She perceived danger.
It was improbable that they foresaw
difficulties.

sapercevoir (de) / 109

sapercevoir (de)
to realize, to become aware of
Present participle: sapercevant Past participle: aperu
Imperative: aperois-toi, apercevez-vous, apercevons-nous

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

maperois
taperois
saperoit
Imperfect

nous apercevons
vous apercevez
saperoivent

me suis aperu(e)
tes aperu(e)
sest aperu(e)
Pluperfect

nous sommes aperu(e)s


vous tes aperu(e)(s)
se sont aperu(e)s

mapercevais nous apercevions


tapercevais
vous aperceviez
sapercevait
sapercevaient
Pass Simple

mtais aperu(e)
ttais aperu(e)
stait aperu(e)
Pass Antrieur

nous tions aperu(e)s


vous tiez aperu(e)(s)
staient aperu(e)s

maperus
taperus
saperut
Future

nous apermes
vous apertes
saperurent

me fus aperu(e)
te fus aperu(e)
se fut aperu(e)
Future Perfect

nous fmes aperu(e)s


vous ftes aperu(e)(s)
se furent aperu(e)s

mapercevrai
tapercevras
sapercevra
Conditional

nous apercevrons
vous apercevrez
sapercevront

me serai aperu(e)
te seras aperu(e)
se sera aperu(e)
Conditional Perfect

nous serons aperu(e)s


vous serez aperu(e)(s)
se seront aperu(e)s

mapercevrais nous apercevrions


tapercevrais vous apercevriez
sapercevrait sapercevraient
Present

me serais aperu(e)
te serais aperu(e)
se serait aperu(e)
Past

nous serions aperu(e)s


vous seriez aperu(e)(s)
se seraient aperu(e)s

maperoive
taperoives
saperoive
Imperfect

nous apercevions
vous aperceviez
saperoivent

me sois aperu(e)
te sois aperu(e)
se soit aperu(e)
Pluperfect

nous soyons aperu(e)s


vous soyez aperu(e)(s)
se soient aperu(e)s

maperusse
taperusses
saperct

nous aperussions
vous aperussiez
saperussent

me fusse aperu(e)
te fusses aperu(e)
se ft aperu(e)

nous fussions aperu(e)s


vous fussiez aperu(e)
se fussent aperu(e)s

EXAMPLES
Il saperoit dans la glace.
Si elle fait attention, elle sapercevra dune
erreur.
Ils ne se sont aperus de rien.
Jai laiss tomber un verre sans men
apercevoir.

He catches a glimpse of himself in the


mirror.
If she pays attention, she will notice a
mistake.
They noticed nothing.
I inadvertently let a glass fall.

110 / apparatre

apparatre
to appear
Present participle: apparaissant Past participle: apparu
Imperative: apparais, apparaissez, apparaissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

apparais
apparais
apparat
Imperfect

apparaissons
apparaissez
apparaissent

ai apparu
as apparu
a apparu
Pluperfect

avons apparu
avez apparu
ont apparu

apparaissais
apparaissais
apparaissait
Pass Simple

apparaissions avais apparu


apparaissiez
avais apparu
apparaissaient avait apparu
Pass Antrieur

avions apparu
aviez apparu
avaient apparu

apparus
apparus
apparut
Future

apparmes
appartes
apparurent

eus apparu
eus apparu
eut apparu
Future Perfect

emes apparu
etes apparu
eurent apparu

apparatrai
apparatras
apparatra
Conditional

apparatrons
apparatrez
apparatront

aurai apparu
auras apparu
aura apparu
Conditional Perfect

aurons apparu
aurez apparu
auront apparu

apparatrais
apparatrais
apparatrait
Present

apparatrions
apparatriez
apparatraient

aurais apparu
aurais apparu
aurait apparu
Past

aurions apparu
auriez apparu
auraient apparu

apparaisse
apparaisses
apparaisse
Imperfect

apparaissions
apparaissiez
apparaissent

aie apparu
aies apparu
ait apparu
Pluperfect

ayons apparu
ayez apparu
aient apparu

apparusse
apparusses
appart

apparussions
apparussiez
apparussent

eusse apparu
eusses apparu
et apparu

eussions apparu
eussiez apparu
eussent apparu

EXAMPLES
Elle croyait voir apparatre un fantme.
Son chef lui apparat comme un monstre.
Il apparaissait que tu avais tort.
Un gros nuage gris a apparu lhorizon.
Ses remarques mavaient apparu dplaces.

She believed she saw a ghost appear.


His boss seems like a monster to him.
It seemed that you were wrong.
A big gray cloud appeared on the horizon.
Her remarks had seemed out of place to
me.

appartenir / 111

appartenir
to belong to
Present participle: appartenant Past participle: appartenu
Imperative: appartiens, appartenez, appartenons
Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

appartiens
appartiens
appartient

appartenons
appartenez
appartiennent

ai appartenu
as appartenu
a appartenu
Pluperfect

avons appartenu
avez appartenu
ont appartenu

appartenions
apparteniez
appartenaient

avais appartenu
avais appartenu
avait appartenu
Pass Antrieur

avions appartenu
aviez appartenu
avaient appartenu

appartins
appartins
appartint
Future

appartnmes
appartntes
appartinrent

eus appartenu
eus appartenu
eut appartenu
Future Perfect

emes appartenu
etes appartenu
eurent appartenu

appartiendrai
appartiendras
appartiendra
Conditional

appartiendrons
appartiendrez
appartiendront

aurai appartenu
auras appartenu
aura appartenu
Conditional Perfect

aurons appartenu
aurez appartenu
auront appartenu

appartiendrais
appartiendrais
appartiendrait
Present

appartiendrions
appartiendriez
appartiendraient

aurais appartenu
aurais appartenu
aurait appartenu
Past

aurions appartenu
auriez appartenu
auraient appartenu

appartienne
appartiennes
appartienne
Imperfect

appartenions
apparteniez
appartiennent

aie appartenu
aies appartenu
ait appartenu
Pluperfect

ayons appartenu
ayez appartenu
aient appartenu

appartinsse
appartinsses
appartnt

appartinssions
appartinssiez
appartinssent

eusse appartenu
eusses appartenu
et appartenu

eussions appartenu
eussiez appartenu
eussent appartenu

Imperfect

Subjunctive

Indicative

appartenais
appartenais
appartenait
Pass Simple

EXAMPLES
Cette maison mappartient.
Il ne le fera pas pour des raisons qui lui
appartiennent.
La dcision ne nous appartenait pas.
Ces bijoux avaient appartenu ma grandmre.

That house belongs to me (is mine).


He wont do it for reasons of his own.
The decision wasnt up to us.
These jewels had belonged to my
grandmother.

112 / appeler

appeler
to call
Present participle: appelant Past participle: appel
Imperative: appelle, appelez, appelons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

appelle
appelles
appelle
Imperfect

appelons
appelez
appellent

ai appel
as appel
a appel
Pluperfect

avons appel
avez appel
ont appel

appelais
appelais
appelait
Pass Simple

appelions
appeliez
appelaient

avais appel
avais appel
avait appel
Pass Antrieur

avions appel
aviez appel
avaient appel

appelai
appelas
appela
Future

appelmes
appeltes
appelrent

eus appel
eus appel
eut appel
Future Perfect

emes appel
etes appel
eurent appel

appellerai
appelleras
appellera
Conditional

appellerons
appellerez
appelleront

aurai appel
auras appel
aura appel
Conditional Perfect

aurons appel
aurez appel
auront appel

appellerais
appellerais
appellerait
Present

appellerions
appelleriez
appelleraient

aurais appel
aurais appel
aurait appel
Past

aurions appel
auriez appel
auraient appel

appelle
appelles
appelle
Imperfect

appelions
appeliez
appellent

aie appel
aies appel
ait appel
Pluperfect

ayons appel
ayez appel
aient appel

appelasse
appelasses
appelt

appelassions
appelassiez
appelassent

eusse appel
eusses appel
et appel

eussions appel
eussiez appel
eussent appel

EXAMPLES
Appelez une ambulance.
Le professeur appelle les noms des
tudiants.
Je tappellerai demain.
Il ma dj appel trois fois.
Lucien naurait pas appel son docteur par
son prnom.

Call for an ambulance.


The teacher calls the names of the students.
Ill call you tomorrow.
He has already called me three times.
Lucien wouldnt have called his doctor by
his first name.

sappeler / 113

sappeler
to call oneself, to be named
Present participle: sappelant Past participle: appel
Imperative: appelle-toi, appelez-vous, appelons-nous

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

mappelle
tappelles
sappelle
Imperfect

nous appelons
vous appelez
sappellent

me suis appel(e)
tes appel(e)
sest appel(e)
Pluperfect

nous sommes appel(e)s


vous tes appel(e)(s)
se sont appel(e)s

mappelais
tappelais
sappelait
Pass Simple

nous appelions
vous appeliez
sappelaient

mtais appel(e)
ttais appel(e)
stait appel(e)
Pass Antrieur

nous tions appel(e)s


vous tiez appel(e)(s)
staient appel(e)s

mappelai
tappelas
sappela
Future

nous appelmes
vous appeltes
sappelrent

me fus appel(e)
te fus appel(e)
se fut appel(e)
Future Perfect

nous fmes appel(e)s


vous ftes appel(e)(s)
se furent appel(e)s

mappellerai
tappelleras
sappellera
Conditional

nous appellerons
vous appellerez
sappelleront

me serai appel(e)
te seras appel(e)
se sera appel(e)
Conditional Perfect

nous serons appel(e)s


vous serez appel(e)(s)
se seront appel(e)s

mappellerais
tappellerais
sappellerait
Present

nous appellerions
vous appelleriez
sappelleraient

me serais appel(e)
te serais appel(e)
se serait appel(e)
Past

nous serions appel(e)s


vous seriez appel(e)(s)
se seraient appel(e)s

mappelle
tappelles
sappelle
Imperfect

nous appelions
vous appeliez
sappellent

me sois appel(e)
te sois appel(e)
se soit appel(e)
Pluperfect

nous soyons appel(e)s


vous soyez appel(e)(s)
se soient appel(e)s

mappelasse
tappelasses
sappelt

nous appelassions me fusse appel(e)


vous appelassiez te fusses appel(e)
sappelassent
se ft appel(e)

nous fussions appel(e)s


vous fussiez appel(e)
se fussent appel(e)s

EXAMPLES
Comment tappelles-tu? (Comment vous
appelez-vous?)
Je mappelle Michel.
a sappelle comment en franais?
Ils staient souvent appels pendant lt.

Whats your name?


My name is Michael.
What is that called in French?
They had called each other often during the
summer.

114 / applaudir

applaudir
to applaud, to clap
Present participle: applaudissant Past participle: applaudi
Imperative: applaudis, applaudissez, applaudissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

applaudis
applaudis
applaudit
Imperfect

applaudissons
applaudissez
applaudissent

ai applaudi
as applaudi
a applaudi
Pluperfect

avons applaudi
avez applaudi
ont applaudi

applaudissais
applaudissais
applaudissait

applaudissions avais applaudi


applaudissiez avais applaudi
applaudisavait applaudi
saient
Pass Antrieur

avions applaudi
aviez applaudi
avaient applaudi

applaudis
applaudis
applaudit
Future

applaudmes
applaudtes
applaudirent

eus applaudi
eus applaudi
eut applaudi
Future Perfect

emes applaudi
etes applaudi
eurent applaudi

applaudirai
applaudiras
applaudira
Conditional

applaudirons
applaudirez
applaudiront

aurai applaudi
auras applaudi
aura applaudi
Conditional Perfect

aurons applaudi
aurez applaudi
auront applaudi

applaudirais
applaudirais
applaudirait
Present

applaudirions
applaudiriez
applaudiraient

aurais applaudi
aurais applaudi
aurait applaudi
Past

aurions applaudi
auriez applaudi
auraient applaudi

applaudisse
applaudisses
applaudisse
Imperfect

applaudissions aie applaudi


applaudissiez aies applaudi
applaudissent ait applaudi
Pluperfect

ayons applaudi
ayez applaudi
aient applaudi

applaudisse
applaudisses
applaudt

applaudissions eusse applaudi


applaudissiez eusses applaudi
applaudissent et applaudi

eussions applaudi
eussiez applaudi
eussent applaudi

Pass Simple

EXAMPLES
Applaudissons le gagnant.
Il faut que nous applaudissions aprs son
discours.
Tout le monde a applaudi tout rompre.
Ils auraient applaudi sils avaient aim la
pice.

Lets clap for the winner.


We have to clap after his speech.
Everyone clapped to bring the house down.
They would have clapped if they had liked
the play.

apporter / 115

apporter
to bring, to supply, to provide
Present participle: apportant Past participle: apport
Imperative: apporte, apportez, apportons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

apporte
apportes
apporte
Imperfect

apportons
apportez
apportent

ai apport
as apport
a apport
Pluperfect

avons apport
avez apport
ont apport

apportais
apportais
apportait
Pass Simple

apportions
apportiez
apportaient

avais apport
avais apport
avait apport
Pass Antrieur

avions apport
aviez apport
avaient apport

apportai
apportas
apporta
Future

apportmes
apporttes
apportrent

eus apport
eus apport
eut apport
Future Perfect

emes apport
etes apport
eurent apport

apporterai
apporteras
apportera
Conditional

apporterons
apporterez
apporteront

aurai apport
auras apport
aura apport
Conditional Perfect

aurons apport
aurez apport
auront apport

apporterais
apporterais
apporterait
Present

apporterions
apporteriez
apporteraient

aurais apport
aurais apport
aurait apport
Past

aurions apport
auriez apport
auraient apport

apporte
apportes
apporte
Imperfect

apportions
apportiez
apportent

aie apport
aies apport
ait apport
Pluperfect

ayons apport
ayez apport
aient apport

apportasse
apportasses
apportt

apportassions
apportassiez
apportassent

eusse apport
eusses apport
et apport

eussions apport
eussiez apport
eussent apport

EXAMPLES
Apportez-le-moi tout de suite.
Son nouveau film napportera rien de
nouveau.
Le garon lui a apport une tasse de caf.
Nous aurions apport toute notre nergie
rsoudre le problme.

Bring it to me immediately.
His new film will say (contribute) nothing
new.
The waiter brought him a cup of coffee.
We would have put all our energy into
resolving the problem.

116 / apprendre

apprendre
to learn, to tell, to teach
Present participle: apprenant Past participle: appris
Imperative: apprends, apprenez, apprenons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

apprends
apprends
apprend
Imperfect

apprenons
apprenez
apprennent

ai appris
as appris
a appris
Pluperfect

avons appris
avez appris
ont appris

apprenais
apprenais
apprenait
Pass Simple

apprenions
appreniez
apprenaient

avais appris
avais appris
avait appris
Pass Antrieur

avions appris
aviez appris
avaient appris

appris
appris
apprit
Future

apprmes
apprtes
apprirent

eus appris
eus appris
eut appris
Future Perfect

emes appris
etes appris
eurent appris

apprendrai
apprendras
apprendra
Conditional

apprendrons
apprendrez
apprendront

aurai appris
auras appris
aura appris
Conditional Perfect

aurons appris
aurez appris
auront appris

apprendrais
apprendrais
apprendrait
Present

apprendrions
apprendriez
apprendraient

aurais appris
aurais appris
aurait appris
Past

aurions appris
auriez appris
auraient appris

apprenne
apprennes
apprenne
Imperfect

apprenions
appreniez
apprennent

aie appris
aies appris
ait appris
Pluperfect

ayons appris
ayez appris
aient appris

apprisse
apprisses
apprt

apprissions
apprissiez
apprissent

eusse appris
eusses appris
et appris

eussions appris
eussiez appris
eussent appris

EXAMPLES
Apprenez par coeur les rgles de grammaire.
Je napprendrai jamais nager.
Il est ncessaire que tout le monde apprenne
cuisiner.
As-tu appris hier que ce magasin se ferme?
Je lui avais appris la nouvelle.
Elle ne lui avait rien appris.
Nest-il pas surprenant que mon mari mait
appris conduire?

Memorize the grammar rules.


Ill never learn how to swim.
Everyone has to learn to cook.
Did you learn yesterday that that store is
closing?
I had told him the news.
She hadnt told her anything.
Isnt it surprising that my husband taught
me to drive?

approcher / 117

approcher
to approach
Present participle: approchant Past participle: approch
Imperative: approche, approchez, approchons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

approche
approches
approche
Imperfect

approchons
approchez
approchent

ai approch
as approch
a approch
Pluperfect

avons approch
avez approch
ont approch

approchais
approchais
approchait
Pass Simple

approchions
approchiez
approchaient

avais approch
avais approch
avait approch
Pass Antrieur

avions approch
aviez approch
avaient approch

approchai
approchas
approcha
Future

approchmes
approchtes
approchrent

eus approch
eus approch
eut approch
Future Perfect

emes approch
etes approch
eurent approch

approcherai
approcheras
approchera
Conditional

approcherons
approcherez
approcheront

aurai approch
auras approch
aura approch
Conditional Perfect

aurons approch
aurez approch
auront approch

approcherais
approcherais
approcherait
Present

approcherions
approcheriez
approcheraient

aurais approch
aurais approch
aurait approch
Past

aurions approch
auriez approch
auraient approch

approche
approches
approche
Imperfect

approchions
approchiez
approchent

aie approch
aies approch
ait approch
Pluperfect

ayons approch
ayez approch
aient approch

approchasse
approchasses
approcht

approchassions
approchassiez
approchassent

eusse approch
eusses approch
et approch

eussions approch
eussiez approch
eussent approch

Note: As a reflexive verb, sapprocher (to come near) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se,
nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 5, 6, and 7
demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Ne lapproche pas!
Le jour approche o ils dmnageront.
Elles approchrent les deux tables lune de
lautre.
Il a approch sa figure de la sienne.
Approche-toi.
Ne vous approchez pas de moi.
Je me suis approche pour mieux le voir.

Dont go near her.


The day is approaching when they will
move.
They moved the two tables closer together.
He brought his face closer to hers.
Come closer.
Dont come near me.
I got closer to see him better.

118 / approfondir

approfondir
to deepen, to make deep
Present participle: approfondissant Past participle: approfondi
Imperative: approfondis, approfondissez, approfondissons
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Subjunctive

Indicative

Present

Singular

Plural

Pass Compos

approfondis
approfondis
approfondit
Imperfect

approfondissons
approfondissez
approfondissent

ai approfondi
as approfondi
a approfondi
Pluperfect

avons approfondi
avez approfondi
ont approfondi

approfondissais
approfondissais
approfondissait
Pass Simple

approfondissions
approfondissiez
approfondissaient

avais approfondi
avais approfondi
avait approfondi
Pass Antrieur

avions approfondi
aviez approfondi
avaient approfondi

approfondis
approfondis
approfondit
Future

approfondmes
approfondtes
approfondirent

eus approfondi
eus approfondi
eut approfondi
Future Perfect

emes approfondi
etes approfondi
eurent approfondi

approfondirai
approfondiras
approfondira
Conditional

approfondirons
approfondirez
approfondiront

aurai approfondi
aurons approfondi
auras approfondi
aurez approfondi
aura approfondi
auront approfondi
Conditional Perfect

approfondirais
approfondirais
approfondirait
Present

approfondirions
approfondiriez
approfondiraient

aurais approfondi
aurais approfondi
aurait approfondi
Past

aurions approfondi
auriez approfondi
auraient approfondi

approfondisse
approfondisses
approfondisse
Imperfect

approfondissions
approfondissiez
approfondissent

aie approfondi
aies approfondi
ait approfondi
Pluperfect

ayons approfondi
ayez approfondi
aient approfondi

approfondisse
approfondisses
approfondt

approfondissions
approfondissiez
approfondissent

eusse approfondi
eusses approfondi
et approfondi

eussions approfondi
eussiez approfondi
eussent approfondi

EXAMPLES
Il vaut mieux ne pas approfondir le
problme.
Les ingnieurs approfondissent le canal.
Marie a approfondi sa connaissance de la
psychologie.
Il tait bon que les ouvriers aient approfondi
le trou.

It is better not to delve into the problem


more deeply.
The engineers are making the canal deeper.
Marie deepened her knowledge of
psychology.
It was good that the workers deepened the
hole.

appuyer / 119

appuyer
to lean, to press
Present participle: appuyant Past participle: appuy
Imperative: appuie, appuyez, appuyons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

appuie
appuies
appuie
Imperfect

appuyons
appuyez
appuient

ai appuy
as appuy
a appuy
Pluperfect

avons appuy
avez appuy
ont appuy

appuyais
appuyais
appuyait
Pass Simple

appuyions
appuyiez
appuyaient

avais appuy
avais appuy
avait appuy
Pass Antrieur

avions appuy
aviez appuy
avaient appuy

appuyai
appuyas
appuya
Future

appuymes
appuytes
appuyrent

eus appuy
eus appuy
eut appuy
Future Perfect

emes appuy
etes appuy
eurent appuy

appuierai
appuieras
appuiera
Conditional

appuierons
appuierez
appuieront

aurai appuy
auras appuy
aura appuy
Conditional Perfect

aurons appuy
aurez appuy
auront appuy

appuierais
appuierais
appuierait
Present

appuierions
appuieriez
appuieraient

aurais appuy
aurais appuy
aurait appuy
Past

aurions appuy
auriez appuy
auraient appuy

appuie
appuies
appuie
Imperfect

appuyions
appuyiez
appuient

aie appuy
aies appuy
ait appuy
Pluperfect

ayons appuy
ayez appuy
aient appuy

appuyasse
appuyasses
appuyt

appuyassions
appuyassiez
appuyassent

eusse appuy
eusses appuy
et appuy

eussions appuy
eussiez appuy
eussent appuy

Note: As a reflexive verb, sappuyer sur/contre (to lean on/against, to rely on) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses.
Examples 5, 6, and 7 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Appuyez vos doigts sur votre blessure.
Il vaut mieux que tu appuies tes mains sur ta
valise pour le fermer.
Le garon a appuy son vlo contre le
garage.
Elle navait pas appuy sur le bouton, alors
personne ne lui a ouvert la porte.
Appuie-toi contre moi.
Elles se sont appuyes contre le mur.
Il sest appuy sur ces renseignements.

Press your fingers against your wound.


It is better if you press your hands against
your suitcase to close it.
The boy leaned his bicycle against the
garage.
She didnt press on the button so no one
opened the door for her.
Lean on me.
They leaned against the wall.
He relied on that information.

120 / arracher

arracher
to tear out
Present participle: arrachant Past participle: arrach
Imperative: arrache, arrachez, arrachons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

arrache
arraches
arrache
Imperfect

arrachons
arrachez
arrachent

ai arrach
as arrach
a arrach
Pluperfect

avons arrach
avez arrach
ont arrach

arrachais
arrachais
arrachait
Pass Simple

arrachions
arrachiez
arrachaient

avais arrach
avais arrach
avait arrach
Pass Antrieur

avions arrach
aviez arrach
avaient arrach

arrachai
arrachas
arracha
Future

arrachmes
arrachtes
arrachrent

eus arrach
eus arrach
eut arrach
Future Perfect

emes arrach
etes arrach
eurent arrach

arracherai
arracheras
arrachera
Conditional

arracherons
arracherez
arracheront

aurai arrach
auras arrach
aura arrach
Conditional Perfect

aurons arrach
aurez arrach
auront arrach

arracherais
arracherais
arracherait
Present

arracherions
arracheriez
arracheraient

aurais arrach
aurais arrach
aurait arrach
Past

aurions arrach
auriez arrach
auraient arrach

arrache
arraches
arrache
Imperfect

arrachions
arrachiez
arrachent

aie arrach
aies arrach
ait arrach
Pluperfect

ayons arrach
ayez arrach
aient arrach

arrachasse
arrachasses
arracht

arrachassions
arrachassiez
arrachassent

eusse arrach
eusses arrach
et arrach

eussions arrach
eussiez arrach
eussent arrach

Note: As a reflexive verb, sarracher (to tear out) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se, nous,
and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 5 and 6 demonstrate
reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Papa arrache les enfants du lit sept heures.
Elle tait si furieuse quelle voulait lui
arracher les yeux.
Le dentiste lui a arrach une dent.
Jaurais arrach les mauvaises herbes mais
je navais pas le temps.
Ne tarrache pas les cheveux. Tout ira bien.
Elle sest arrach la robe sur le clou.

Dad drags the children out of bed at seven


oclock.
She was so furious that she wanted to claw
his eyes out.
The dentist pulled out his tooth.
I would have pulled out the weeds, but I
didnt have the time.
Dont tear your hair out. Everything will be
fine.
She tore her dress on the nail.

arranger / 121

arranger
to arrange, to straighten, to fix, to suit
Present participle: arrangeant Past participle: arrang
Imperative: arrange, arrangez, arrangeons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

arrange
arranges
arrange
Imperfect

arrangeons
arrangez
arrangent

ai arrang
as arrang
a arrang
Pluperfect

avons arrang
avez arrang
ont arrang

arrangeais
arrangeais
arrangeait
Pass Simple

arrangions
arrangiez
arrangeaient

avais arrang
avais arrang
avait arrang
Pass Antrieur

avions arrang
aviez arrang
avaient arrang

arrangeai
arrangeas
arrangea
Future

arrangemes
arrangetes
arrangrent

eus arrang
eus arrang
eut arrang
Future Perfect

emes arrang
etes arrang
eurent arrang

arrangerai
arrangeras
arrangera
Conditional

arrangerons
arrangerez
arrangeront

aurai arrang
auras arrang
aura arrang
Conditional Perfect

aurons arrang
aurez arrang
auront arrang

arrangerais
arrangerais
arrangerait
Present

arrangerions
arrangeriez
arrangeraient

aurais arrang
aurais arrang
aurait arrang
Past

aurions arrang
auriez arrang
auraient arrang

arrange
arranges
arrange
Imperfect

arrangions
arrangiez
arrangent

aie arrang
aies arrang
ait arrang
Pluperfect

ayons arrang
ayez arrang
aient arrang

arrangeasse
arrangeasses
arranget

arrangeassions eusse arrang


arrangeassiez eusses arrang
arrangeassent et arrang

eussions arrang
eussiez arrang
eussent arrang

Note: As a reflexive verb, sarranger (to come to an arrangement, agreement, settlement) uses
the reflexive pronouns me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound
tenses. Examples 5, 6, 7, and 8 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Arrange ta vie.
Jarrangerai tout pour cet aprs-midi.
Elle a arrang ses affaires.
Est-ce que cela taurait arrang?
Arrange-toi avec tes frres.
a sarrangera entre elles.
Elles se sont arranges pour avoir des billets
gratuits.
Les dossiers staient arrangs par ordre
alphabtique.

Organize your life.


Ill arrange everything for this afternoon.
She straightened out matters.
Would that have suited you?
Sort it out with your brothers.
That will work out between them.
They managed to get free tickets.
The documents had been arranged in
alphabetical order.

122 / sarrter (de)

sarrter (de)
to stop
Present participle: sarrtant Past participle: arrt
Imperative: arrte-toi, arrtez-vous, arrtons-nous
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present
marrte
tarrtes
sarrte

nous arrtons
vous arrtez
sarrtent

me suis arrt(e)
tes arrt(e)
sest arrt(e)

nous arrtions
vous arrtiez
sarrtaient

mtais arrt(e)
ttais arrt(e)
stait arrt(e)

nous arrtmes
vous arrttes
sarrtrent

me fus arrt(e)
te fus arrt(e)
se fut arrt(e)

nous arrterons
vous arrterez
sarrteront

me serai arrt(e)
te seras arrt(e)
se sera arrt(e)

nous arrterions
vous arrteriez
sarrteraient

me serais arrt(e)
te serais arrt(e)
se serait arrt(e)

Imperfect

Indicative

marrtais
tarrtais
sarrtait

Subjunctive

nous serons arrt(e)s


vous serez arrt(e)(s)
se seront arrt(e)s
nous serions arrt(e)s
vous seriez arrt(e)(s)
se seraient arrt(e)s

Past
nous arrtions
vous arrtiez
sarrtent

Imperfect
marrtasse
tarrtasses
sarrtt

nous fmes arrt(e)s


vous ftes arrt(e)(s)
se furent arrt(e)s

Conditional Perfect

Present
marrte
tarrtes
sarrte

nous tions arrt(e)s


vous tiez arrt(e)(s)
staient arrt(e)s

Future Perfect

Conditional
marrterais
tarrterais
sarrterait

nous sommes arrt(e)s


vous tes arrt(e)(s)
se sont arrt(e)s

Pass Antrieur

Future
marrterai
tarrteras
sarrtera

Plural

Pluperfect

Pass Simple
marrtai
tarrtas
sarrta

Singular
Pass Compos

me sois arrt(e)
te sois arrt(e)
se soit arrt(e)

nous soyons arrt(e)s


vous soyez arrt(e)(s)
se soient arrt(e)s

Pluperfect
nous arrtassions me fusse arrt(e)
vous arrtassiez te fusses arrt(e)
sarrtassent
se ft arrt(e)

nous fussions arrt(e)s


vous fussiez arrt(e)
se fussent arrt(e)s

Note: Arrter may be used nonreflexively with avoir as its helping verb. Examples 5, 6, 7, and
8 demonstrate the nonreflexive use of this verb.

EXAMPLES
Tu ne tarrtes pas de manger.
Nous nous arrterons pour nous reposer.
Le train sest arrt court.
Elle ne se serait pas arrt de parler.
Seul le prix nous arrte.
Sa dcision est arrte.
Elles narrteront pas de fumer.
La neige a arrt les travaux.

You dont stop eating.


Well stop to rest.
The train stopped dead.
She wouldnt have stopped talking.
Only the price is stopping us.
Her mind is made up.
They wont stop smoking.
Snow stopped the work.

arriver / 123

arriver*
to arrive, to happen
Present participle: arrivant Past participle: arriv
Imperative: arrive, arrivez, arrivons
*Helping verb is tre.

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

arrive
arrives
arrive
Imperfect

arrivons
arrivez
arrivent

suis arriv(e)
es arriv(e)
est arriv(e)
Pluperfect

sommes arriv(e)s
tes arriv(e)(s)
sont arriv(e)s

arrivais
arrivais
arrivait
Pass Simple

arrivions
arriviez
arrivaient

tais arriv(e)
tais arriv(e)
tait arriv(e)
Pass Antrieur

tions arriv(e)s
tiez arriv(e)(s)
taient arriv(e)s

arrivai
arrivas
arriva
Future

arrivmes
arrivtes
arrivrent

fus arriv(e)
fus arriv(e)
fut arriv(e)
Future Perfect

fmes arriv(e)s
ftes arriv(e)(s)
furent arriv(e)s

arriverai
arriveras
arrivera
Conditional

arriverons
arriverez
arriveront

serai arriv(e)
seras arriv(e)
sera arriv(e)
Conditional Perfect

serons arriv(e)s
serez arriv(e)(s)
seront arriv(e)s

arriverais
arriverais
arriverait
Present

arriverions
arriveriez
arriveraient

serais arriv(e)
serais arriv(e)
serait arriv(e)
Past

serions arriv(e)s
seriez arriv(e)(s)
seraient arriv(e)s

arrive
arrives
arrive
Imperfect

arrivions
arriviez
arrivent

sois arriv(e)
sois arriv(e)
soit arriv(e)
Pluperfect

soyons arriv(e)s
soyez arriv(e)(s)
soient arriv(e)s

arrivasse
arrivasses
arrivt

arrivassions
arrivassiez
arrivassent

fusse arriv(e)
fusses arriv(e)
fut arriv(e)

fussions arriv(e)s
fussiez arriv(e)(s)
fussent arriv(e)s

EXAMPLES
Jarrive.
Je narrive pas vous comprendre.
Elles ont envie darriver.
Ils arriveront bientt.
Quest-ce qui est arriv?
Leau serait arrive jusqu mes genoux.

Im coming.
I dont understand you.
They want to succeed.
They will arrive soon.
What happened?
The water would have come up to my
knees.

124 / sasseoir

sasseoir
to sit down
Present participle: sasseyant Past participle: assis
Imperative: assieds (assois)-toi, asseyez (assoyez)-vous, asseyons
(assoyons)-nous
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Singular

Present
massieds (assois)
tassieds (assois)
sassied (assoit)

nous asseyons (assoyons)


vous asseyez (assoyez)
sasseyent (assoient)

Imperfect

Indicative

masseyais (assoyais)
tasseyais (assoyais)
sasseyait (assoyait)

me fus assis(e)
te fus assis(e)
se fut assis(e)

Subjunctive

me serai assis(e)
te seras assis(e)
se sera assis(e)

nous serons assis(e)s


vous serez assis(e)(s)
se seront assis(e)s

Conditional Perfect
nous assirions
(assoirions)
vous assiriez (assoiriez)
sassiraient (assoiraient)

me serais assis(e)
te serais assis(e)
se serait assis(e)

nous serions assis(e)s


vous seriez assis(e)(s)
se seraient assis(e)s

Past
nous asseyions (assoyions) me sois assis(e)
vous asseyiez (assoyiez)
te sois assis(e)
sasseyent (assoient)
se soit assis(e)

Imperfect
massisse
tassisses
sasst

nous fmes assis(e)s


vous ftes assis(e)(s)
se furent assis(e)s

Future Perfect
nous assirons (assoirons)
vous assirez (assoirez)
sassiront (assoiront)

Present
masseye (assoie)
tasseyes (assoies)
sasseye (assoie)

nous tions assis(e)s


vous tiez assis(e)(s)
staient assis(e)s

Pass Antrieur
nous assmes
vous asstes
sassirent

Conditional
massirais (assoirais)
tassirais (assoirais)
sassirait (assoirait)

nous sommes assis(e)s


vous tes assis(e)(s)
se sont assis(e)s

Pluperfect

Future
massirai (assoirai)
tassiras (assoiras)
sassira (assoira)

me suis assis(e)
tes assis(e)
sest assis(e)

nous asseyions (assoyions) mtais assis(e)


vous asseyiez (assoyiez)
ttais assis(e)
stait assis(e)
sasseyaient (assoyaient)

Pass Simple
massis
tassis
sassit

Plural

Pass Compos

nous soyons assis(e)s


vous soyez assis(e)(s)
se soient assis(e)s

Pluperfect
nous assissions
vous assissiez
sassissent

me fusse assis(e)
te fusses assis(e)
se ft assis(e)

nous fussions assis(e)s


vous fussiez assis(e)
se fussent assis(e)s

Note: Asseoir may be used nonreflexively with avoir as its helping verb. Examples 5 and 6
demonstrate the nonreflexive use of this verb.

EXAMPLES
Asseyez-vous. (Assieds-toi.)
Elle sassied tout de suite.
Je me suis assis ct de la fentre.
Ils staient assis en tailleur.
Le prof assied les lves par ordre
alphabtique.
Elle a assis la veille dame sur une chaise.

Sit down.
She sits down immediately.
I sat next to the window.
They had sat cross-legged.
The teacher seats the students alphabetically.
She sat the old woman in a chair.

assaillir / 125

assaillir
to attack, to bombard
Present participle: assaillant Past participle: assailli
Imperative: assaille, assaillez, assaillons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

assaille
assailles
assaille
Imperfect

assaillons
assaillez
assaillent

ai assailli
as assailli
a assailli
Pluperfect

avons assailli
avez assailli
ont assailli

assaillais
assaillais
assaillait
Pass Simple

assaillions
assailliez
assaillaient

avais assailli
avais assailli
avait assailli
Pass Antrieur

avions assailli
aviez assailli
avaient assailli

assaillis
assaillis
assaillit
Future

assaillmes
assailltes
assaillirent

eus assailli
eus assailli
eut assailli
Future Perfect

emes assailli
etes assailli
eurent assailli

assaillirai
assailliras
assaillira
Conditional

assaillirons
assaillirez
assailliront

aurai assailli
auras assailli
aura assailli
Conditional Perfect

aurons assailli
aurez assailli
auront assailli

assaillirais
assaillirais
assaillirait
Present

assaillirions
assailliriez
assailliraient

aurais assailli
aurais assailli
aurait assailli
Past

aurions assailli
auriez assailli
auraient assailli

assaille
assailles
assaille
Imperfect

assaillions
assailliez
assaillent

aie assailli
aies assailli
ait assailli
Pluperfect

ayons assailli
ayez assailli
aient assailli

assaillisse
assaillisses
assaillt

assaillissions
assaillissiez
assaillissent

eusse assailli
eusses assailli
et assailli

eussions assailli
eussiez assailli
eussent assailli

EXAMPLES
Il assaillit le prsident de questions.
Les photographes assaillirent les acteurs.
Il faudra que larme assaille le village.
Ont-ils assailli la forteresse?

He bombards the president with questions.


The photographers attacked the actors.
The army will have to attack the village.
Did they attack the fort?

126 / assister

assister
to attend, to be present at
Present participle: assistant Past participle: assist
Imperative: assiste, assistez, assistons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

assiste
assistes
assiste
Imperfect

assistons
assistez
assistent

ai assist
as assist
a assist
Pluperfect

avons assist
avez assist
ont assist

assistais
assistais
assistait
Pass Simple

assistions
assistiez
assistaient

avais assist
avais assist
avait assist
Pass Antrieur

avions assist
aviez assist
avaient assist

assistai
assistas
assista
Future

assistmes
assisttes
assistrent

eus assist
eus assist
eut assist
Future Perfect

emes assist
etes assist
eurent assist

assisterai
assisteras
assistera
Conditional

assisterons
assisterez
assisteront

aurai assist
auras assist
aura assist
Conditional Perfect

aurons assist
aurez assist
auront assist

assisterais
assisterais
assisterait
Present

assisterions
assisteriez
assisteraient

aurais assist
aurais assist
aurait assist
Past

aurions assist
auriez assist
auraient assist

assiste
assistes
assiste
Imperfect

assistions
assistiez
assistent

aie assist
aies assist
ait assist
Pluperfect

ayons assist
ayez assist
aient assist

assistasse
assistasses
assistt

assistassions
assistassiez
assistassent

eusse assist
eusses assist
et assist

eussions assist
eussiez assist
eussent assist

EXAMPLES
Elles assistent au spectacle.
On assiste une monte de crime.
Il nassistera pas au match.
Jai assist cette confrence.
Aurait-elle assist cette crmonie?

They are attending the show.


Crime is on the rise.
He wont attend the match.
I attended that conference.
Would she have attended that ceremony?

sassombrir / 127

sassombrir
to grow dark, to become gloomy
Present participle: sassombrissant Past participle: assombri
Imperative: assombris-toi, assombrissez-vous, assombrissons-nous
Mode

Simple Tenses

Singular

Compound Tenses

Plural

Present
massombris
tassombris
sassombrit

nous assombrissons
vous assombrissez
sassombrissent

me suis assombri(e)
tes assombri(e)
sest assombri(e)

nous assombrissions
vous assombrissiez
sassombrissaient

mtais assombri(e)
ttais assombri(e)
stait assombri(e)

nous assombrmes
vous assombrtes
sassombrirent

me fus assombri(e)
te fus assombri(e)
se fut assombri(e)

nous assombrirons
vous assombrirez
sassombriront

me serai assombri(e)
te seras assombri(e)
se sera assombri(e)

nous assombririons
vous assombririez
sassombriraient

me serais assombri(e)
te serais assombri(e)
se serait assombri(e)

Imperfect

Indicative

massombrissais
tassombrissais
sassombrissait

Subjunctive

nous serons assombri(e)s


vous serez assombri(e)(s)
se seront assombri(e)s
nous serions assombri(e)s
vous seriez assombri(e)(s)
se seraient assombri(e)s

Past
nous assombrissions
vous assombrissiez
sassombrissent

me sois assombri(e)
te sois assombri(e)
se soit assombri(e)

vous assombrissions
assombrissiez
sassombrissent

me fusse assombri(e)
te fusses assombri(e)
se ft assombri(e)

Imperfect
massombrisse
tassombrisses
sassombrt

nous fmes assombri(e)s


vous ftes assombri(e)(s)
se furent assombri(e)s

Conditional Perfect

Present
massombrisse
tassombrisses
sassombrisse

nous tions assombri(e)s


vous tiez assombri(e)(s)
staient assombri(e)s

Future Perfect

Conditional
massombrirais
tassombrirais
sassombrirait

nous sommes assombri(e)s


vous tes assombri(e)(s)
se sont assombri(e)s

Pass Antrieur

Future
massombrirai
tassombriras
sassombrira

Plural

Pluperfect

Pass Simple
massombris
tassombris
sassombrit

Singular
Pass Compos

nous soyons assombri(e)s


vous soyez assombri(e)(s)
se soient assombri(e)s

Pluperfect
nous fussions assombri(e)s
vous fussiez assombri(e)
se fussent assombri(e)s

Note: Assombrir may be used nonreflexively with avoir as its helping verb. Examples 5 and 6
demonstrate the nonreflexive use of this verb.

EXAMPLES
Le ciel sassombrit.
Le ciel tait couvert et la pice stait
assombri.
Son visage sest assombri.
La situation conomique se serait
assombrie.
Ses problmes lont assombri.
Les ombres avaient assombri la rue.

The sky is getting darker.


It was cloudy and the room had become
dark.
Her face clouded over.
The economic situation would have become
gloomy.
His problems filled him with gloom.
The shadows had made the street dark.

128 / attacher

attacher
to attach
Present participle: attachant Past participle: attach
Imperative: attache, attachez, attachons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

attache
attaches
attache
Imperfect

attachons
attachez
attachent

ai attach
as attach
a attach
Pluperfect

avons attach
avez attach
ont attach

attachais
attachais
attachait
Pass Simple

attachions
attachiez
attachaient

avais attach
avais attach
avait attach
Pass Antrieur

avions attach
aviez attach
avaient attach

attachai
attachas
attacha
Future

attachmes
attachtes
attachrent

eus attach
eus attach
eut attach
Future Perfect

emes attach
etes attach
eurent attach

attacherai
attacheras
attachera
Conditional

attacherons
attacherez
attacheront

aurai attach
auras attach
aura attach
Conditional Perfect

aurons attach
aurez attach
auront attach

attacherais
attacherais
attacherait
Present

attacherions
attacheriez
attacheraient

aurais attach
aurais attach
aurait attach
Past

aurions attach
auriez attach
auraient attach

attache
attaches
attache
Imperfect

attachions
attachiez
attachent

aie attach
aies attach
ait attach
Pluperfect

ayons attach
ayez attach
aient attach

attachasse
attachasses
attacht

attachassions
attachassiez
attachassent

eusse attach
eusses attach
et attach

eussions attach
eussiez attach
eussent attach

Note: As a reflexive verb, sattacher (to fasten, to become attached to) uses the reflexive
pronouns me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses.
Examples 6, 7, and 8 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Attachez vos ceintures de scurit.
Un ruban de velours attachait ses cheveux.
Le criminel attacha sa victime sur une
chaise.
Elle a attach ses yeux sur lhomme qui
parlait.
Il ny avait pas attach beaucoup
dimportance.
a sattache fermeture clair.
Des souvenirs sattachent cette voiture.
Le chien sest attach vite son matre.

Attach your seatbelts.


A velvet ribbon tied her hair.
The criminel attached his victim to a chair.
She fixed her eyes on the man who was
speaking.
He hadnt attached much importance to
that.
That zips up.
Memories are attached to that car.
The dog quickly became attached to its
master.

attaquer / 129

attaquer
to attack
Present participle: attaquant Past participle: attaqu
Imperative: attaque, attaquez, attaquons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

attaque
attaques
attaque
Imperfect

attaquons
attaquez
attaquent

ai attaqu
as attaqu
a attaqu
Pluperfect

avons attaqu
avez attaqu
ont attaqu

attaquais
attaquais
attaquait
Pass Simple

attaquions
attaquiez
attaquaient

avais attaqu
avais attaqu
avait attaqu
Pass Antrieur

avions attaqu
aviez attaqu
avaient attaqu

attaquai
attaquas
attaqua
Future

attaqumes
attaqutes
attaqurent

eus attaqu
eus attaqu
eut attaqu
Future Perfect

emes attaqu
etes attaqu
eurent attaqu

attaquerai
attaqueras
attaquera
Conditional

attaquerons
attaquerez
attaqueront

aurai attaqu
auras attaqu
aura attaqu
Conditional Perfect

aurons attaqu
aurez attaqu
auront attaqu

attaquerais
attaquerais
attaquerait
Present

attaquerions
attaqueriez
attaqueraient

aurais attaqu
aurais attaqu
aurait attaqu
Past

aurions attaqu
auriez attaqu
auraient attaqu

attaque
attaques
attaque
Imperfect

attaquions
attaquiez
attaquent

aie attaqu
aies attaqu
ait attaqu
Pluperfect

ayons attaqu
ayez attaqu
aient attaqu

attaquasse
attaquasses
attaqut

attaquassions
attaquassiez
attaquassent

eusse attaqu
eusses attaqu
et attaqu

eussions attaqu
eussiez attaqu
eussent attaqu

EXAMPLES
Ne mattaquez pas.
Larme franaise attaqua.
Les moustiques nous ont attaqus.
La pollution de lair avait attaqu notre ville.

Dont attack me.


The French army attacked.
Mosquitoes attacked us.
Air pollution had attacked our city.

130 / atteindre

atteindre
to attain, to reach
Present participle: atteignant Past participle: atteint
Imperative: atteins, atteignez, atteignons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

atteins
atteins
atteint
Imperfect

atteignons
atteignez
atteignent

ai atteint
as atteint
a atteint
Pluperfect

avons atteint
avez atteint
ont atteint

atteignais
atteignais
atteignait
Pass Simple

atteignions
atteigniez
atteignaient

avais atteint
avais atteint
avait atteint
Pass Antrieur

avions atteint
aviez atteint
avaient atteint

atteignis
atteignis
atteignit
Future

atteignmes
atteigntes
atteignirent

eus atteint
eus atteint
eut atteint
Future Perfect

emes atteint
etes atteint
eurent atteint

atteindrai
atteindras
atteindra
Conditional

atteindrons
atteindrez
atteindront

aurai atteint
auras atteint
aura atteint
Conditional Perfect

aurons atteint
aurez atteint
auront atteint

atteindrais
atteindrais
atteindrait
Present

atteindrions
atteindriez
atteindraient

aurais atteint
aurais atteint
aurait atteint
Past

aurions atteint
auriez atteint
auraient atteint

atteigne
atteignes
atteigne
Imperfect

atteignions
atteigniez
atteignent

aie atteint
aies atteint
ait atteint
Pluperfect

ayons atteint
ayez atteint
aient atteint

atteignisse
atteignisses
atteignt

atteignissions
atteignissiez
atteignissent

eusse atteint
eusses atteint
et atteint

eussions atteint
eussiez atteint
eussent atteint

EXAMPLES
Ils atteignent le sommet de la montagne.
La maison atteindra une valeur incroyable.
Elle a atteint lge de cent ans.
Aura-t-il atteint son but?

They reach the top of the mountain.


The house will attain an incredible value.
She reached the age of one hundred.
Will he have reached his goal?

attendre / 131

attendre
to wait (for)
Present participle: attendant Past participle: attendu
Imperative: attends, attendez, attendons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

attends
attends
attend
Imperfect

attendons
attendez
attendent

ai attendi
as attendi
a attendi
Pluperfect

avons attendi
avez attendi
ont attendi

attendais
attendais
attendait
Pass Simple

attendions
attendiez
attendaient

avais attendu
avais attendu
avait attendu
Pass Antrieur

avions attendu
aviez attendu
avaient attendu

attendis
attendis
attendit
Future

attendmes
attendtes
attendirent

eus attendu
eus attendu
eut attendu
Future Perfect

emes attendu
etes attendu
eurent attendu

attendrai
attendras
attendra
Conditional

attendrons
attendrez
attendront

aurai attendu
auras attendu
aura attendu
Conditional Perfect

aurons attendu
aurez attendu
auront attendu

attendrais
attendrais
attendrait
Present

attendrions
attendriez
attendraient

aurais attendu
aurais attendu
aurait attendu
Past

aurions attendu
auriez attendu
auraient attendu

attende
attendes
attende
Imperfect

attendions
attendiez
attendent

aie attendu
aies attendu
ait attendu
Pluperfect

ayons attendu
ayez attendu
aient attendu

attendisse
attendisses
attendt

attendissions
attendissiez
attendissent

eusse attendu
eusses attendu
et attendu

eussions attendu
eussiez attendu
eussent attendu

EXAMPLES
Je ne peux gure attendre son arrive.
Attends-moi.
En attendant, elle a lu un magazine.
Ils attendent leur premier enfant.
Elle ne savait pas ce qui lattendait.
On a attendu le moment favorable.
Une brillante carrire lavait attendu.

I can hardly wait for his arrival.


Wait for me.
While waiting, she read a magazine.
They are expecting their first child.
She didnt know what was waiting for her.
We waited for the right moment.
A brillant career had been waiting for him.

132 / atterrir

atterrir
to land
Present participle: atterrissant Past participle: atterri
Imperative: atterris, atterrissez, atterrissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

atterris
atterris
atterrit
Imperfect

atterrissons
atterrissez
atterrissent

ai atterri
as atterri
a atterri
Pluperfect

avons atterri
avez atterri
ont atterri

atterrissais
atterrissais
atterrissait
Pass Simple

atterrissions
atterrissiez
atterrissaient

avais atterri
avais atterri
avait atterri
Pass Antrieur

avions atterri
aviez atterri
avaient atterri

atterris
atterris
atterrit
Future

atterrmes
atterrtes
atterrirent

eus atterri
eus atterri
eut atterri
Future Perfect

emes atterri
etes atterri
eurent atterri

atterrirai
atterriras
atterrira
Conditional

atterrirons
atterrirez
atterriront

aurai atterri
auras atterri
aura atterri
Conditional Perfect

aurons atterri
aurez atterri
auront atterri

atterrirais
atterrirais
atterrirait
Present

atterririons
atterririez
atterriraient

aurais atterri
aurais atterri
aurait atterri
Past

aurions atterri
auriez atterri
auraient atterri

atterrisse
atterrisses
atterrisse
Imperfect

atterrissions
atterrissiez
atterrissent

aie atterri
aies atterri
ait atterri
Pluperfect

ayons atterri
ayez atterri
aient atterri

atterrisse
atterrisses
atterrt

atterrissions
atterrissiez
atterrissent

eusse atterri
eusses atterri
et atterri

eussions atterri
eussiez atterri
eussent atterri

EXAMPLES
quelle heure est-ce que lavion atterrit?
Il est possible que le vol atterrisse huit
heures du soir.
Un criminel atterrira en prison.
Atterris!
La fille a atterri sur le ventre.
Les papiers importants avaient atterri sur
mon bureau.

At what time does the airplane land?


It is possible that the flight will land at
8 p.m.
A criminal will land in prison.
Come down to earth!
The girl landed flat on her face.
The important papers had landed on my
desk.

attirer / 133

attirer
to attract, to lure, to entice, to cause
Present participle: attirant Past participle: attir
Imperative: attire, attirez, attirons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

attire
attires
attire
Imperfect

attirons
attirez
attirent

ai attir
as attir
a attir
Pluperfect

avons attir
avez attir
ont attir

attirais
attirais
attirait
Pass Simple

attirions
attiriez
attiraient

avais attir
avais attir
avait attir
Pass Antrieur

avions attir
aviez attir
avaient attir

attirai
attiras
attira
Future

attirmes
attirtes
attirrent

eus attir
eus attir
eut attir
Future Perfect

emes attir
etes attir
eurent attir

attirerai
attireras
attirera
Conditional

attirerons
attirerez
attireront

aurai attir
auras attir
aura attir
Conditional Perfect

aurons attir
aurez attir
auront attir

attirerais
attirerais
attirerait
Present

attirerions
attireriez
attireraient

aurais attir
aurais attir
aurait attir
Past

aurions attir
auriez attir
auraient attir

attire
attires
attire
Imperfect

attirions
attiriez
attirent

aie attir
aies attir
ait attir
Pluperfect

ayons attir
ayez attir
aient attir

attirasse
attirasses
attirt

attirassions
attirassiez
attirassent

eusse attir
eusses attir
et attir

eussions attir
eussiez attir
eussent attir

EXAMPLES
Cela attire mon attention.
Elle portait une robe qui attirait des regards.
Il la attir par des promesses de richesses.
Tes remarques tavaient attir des ennuis.

Thats attracting my attention.


She was wearing an eye-catching dress.
He lured her with promises of wealth.
Your remarks had caused you trouble.

134 / attraper

attraper
to catch
Present participle: attrapant Past participle: attrap
Imperative: attrape, attrapez, attrapons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

attrape
attrapes
attrape
Imperfect

attrapons
attrapez
attrapent

ai attrap
as attrap
a attrap
Pluperfect

avons attrap
avez attrap
ont attrap

attrapais
attrapais
attrapait
Pass Simple

attrapions
attrapiez
attrapaient

avais attrap
avais attrap
avait attrap
Pass Antrieur

avions attrap
aviez attrap
avaient attrap

attrapai
attrapas
attrapa
Future

attrapmes
attraptes
attraprent

eus attrap
eus attrap
eut attrap
Future Perfect

emes attrap
etes attrap
eurent attrap

attraperai
attraperas
attrapera
Conditional

attraperons
attraperez
attraperont

aurai attrap
auras attrap
aura attrap
Conditional Perfect

aurons attrap
aurez attrap
auront attrap

attraperais
attraperais
attraperait
Present

attraperions
attraperiez
attraperaient

aurais attrap
aurais attrap
aurait attrap
Past

aurions attrap
auriez attrap
auraient attrap

attrape
attrapes
attrape
Imperfect

attrapions
attrapiez
attrapent

aie attrap
aies attrap
ait attrap
Pluperfect

ayons attrap
ayez attrap
aient attrap

attrapasse
attrapasses
attrapt

attrapassions
attrapassiez
attrapassent

eusse attrap
eusses attrap
et attrap

eussions attrap
eussiez attrap
eussent attrap

EXAMPLES
Les chasseurs attapent des animaux.
Tu attraperas la grippe.
Attrape ton manteau et sortons.
Il a attrap des coups de soleil.
Si tu navais pas port de chapeau, tu aurais
attrap un rhume.

Hunters catch animals.


You will catch the flu.
Grab your coat and lets go out.
He got a sunburn.
If you hadnt worn a hat, you would have
caught a cold.

augmenter / 135

augmenter
to increase
Present participle: augmentant Past participle: augment
Imperative: augmente, augmentez, augmentons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

augmente
augmentes
augmente
Imperfect

augmentons
augmentez
augmentent

ai augment
as augment
a augment
Pluperfect

avons augment
avez augment
ont augment

augmentais
augmentais
augmentait
Pass Simple

augmentions
augmentiez
augmentaient

avais augment
avais augment
avait augment
Pass Antrieur

avions augment
aviez augment
avaient augment

augmentai
augmentas
augmenta
Future

augmentmes
augmenttes
augmentrent

eus augment
eus augment
eut augment
Future Perfect

emes augment
etes augment
eurent augment

augmenterai
augmenteras
augmentera
Conditional

augmenterons
augmenterez
augmenteront

aurai augment
auras augment
aura augment
Conditional Perfect

aurons augment
aurez augment
auront augment

augmenterais
augmenterais
augmenterait
Present

augmenterions
augmenteriez
augmenteraient

aurais augment
aurais augment
aurait augment
Past

aurions augment
auriez augment
auraient augment

augmente
augmentes
augmente
Imperfect

augmentions
augmentiez
augmentent

aie augment
aies augment
ait augment
Pluperfect

ayons augment
ayez augment
aient augment

augmentasse
augmentasses
augmentt

augmentassions
augmentassiez
augmentassent

eusse augment
eusses augment
et augment

eussions augment
eussiez augment
eussent augment

EXAMPLES
Les prix augmentent de cinquante pour cent.
Tes rponses augmentaient sa colre
envers toi.
Son salaire na pas t augment depuis
un an.
Etait-il juste quils aient augment le niveau
de difficult de cet examen?

Prices are going up by fifty percent.


Your answers were increasing his anger
toward you.
Her salary hasnt been raised for a year.
Was it fair that they increased the difficulty
of that test?

136 / avaler

avaler
to swallow
Present participle: avalant Past participle: aval
Imperative: avale, avalez, avalons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

avale
avales
avale
Imperfect

avalons
avalez
avalent

ai aval
as aval
a aval
Pluperfect

avons aval
avez aval
ont aval

avalais
avalais
avalait
Pass Simple

avalions
avaliez
avalaient

avais aval
avais aval
avait aval
Pass Antrieur

avions aval
aviez aval
avaient aval

avalai
avalas
avala
Future

avalmes
avaltes
avalrent

eus aval
eus aval
eut aval
Future Perfect

emes aval
etes aval
eurent aval

avalerai
avaleras
avalera
Conditional

avalerons
avalerez
avaleront

aurai aval
auras aval
aura aval
Conditional Perfect

aurons aval
aurez aval
auront aval

avalerais
avalerais
avalerait
Present

avalerions
avaleriez
avaleraient

aurais aval
aurais aval
aurait aval
Past

aurions aval
auriez aval
auraient aval

avale
avales
avale
Imperfect

avalions
avaliez
avalent

aie aval
aies aval
ait aval
Pluperfect

ayons aval
ayez aval
aient aval

avalasse
avalasses
avalt

avalassions
avalassiez
avalassent

eusse aval
eusses aval
et aval

eussions aval
eussiez aval
eussent aval

EXAMPLES
Avalez ce pilule.
Tu avales ton th petites gorges.
Elle na rien aval depuis hier.
Javais aval les mdicaments dun seul
coup.

Swallow this pill.


You sip your tea.
She hasnt eaten anything since yesterday.
I had swallowed the medicine in one gulp.

avancer / 137

avancer
to advance
Present participle: avanant Past participle: avanc
Imperative: avance, avancez, avanons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

avance
avances
avance
Imperfect

avanons
avancez
avancent

ai avanc
as avanc
a avanc
Pluperfect

avons avanc
avez avanc
ont avanc

avanais
avanais
avanait
Pass Simple

avancions
avanciez
avanaient

avais avanc
avais avanc
avait avanc
Pass Antrieur

avions avanc
aviez avanc
avaient avanc

avanai
avanas
avana
Future

avanames
avanates
avancrent

eus avanc
eus avanc
eut avanc
Future Perfect

emes avanc
etes avanc
eurent avanc

avancerai
avanceras
avancera
Conditional

avancerons
avancerez
avanceront

aurai avanc
auras avanc
aura avanc
Conditional Perfect

aurons avanc
aurez avanc
auront avanc

avancerais
avancerais
avancerait
Present

avancerions
avanceriez
avanceraient

aurais avanc
aurais avanc
aurait avanc
Past

aurions avanc
auriez avanc
auraient avanc

avance
avances
avance
Imperfect

avancions
avanciez
avancent

aie avanc
aies avanc
ait avanc
Pluperfect

ayons avanc
ayez avanc
aient avanc

avanasse
avanasses
avanat

avanassions
avanassiez
avanassent

eusse avanc
eusses avanc
et avanc

eussions avanc
eussiez avanc
eussent avanc

Note: As a reflexive verb, savancer (to move forward, to advance) uses the reflexive
pronouns me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses.
Examples 6 and 7 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Ma montre avance.
Tout cela navance rien.
Les voitures avanaient lentement.
a navancera pas les affaires.
Nous avons avanc dun pas.
Elle savana vers nous.
Le dfil savanait lentement.

My watch is fast.
That doesnt get us anywhere.
The cars were advancing slowly.
That wont help matters.
We moved forward by one step.
She advanced toward us.
The parade moved forward slowly.

138 / avertir

avertir
to warn
Present participle: avertissant Past participle: averti
Imperative: avertis, avertissez, avertissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

avertis
avertis
avertit
Imperfect

avertissons
avertissez
avertissent

ai averti
as averti
a averti
Pluperfect

avons averti
avez averti
ont averti

avertissais
avertissais
avertissait
Pass Simple

avertissions
avertissiez
avertissaient

avais averti
avais averti
avait averti
Pass Antrieur

avions averti
aviez averti
avaient averti

avertis
avertis
avertit
Future

avertmes
averttes
avertirent

eus averti
eus averti
eut averti
Future Perfect

emes averti
etes averti
eurent averti

avertirai
avertiras
avertira
Conditional

avertirons
avertirez
avertiront

aurai averti
auras averti
aura averti
Conditional Perfect

aurons averti
aurez averti
auront averti

avertirais
avertirais
avertirait
Present

avertirions
avertiriez
avertiraient

aurais averti
aurais averti
aurait averti
Past

aurions averti
auriez averti
auraient averti

avertisse
avertisses
avertisse
Imperfect

avertissions
avertissiez
avertissent

aie averti
aies averti
ait averti
Pluperfect

ayons averti
ayez averti
aient averti

avertisse
avertisses
avertt

avertissions
avertissiez
avertissent

eusse averti
eusses averti
et averti

eussions averti
eussiez averti
eussent averti

EXAMPLES
Avertissez-moi si vous serez absent.
Je lavertirai de ne pas commencer trop tt.
Il ma averti du problme.
Ne vous aurait-il pas averti du danger ?

Warn me if you will be absent.


I will warn him not to begin too early.
He warned me about the problem.
Wouldnt he have warned you about the
danger?

avoir / 139

avoir
to have
Present participle: ayant Past participle: eu
Imperative: aie, ayez, ayons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

ai
as
a
Imperfect

avons
avez
ont

ai eu
as eu
a eu
Pluperfect

avons eu
avez eu
ont eu

avais
avais
avait
Pass Simple

avions
aviez
avaient

avais eu
avais eu
avait eu
Pass Antrieur

avions eu
aviez eu
avaient eu

eus
eus
eut
Future

emes
etes
eurent

eus eu
eus eu
eut eu
Future Perfect

emes eu
etes eu
eurent eu

aurai
auras
aura
Conditional

aurons
aurez
auront

aurai eu
auras eu
aura eu
Conditional Perfect

aurons eu
aurez eu
auront eu

aurais
aurais
aurait
Present

aurions
auriez
auraient

aurais eu
aurais eu
aurait eu
Past

aurions eu
auriez eu
auraient eu

aie
aies
ait
Imperfect

ayons
ayez
aient

aie eu
aies eu
ait eu
Pluperfect

ayons eu
ayez eu
aient eu

eusse
eusses
et

eussions
eussiez
eussent

eusse eu
eusses eu
et eu

eussions eu
eussiez eu
eussent eu

EXAMPLES
Jai faim (soif, raison, tort, froid, chaud,
sommeil, honte, mal au coeur, le vertige).
Il a les yeux bleus (les cheveux noirs).
Quel ge as-tu? Jai vingt ans.
Nas-tu pas dargent?
Il a trois mtres de haut.
Quest-ce que tu as?
Naie pas peur.
Il ta eu.
Il avait les mains sales.
On ne peut pas tout avoir.
Jen ai eu assez de ses plaisanteries de
mauvais got.

I am hungry (thirsty, right, wrong, cold, hot,


sleepy, ashamed, nauseous, dizzy).
He has blue eyes (black hair).
How old are you? Im twenty years old.
Dont you have any money?
It is three meters tall.
Whats the matter with you?
Dont be afraid.
He got to you.
He had dirty hands.
You cant have everything.
I had enough of his bad jokes.

140 / avouer

avouer
to confess
Present participle: avouant Past participle: avou
Imperative: avoue, avouez, avouons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

avoue
avoues
avoue
Imperfect

avouons
avouez
avouent

ai avou
as avou
a avou
Pluperfect

avons avou
avez avou
ont avou

avouais
avouais
avouait
Pass Simple

avouions
avouiez
avouaient

avais avou
avais avou
avait avou
Pass Antrieur

avions avou
aviez avou
avaient avou

avouai
avouas
avoua
Future

avoumes
avoutes
avourent

eus avou
eus avou
eut avou
Future Perfect

emes avou
etes avou
eurent avou

avouerai
avoueras
avouera
Conditional

avouerons
avouerez
avoueront

aurai avou
auras avou
aura avou
Conditional Perfect

aurons avou
aurez avou
auront avou

avouerais
avouerais
avouerait
Present

avouerions
avoueriez
avoueraient

aurais avou
aurais avou
aurait avou
Past

aurions avou
auriez avou
auraient avou

avoue
avoues
avoue
Imperfect

avouions
avouiez
avouent

aie avou
aies avou
ait avou
Pluperfect

ayons avou
ayez avou
aient avou

avouasse
avouasses
avout

avouassions
avouassiez
avouassent

eusse avou
eusses avou
et avou

eussions avou
eussiez avou
eussent avou

EXAMPLES
Il avoue son amour pour elle.
Je lavoue, il est vraiment intelligent.
Nous avons avou que nous avons menti.
Vous nauriez pas avou vos faiblesses.

He confesses his love for her.


I confess, he is really intelligent.
We confessed that we lied.
You wouldnt have admitted your
weaknesses.

se baigner / 141

se baigner
to bathe oneself, to go swimming
Present participle: se baignant Past participle: baign
Imperative: baigne-toi, baignez-vous, baignons-nous
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Singular

Present

me baigne
te baignes
se baigne

nous baignons
vous baignez
se baignent

me suis baign(e)
tes baign(e)
sest baign(e)

Imperfect

me baignais
te baignais
se baignait

mtais baign(e)
ttais baign(e)
stait baign(e)

Indicative

me fus baign(e)
te fus baign(e)
se fut baign(e)
me serai baign(e)
te seras baign(e)
se sera baign(e)

me serais baign(e)
te serais baign(e)
se serait baign(e)

Subjunctive

nous serions
baign(e)s
vous seriez
baign(e)(s)
se seraient baign(e)s

Past

nous baignions
vous baigniez
se baignent

me sois baign(e)
te sois baign(e)
se soit baign(e)

Imperfect

me baignasse
te baignasses
se baignt

nous serons
baign(e)s
vous serez
baign(e)(s)
se seront baign(e)s

Conditional Perfect

nous baignerions
vous baigneriez
se baigneraient

Present

me baigne
te baignes
se baigne

nous fmes baign(e)s


vous ftes baign(e)(s)
se furent baign(e)s

Future Perfect

nous baignerons
vous baignerez
se baigneront

Conditional

me baignerais
te baignerais
se baignerait

nous tions baign(e)s


vous tiez baign(e)(s)
staient baign(e)s

Pass Antrieur

nous baignmes
vous baigntes
se baignrent

Future

me baignerai
te baigneras
se baignera

nous sommes
baign(e)s
vous tes baign(e)(s)
se sont baign(e)s

Pluperfect

nous baignions
vous baigniez
se baignaient

Pass Simple

me baignai
te baignas
se baigna

Plural

Pass Compos

nous soyons
baign(e)s
vous soyez
baign(e)(s)
se soient baign(e)s

Pluperfect

nous baignassions
vous baignassiez
se baignassent

me fusse baign(e)
te fusses baign(e)
se ft baign(e)

nous fussions
baign(e)s
vous fussiez baign(e)
se fussent baign(e)s

Note: Baigner may be used nonreflexively with avoir as its helping verb. Examples 5, 6, and 7
demonstrate the nonreflexive use of this verb.

EXAMPLES
Baigne-toi!
Ils se baigneront dans la mer.
Il est ncessaire que lenfant se baigne
dans la baignoire.
Ces fruits baignaient dans lalcool.
Elle baigne dans la misre.
a baigne!
Vous tes-vous baigns dans la piscine?

Take a bath!
They will go swimming in the sea.
The child has to bathe in the bathtub.
Those fruits were soaking in alcohol.
Her misery knows no bounds.
Thats great!
Did you go for a swim in the pool?

142 / baisser

baisser
to lower, to go down, to pull down
Present participle: baissant Past participle: baiss
Imperative: baisse, baissez, baissons
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present

baisse
baisses
baisse

baissons
baissez
baissent

Indicative
Subjunctive

eus baiss
eus baiss
eut baiss

emes baiss
etes baiss
eurent baiss

aurai baiss
auras baiss
aura baiss

aurons baiss
aurez baiss
auront baiss

aurais baiss
aurais baiss
aurait baiss

aurions baiss
auriez baiss
auraient baiss

Past

baissions
baissiez
baissent

Imperfect

baissasse
baissasses
baisst

avions baiss
aviez baiss
avaient baiss

Conditional Perfect

baisserions
baisseriez
baisseraient

Present

baisse
baisses
baisse

avais baiss
avais baiss
avait baiss

Future Perfect

baisserons
baisserez
baisseront

Conditional

baisserais
baisserais
baisserait

avons baiss
avez baiss
ont baiss

Pass Antrieur

baissmes
baisstes
baissrent

Future

baisserai
baisseras
baissera

ai baiss
as baiss
a baiss
Pluperfect

baissions
baissiez
baissaient

Pass Simple

baissai
baissas
baissa

Plural

Pass Compos

Imperfect

baissais
baissais
baissait

Singular

aie baiss
aies baiss
ait baiss

ayons baiss
ayez baiss
aient baiss

Pluperfect

baissassions
baissassiez
baissassent

eusse baiss
eusses baiss
et baiss

eussions baiss
eussiez baiss
eussent baiss

Note: As a reflexive verb, se baisser (to bend down) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se,
nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 5 and 6 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Baissez les stores.

Pull down the shades.

La temprature baisse.

The temperature is falling.

Il a baiss la tte.

He lowered his head.

On avait baiss les prix.

They had lowered the prices.

Elle sest baisse pour ramasser ses livres.

She bent down to pick up her books.

Les soldats se sont baisss pour viter les


balles de lennemi.

The soldiers ducked to avoid enemy bullets.

balancer / 143

balancer
to swing, to rock, to push
Present participle: balanant Past participle: balanc
Imperative: balance, balancez, balanons
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present

balance
balances
balance

balanons
balancez
balancent

Indicative
Subjunctive

eus balanc
eus balanc
eut balanc

emes balanc
etes balanc
eurent balanc

aurai balanc
auras balanc
aura balanc

aurons balanc
aurez balanc
auront balanc

aurais balanc
aurais balanc
aurait balanc

aurions balanc
auriez balanc
auraient balanc

Past

balancions
balanciez
balancent

Imperfect

balanasse
balanasses
balant

avions balanc
aviez balanc
avaient balanc

Conditional Perfect

balancerions
balanceriez
balanceraient

Present

balance
balances
balance

avais balanc
avais balanc
avait balanc

Future Perfect

balancerons
balancerez
balanceront

Conditional

balancerais
balancerais
balancerait

avons balanc
avez balanc
ont balanc

Pass Antrieur

balanames
balanates
balancrent

Future

balancerai
balanceras
balancera

ai balanc
as balanc
a balanc
Pluperfect

balancions
balanciez
balanaient

Pass Simple

balanai
balanas
balana

Plural

Pass Compos

Imperfect

balanais
balanais
balanait

Singular

aie balanc
aies balanc
ait balanc

ayons balanc
ayez balanc
aient balanc

Pluperfect

balanassions
balanassiez
balanassent

eusse balanc
eusses balanc
et balanc

eussions balanc
eussiez balanc
eussent balanc

Note: As a reflexive verb, se balancer (to swing, to rock) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se,
nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 6 demonstrates
reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Les enfants veulent que je les balance.

The children want me to push them.

Balancez-moi mon stylo.

Throw me my pen.

Le vent balanait les branches.

The wind was rocking the branches.

Elle avait envie de tout balancer.

She felt like throwing it all in.

Il a balanc le pour et le contre.

He weighed the pros and the cons.

Nous nous sommes balancs sur nos jambes.

We swayed back and forth.

144 / balayer

balayer
to sweep
Present participle: balayant Past participle: balay
Imperative: balaie, balayez, balayons
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present

balaie
balaies
balaie

balayons
balayez
balaient

Indicative
Subjunctive

eus balay
eus balay
eut balay

emes balay
etes balay
eurent balay

aurai balay
auras balay
aura balay

aurons balay
aurez balay
auront balay

aurais balay
aurais balay
aurait balay

aurions balay
auriez balay
auraient balay

Past

balayions
balayiez
balaient

Imperfect

balayasse
balayasses
balayt

avions balay
aviez balay
avaient balay

Conditional Perfect

balaierions
balaieriez
balaieraient

Present

balaie
balaies
balaie

avais balay
avais balay
avait balay

Future Perfect

balaierons
balaierez
balaieront

Conditional

balaierais
balaierais
balaierait

avons balay
avez balay
ont balay

Pass Antrieur

balaymes
balaytes
balayrent

Future

balaierai
balaieras
balaiera

ai balay
as balay
a balay
Pluperfect

balayions
balayiez
balayaient

Pass Simple

balayai
balayas
balaya

Plural

Pass Compos

Imperfect

balayais
balayais
balayait

Singular

aie balay
aies balay
ait balay

ayons balay
ayez balay
aient balay

Pluperfect

balayassions
balayassiez
balayassent

eusse balay
eusses balay
et balay

eussions balay
eussiez balay
eussent balay

Note: For verbs ending in ayer it is optional to change y to i in the present, future, conditional, and present subjunctive forms.

EXAMPLES
Elle balaie (balaye) les feuilles mortes.

Shes sweeping up the dead leaves.

Le concierge balayait devant limmeuble.

The concierge was sweeping in front of the


apartment building.

Il a balay devant sa porte.

He swept in front of his door.

Le vent avait balay le dsert.

The wind had swept across the desert.

btir / 145

btir
to build
Present participle: btissant Past participle: bti
Imperative: btis, btissez, btissons
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present

btis
btis
btit

btissons
btissez
btissent

Indicative

eus bti
eus bti
eut bti

btirons
btirez
btiront

aurai bti
auras bti
aura bti

btirions
btiriez
btiraient

aurais bti
aurais bti
aurait bti

Subjunctive

emes bti
etes bti
eurent bti
aurons bti
aurez bti
auront bti

Conditional Perfect

aurions bti
auriez bti
auraient bti

Past

btissions
btissiez
btissent

Imperfect

btisse
btisses
btt

avions bti
aviez bti
avaient bti

Future Perfect

Present

btisse
btisses
btisse

avons bti
avez bti
ont bti

Pass Antrieur

Conditional

btirais
btirais
btirait

avais bti
avais bti
avait bti

btmes
bttes
btirent

Future

btirai
btiras
btira

ai bti
as bti
a bt
Pluperfect

btissions
btissiez
btissaient

Pass Simple

btis
btis
btit

Plural

Pass Compos

Imperfect

btissais
btissais
btissait

Singular

aie bti
aies bti
ait bti

ayons bti
ayez bti
aient bti

Pluperfect

btissions
btissiez
btissent

eusse bti
eusses bti
et bti

eussions bti
eussiez bti
eussent bti

Note: As a reflexive verb, se btir (to build oneself) is used in a passive construction and uses
the reflexive pronouns me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound
tenses. Examples 5 and 6 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Quest-ce que vous btissez?

What are you building?

Il btissait une cabane.

He was building a hut.

Nous avons bti une maison.

We built a house.

Ils avaient bti une fortune.

They had built a fortune.

Le bateau sest bti en une semaine.

The boat was built in a week.

Elle sest bti une maison.

She built herself a house.

146 / battre

battre
to beat
Present participle: battant Past participle: battu
Imperative: bats, battez, battons
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present

bats
bats
bat

battons
battez
battent

Indicative
Subjunctive

eus battu
eus battu
eut battu

emes battu
etes battu
eurent battu

aurai battu
auras battu
aura battu

aurons battu
aurez battu
auront battu

aurais battu
aurais battu
aurait battu

aurions battu
auriez battu
auraient battu

Past

battions
battiez
battent

Imperfect

battisse
battisses
battt

avions battu
aviez battu
avaient battu

Conditional Perfect

battrions
battriez
battraient

Present

batte
battes
batte

avais battu
avais battu
avait battu

Future Perfect

battrons
battrez
battront

Conditional

battrais
battrais
battrait

avons battu
avez battu
ont battu

Pass Antrieur

battmes
batttes
battirent

Future

battrai
battras
battra

ai battu
as battu
a battu
Pluperfect

battions
battiez
battaient

Pass Simple

battis
battis
battit

Plural

Pass Compos

Imperfect

battais
battais
battait

Singular

aie battu
aies battu
ait battu

ayons battu
ayez battu
aient battu

Pluperfect

battissions
battissiez
battissent

eusse battu
eusses battu
et battu

eussions battu
eussiez battu
eussent battu

EXAMPLES
Ne me battez pas.
La boum bat son plein.
Son coeur battait deux fois plus vite qu
lordinaire.
Ils nont jamais battu leurs enfants.
Loiseau aurait battu ses ailes.
Il tait curieux que la pluie ait battu contre les
fentres.

Dont hit me.


The party is in full swing.
His heart was beating twice as fast as
usual.
They never beat their children.
The bird would have beaten its wings.
It was strange that the rain beat against
the windows.

se battre / 147

se battre
to fight
Present participle: se battant Past participle: battu
Imperative: bats-toi, battez-vous, battons-nous
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present

me bats
te bats
se bat

nous battons
vous battez
se battent

me suis battu(e)
tes battu(e)
sest battu(e)

nous battions
vous battiez
se battaient

mtais battu(e)
ttais battu(e)
stait battu(e)

Indicative

me fus battu(e)
te fus battu(e)
se fut battu(e)

nous battrons
vous battrez
se battront

me serai battu(e)
te seras battu(e)
se sera battu(e)

nous battrions
vous battriez
se battraient

me serais battu(e)
te serais battu(e)
se serait battu(e)

nous battions
vous battiez
se battent

me sois battu(e)
te sois battu(e)
se soit battu(e)

Subjunctive

nous serions battu(e)s


vous seriez battu(e)(s)
se seraient battu(e)s

Past

Imperfect

me battisse
te battisses
se battt

nous serons battu(e)s


vous serez battu(e)(s)
se seront battu(e)s

Conditional Perfect

Present

me batte
te battes
se batte

nous fmes battu(e)s


vous ftes battu(e)(s)
se furent battu(e)s

Future Perfect

Conditional

me battrais
te battrais
se battrait

nous tions battu(e)s


vous tiez battu(e)(s)
staient battu(e)s

Pass Antrieur

nous battmes
vous batttes
se battirent

Future

me battrai
te battras
se battra

nous sommes battu(e)s


vous tes battu(e)(s)
se sont battu(e)s

Pluperfect

Pass Simple

me battis
te battis
se battit

Plural

Pass Compos

Imperfect

me battais
te battais
se battait

Singular

nous soyons battu(e)s


vous soyez battu(e)(s)
se soient battu(e)s

Pluperfect

nous battissions
vous battissiez
se battissent

me fusse battu(e)
te fusses battu(e)
se ft battu(e)

nous fussions battu(e)s


vous fussiez battu(e)(s)
se fussent battu(e)s

EXAMPLES
Ils se battent comme des chiffonniers.
Les acteurs se battront en duel.
Elles se sont battues.
Vous tiez-vous battu les flancs?

They fight like cats and dogs.


The actors will fight in a duel.
They fought with each other.
Did you rack your brains?

148 / bavarder

bavarder
to chat, to chatter, to talk
Present participle: bavardant Past participle: bavard
Imperative: bavarde, bavardez, bavardons
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present

bavarde
bavardes
bavarde

bavardons
bavardez
bavardent

ai bavard
as bavard
a bavard

bavardions
bavardiez
bavardaient

avais bavard
avais bavard
avait bavard

Indicative

eus bavard
eus bavard
eut bavard

bavarderons
bavarderez
bavarderont

aurai bavard
auras bavard
aura bavard

bavarderions
bavarderiez
bavarderaient

aurais bavard
aurais bavard
aurait bavard

bavardions
bavardiez
bavardent

aie bavard
aies bavard
ait bavard

bavardassions
bavardassiez
bavardassent

eusse bavard
eusses bavard
et bavard

Subjunctive

aurions bavard
auriez bavard
auraient bavard

Past

Imperfect

bavardasse
bavardasses
bavardt

aurons bavard
aurez bavard
auront bavard

Conditional Perfect

Present

bavarde
bavardes
bavarde

emes bavard
etes bavard
eurent bavard

Future Perfect

Conditional

bavarderais
bavarderais
bavarderait

avions bavard
aviez bavard
avaient bavard

Pass Antrieur

bavardmes
bavardtes
bavardrent

Future

bavarderai
bavarderas
bavardera

avons bavard
avez bavard
ont bavard

Pluperfect

Pass Simple

bavardai
bavardas
bavarda

Plural

Pass Compos

Imperfect

bavardais
bavardais
bavardait

Singular

ayons bavard
ayez bavard
aient bavard

Pluperfect

eussions bavard
eussiez bavard
eussent bavard

EXAMPLES
Ne bavarde pas en classe!
Il est intressant que vous bavardiez tant.
Elles bavardaient tout le temps.
Les deux enfants auront bavard pendant
une heure.

Dont chat in class!


It is interesting that you chatter so
much.
They were always talking.
The two children will have chatted for
an hour.

bnir / 149

bnir
to bless, to be eternally grateful for, to thank God for
Present participle: bnissant Past participle: bni
Imperative: bnis, bnissez, bnissons
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present

bnis
bnis
bnit

bnissons
bnissez
bnissent

Indicative
Subjunctive

eus bni
eus bni
eut bni

emes bni
etes bni
eurent bni

aurai bni
auras bni
aura bni

aurons bni
aurez bni
auront bni

aurais bni
aurais bni
aurait bni

aurions bni
auriez bni
auraient bni

Past

bnissions
bnissiez
bnissent

Imperfect

bnisse
bnisses
bnt

avions bni
aviez bni
avaient bni

Conditional Perfect

bnirions
bniriez
bniraient

Present

bnisse
bnisses
bnisse

avais bni
avais bni
avait bni

Future Perfect

bnirons
bnirez
bniront

Conditional

bnirais
bnirais
bnirait

avons bni
avez bni
ont bni

Pass Antrieur

bnmes
bntes
bnirent

Future

bnirai
bniras
bnira

ai bni
as bni
a bni
Pluperfect

bnissions
bnissiez
bnissaient

Pass Simple

bnis
bnis
bnit

Plural

Pass Compos

Imperfect

bnissais
bnissais
bnissait

Singular

aie bni
aies bni
ait bni

ayons bni
ayez bni
aient bni

Pluperfect

bnissions
bnissiez
bnissent

eusse bni
eusses bni
et bni

eussions bni
eussiez bni
eussent bni

EXAMPLES
Nous bnissons ces bonnes nouvelles.
Que Dieu te bnisse.
Bni soit le jour o mon fils est n.

Thank goodness for that good news.


May God bless you.
Thank God for the day when my son was
born.
Le prtre a bni leur mariage.
The priest blessed their marriage.
Il nest pas surprenant que vous ayez bni le It is not surprising that you thanked God for
ciel de votre bonne fortune.
your good fortune.

150 / bercer

bercer
to rock
Present participle: berant Past participle: berc
Imperative: berce, bercez, berons
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present

berce
berces
berce

berons
bercez
bercent

Indicative
Subjunctive

eus berc
eus berc
eut berc

emes berc
etes berc
eurent berc

aurai berc
auras berc
aura berc

aurons berc
aurez berc
auront berc

aurais berc
aurais berc
aurait berc

aurions berc
auriez berc
auraient berc

Past

bercions
berciez
bercent

Imperfect

berasse
berasses
berat

avions berc
aviez berc
avaient berc

Conditional Perfect

bercerions
berceriez
berceraient

Present

berce
berces
berce

avais berc
avais berc
avait berc

Future Perfect

bercerons
bercerez
berceront

Conditional

bercerais
bercerais
bercerait

avons berc
avez berc
ont berc

Pass Antrieur

berames
berates
bercrent

Future

bercerai
berceras
bercera

ai berc
as berc
a berc
Pluperfect

bercions
berciez
beraient

Pass Simple

berai
beras
bera

Plural

Pass Compos

Imperfect

berais
berais
berait

Singular

aie berc
aies berc
ait berc

ayons berc
ayez berc
aient berc

Pluperfect

berassions
berassiez
berassent

eusse berc
eusses berc
et berc

eussions berc
eussiez berc
eussent berc

EXAMPLES
La mre berce son bb.
Les vagues beraient le navire.
Il a berc lenfant dans ses bras.
coute les chansons qui ont berc mon enfance.

The mother rocks her baby.


The waves were rocking the boat.
He rocked the child in his arms.
Listen to the songs that I grew up with.

blmer / 151

blmer
to blame, to reprimand, to rebuke
Present participle: blmant Past participle: blm
Imperative: blme, blmez, blmons
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present

blme
blmes
blme

blmons
blmez
blment

Imperfect

Indicative

blmais
blmais
blmait

Subjunctive

avions blm
aviez blm
avaient blm

eus blm
eus blm
eut blm

emes blm
etes blm
eurent blm

aurai blm
auras blm
aura blm

aurons blm
aurez blm
auront blm

aurais blm
aurais blm
aurait blm

aurions blm
auriez blm
auraient blm

Past

blmions
blmiez
blment

Imperfect

blmasse
blmasses
blmt

avais blm
avais blm
avait blm

Conditional Perfect

blmerions
blmeriez
blmeraient

Present

blme
blmes
blme

avons blm
avez blm
ont blm

Future Perfect

blmerons
blmerez
blmeront

Conditional

blmerais
blmerais
blmerait

ai blm
as blm
a blm

Pass Antrieur

blmmes
blmtes
blmrent

Future

blmerai
blmeras
blmera

Plural

Pluperfect

blmions
blmiez
blmaient

Pass Simple

blmai
blmas
blma

Singular
Pass Compos

aie blm
aies blm
ait blm

ayons blm
ayez blm
aient blm

Pluperfect

blmassions
blmassiez
blmassent

eusse blm
eusses blm
et blm

eussions blm
eussiez blm
eussent blm

EXAMPLES
Ne me blmez pas!
Je ne te blmerai de rien.
Le grant a blm son employ.
Elle ne lavait pas blme pour lavoir fait.

Dont blame me!


I wont reprimand you for anything.
The manager reprimanded his employee.
She hadnt reprimanded her for having
done it.

152 / blanchir

blanchir
to whiten, to blanch
Present participle: blanchissant Past participle: blanchi
Imperative: blanchis, blanchissez, blanchissons
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present

blanchis
blanchis
blanchit

blanchissons
blanchissez
blanchissent

Imperfect

Indicative

blanchissais
blanchissais
blanchissait

Subjunctive

avions blanchi
aviez blanchi
avaient blanchi

eus blanchi
eus blanchi
eut blanchi

emes blanchi
etes blanchi
eurent blanchi

aurai blanchi
auras blanchi
aura blanchi

aurons blanchi
aurez blanchi
auront blanchi

aurais blanchi
aurais blanchi
aurait blanchi

aurions blanchi
auriez blanchi
auraient blanchi

Past

blanchissions
blanchissiez
blanchissent

Imperfect

blanchisse
blanchisses
blancht

avais blanchi
avais blanchi
avait blanchi

Conditional Perfect

blanchirions
blanchiriez
blanchiraient

Present

blanchisse
blanchisses
blanchisse

avons blanchi
avez blanchi
ont blanchi

Future Perfect

blanchirons
blanchirez
blanchiront

Conditional

blanchirais
blanchirais
blanchirait

ai blanchi
as blanchi
a blanchi

Pass Antrieur

blanchmes
blanchtes
blanchirent

Future

blanchirai
blanchiras
blanchira

Plural

Pluperfect

blanchissions
blanchissiez
blanchissaient

Pass Simple

blanchis
blanchis
blanchit

Singular
Pass Compos

aie blanchi
aies blanchi
ait blanchi

ayons blanchi
ayez blanchi
aient blanchi

Pluperfect

blanchissions
blanchissiez
blanchissent

eusse blanchi
eusses blanchi
et blanchi

eussions blanchi
eussiez blanchi
eussent blanchi

EXAMPLES
La neige blanchit les montagnes.
Le soleil blanchissait le ciel.
Elle a blanchi de peur.
Le prisonnier a t blanchi.
cause de sa maladie, son teint avait blanchi.

The snow whitens the mountains.


The sun was whitening the sky.
She became white with fear.
The prisoner was acquitted.
Because of his illness, his complexion had
gotten pale.

se blesser / 153

se blesser
to hurt oneself
Present participle: se blessant Past participle: bless
Imperative: blesse-toi, blessez-vous, blessons-nous
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present

me blesse
te blesses
se blesse

nous blessons
vous blessez
se blessent

Indicative

nous blessmes
vous blesstes
se blessrent

Subjunctive

me fus bless(e)
te fus bless(e)
se fut bless(e)

nous fmes bless(e)s


vous ftes bless(e)(s)
se furent bless(e)s

me serai bless(e)
te seras bless(e)
se sera bless(e)

nous serons
bless(e)s
vous serez
bless(e)(s)
se seront bless(e)s

me serais bless(e)
te serais bless(e)
se serait bless(e)

nous serions
bless(e)s
vous seriez
bless(e)(s)
se seraient bless(e)s

Past

nous blessions
vous blessiez
se blessent

Imperfect

me blessasse
te blessasses
se blesst

nous tions bless(e)s


vous tiez bless(e)(s)
staient bless(e)s

Conditional Perfect

nous blesserions
vous blesseriez
se blesseraient

Present

me blesse
te blesses
se blesse

mtais bless(e)
ttais bless(e)
stait bless(e)

Future Perfect

nous blesserons
vous blesserez
se blesseront

Conditional

me blesserais
te blesserais
se blesserait

nous sommes
bless(e)s
vous tes bless(e)(s)
se sont bless(e)

Pass Antrieur

Future

me blesserai
te blesseras
se blessera

me suis bless(e)
tes bless(e)
sest bless(e)
Pluperfect

nous blessions
vous blessiez
se blessaient

Pass Simple

me blessai
te blessas
se blessa

Plural

Pass Compos

Imperfect

me blessais
te blessais
se blessait

Singular

me sois bless(e)
te sois bless(e)
se soit bless(e)

nous soyons
bless(e)s
vous soyez
bless(e)(s)
se soient bless(e)s

Pluperfect

nous blessassions
vous blessassiez
se blessassent

me fusse bless(e)
te fusses bless(e)
se ft bless(e)

nous fussions
bless(e)s
vous fussiez bless(e)
se fussent bless(e)s

Note: Blesser may be used nonreflexively with avoir as its helping verb. Examples 5, 6, and 7
demonstrate the nonreflexive use of this verb.

EXAMPLES
Ne te blesse pas!
Tu te blesses pour un rien.
Elle sest blesse en tombant.
Il sest bless la tte.
Jai t blesse dans un accident.
Ses chaussures lui ont bless les pieds.
Il voulait dire des paroles qui auraient bless
son ami.

Dont hurt yourself!


You get hurt over nothing.
She got hurt while falling.
He hurt his head.
I got hurt in an accident.
His shoes hurt his feet.
He wanted to make remarks that
would have hurt his friend.

154 / bloquer

bloquer
to block
Present participle: bloquant Past participle: bloqu
Imperative: bloque, bloquez, bloquons
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present

bloque
bloques
bloque

bloquons
bloquez
bloquent

Indicative
Subjunctive

eus bloqu
eus bloqu
eut bloqu

emes bloqu
etes bloqu
eurent bloqu

aurai bloqu
auras bloqu
aura bloqu

aurons bloqu
aurez bloqu
auront bloqu

aurais bloqu
aurais bloqu
aurait bloqu

aurions bloqu
auriez bloqu
auraient bloqu

Past

bloquions
bloquiez
bloquent

Imperfect

bloquasse
bloquasses
bloqut

avions bloqu
aviez bloqu
avaient bloqu

Conditional Perfect

bloquerions
bloqueriez
bloqueraient

Present

bloque
bloques
bloque

avais bloqu
avais bloqu
avait bloqu

Future Perfect

bloquerons
bloquerez
bloqueront

Conditional

bloquerais
bloquerais
bloquerait

avons bloqu
avez bloqu
ont bloqu

Pass Antrieur

bloqumes
bloqutes
bloqurent

Future

bloquerai
bloqueras
bloquera

ai bloqu
as bloqu
a bloqu
Pluperfect

bloquions
bloquiez
bloquaient

Pass Simple

bloquai
bloquas
bloqua

Plural

Pass Compos

Imperfect

bloquais
bloquais
bloquait

Singular

aie bloqu
aies bloqu
ait bloqu

ayons bloqu
ayez bloqu
aient bloqu

Pluperfect

bloquassions
bloquassiez
bloquassent

eusse bloqu
eusses bloqu
et bloqu

eussions bloqu
eussiez bloqu
eussent bloqu

EXAMPLES
Un accident bloque la route.
Elle est bloque chez elle.
Des hommes bloquaient leur passage.
La situation a t compltement bloque.

An accident is blocking the road.


Shes stuck at home.
Some men blocked their way.
The situation was at a complete standstill.

boire / 155

boire
to drink
Present participle: buvant Past participle: bu
Imperative: bois, buvez, buvons
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present

bois
bois
boit

buvons
buvez
boivent

Imperfect

Indicative

buvais
buvais
buvait

Subjunctive

avions bu
aviez bu
avaient bu

eus bu
eus bu
eut bu

emes bu
etes bu
eurent bu

aurai bu
auras bu
aura bu

aurons bu
aurez bu
auront bu

aurais bu
aurais bu
aurait bu

aurions bu
auriez bu
auraient bu

Past

buvions
buviez
boivent

Imperfect

busse
busses
bt

avais bu
avais bu
avait bu

Conditional Perfect

boirions
boiriez
boiraient

Present

boive
boives
boive

avons bu
avez bu
ont bu

Future Perfect

boirons
boirez
boiront

Conditional

boirais
boirais
boirait

ai bu
as bu
a bu

Pass Antrieur

bmes
btes
burent

Future

boirai
boiras
boira

Plural

Pluperfect

buvions
buviez
buvaient

Pass Simple

bus
bus
but

Singular
Pass Compos

aie bu
aies bu
ait bu

ayons bu
ayez bu
aient bu

Pluperfect

bussions
bussiez
bussent

eusse bu
eusses bu
et bu

eussions bu
eussiez bu
eussent bu

EXAMPLES
Bois un petit coup!
Nous boirons ta sant.
Il est ncessaire que tu boives huit verres
deau par jour.
Elle na rien bu.
La plante a tout bu.
Elle avait bu les paroles de son professeur.

Drink a little!
Well drink to your health.
You must drink eight glasses of water a day.
She drank nothing.
The plant soaked up all the water.
She had drunk up the words of her teacher.

156 / bondir

bondir
to leap
Present participle: bondissant Past participle: bondi
Imperative: bondis, bondissez, bondissons
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present

bondis
bondis
bondit

bondissons
bondissez
bondissent

Indicative

avais bondi
avais bondi
avait bondi

bondmes
bondtes
bondirent

eus bondi
eus bondi
eut bondi

Subjunctive

aurai bondi
auras bondi
aura bondi

aurons bondi
aurez bondi
auront bondi

Conditional Perfect

bondirions
bondiriez
bondiraient

aurais bondi
aurais bondi
aurait bondi

aurions bondi
auriez bondi
auraient bondi

Past

bondissions
bondissiez
bondissent

Imperfect

bondisse
bondisses
bondt

emes bondi
etes bondi
eurent bondi

Future Perfect

bondirons
bondirez
bondiront

Present

bondisse
bondisses
bondisse

avions bondi
aviez bondi
avaient bondi

Pass Antrieur

Conditional

bondirais
bondirais
bondirait

avons bondi
avez bondi
ont bondi

Pluperfect

Future

bondirai
bondiras
bondira

ai bondi
as bondi
a bondi

bondissions
bondissiez
bondissaient

Pass Simple

bondis
bondis
bondit

Plural

Pass Compos

Imperfect

bondissais
bondissais
bondissait

Singular

aie bondi
aies bondi
ait bondi

ayons bondi
ayez bondi
aient bondi

Pluperfect

bondissions
bondissiez
bondissent

eusse bondi
eusses bondi
et bondi

eussions bondi
eussiez bondi
eussent bondi

EXAMPLES
Regarde! Elle bondit de joie.
Je suis sr quils bondiront de colre.
Le chat a bondi.
Elle aurait bondi de frayeur.
Cela me fait bondir.

Look! She is jumping for joy.


I am sure they will jump up in anger.
The cat jumped up.
She would have started with fright.
That makes my blood boil.

bouger / 157

bouger
to move
Present participle: bougeant Past participle: boug
Imperative: bouge, bougez, bougeons
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present

bouge
bouges
bouge

bougeons
bougez
bougent

Imperfect

Indicative

bougeais
bougeais
bougeait

Subjunctive

avions boug
aviez boug
avaient boug

eus boug
eus boug
eut boug

emes boug
etes boug
eurent boug

aurai boug
auras boug
aura boug

aurons boug
aurez boug
auront boug

aurais boug
aurais boug
aurait boug

aurions boug
auriez boug
auraient boug

Past

bougions
bougiez
bougent

Imperfect

bougeasse
bougeasses
bouget

avais boug
avais boug
avait boug

Conditional Perfect

bougerions
bougeriez
bougeraient

Present

bouge
bouges
bouge

avons boug
avez boug
ont boug

Future Perfect

bougerons
bougerez
bougeront

Conditional

bougerais
bougerais
bougerait

ai boug
as boug
a boug

Pass Antrieur

bougemes
bougetes
bougrent

Future

bougerai
bougeras
bougera

Plural

Pluperfect

bougions
bougiez
bougeaient

Pass Simple

bougeai
bougeas
bougea

Singular
Pass Compos

aie boug
aies boug
ait boug

ayons boug
ayez boug
aient boug

Pluperfect

bougeassions
bougeassiez
bougeassent

eusse boug
eusses boug
et boug

eussions boug
eussiez boug
eussent boug

EXAMPLES
Ne bouge pas!
Les prix ne bougeront pas.
Nous avons visit une ville qui bougissait.
La terre a bougi.
Personne navait bougi depuis longtemps.
Son opinion naurait pas boug.

Dont move!
The prices will stay put.
We visited a very lively city.
The earth moved.
Nobody had moved for a long time.
His opinion wouldnt have changed.

158 / bouillir

bouillir
to boil
Present participle: bouillant Past participle: bouilli
Imperative: bous, bouillez, bouillons
Mode Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present

bous
bous
bout

bouillons
bouillez
bouillent

Imperfect

Indicative

bouillais
bouillais
bouillait

Subjunctive

avions bouilli
aviez bouilli
avaient bouilli

eus bouilli
eus bouilli
eut bouilli

emes bouilli
etes bouilli
eurent bouilli

aurai bouilli
auras bouilli
aura bouilli

aurons bouilli
aurez bouilli
auront bouilli

aurais bouilli
aurais bouilli
aurait bouilli

aurions bouilli
auriez bouilli
auraient bouilli

Past

bouillions
bouilliez
bouillent

Imperfect

bouillisse
bouillisses
bouillt

avais bouilli
avais bouilli
avait bouilli

Conditional Perfect

bouillirions
bouilliriez
bouilliraient

Present

bouille
bouilles
bouille

avons bouilli
avez bouilli
ont bouilli

Future Perfect

bouillirons
bouillirez
bouilliront

Conditional

bouillirais
bouillirais
bouillirait

ai bouilli
as bouilli
a bouilli

Pass Antrieur

bouillmes
bouilltes
bouillirent

Future

bouillirai
bouilliras
bouillira

Plural

Pluperfect

bouillions
bouilliez
bouillaient

Pass Simple

bouillis
bouillis
bouillit

Singular
Pass Compos

aie bouilli
aies bouilli
ait bouilli

ayons bouilli
ayez bouilli
aient bouilli

Pluperfect

bouillissions
bouillissiez
bouillissent

eusse bouilli
eusses bouilli
et bouilli

eussions bouilli
eussiez bouilli
eussent bouilli

EXAMPLES
Leau bout.
Leau bouillissait gros bouillons.
Il a bouilli de rage.
Il tait impossible quelle ait bouilli
dimpatience.

The water is boiling.


The water was boiling rapidly.
He boiled with anger.
It was impossible that she boiled with
impatience.

bouleverser / 159

bouleverser
to upset, to move deeply, to distress
Present participle: bouleversant Past participle: boulevers
Imperative: bouleverse, bouleversez, bouleversons
Mode Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present

bouleverse
bouleverses
bouleverse

bouleversonst
bouleversez
bouleversen

Imperfect

Indicative

bouleversais
bouleversais
bouleversait

Subjunctive

avions boulevers
aviez boulevers
avaient boulevers

eus boulevers
eus boulevers
eut boulevers

emes boulevers
etes boulevers
eurent boulevers

aurai boulevers
auras boulevers
aura boulevers

aurons boulevers
aurez boulevers
auront boulevers

aurais boulevers
aurais boulevers
aurait boulevers

aurions boulevers
auriez boulevers
auraient boulevers

Past

bouleversions
bouleversiez
bouleversent

Imperfect

bouleversasse
bouleversasses
bouleverst

avais boulevers
avais boulevers
avait boulevers

Conditional Perfect

bouleverserions
bouleverseriez
bouleverseraient

Present

bouleverse
bouleverses
bouleverse

avons boulevers
avez boulevers
ont boulevers

Future Perfect

bouleverserons
bouleverserez
bouleverseront

Conditional

bouleverserais
bouleverserais
bouleverserait

ai boulevers
as boulevers
a boulevers

Pass Antrieur

bouleversmes
bouleverstes
bouleversrent

Future

bouleverserai
bouleverseras
bouleversera

Plural

Pluperfect

bouleversions
bouleversiez
bouleversaient

Pass Simple

bouleversai
bouleversas
bouleversa

Singular
Pass Compos

aie boulevers
aies boulevers
ait boulevers

ayons boulevers
ayez boulevers
aient boulevers

Pluperfect

bouleversassions
bouleversassiez
bouleversassent

eusse boulevers
eusses boulevers
et boulevers

eussions boulevers
eussiez boulevers
eussent boulevers

EXAMPLES
Jai t bouleverse par langoisse.
Ses projets me bouleverse.
La peur me bouleversera.
La triste nouvelle nous a bouleverss.

I was distraught with anxiety.


Her plans are upsetting me.
Fear will distress me.
The sad news distressed us.

160 / bousculer

bousculer
to shove, to bump, to jostle
Present participle: bousculant Past participle: bouscul
Imperative: bouscule, bousculez, bousculons
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present

bouscule
bouscules
bouscule

bousculons
bousculez
bousculent

Imperfect

Indicative

bousculais
bousculais
bousculait

Subjunctive

avions bouscul
aviez bouscul
avaient bouscul

eus bouscul
eus bouscul
eut bouscul

emes bouscul
etes bouscul
eurent bouscul

aurai bouscul
auras bouscul
aura bouscul

aurons bouscul
aurez bouscul
auront bouscul

aurais bouscul
aurais bouscul
aurait bouscul

aurions bouscul
auriez bouscul
auraient bouscul

Past

bousculions
bousculiez
bousculent

Imperfect

bousculasse
bousculasses
bouscult

avais bouscul
avais bouscul
avait bouscul

Conditional Perfect

bousculerions
bousculeriez
bousculeraient

Present

bouscule
bouscules
bouscule

avons bouscul
avez bouscul
ont bouscul

Future Perfect

bousculerons
bousculerez
bousculeront

Conditional

bousculerais
bousculerais
bousculerait

ai bouscul
as bouscul
a bouscul

Pass Antrieur

bousculmes
bouscultes
bousculrent

Future

bousculerai
bousculeras
bousculera

Plural

Pluperfect

bousculions
bousculiez
bousculaient

Pass Simple

bousculai
bousculas
bouscula

Singular
Pass Compos

aie bouscul
aies bouscul
ait bouscul

ayons bouscul
ayez bouscul
aient bouscul

Pluperfect

bousculassions
bousculassiez
bousculassent

eusse bouscul
eusses bouscul
et bouscul

eussions bouscul
eussiez bouscul
eussent bouscul

Note: As a reflexive verb, se bousculer (to jostle each other) uses the reflexive pronouns
me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 6
demonstrates reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Il naime pas quon le bouscule.
Ne bousculez pas!
Vous lavez dpass en le bousculant.
Elle ma bouscul.
Je ne vous auriez pas bouscul.
Elles se sont bouscoules.

He doesnt like it when someone bumps into


him.
Stop shoving!
You pushed your way past him.
She knocked against me.
I wouldnt have shoved you.
They jostled each other.

briller / 161

briller
to shine
Present participle: brillant Past participle: brill
Imperative: brille, brillez, brillons
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present

brille
brilles
brille

brillons
brillez
brillent

Indicative
Subjunctive

eus brill
eus brill
eut brill

emes brill
etes brill
eurent brill

aurai brill
auras brill
aura brill

aurons brill
aurez brill
auront brill

aurais brill
aurais brill
aurait brill

aurions brill
auriez brill
auraient brill

Past

brillions
brilliez
brillent

Imperfect

brillasse
brillasses
brillt

avions brill
aviez brill
avaient brill

Conditional Perfect

brillerions
brilleriez
brilleraient

Present

brille
brilles
brille

avais brill
avais brill
avait brill

Future Perfect

brillerons
brillerez
brilleront

Conditional

brillerais
brillerais
brillerait

avons brill
avez brill
ont brill

Pass Antrieur

brillmes
brilltes
brillrent

Future

brillerai
brilleras
brillera

ai brill
as brill
a brill
Pluperfect

brillions
brilliez
brillaient

Pass Simple

brillai
brillas
brilla

Plural

Pass Compos

Imperfect

brillais
brillais
brillait

Singular

aie brill
aies brill
ait brill

ayons brill
ayez brill
aient brill

Pluperfect

brillassions
brillassiez
brillassent

eusse brill
eusses brill
et brill

eussions brill
eussiez brill
eussent brill

EXAMPLES
Les toiles brillaient.
Il faut que mes chaussures brillent.
Avez-vous le dsir de briller?
Tu as brill ton examen.
entendre cette nouvelle, des larmes
auraient brill dans ses yeux.

The stars were shining.


My shoes have to shine.
Do you want to stand out in the crowd?
You did brilliantly on your exam.
Upon hearing that news, tears would have
glistened in his eyes.

162 / briser

briser
to break, to smash
Present participle: brisant Past participle: bris
Imperative: brise, brisez, brisons
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present

brise
brises
brise

brisons
brisez
brisent

Imperfect

Indicative

brisais
brisais
brisait

briserons
briserez
briseront

aurai bris
auras bris
aura bris

Subjunctive

avions bris
aviez bris
avaient bris

briserions
briseriez
briseraient

aurais bris
aurais bris
aurait bris

brisions
brisiez
brisent

aie bris
aies bris
ait bris

emes bris
etes bris
eurent bris

Future Perfect

aurons bris
aurez bris
auront bris

Conditional Perfect

aurions bris
auriez bris
auraient bris

Past

Imperfect

brisasse
brisasses
brist

avais bris
avais bris
avait bris
eus bris
eus bris
eut bris

Present

brise
brises
brise

avons bris
avez bris
ont bris

Pass Antrieur

Conditional

briserais
briserais
briserait

ai bris
as bris
a bris

brismes
bristes
brisrent

Future

briserai
briseras
brisera

Plural

Pluperfect

brisions
brisiez
brisaient

Pass Simple

brisai
brisas
brisa

Singular
Pass Compos

ayons bris
ayez bris
aient bris

Pluperfect

brisassions
brisassiez
brisassent

eusse bris
eusses bris
et bris

eussions bris
eussiez bris
eussent bris

Note: As a reflexive verb, se briser (to break, to shatter) uses the reflexive pronouns me,
te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 5
demonstrates reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Je brise la chane.
Il faut que vous ne brisiez pas ce vase.
Elle a bris lassiette en mille morceaux.
Il avait bris son coeur.
Le verre sest bris.

I am breaking the chain.


You mustnt break this vase.
She broke the dish into a thousand pieces.
He broke her heart.
The glass shattered.

se brosser / 163

se brosser
to brush oneself
Present participle: se brossant Past participle: bross
Imperative: brosse-toi, brossez-vous, brossons-nous
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present

me brosse
te brosses
se brosse

nous brossons
vous brossez
se brossent

Indicative
Subjunctive

me fus bross(e)
te fus bross(e)
se fut bross(e)

nous fmes bross(e)s


vous ftes bross(e)(s)
se furent bross(e)s

me serai bross(e)
te seras bross(e)
se sera bross(e)

nous serons bross(e)s


vous serez bross(e)(s)
se seront bross(e)s

me serais bross(e)
te serais bross(e)
se serait bross(e)

nous serions bross(e)s


vous seriez bross(e)(s)
se seraient bross(e)s

Past

nous brossions
vous brossiez
se brossent

Imperfect

me brossasse
te brossasses
se brosst

nous tions bross(e)s


vous tiez bross(e)(s)
staient bross(e)s

Conditional Perfect

nous brosserions
vous brosseriez
se brosseraient

Present

me brosse
te brosses
se brosse

mtais bross(e)
ttais bross(e)
stait bross(e)

Future Perfect

nous brosserons
vous brosserez
se brosseront

Conditional

me brosserais
te brosserais
es brosserait

nous sommes
bross(e)s
vous tes bross(e)(s)
se sont bross(e)s

Pass Antrieur

nous brossmes
vous brosstes
se brossrent

Future

me brosserai
te brosseras
se brossera

me suis bross(e)
tes bross(e)
sest bross(e)
Pluperfect

nous brossions
vous brossiez
se brossaient

Pass Simple

me brossai
te brossas
se brossa

Plural

Pass Compos

Imperfect

me brossais
te brossais
se brossait

Singular

me sois bross(e)
te sois bross(e)
se soit bross(e)

nous soyons bross(e)s


vous soyez bross(e)(s)
se soient bross(e)s

Pluperfect

nous brossassions me fusse bross(e)


vous brossassiez te fusses bross(e)
se brossassent
se ft bross(e)

nous fussions
bross(e)s
vous fussiez bross(e)
se fussent bross(e)s

Note: Brosser may be used nonreflexively with avoir as its helping verb. Example 4
demonstrates the nonreflexive use of this verb.

EXAMPLES
Brosse-toi les dents!
Il se brossait ses vtements.
Elle sest bross les cheveux.
Le garon a bross son chien.

Brush your teeth!


He was brushing his clothes.
She brushed her hair.
The boy brushed his dog.

164 / brler

brler
to burn
Present participle: brlant Past participle: brl
Imperative: brle, brlez, brlons
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present

brle
brles
brle

brlons
brlez
brlent

Indicative
Subjunctive

eus brl
eus brl
eut brl

emes brl
etes brl
eurent brl

aurai brl
auras brl
aura brl

aurons brl
aurez brl
auront brl

aurais brl
aurais brl
aurait brl

aurions brl
auriez brl
auraient brl

Past

brlions
brliez
brlent

Imperfect

brlasse
brlasses
brlt

avions brl
aviez brl
avaient brl

Conditional Perfect

brlerions
brleriez
brleraient

Present

brle
brles
brle

avais brl
avais brl
avait brl

Future Perfect

brlerons
brlerez
brleront

Conditional

brlerais
brlerais
brlerait

avons brl
avez brl
ont brl

Pass Antrieur

brlmes
brltes
brlrent

Future

brlerai
brleras
brlera

ai brl
as brl
a brl
Pluperfect

brlions
brliez
brlaient

Pass Simple

brlai
brlas
brla

Plural

Pass Compos

Imperfect

brlais
brlais
brlait

Singular

aie brl
aies brl
ait brl

ayons brl
ayez brl
aient brl

Pluperfect

brlassions
brlassiez
brlassent

eusse brl
eusses brl
et brl

eussions brl
eussiez brl
eussent brl

Note: As a reflexive verb, se brler (to burn oneself) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se, nous,
and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 8 demonstrates reflexive
use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Ne touche pas! a brle!
Largent lui brle les doigts.
Cette question lui brlait les lvres.
Tu brles!
Jai brl le dner.
La lampe a brl toute la journe.
Mes yeux mavait brl.
Elle sest brl la main.

Dont touch! Youll get burned!


Money burns a hole in his pocket.
He was dying to ask that question.
Youre getting hot!
I burned the dinner.
The lamp was burning (on) all day.
My eyes had been stinging.
She burned her hand.

cacher / 165

cacher
to hide
Present participle: cachant Past participle: cach
Imperative: cache, cachez, cachons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

cache
caches
cache
Imperfect

cachons
cachez
cachent

ai cach
as cach
a cach
Pluperfect

avons cach
avez cach
ont cach

cachais
cachais
cachait
Pass Simple

cachions
cachiez
cachaient

avais cach
avais cach
avait cach
Pass Antrieur

avions cach
aviez cach
avaient cach

cachai
cachas
cacha
Future

cachmes
cachtes
cachrent

eus cach
eus cach
eut cach
Future Perfect

emes cach
etes cach
eurent cach

cacherai
cacheras
cachera
Conditional

cacherons
cacherez
cacheront

aurai cach
auras cach
aura cach
Conditional Perfect

aurons cach
aurez cach
auront cach

cacherais
cacherais
cacherait
Present

cacherions
cacheriez
cacheraient

aurais cach
aurais cach
aurait cach
Past

aurions cach
auriez cach
auraient cach

cache
caches
cache
Imperfect

cachions
cachiez
cachent

aie cach
aies cach
ait cach
Pluperfect

ayons cach
ayez cach
aient cach

cachasse
cachasses
cacht

cachassions
cachassiez
cachassent

eusse cach
eusses cach
et cach

eussions cach
eussiez cach
eussent cach

EXAMPLES
Cache ton argent!
Son silence cache la vrit.
Quest-ce que a cache?
Les arbres nous cachaient la lumire du
soleil.
Vous ne mavez pas cach vos vrais
sentiments.
Elle avait cach son ge de ses amies.

Hide your money!


Her silence is hiding the truth.
I wonder whats going on?
The trees hid the sunlight from us.
You didnt hide your true feelings from me.
She had hidden her age from her friends.

166 / se cacher

se cacher
to hide oneself
Present participle: cachant Past participle: cach
Imperative: cache-toi, cachez-vous, cachons-nous

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

me cache
te caches
se cache
Imperfect

nous cachons
vous cachez
se cachent

me suis cach(e)
tes cach(e)
sest cach(e)
Pluperfect

nous sommes cach(e)s


vous tes cach(e)(s)
se sont cach(e)s

me cachais
nous cachions
te cachais
vous cachiez
se cachait
se cachaient
Pass Simple

mtais cach(e)
ttais cach(e)
stait cach(e)
Pass Antrieur

nous tions cach(e)s


vous tiez cach(e)(s)
staient cach(e)s

me cachai
te cachas
se cacha
Future

nous cachmes
vous cachtes
se cachrent

me fus cach(e)
te fus cach(e)
se fut cach(e)
Future Perfect

nous fmes cach(e)s


vous ftes cach(e)(s)
se furent cach(e)s

me cacherai
te cacheras
se cachera
Conditional

nous cacherons
vous cacherez
se cacheront

me serai cach(e)
te seras cach(e)
se sera cach(e)
Conditional Perfect

nous serons cach(e)s


vous serez cach(e)(s)
se seront cach(e)s

me cacherais
te cacherais
se cacherait
Present

nous cacherions
vous cacheriez
se cacheraient

me serais cach(e)
te serais cach(e)
se serait cach(e)
Past

nous serions cach(e)s


vous seriez cach(e)(s)
se seraient cach(e)s

me cache
te caches
se cache
Imperfect

nous cachions
vous cachiez
se cachent

me sois cach(e)
te sois cach(e)
se soit cach(e)
Pluperfect

nous soyons cach(e)s


vous soyez cach(e)(s)
se soient cach(e)s

me cachasse
te cachasses
se cacht

nous cachassions me fusse cach(e)


vous cachassiez
te fusses cach(e)
se cachassent
se ft cach(e)

nous fussions cach(e)s


vous fussiez cach(e)
se fussent cach(e)s

EXAMPLES
Va te cacher!
Le garage se cache derrire la maison.
Il sest fait tatou sans se cacher de ses
parents.
Elle sest cache pour fumer.
Il ntait pas raisonnable quil se soit cach.

Get out of my sight!


The garage is hidden behind the house.
He got a tattoo without hiding it from his
parents.
She hid in order to smoke.
It wasnt reasonable that he hid.

calculer / 167

calculer
to calculate
Present participle: calculant Past participle: calcul
Imperative: calcule, calculez, calculons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

calcule
calcules
calcule
Imperfect

calculons
calculez
calculent

ai calcul
as calcul
a calcul
Pluperfect

avons calcul
avez calcul
ont calcul

calculais
calculais
calculait
Pass Simple

calculions
calculiez
calculaient

avais calcul
avais calcul
avait calcul
Pass Antrieur

avions calcul
aviez calcul
avaient calcul

calculai
calculas
calcula
Future

calculmes
calcultes
calculrent

eus calcul
eus calcul
eut calcul
Future Perfect

emes calcul
etes calcul
eurent calcul

calculerai
calculeras
calculera
Conditional

calculerons
calculerez
calculeront

aurai calcul
auras calcul
aura calcul
Conditional Perfect

aurons calcul
aurez calcul
auront calcul

calculerais
calculerais
calculerait
Present

calculerions
calculeriez
calculeraient

aurais calcul
aurais calcul
aurait calcul
Past

aurions calcul
auriez calcul
auraient calcul

calcule
calcules
calcule
Imperfect

calculions
calculiez
calculent

aie calcul
aies calcul
ait calcul
Pluperfect

ayons calcul
ayez calcul
aient calcul

calculasse
calculasses
calcult

calculassions
calculassiez
calculassent

eusse calcul
eusses calcul
et calcul

eussions calcul
eussiez calcul
eussent calcul

EXAMPLES
Je calcule vite.
Vous calcultes mentalement le problme.
Avez-vous calcul les risques?
Nous avions calcul notre coup.

I calculate quickly.
You calculated the problem in your head.
Have you calculated the risks?
We had it all figured out.

168 / casser

casser
to break, to crack, to snap
Present participle: cassant Past participle: cass
Imperative: casse, cassez, cassons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

casse
casses
casse
Imperfect

cassons
cassez
cassent

ai cass
as cass
a cass
Pluperfect

avons cass
avez cass
ont cass

cassais
cassais
cassait
Pass Simple

cassions
cassiez
cassaient

avais cass
avais cass
avait cass
Pass Antrieur

avions cass
aviez cass
avaient cass

cassai
cassas
cassa
Future

cassmes
casstes
cassrent

eus cass
eus cass
eut cass
Future Perfect

emes cass
etes cass
eurent cass

casserai
casseras
cassera
Conditional

casserons
casserez
casseront

aurai cass
auras cass
aura cass
Conditional Perfect

aurons cass
aurez cass
auront cass

casserais
casserais
casserait
Present

casserions
casseriez
casseraient

aurais cass
aurais cass
aurait cass
Past

aurions cass
auriez cass
auraient cass

casse
casses
casse
Imperfect

cassions
cassiez
cassent

aie cass
aies cass
ait cass
Pluperfect

ayons cass
ayez cass
aient cass

cassasse
cassasses
casst

cassassions
cassassiez
cassassent

eusse cass
eusses cass
et cass

eussions cass
eussiez cass
eussent cass

EXAMPLES
a casse facilement.
On casse la crote?
Pour prparer le gteau nous cassons un
morceau de chocolat.
Elle cassera la mauvaise impression quon
a delle.
A-t-on cass les prix?
Janine sortait avec Roger mais elle a cass.
Vous nous auriez casss la tte avec vos
histoires.

That breaks easily.


Shall we go have a bite?
In order to prepare the cake, we snap off a
piece of chocolate.
She will change the bad impression people
have of her.
Have they slashed the prices?
Janine was going out with Roger but she
broke up with him.
You would have bored us stiff with your
stories.

se casser / 169

se casser
to break
Present participle: se cassant Past participle: cass
Imperative: casse-toi, cassez-vous, cassons-nous

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

me casse
te casses
se casse
Imperfect

nous cassons
vous cassez
se cassent

me suis cass(e)
tes cass(e)
sest cass(e)
Pluperfect

nous sommes cass(e)s


vous tes cass(e)(s)
se sont cass(e)s

me cassais
te cassais
se cassait
Pass Simple

nous cassions
vous cassiez
se cassaient

mtais cass(e)
ttais cass(e)
stait cass(e)
Pass Antrieur

nous tions cass(e)s


vous tiez cass(e)(s)
staient cass(e)s

me cassai
te cassas
se cassa
Future

nous cassmes
vous casstes
se cassrent

me fus cass(e)
te fus cass(e)
se fut cass(e)
Future Perfect

nous fmes cass(e)s


vous ftes cass(e)(s)
se furent cass(e)s

me casserai
te casseras
se cassera
Conditional

nous casserons
vous casserez
se casseront

me serai cass(e)
te seras cass(e)
se sera cass(e)
Conditional Perfect

nous serons cass(e)s


vous serez cass(e)(s)
se seront cass(e)s

me casserais
te casserais
se casserait
Present

nous casserions
vous casseriez
se casseraient

me serais cass(e)
te serais cass(e)
se serait cass(e)
Past

nous serions cass(e)s


vous seriez cass(e)(s)
se seraient cass(e)s

me casse
te casses
se casse
Imperfect

nous cassions
vous cassiez
se cassent

me sois cass(e)
te sois cass(e)
se soit cass(e)
Pluperfect

nous soyons cass(e)s


vous soyez cass(e)(s)
se soient cass(e)s

me cassasse
te cassasses
se casst

nous cassassions me fusse cass(e)


vous cassassiez te fusses cass(e)
se cassassent
se ft cass(e)

nous fussions cass(e)s


vous fussiez cass(e)
se fussent cass(e)s

EXAMPLES
Je me casse la tte pour rsoudre ce
problme.
Ils vont se casser le cou.
Lassiette sest casse en tombant.
Elle sest casse le bras en jouant au football.
Tu ne tes pas cass pour faire tes devoirs.
Je me suis cass la figure.

Im racking my brains to solve this


problem.
They are going to break their necks.
The dish broke when it fell.
She broke her arm while playing soccer.
You didnt strain yourself to do your
homework.
I fell flat on my face.

170 / causer

causer
to cause, to chat
Present participle: causant Past participle: caus
Imperative: cause, causez, causons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

cause
causes
cause
Imperfect

causons
causez
causent

ai caus
as caus
a caus
Pluperfect

avons caus
avez caus
ont caus

causais
causais
causait
Pass Simple

causions
causiez
causaient

avais caus
avais caus
avait caus
Pass Antrieur

avions caus
aviez caus
avaient caus

causai
causas
causa
Future

causmes
caustes
causrent

eus caus
eus caus
eut caus
Future Perfect

emes caus
etes caus
eurent caus

causerai
causeras
causera
Conditional

causerons
causerez
causeront

aurai caus
auras caus
aura caus
Conditional Perfect

aurons caus
aurez caus
auront caus

causerais
causerais
causerait
Present

causerions
causeriez
causeraient

aurais caus
aurais caus
aurait caus
Past

aurions caus
auriez caus
auraient caus

cause
causes
cause
Imperfect

causions
causiez
causent

aie caus
aies caus
ait caus
Pluperfect

ayons caus
ayez caus
aient caus

causasse
causasses
caust

causassions
causassiez
causassent

eusse caus
eusses caus
et caus

eussions caus
eussiez caus
eussent caus

EXAMPLES
Son attitude me cause du chagrin.
a causera des ennuis.
On en cause.
On causera dans le bureau.
Il ma caus de la peine.
Laccident avait caus la mort de trois
personnes.
Elles causaient politique.
Il ne nous a pas caus travail.

His attitude gives me grief.


That will cause trouble.
We speak about it.
Theyre going to talk (gossip) in the office.
He caused me pain.
The accident had caused the death of three
people.
They were talking politics.
He didnt talk shop with us.

cder / 171

cder
to give over, to hand over, to yield
Present participle: cdant Past participle: cd
Imperative: cde, cdez, cdons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

cde
cdes
cde
Imperfect

cdons
cdez
cdent

ai cd
as cd
a cd
Pluperfect

avons cd
avez cd
ont cd

cdais
cdais
cdait
Pass Simple

cdions
cdiez
cdaient

avais cd
avais cd
avait cd
Pass Antrieur

avions cd
aviez cd
avaient cd

cdai
cdas
cda
Future

cdmes
cdtes
cdrent

eus cd
eus cd
eut cd
Future Perfect

emes cd
etes cd
eurent cd

cderai
cderas
cdera
Conditional

cderons
cderez
cderont

aurai cd
auras cd
aura cd
Conditional Perfect

aurons cd
aurez cd
auront cd

cderais
cderais
cderait
Present

cderions
cderiez
cderaient

aurais cd
aurais cd
aurait cd
Past

aurions cd
auriez cd
auraient cd

cde
cdes
cde
Imperfect

cdions
cdiez
cdent

aie cd
aies cd
ait cd
Pluperfect

ayons cd
ayez cd
aient cd

cdasse
cdasses
cdt

cdassions
cdassiez
cdassent

eusse cd
eusses cd
et cd

eussions cd
eussiez cd
eussent cd

EXAMPLES
Je vous cde le microphone.
Cderont-ils leur pouvoir?
Son pre lui cdait en tout.
Il est trs gentil. Il ma cd sa place.
Elle aurait cd vite limpatience.
tait-il surprenant que ses forces aient cd
sous ces poids?

Im handing over the microphone to you.


Will they yield their power?
His father always gave in to him.
He is so nice. He gave me his seat.
She would have quickly given in to her
impatience.
Was it surprising that his strength gave way
under those weights?

172 / clbrer

clbrer
to celebrate
Present participle: clbrant Past participle: clbr
Imperative: clbre, clbrez, clbrons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

clbre
clbres
clbre
Imperfect

clbrons
clbrez
clbrent

ai clbr
as clbr
a clbr
Pluperfect

avons clbr
avez clbr
ont clbr

clbrais
clbrais
clbrait
Pass Simple

clbrions
clbriez
clbraient

avais clbr
avais clbr
avait clbr
Pass Antrieur

avions clbr
aviez clbr
avaient clbr

clbrai
clbras
clbra
Future

clbrmes
clbrtes
clbrrent

eus clbr
eus clbr
eut clbr
Future Perfect

emes clbr
etes clbr
eurent clbr

clbrerai
clbreras
clbrera
Conditional

clbrerons
clbrerez
clbreront

aurai clbr
auras clbr
aura clbr
Conditional Perfect

aurons clbr
aurez clbr
auront clbr

clbrerais
clbrerais
clbrerait
Present

clbrerions
clbreriez
clbreraient

aurais clbr
aurais clbr
aurait clbr
Past

aurions clbr
auriez clbr
auraient clbr

clbre
clbres
clbre
Imperfect

clbrions
clbriez
clbrent

aie clbr
aies clbr
ait clbr
Pluperfect

ayons clbr
ayez clbr
aient clbr

clbrasse
clbrasses
clbrt

clbrassions
clbrassiez
clbrassent

eusse clbr
eusses clbr
et clbr

eussions clbr
eussiez clbr
eussent clbr

EXAMPLES
Je clbre mon anniversaire demain.
Nous clbrerons Nol chez moi.
Elle a clbr la naissance de sa fille.
Ils auront clbr dix ans de mariage.

Im celebrating my birthday tomorrow.


We will celebrate Christmas at my house.
She celebrated the birth of her daughter.
They will have celebrated ten years of
marriage.

cesser / 173

cesser
to stop
Present participle: cessant Past participle: cess
Imperative: cesse, cessez, cessons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

cesse
cesses
cesse
Imperfect

cessons
cessez
cessent

ai cess
as cess
a cess
Pluperfect

avons cess
avez cess
ont cess

cessais
cessais
cessait
Pass Simple

cessions
cessiez
cessaient

avais cess
avais cess
avait cess
Pass Antrieur

avions cess
aviez cess
avaient cess

cessai
cessas
cessa
Future

cessmes
cesstes
cessrent

eus cess
eus cess
eut cess
Future Perfect

emes cess
etes cess
eurent cess

cesserai
cesseras
cessera
Conditional

cesserons
cesserez
cesseront

aurai cess
auras cess
aura cess
Conditional Perfect

aurons cess
aurez cess
auront cess

cesserais
cesserais
cesserait
Present

cesserions
cesseriez
cesseraient

aurais cess
aurais cess
aurait cess
Past

aurions cess
auriez cess
auraient cess

cesse
cesses
cesse
Imperfect

cessions
cessiez
cessent

aie cess
aies cess
ait cess
Pluperfect

ayons cess
ayez cess
aient cess

cessasse
cessasses
cesst

cessassions
cessassiez
cessassent

eusse cess
eusses cess
et cess

eussions cess
eussiez cess
eussent cess

EXAMPLES
Ne cessez pas de travailler.
Ses parents ne cessent jamais de le harceler
parce quil continue fumer.
Elle a cess de ronger ses ongles.
Mme sil y avait eu une grve, le travail
naurait pas cess.

Dont stop working.


His parents dont stop nagging him because
he continues to smoke.
She stopped biting her nails.
Even if there had been a strike, work
wouldnt have stopped.

174 / changer

changer
to change
Present participle: changeant Past participle: chang
Imperative: change, changez, changeons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

change
changes
change
Imperfect

changeons
changez
changent

ai chang
as chang
a chang
Pluperfect

avons chang
avez chang
ont chang

changeais
changeais
changeait
Pass Simple

changions
changiez
changeaient

avais chang
avais chang
avait chang
Pass Antrieur

avions chang
aviez chang
avaient chang

changeai
changeas
changea
Future

changemes
changetes
changrent

eus chang
eus chang
eut chang
Future Perfect

emes chang
etes chang
eurent chang

changerai
changeras
changera
Conditional

changerons
changerez
changeront

aurai chang
auras chang
aura chang
Conditional Perfect

aurons chang
aurez chang
auront chang

changerais
changerais
changerait
Present

changerions
changeriez
changeraient

aurais chang
aurais chang
aurait chang
Past

aurions chang
auriez chang
auraient chang

change
changes
change
Imperfect

changions
changiez
changent

aie chang
aies chang
ait chang
Pluperfect

ayons chang
ayez chang
aient chang

changeasse
changeasses
changet

changeassions eusse chang


changeassiez eusses chang
changeassent et chang

eussions chang
eussiez chang
eussent chang

Note: As a reflexive verb, se changer (to change ones clothes, to change into) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses.
Examples 10 and 11 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Cette coiffure la change.

That hairstyle makes her look different.

Rien ne changera son opinion.

Nothing will change his opinion.

Je vais bientt changer dadresse.

Soon Im going to change my address.

Cette lve ne voudrait pas changer de place.

That student didnt want to change her seat.

A-t-il chang ses habitudes?

Has he changed his habits?

Nous avons chang notre voiture contre une


autre.
Les temps ont bien chang.

We exchanged our car for another.


Times have really changed.

Elle aura chang de place deux fois cette anne. She will have changed jobs two times this year.
La citrouille de Cendrillon fut change en
carrosse.
Je vais me changer avant de sortir.

Cinderellas pumpkin was changed into a


carriage.
Im going to change (clothes) before leaving.

La glace sest change en eau.

The ice changed to water.

chanter / 175

chanter
to sing
Present participle: chantant Past participle: chant
Imperative: chante, chantez, chantons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

chante
chantes
chante
Imperfect

chantons
chantez
chantent

ai chant
as chant
a chant
Pluperfect

avons chant
avez chant
ont chant

chantais
chantais
chantait
Pass Simple

chantions
chantiez
chantaient

avais chant
avais chant
avait chant
Pass Antrieur

avions chant
aviez chant
avaient chant

chantai
chantas
chanta
Future

chantmes
chanttes
chantrent

eus chant
eus chant
eut chant
Future Perfect

emes chant
etes chant
eurent chant

chanterai
chanteras
chantera
Conditional

chanterons
chanterez
chanteront

aurai chant
auras chant
aura chant
Conditional Perfect

aurons chant
aurez chant
auront chant

chanterais
chanterais
chanterait
Present

chanterions
chanteriez
chanteraient

aurais chant
aurais chant
aurait chant
Past

aurions chant
auriez chant
auraient chant

chante
chantes
chante
Imperfect

chantions
chantiez
chantent

aie chant
aies chant
ait chant
Pluperfect

ayons chant
ayez chant
aient chant

chantasse
chantasses
chantt

chantassions
chantassiez
chantassent

eusse chant
eusses chant
et chant

eussions chant
eussiez chant
eussent chant

EXAMPLES
Chantez-moi une chanson franaise.
Elle chante si bien.
Cest comme si on chantait.
Cela ne me chante pas de taccompagner au
caf.
Les soldats ont chant la victoire.
la fin de la pice cette actrice aura chant
cinq chansons.

Sing me a French song.


She sings so well.
Its like talking to a brick wall.
I really dont feel like going with you to the
caf.
The soldiers sang of their victory.
By the end of the play, that actress will have
sung five songs.

176 / charger

charger
to charge, to load
Present participle: chargeant Past participle: charg
Imperative: charge, chargez, chargeons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

charge
charges
charge
Imperfect

chargeons
chargez
chargent

ai charg
as charg
a charg
Pluperfect

avons charg
avez charg
ont charg

chargeais
chargeais
chargeait
Pass Simple

chargions
chargiez
chargeaient

avais charg
avais charg
avait charg
Pass Antrieur

avions charg
aviez charg
avaient charg

chargeai
chargeas
chargea
Future

chargemes
chargetes
chargrent

eus charg
eus charg
eut charg
Future Perfect

emes charg
etes charg
eurent charg

chargerai
chargeras
chargera
Conditional

chargerons
chargerez
chargeront

aurai charg
auras charg
aura charg
Conditional Perfect

aurons charg
aurez charg
auront charg

chargerais
chargerais
chargerait
Present

chargerions
chargeriez
chargeraient

aurais charg
aurais charg
aurait charg
Past

aurions charg
auriez charg
auraient charg

charge
charges
charge
Imperfect

chargions
chargiez
chargent

aie charg
aies charg
ait charg
Pluperfect

ayons charg
ayez charg
aient charg

chargeasse
chargeasses
charget

chargeassions eusse charg


chargeassiez
eusses charg
chargeassent et charg

eussions charg
eussiez charg
eussent charg

Note: As a reflexive verb, se charger (to take charge of, to take care of) uses the reflexive
pronouns me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses.
Examples 7 and 8 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Chargez!
Les dmnageurs chargent leur camionnette.
Jai charg ma mmoire de faits peu
importants.
Le fermier a charg le sac sur le dos de son
cheval.
Le gouvernement avait charg les citoyens
dimpts.
On maurait charg de certaines
responsabilits.
Je me suis charg des lves.
Il ne se serait pas charg du prisonnier.

Charge!
The moving men are loading their van.
I overloaded my memory with unimportant
facts.
The farmer loaded the sack on the back of
his horse.
The government had weighed the citizens
down with taxes.
They would have given me certain
responsibilities.
I took care of the students.
He wouldnt have taken charge of the
prisoner.

chasser / 177

chasser
to chase, to hunt
Present participle: chassant Past participle: chass
Imperative: chasse, chassez, chassons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

chasse
chasses
chasse
Imperfect

chassons
chassez
chassent

ai chass
as chass
a chass
Pluperfect

avons chass
avez chass
ont chass

chassais
chassais
chassait
Pass Simple

chassions
chassiez
chassaient

avais chass
avais chass
avait chass
Pass Antrieur

avions chass
aviez chass
avaient chass

chassai
chassas
chassa
Future

chassmes
chasstes
chassrent

eus chass
eus chass
eut chass
Future Perfect

emes chass
etes chass
eurent chass

chasserai
chasseras
chassera
Conditional

chasserons
chasserez
chasseront

aurai chass
auras chass
aura chass
Conditional Perfect

aurons chass
aurez chass
auront chass

chasserais
chasserais
chasserait
Present

chasserions
chasseriez
chasseraient

aurais chass
aurais chass
aurait chass
Past

aurions chass
auriez chass
auraient chass

chasse
chasses
chasse
Imperfect

chassions
chassiez
chassent

aie chass
aies chass
ait chass
Pluperfect

ayons chass
ayez chass
aient chass

chassasse
chassasses
chasst

chassassions
chassassiez
chassassent

eusse chass
eusses chass
et chass

eussions chass
eussiez chass
eussent chass

EXAMPLES
Ne me chassez pas!
Ils chassent des tigres en Afrique.
Il faut que tu chasses cette ide de ta tte.
Il chasse de race.
Les parents ont chass leurs enfants du
salon.
La pluie ma chass de la rue.

Dont chase me!


They hunt tigers in Africa.
You have to get rid of that idea.
It runs in the family.
The parents chased their children from the
living room.
The rain drove me out of the street.

178 / chauffer

chauffer
to warm, to heat
Present participle: chauffant Past participle: chauff
Imperative: chauffe, chauffez, chauffons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

chauffe
chauffes
chauffe
Imperfect

chauffons
chauffez
chauffent

ai chauff
as chauff
a chauff
Pluperfect

avons chauff
avez chauff
ont chauff

chauffais
chauffais
chauffait
Pass Simple

chauffions
chauffiez
chauffaient

avais chauff
avais chauff
avait chauff
Pass Antrieur

avions chauff
aviez chauff
avaient chauff

chauffai
chauffas
chauffa
Future

chauffmes
chaufftes
chauffrent

eus chauff
eus chauff
eut chauff
Future Perfect

emes chauff
etes chauff
eurent chauff

chaufferai
chaufferas
chauffera
Conditional

chaufferons
chaufferez
chaufferont

aurai chauff
auras chauff
aura chauff
Conditional Perfect

aurons chauff
aurez chauff
auront chauff

chaufferais
chaufferais
chaufferait
Present

chaufferions
chaufferiez
chaufferaient

aurais chauff
aurais chauff
aurait chauff
Past

aurions chauff
auriez chauff
auraient chauff

chauffe
chauffes
chauffe
Imperfect

chauffions
chauffiez
chauffent

aie chauff
aies chauff
ait chauff
Pluperfect

ayons chauff
ayez chauff
aient chauff

chauffasse
chauffasses
chaufft

chauffassions
chauffassiez
chauffassent

eusse chauff
eusses chauff
et chauff

eussions chauff
eussiez chauff
eussent chauff

Note: As a reflexive verb, se chauffer (to warm oneself) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se,
nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 7 and 8 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Chauffe mon dner, sil te plat.
On chauffera un peu la chambre.
Tu chauffes.
a chauffe.
Le moteur a chauff.
Le four micro-ondes avait bien chauff le
repas.
On sest chauff au gaz.
Nous nous tions chauffs au soleil.

Please warm up my dinner.


We will warm up the bedroom a bit.
Youre getting warmer.
Things are heating up.
The motor heated up.
The microwave oven had heated the dinner
well.
We used gas heat.
We had gotten warmed up in the sun.

chercher / 179

chercher
to look for, to search, to try to
Present participle: cherchant Past participle: cherch
Imperative: cherche, cherchez, cherchons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

cherche
cherches
cherche
Imperfect

cherchons
cherchez
cherchent

ai cherch
as cherch
a cherch
Pluperfect

avons cherch
avez cherch
ont cherch

cherchais
cherchais
cherchait
Pass Simple

cherchions
cherchiez
cherchaient

avais cherch
avais cherch
avait cherch
Pass Antrieur

avions cherch
aviez cherch
avaient cherch

cherchai
cherchas
chercha
Future

cherchmes
cherchtes
cherchrent

eus cherch
eus cherch
eut cherch
Future Perfect

emes cherch
etes cherch
eurent cherch

chercherai
chercheras
cherchera
Conditional

chercherons
chercherez
chercheront

aurai cherch
auras cherch
aura cherch
Conditional Perfect

aurons cherch
aurez cherch
auront cherch

chercherais
chercherais
chercherait
Present

chercherions
chercheriez
chercheraient

aurais cherch
aurais cherch
aurait cherch
Past

aurions cherch
auriez cherch
auraient cherch

cherche
cherches
cherche
Imperfect

cherchions
cherchiez
cherchent

aie cherch
aies cherch
ait cherch
Pluperfect

ayons cherch
ayez cherch
aient cherch

cherchasse
cherchasses
chercht

cherchassions
cherchassiez
cherchassent

eusse cherch
eusses cherch
et cherch

eussions cherch
eussiez cherch
eussent cherch

EXAMPLES
Je cherche un mot dans mon dictionnaire.
Elle cherchera un employ qui soit srieux.
Ils cherchaient une bagarre.
tes-vous mont chercher quelque chose?
Je lai cherch partout.
Il avait cherch comprendre le problme.

Im looking for a word in my dictionary.


She will look for an employee who is
serious.
They were looking for a fight.
Did you go upstairs to search for
something?
I looked for it everywhere.
He had tried to understand the problem.

180 / choisir

choisir
to choose
Present participle: choisissant Past participle: choisi
Imperative: choisis, choisissez, choisissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

choisis
choisis
choisit
Imperfect

choisissons
choisissez
choisissent

ai choisi
as choisi
a choisi
Pluperfect

avons choisi
avez choisi
ont choisi

choisissais
choisissais
choisissait
Pass Simple

choisissions
choisissiez
choisissaient

avais choisi
avais choisi
avait choisi
Pass Antrieur

avions choisi
aviez choisi
avaient choisi

choisis
choisis
choisit
Future

choismes
choistes
choisirent

eus choisi
eus choisi
eut choisi
Future Perfect

emes choisi
etes choisi
eurent choisi

choisirai
choisiras
choisira
Conditional

choisirons
choisirez
choisiront

aurai choisi
auras choisi
aura choisi
Conditional Perfect

aurons choisi
aurez choisi
auront choisi

choisirais
choisirais
choisirait
Present

choisirions
choisiriez
choisiraient

aurais choisi
aurais choisi
aurait choisi
Past

aurions choisi
auriez choisi
auraient choisi

choisisse
choisisses
choisisse
Imperfect

choisissions
choisissiez
choisissent

aie choisi
aies choisi
ait choisi
Pluperfect

ayons choisi
ayez choisi
aient choisi

choisisse
choisisses
choist

choisissions
choisissiez
choisissent

eusse choisi
eusses choisi
et choisi

eussions choisi
eussiez choisi
eussent choisi

EXAMPLES
Choisis ou lun ou lautre.
Elle choisit bien ses amies.
Tu as bien choisi ton moment.
Il est possible quelle ait choisi de remettre le
rendez-vous lundi.
Je naurais pas choisi la robe bleue.

Choose one or the other.


She picks her friends well.
You chose your time well.
It is possible that she chose to postpone the
meeting until Monday.
I wouldnt have chosen the blue dress.

collectionner / 181

collectionner
to collect
Present participle: collectionnant Past participle: collectionn
Imperative: collectionne, collectionnez, collectionnons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

collectionne
collectionnes
collectionne
Imperfect

collectionnons
collectionnez
collectionnent

ai collectionn
as collectionn
a collectionn
Pluperfect

avons collectionn
avez collectionn
ont collectionn

collectionnais
collectionnais
collectionnait
Pass Simple

collectionnions
collectionniez
collectionnaient

avais collectionn
avais collectionn
avait collectionn
Pass Antrieur

avions collectionn
aviez collectionn
avaient collectionn

collectionnai
collectionnas
collectionna
Future

collectionnmes
collectionntes
collectionnrent

eus collectionn
eus collectionn
eut collectionn
Future Perfect

emes collectionn
etes collectionn
eurent collectionn

collectionnerai
collectionneras
collectionnera
Conditional

collectionnerons
collectionnerez
collectionneront

aurai collectionn
auras collectionn
aura collectionn
Conditional Perfect

aurons collectionn
aurez collectionn
auront collectionn

collectionnerais
collectionnerais
collectionnerait
Present

collectionnerions
collectionneriez
collectionneraient

aurais collectionn
aurais collectionn
aurait collectionn
Past

aurions collectionn
auriez collectionn
auraient collectionn

collectionne
collectionnes
collectionne
Imperfect

collectionnions
collectionniez
collectionnent

aie collectionn
aies collectionn
ait collectionn
Pluperfect

ayons collectionn
ayez collectionn
aient collectionn

collectionnasse collectionnassions eusse collectionn


collectionnasses collectionnassiez eusses collectionn
collectionnt
collectionnassent et collectionn

eussions collectionn
eussiez collectionn
eussent collectionn

EXAMPLES
Je collectionne les cartes postales.
Collectionnaient-ils les timbres?
Nous avons collectionn les poupes.
Naurais-tu pas collectionn les objets dart?

I collect postcards.
Did they used to collect stamps?
We collected dolls.
Wouldnt you have collected art objects?

182 / combattre

combattre
to fight, to combat
Present participle: combattant Past participle: combattu
Imperative: combatts, combattez, combattons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

combats
combats
combat
Imperfect

combattons
combattez
combattent

ai combattu
as combattu
a combattu
Pluperfect

avons combattu
avez combattu
ont combattu

combattais
combattais
combattait
Pass Simple

combattions
combattiez
combattaient

avais combattu
avais combattu
avait combattu
Pass Antrieur

avions combattu
aviez combattu
avaient combattu

combattis
combattis
combattit
Future

combattmes
combatttes
combattirent

eus combattu
eus combattu
eut combattu
Future Perfect

emes combattu
etes combattu
eurent combattu

combattrai
combattras
combattra
Conditional

combattrons
combattrez
combattront

aurai combattu
auras combattu
aura combattu
Conditional Perfect

aurons combattu
aurez combattu
auront combattu

combattrais
combattrais
combattrait
Present

combattrions
combattriez
combattraient

aurais combattu
aurais combattu
aurait combattu
Past

aurions combattu
auriez combattu
auraient combattu

combatte
combattes
combatte
Imperfect

combattions
combattiez
combattent

aie combattu
aies combattu
ait combattu
Pluperfect

ayons combattu
ayez combattu
aient combattu

combattisse
combattisses
combattt

combattissions eusse combattu


combattissiez eusses combattu
combattissent et combattu

eussions combattu
eussiez combattu
eussent combattu

EXAMPLES
Les docteurs combattent les maladies.
Combattrez-vous cette dcision jusquau
bout?
Ils ont combattu pour la justice.
Les pompiers avaient combattu lincendie.

Doctors fight against diseases.


Will you fight that decision to the end?
They fought for justice.
The firefighters had fought the fire.

combler (de) / 183

combler (de)
to fill in/with, to make good, to fulfill
Present participle: comblant Past participle: combl
Imperative: comble, comblez, comblons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

comble
combles
comble
Imperfect

comblons
comblez
comblent

ai combl
as combl
a combl
Pluperfect

avons combl
avez combl
ont combl

comblais
comblais
comblait
Pass Simple

comblions
combliez
comblaient

avais combl
avais combl
avait combl
Pass Antrieur

avions combl
aviez combl
avaient combl

comblai
comblas
combla
Future

comblmes
combltes
comblrent

eus combl
eus combl
eut combl
Future Perfect

emes combl
etes combl
eurent combl

comblerai
combleras
comblera
Conditional

comblerons
comblerez
combleront

aurai combl
auras combl
aura combl
Conditional Perfect

aurons combl
aurez combl
auront combl

comblerais
comblerais
comblerait
Present

comblerions
combleriez
combleraient

aurais combl
aurais combl
aurait combl
Past

aurions combl
auriez combl
auraient combl

comble
combles
comble
Imperfect

comblions
combliez
comblent

aie combl
aies combl
ait combl
Pluperfect

ayons combl
ayez combl
aient combl

comblasse
comblasses
comblt

comblassions
comblassiez
comblassent

eusse combl
eusses combl
et combl

eussions combl
eussiez combl
eussent combl

EXAMPLES
La naissance de leur enfant les comble de joie.
Un nouvel amour comblera un vide dans sa vie.
Tu nous combles!
Lemploy a combl son retard.
Son petit ami laurait comble de cadeaux.

The birth of their child fills them with joy.


A new love will fill in a gap in her life.
You are too good to us!
The employee made up for lost time.
Her boyfriend would have showered her
with gifts.

184 / commander

commander
to command, to order
Present participle: commandant Past participle: command
Imperative: commande, commandez, commandons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

commande
commandes
commande
Imperfect

commandons
commandez
commandent

ai command
as command
a command
Pluperfect

avons command
avez command
ont command

commandais
commandais
commandait
Pass Simple

commandions
commandiez
commandaient

avais command
avais command
avait command
Pass Antrieur

avions command
aviez command
avaient command

commandai
commandas
commanda
Future

commandmes
commandtes
commandrent

eus command
eus command
eut command
Future Perfect

emes command
etes command
eurent command

commanderai
commanderas
commandera
Conditional

commanderons
commanderez
commanderont

aurai command
auras command
aura command
Conditional Perfect

aurons command
aurez command
auront command

commanderais
commanderais
commanderait
Present

commanderions
commanderiez
commanderaient

aurais command
aurais command
aurait command
Past

aurions command
auriez command
auraient command

commande
commandes
commande
Imperfect

commandions
commandiez
commandent

aie command
aies command
ait command
Pluperfect

ayons command
ayez command
aient command

commandasse
commandasses
commandt

commandassions
commandassiez
commandassent

eusse command
eusses command
et command

eussions command
eussiez command
eussent command

EXAMPLES
Cest moi qui commande ici.
Le gnral commanda le respect de ses
soldats.
Elle naime pas quon la commande.
Il ma command la prudence.
Aurais-tu command du poulet comme plat
principal?

Im in charge here.
The general commanded the respect of his
soldiers.
She doesnt like to be ordered around.
He ordered me to be prudent.
Would you have ordered chicken as a main
dish?

commencer () / 185

commencer ()
to begin, to start, to commence
Present participle: commenant Past participle: commenc
Imperative: commence, commencez, commenons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

commence
commences
commence
Imperfect

commenons
commencez
commencent

ai commenc
as commenc
a commenc
Pluperfect

avons commenc
avez commenc
ont commenc

commenais
commenais
commenait
Pass Simple

commencions
commenciez
commenaient

avais commenc
avais commenc
avait commenc
Pass Antrieur

avions commenc
aviez commenc
avaient commenc

commenai
commenas
commena
Future

commenames
commenates
commencrent

eus commenc
eus commenc
eut commenc
Future Perfect

emes commenc
etes commenc
eurent commenc

commencerai
commenceras
commencera
Conditional

commencerons
commencerez
commenceront

aurai commenc
auras commenc
aura commenc
Conditional Perfect

aurons commenc
aurez commenc
auront commenc

commencerais
commencerais
commencerait
Present

commencerions
commenceriez
commenceraient

aurais commenc
aurais commenc
aurait commenc
Past

aurions commenc
auriez commenc
auraient commenc

commence
commences
commence
Imperfect

commencions
commenciez
commencent

aie commenc
aies commenc
ait commenc
Pluperfect

ayons commenc
ayez commenc
aient commenc

commenasse
commenasses
commenat

commenassions
commenassiez
commenassent

eusse commenc
eusses commenc
et commenc

eussions commenc
eussiez commenc
eussent commenc

EXAMPLES
a commence bien.
quelle heure est-ce que le film commence?
Une heure dexercice physique commence la
journe.
Commenons par le commencement.
Les joueurs ont commenc le match.
Il commenait pleuvoir.

Thats a good start.


At what time does the film begin?
The day starts with an hour of physical
exercise.
Lets start at the beginning.
The players started the game.
It was beginning to rain.

186 / commettre

commettre
to commit, to appoint
Present participle: commettant Past participle: commis
Imperative: commets, commettez, commettons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

commets
commets
commet
Imperfect

commettons
commettez
commettent

ai commis
as commis
a commis
Pluperfect

avons commis
avez commis
ont commis

commettais
commettais
commettait
Pass Simple

commettions
commettiez
commettaient

avais commis
avais commis
avait commis
Pass Antrieur

avions commis
aviez commis
avaient commis

commis
commis
commit
Future

commmes
commtes
commirent

eus commis
eus commis
eut commis
Future Perfect

emes commis
etes commis
eurent commis

commettrai
commettras
commettra
Conditional

commettrons
commettrez
commettront

aurai commis
auras commis
aura commis
Conditional Perfect

aurons commis
aurez commis
auront commis

commettrais
commettrais
commettrait
Present

commettrions
commettriez
commettraient

aurais commis
aurais commis
aurait commis
Past

aurions commis
auriez commis
auraient commis

commette
commettes
commette
Imperfect

commettions
commettiez
commettent

aie commis
aies commis
ait commis
Pluperfect

ayons commis
ayez commis
aient commis

commisse
commisses
commt

commissions
commissiez
commissent

eusse commis
eusses commis
et commis

eussions commis
eussiez commis
eussent commis

EXAMPLES
Tu vas commettre une erreur.
Ne commettez pas dinjustices.
Nous avons commis deux ou trois articles
scolaires.
Cet homme na pas commis de crime.
Il fallait quils aient commis un arbitre.

You are going to make a mistake.


Dont commit any injustices.
We are responsible for two or three
scholarly articles.
This man didnt commit a crime.
It was necessary that they appoint a referee.

communiquer () / 187

communiquer ()
to communicate (to)
Present participle: communiquant Past participle: communiqu
Imperative: communique, communiquez, communiquons
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present
communique
communiques
communique

communiquons
communiquez
communiquent

Imperfect

Indicative

communiquais
communiquais
communiquait

Subjunctive

avais communiqu
avais communiqu
avait communiqu

avions communiqu
aviez communiqu
avaient communiqu

eus communiqu
eus communiqu
eut communiqu

emes communiqu
etes communiqu
eurent communiqu

aurai communiqu
auras communiqu
aura communiqu

aurons communiqu
aurez communiqu
auront communiqu

Conditional Perfect
communiquerions
communiqueriez
communiqueraient

Present
communique
communiques
communique

avons communiqu
avez communiqu
ont communiqu

Future Perfect
communiquerons
communiquerez
communiqueront

Conditional
communiquerais
communiquerais
communiquerait

ai communiqu
as communiqu
a communiqu

Pass Antrieur
communiqumes
communiqutes
communiqurent

Future
communiquerai
communiqueras
communiquera

Plural

Pluperfect
communiquions
communiquiez
communiquaient

Pass Simple
communiquai
communiquas
communiqua

Singular
Pass Compos

aurais communiqu
aurais communiqu
aurait communiqu

aurions communiqu
auriez communiqu
auraient communiqu

Past
communiquions
communiquiez
communiquent

aie communiqu
aies communiqu
ait communiqu

Imperfect

Pluperfect

communiquasse communiquassions
communiquasses communiquassiez
communiqut
communiquassent

eusse communiqu
eusses communiqu
et communiqu

ayons communiqu
ayez communiqu
aient communiqu
eussions communiqu
eussiez communiqu
eussent communiqu

EXAMPLES
Je vous communiquerai mes sentiments.
Il est possible quil communique sa maladie
aux autres.
Tu nous as bien communiqu ton
enthousiasme.
Maurais-tu communiqu par courrier
lectronique?

Ill communicate my feelings to you.


It is possible that he will give his illness to
others.
You communicated your enthusiasm to us
well.
Would you have communicated with me by
e-mail?

188 / comparer

comparer
to compare
Present participle: comparant Past participle: compar
Imperative: compare, comparez, comparons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

compare
compares
compare
Imperfect

comparons
comparez
comparent

ai compar
as compar
a compar
Pluperfect

avons compar
avez compar
ont compar

comparais
comparais
comparait
Pass Simple

comparions
compariez
comparaient

avais compar
avais compar
avait compar
Pass Antrieur

avions compar
aviez compar
avaient compar

comparai
comparas
compara
Future

comparmes
compartes
comparrent

eus compar
eus compar
eut compar
Future Perfect

emes compar
etes compar
eurent compar

comparerai
compareras
comparera
Conditional

comparerons
comparerez
compareront

aurai compar
auras compar
aura compar
Conditional Perfect

aurons compar
aurez compar
auront compar

comparerais
comparerais
comparerait
Present

comparerions
compareriez
compareraient

aurais compar
aurais compar
aurait compar
Past

aurions compar
auriez compar
auraient compar

compare
compares
compare
Imperfect

comparions
compariez
comparent

aie compar
aies compar
ait compar
Pluperfect

ayons compar
ayez compar
aient compar

comparasse
comparasses
compart

comparassions eusse compar


comparassiez eusses compar
comparassent et compar

eussions compar
eussiez compar
eussent compar

Note: As a reflexive verb, se comparer (to compare oneself) uses the reflexive pronouns me,
te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 5 and 6
demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Comparez ces deux lettres.
Les lecteurs compareront mon livre avec le
sien.
Je ne tai pas compar ton frre.
Lcrivain avait compar son sourire une
fleur.
Elle sest toujours compare avec sa soeur.
a ne se compare pas.

Compare these two letters.


The readers will compare my book with
yours.
I didnt compare you to your brother.
The writer had compared her smile to a
flower.
She always compared herself with her
sister.
Theres no comparison.

complter / 189

complter
to complete
Present participle: compltant Past participle: complt
Imperative: complte, compltez, compltons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

complte
compltes
complte
Imperfect

compltons
compltez
compltent

ai complt
as complt
a complt
Pluperfect

avons complt
avez complt
ont complt

compltais
compltais
compltait
Pass Simple

compltions
compltiez
compltaient

avais complt
avais complt
avait complt
Pass Antrieur

avions complt
aviez complt
avaient complt

compltai
compltas
complta
Future

compltmes
complttes
compltrent

eus complt
eus complt
eut complt
Future Perfect

emes complt
etes complt
eurent complt

complterai
complteras
compltera
Conditional

complterons
complterez
complteront

aurai complt
auras complt
aura complt
Conditional Perfect

aurons complt
aurez complt
auront complt

complterais
complterais
complterait
Present

complterions aurais complt


complteriez
aurais complt
complteraient aurait complt
Past

aurions complt
auriez complt
auraient complt

complte
compltes
complte
Imperfect

compltions
compltiez
compltent

ayons complt
ayez complt
aient complt

compltasse
compltasses
compltt

compltassions eusse complt


compltassiez eusses complt
compltassent et complt

aie complt
aies complt
ait complt
Pluperfect

eussions complt
eussiez complt
eussent complt

Note: As a reflexive verb, se complter (to complement, to add to) uses the reflexive pronouns
me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 5
and 6 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Cette carte complte sa collection.
Il compltera le travail aussitt que possible.
Je compltai mes cours universitaires en
suivant un cours de franais.
Elles auront complt tout avant la fin de la
journe.
Sa collection de timbres se complte vite.
Leur formation stait lentement complte.

That card completes his collection.


He will complete the work as soon as
possible.
I completed my college classes by taking a
course in French.
They will have completed everything by the
end of the day.
His stamp collection is rapidly growing.
Their training had been completed slowly.

190 / compliquer

compliquer
to complicate
Present participle: compliquant Past participle: compliqu
Imperative: complique, compliquez, compliquons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

complique
compliques
complique
Imperfect

compliquons
compliquez
compliquent

ai compliqu
as compliqu
a compliqu
Pluperfect

avons compliqu
avez compliqu
ont compliqu

compliquais
compliquais
compliquait
Pass Simple

compliquions
compliquiez
compliquaient

avais compliqu
avais compliqu
avait compliqu
Pass Antrieur

avions compliqu
aviez compliqu
avaient compliqu

compliquai
compliquas
compliqua
Future

compliqumes
compliqutes
compliqurent

eus compliqu
eus compliqu
eut compliqu
Future Perfect

emes compliqu
etes compliqu
eurent compliqu

compliquerai
compliqueras
compliquera
Conditional

compliquerons
compliquerez
compliqueront

aurai compliqu
auras compliqu
aura compliqu
Conditional Perfect

aurons compliqu
aurez compliqu
auront compliqu

compliquerais
compliquerais
compliquerait
Present

compliquerions
compliqueriez
compliqueraient

aurais compliqu
aurais compliqu
aurait compliqu
Past

aurions compliqu
auriez compliqu
auraient compliqu

complique
compliques
complique
Imperfect

compliquions
compliquiez
compliquent

aie compliqu
aies compliqu
ait compliqu
Pluperfect

ayons compliqu
ayez compliqu
aient compliqu

compliquasse
compliquasses
compliqut

compliquassions eusse compliqu


compliquassiez eusses compliqu
compliquassent et compliqu

eussions compliqu
eussiez compliqu
eussent compliqu

Note: As a reflexive verb, se compliquer (to become complicated) uses the reflexive pronouns
me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 5
demonstrates reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Ne compliquez pas la situation.
Tu compliques toujours tout.
a ma compliqu la vie.
Son arrive tardive avait compliqu les
choses.
a se complique.

Dont complicate the situation.


You always complicate everything.
That made my life more complicated.
His late arrival had complicated matters.
Things are getting complicated.

comporter / 191

comporter
to be composed of
Present participle: comportant Past participle: comport
Imperative: comporte, comportez, comportons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

comporte
comportes
comporte
Imperfect

comportons
comportez
comportent

ai comport
as comport
a comport
Pluperfect

avons comport
avez comport
ont comport

comportais
comportais
comportait
Pass Simple

comportions
comportiez
comportaient

avais comport
avais comport
avait comport
Pass Antrieur

avions comport
aviez comport
avaient comport

comportai
comportas
comporta
Future

comportmes
comporttes
comportrent

eus comport
eus comport
eut comport
Future Perfect

emes comport
etes comport
eurent comport

comporterai
comporteras
comportera
Conditional

comporterons
comporterez
comporteront

aurai comport
auras comport
aura comport
Conditional Perfect

aurons comport
aurez comport
auront comport

comporterais
comporterais
comporterait
Present

comporterions
comporteriez
comporteraient

aurais comport
aurais comport
aurait comport
Past

aurions comport
auriez comport
auraient comport

comporte
comportes
comporte
Imperfect

comportions
comportiez
comportent

aie comport
aies comport
ait comport
Pluperfect

ayons comport
ayez comport
aient comport

comportasse
comportasses
comportt

comportassions
comportassiez
comportassent

eusse comport
eusses comport
et comport

eussions comport
eussiez comport
eussent comport

EXAMPLES
Ldifice comporte six bureaux.
Ces actions comportaient des risques.
Sa mission secrte avait comport beaucoup
de risques.
Il tait juste que son recueil de pomes ait
comport une ddicace sa famille.

The building has (is made up of) six offices.


Those actions involved risks.
His secret mission had entailed many risks.
It was right that his poetry collection had a
dedication to his family.

192 / se comporter

se comporter
to behave, to perform
Present participle: se comportant Past participle: comport
Imperative: comporte-toi, comportez-vous, comportons-nous
Mode

Simple Tenses

Singular

Compound Tenses

Plural

Present
me comporte
te comportes
se comporte

nous comportons
vous comportez
se comportent

Indicative

Imperfect
me comportais
te comportais
se comportait

mtais comport(e)
ttais comport(e)
stait comport(e)

nous comportmes
vous comporttes
se comportrent

me fus comport(e)
te fus comport(e)
se fut comport(e)

Subjunctive

nous fmes comport(e)s


vous ftes comport(e)(s)
se furent comport(e)s

me serai comport(e)
te seras comport(e)
se sera comport(e)

nous serons comport(e)s


vous serez comport(e)(s)
se seront comport(e)s

Conditional Perfect
nous comporterions
vous comporteriez
se comporteraient

me serais comport(e)
te serais comport(e)
se serait comport(e)

nous serions comport(e)s


vous seriez comport(e)(s)
se seraient comport(e)s

Past
nous comportions
vous comportiez
se comportent

Imperfect
me comportasse
te comportasses
se comportt

nous tions comport(e)s


vous tiez comport(e)(s)
staient comport(e)s

Future Perfect
nous comporterons
vous comporterez
se comporteront

Present
me comporte
te comportes
se comporte

nous sommes
comport(e)s
vous tes comport(e)(s)
se sont comport(e)s

Pass Antrieur

Conditional
me comporterais
te comporterais
se comporterait

Plural

Pluperfect

Future
me comporterai
te comporteras
se comportera

me suis comport(e)
tes comport(e)
sest comport(e)

nous comportions
vous comportiez
se comportaient

Pass Simple
me comportai
te comportas
se comporta

Singular
Pass Compos

me sois comport(e)
te sois comport(e)
se soit comport(e)

nous soyons comport(e)s


vous soyez comport(e)(s)
se soient comport(e)s

Pluperfect
nous comportassions me fusse comport(e)
vous comportassiez
te fusses comport(e)
se comportassent
se ft comport(e)

nous fussions
comport(e)s
vous fussiez comport(e)
se fussent comport(e)s

EXAMPLES
Comporte-toi bien.
Elle se comporte comme une enfant gte.
Comment sest-il comport en classe?
Les avions supersoniques se sont-ils bien
comports?

Behave well.
She acts like a spoiled child.
How did he act in school?
Did supersonic airplanes perform well?

composer / 193

composer
to compose
Present participle: composant Past participle: compos
Imperative: compose, composez, composons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

compose
composes
compose
Imperfect

composons
composez
composent

ai compos
as compos
a compos
Pluperfect

avons compos
avez compos
ont compos

composais
composais
composait
Pass Simple

composions
composiez
composaient

avais compos
avais compos
avait compos
Pass Antrieur

avions compos
aviez compos
avaient compos

composai
composas
composa
Future

composmes
compostes
composrent

eus compos
eus compos
eut compos
Future Perfect

emes compos
etes compos
eurent compos

composerai
composeras
composera
Conditional

composerons
composerez
composeront

aurai compos
auras compos
aura compos
Conditional Perfect

aurons compos
aurez compos
auront compos

composerais
composerais
composerait
Present

composerions aurais compos


composeriez
aurais compos
composeraient aurait compos
Past

aurions compos
auriez compos
auraient compos

compose
composes
compose
Imperfect

composions
composiez
composent

ayons compos
ayez compos
aient compos

composasse
composasses
compost

composassions eusse compos


composassiez eusses compos
composassent et compos

aie compos
aies compos
ait compos
Pluperfect

eussions compos
eussiez compos
eussent compos

Note: As a reflexive verb, se composer (to compose oneself, to be composed of) uses the
reflexive pronouns me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound
tenses. Examples 6 and 7 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Composez le numro de tlphone.
Le fleuriste compose des bouquets.
Voil les pices qui composaient cet
ordinateur.
Les savants ont compos une quipe
scientifique.
Elle avait compos une lettre damour son
petit ami.
Ils se composent.
Lquipe se serait compose de dix joueurs.

Dial the phone number.


The florist is making up bouquets.
There are the parts that made up that
computer.
The scientists formed a team.
She had written a love letter to her
boyfriend.
They compose themselves.
The team would have been composed of ten
players.

194 / comprendre

comprendre
to understand, to be composed of
Present participle: comprenant Past participle: compris
Imperative: comprends, comprenez, comprenons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

comprends
comprends
comprend
Imperfect

comprenons
comprenez
comprennent

ai compris
as compris
a compris
Pluperfect

avons compris
avez compris
ont compris

comprenais
comprenais
comprenait
Pass Simple

comprenions
compreniez
comprenaient

avais compris
avais compris
avait compris
Pass Antrieur

avions compris
aviez compris
avaient compris

compris
compris
comprit
Future

comprmes
comprtes
comprirent

eus compris
eus compris
eut compris
Future Perfect

emes compris
etes compris
eurent compris

comprendrai
comprendras
comprendra
Conditional

comprendrons
comprendrez
comprendront

aurai compris
auras compris
aura compris
Conditional Perfect

aurons compris
aurez compris
auront compris

comprendrais
comprendrais
comprendrait
Present

comprendrions
comprendriez
comprendraient

aurais compris
aurais compris
aurait compris
Past

aurions compris
auriez compris
auraient compris

comprenne
comprennes
comprenne
Imperfect

comprenions
compreniez
comprennent

aie compris
aies compris
ait compris
Pluperfect

ayons compris
ayez compris
aient compris

comprisse
comprisses
comprt

comprissions
comprissiez
comprissent

eusse compris
eusses compris
et compris

eussions compris
eussiez compris
eussent compris

Note: As a reflexive verb, se comprendre (to understand oneself, one another) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses.
Examples 7 and 8 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Je ny comprends rien.
Ce livre comprend trente chapitres.
Le loyer ne comprendra pas llectricit.
Est-il possible que tu ne comprennes rien
rien?
Il na pas compris ma tristesse.
Cest comme a que javais compris le rle
de professeur.
Je me comprends.
Ils se sont compris.

I dont understand anything about it.


That book is comprised of thirty chapters.
The rent wont include electricity.
Is it possible that you dont have a clue
about anything?
He didnt understand my sadness.
Thats how I saw the role of a teacher.
I understand what I mean.
They understood each other.

compromettre / 195

compromettre
to compromise
Present participle: compromettant Past participle: compromis
Imperative: compromets, compromettez, compromettons
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present
compromets
compromets
compromet

compromettons
compromettez
compromettent

ai compromis
as compromis
a compromis

compromettions
compromettiez
compromettaient

avais compromis
avais compromis
avait compromis

comprommes
compromtes
compromirent

eus compromis
eus compromis
eut compromis

compromettrons
compromettrez
compromettront

aurai compromis
auras compromis
aura compromis

Imperfect

Indicative

compromettais
compromettais
compromettait

Subjunctive

aurons compromis
aurez compromis
auront compromis
aurions compromis
auriez compromis
auraient compromis

Past
compromettions
compromettiez
compromettent

aie compromis
aies compromis
ait compromis

compromissions
compromissiez
compromissent

eusse compromis
eusses compromis
et compromis

Imperfect
compromisse
compromisses
compromt

emes compromis
etes compromis
eurent compromis

Conditional Perfect
compromettrions aurais compromis
compromettriez
aurais compromis
compromettraient aurait compromis

Present
compromette
compromettes
compromette

avions compromis
aviez compromis
avaient compromis

Future Perfect

Conditional
compromettrais
compromettrais
compromettrait

avons compromis
avez compromis
ont compromis

Pass Antrieur

Future
compromettrai
compromettras
compromettra

Plural

Pluperfect

Pass Simple
compromis
compromis
compromit

Singular
Pass Compos

ayons compromis
ayez compromis
aient compromis

Pluperfect
eussions compromis
eussiez compromis
eussent compromis

Note: As a reflexive verb, se compromettre (to compromise oneself) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 5 demonstrates reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Il compromettra sa position en signant cette
ptition.
Il faut que vous ne compromettiez pas
lavenir de cette entreprise.
En voyageant tu as compromis ta sant.
En faisant cela nous aurions compromis
notre rputation.
M. Dupont sest compromis dans une affaire
criminel.

He will compromise his position by signing


that petition.
You must not compromise the future of
this company.
By traveling, you compromised your health.
By doing that, we would have compromised
our reputation.
Mr. Dupont got mixed up (compromised
himself) in a criminal affair.

196 / compter (sur)

compter (sur)
to count (on), to figure, to include
Present participle: comptant Past participle: compt
Imperative: compte, comptez, comptons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

compte
comptes
compte
Imperfect

comptons
comptez
comptent

ai compt
as compt
a compt
Pluperfect

avons compt
avez compt
ont compt

comptais
comptais
comptait
Pass Simple

comptions
comptiez
comptaient

avais compt
avais compt
avait compt
Pass Antrieur

avions compt
aviez compt
avaient compt

comptai
comptas
compta
Future

comptmes
compttes
comptrent

eus compt
eus compt
eut compt
Future Perfect

emes compt
etes compt
eurent compt

compterai
compteras
comptera
Conditional

compterons
compterez
compteront

aurai compt
auras compt
aura compt
Conditional Perfect

aurons compt
aurez compt
auront compt

compterais
compterais
compterait
Present

compterions
compteriez
compteraient

aurais compt
aurais compt
aurait compt
Past

aurions compt
auriez compt
auraient compt

compte
comptes
compte
Imperfect

comptions
comptiez
comptent

aie compt
aies compt
ait compt
Pluperfect

ayons compt
ayez compt
aient compt

comptasse
comptasses
comptt

comptassions
comptassiez
comptassent

eusse compt
eusses compt
et compt

eussions compt
eussiez compt
eussent compt

Note: As a reflexive verb, se compter (to count oneself) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se,
nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 6 demonstrates
reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Ne compte pas sur les doigts.
Cela fait huit voitures en comptant la sienne.
Il compte sur moi.
Jai compt quil nous fallait neuf heures
pour finir ce travail.
Elle naura pas compt tout correctement.
Vous tes-vous compts?

Dont count on your fingers.


That makes eight cars including yours.
Hes counting on me.
I figured that we needed nine hours to
finish that work.
She will not have counted everything
correctly.
Did you count yourselves?

concevoir / 197

concevoir
to conceive
Present participle: concevant Past participle: conu
Imperative: conois, concevez, concevons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

conois
conois
conoit
Imperfect

concevons
concevez
conoivent

ai conu
as conu
a conu
Pluperfect

avons conu
avez conu
ont conu

concevais
concevais
concevait
Pass Simple

concevions
conceviez
concevaient

avais conu
avais conu
avait conu
Pass Antrieur

avions conu
aviez conu
avaient conu

conus
conus
conut
Future

conmes
contes
conurent

eus conu
eus conu
eut conu
Future Perfect

emes conu
etes conu
eurent conu

concevrai
concevras
concevra
Conditional

concevrons
concevrez
concevront

aurai conu
auras conu
aura conu
Conditional Perfect

aurons conu
aurez conu
auront conu

concevrais
concevrais
concevrait
Present

concevrions
concevriez
concevraient

aurais conu
aurais conu
aurait conu
Past

aurions conu
auriez conu
auraient conu

conoive
conoives
conoive
Imperfect

concevions
conceviez
conoivent

aie conu
aies conu
ait conu
Pluperfect

ayons conu
ayez conu
aient conu

conusse
conusses
cont

conussions
conussiez
conussent

eusse conu
eusses conu
et conu

eussions conu
eussiez conu
eussent conu

EXAMPLES
Ils ne peuvent pas concevoir que cette affaire
se termine.
Je ne conois pas quelle puisse rater ce
cours.
On a bien conu cette maison.
Nous naurions pas conu dune meilleure
faon de le faire.

They cant conceive that this affair is over.


I cant imagine that she could fail this
course.
This house is well designed.
We wouldnt have conceived of a better way
to do it.

198 / conclure

conclure
to conclude (find)
Present participle: concluant Past participle: conclu
Imperative: conclus, concluez, concluons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

conclus
conclus
conclut
Imperfect

concluons
concluez
concluent

ai conclu
as conclu
a conclu
Pluperfect

avons conclu
avez conclu
ont conclu

concluais
concluais
concluait
Pass Simple

concluions
concluiez
concluaient

avais conclu
avais conclu
avait conclu
Pass Antrieur

avions conclu
aviez conclu
avaient conclu

conclus
conclus
conclut
Future

conclmes
concltes
conclurent

eus conclu
eus conclu
eut conclu
Future Perfect

emes conclu
etes conclu
eurent conclu

conclurai
concluras
conclura
Conditional

conclurons
conclurez
concluront

aurai conclu
auras conclu
aura conclu
Conditional Perfect

aurons conclu
aurez conclu
auront conclu

conclurais
conclurais
conclurait
Present

conclurions
concluriez
concluraient

aurais conclu
aurais conclu
aurait conclu
Past

aurions conclu
auriez conclu
auraient conclu

conclue
conclues
conclue
Imperfect

concluions
concluiez
concluent

aie conclu
aies conclu
ait conclu
Pluperfect

ayons conclu
ayez conclu
aient conclu

conclusse
conclusses
conclt

conclussions
conclussiez
conclussent

eusse conclu
eusses conclu
et conclu

eussions conclu
eussiez conclu
eussent conclu

EXAMPLES
Ces deux hommes sont en train de conclure
un march.
Tout le monde conclut que vous avez raison.
On a conclu en faveur de laccus.
Le jury avait conclu son culpabilit.

Those two men are concluding a deal.


Everyone concludes that you are right.
They found in favor of the accused.
The jury had concluded that she was guilty.

conduire / 199

conduire
to conduct, to drive, to lead
Present participle: conduisant Past participle: conduit
Imperative: conduis, conduisez, conduisons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

conduis
conduis
conduit
Imperfect

conduisons
conduisez
conduisent

ai conduit
as conduit
a conduit
Pluperfect

avons conduit
avez conduit
ont conduit

conduisais
conduisais
conduisait
Pass Simple

conduisions
conduisiez
conduisaient

avais conduit
avais conduit
avait conduit
Pass Antrieur

avions conduit
aviez conduit
avaient conduit

conduisis
conduisis
conduisit
Future

conduismes
conduistes
conduisirent

eus conduit
eus conduit
eut conduit
Future Perfect

emes conduit
etes conduit
eurent conduit

conduirai
conduiras
conduira
Conditional

conduirons
conduirez
conduiront

aurai conduit
auras conduit
aura conduit
Conditional Perfect

aurons conduit
aurez conduit
auront conduit

conduirais
conduirais
conduirait
Present

conduirions
conduiriez
conduiraient

aurais conduit
aurais conduit
aurait conduit
Past

aurions conduit
auriez conduit
auraient conduit

conduise
conduises
conduise
Imperfect

conduisions
conduisiez
conduisent

aie conduit
aies conduit
ait conduit
Pluperfect

ayons conduit
ayez conduit
aient conduit

conduisisse
conduisisses
conduist

conduisissions eusse conduit


conduisissiez eusses conduit
conduisissent et conduit

eussions conduit
eussiez conduit
eussent conduit

Note: As a reflexive verb, se conduire (to conduct oneself, to behave) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 7 and 8 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Elle conduit assez bien.
Ce passage nous conduiront au sous-sol.
Le guide conduisait les touristes travers
Paris.
Il est impratif que Mme Roland conduise
les ngotiations.
Il a conduit ses invits la chambre damis.
La mre aurait conduit ses enfants lcole.
Conduis-toi comme il faut.
Les enfants se sont mal conduits au parc.

She drives rather well.


This passageway will lead us to the
basement.
The guide was leading the tourists through
Paris.
It is imperative that Mrs. Roland conduct
the negotiations.
He showed his guests to the guest room.
The mother would have driven her children
to school.
Conduct yourself properly.
The children behaved poorly in the park.

200 / confondre

confondre
to confuse
Present participle: confondant Past participle: confondu
Imperative: confonds, confondez, confondons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

confonds
confonds
confond
Imperfect

confondons
confondez
confondent

ai confondu
as confondu
a confondu
Pluperfect

avons confondu
avez confondu
ont confondu

confondais
confondais
confondait
Pass Simple

confondions
confondiez
confondaient

avais confondu
avais confondu
avait confondu
Pass Antrieur

avions confondu
aviez confondu
avaient confondu

confondis
confondis
confondit
Future

confondmes
confondtes
confondirent

eus confondu
eus confondu
eut confondu
Future Perfect

emes confondu
etes confondu
eurent confondu

confondrai
confondras
confondra
Conditional

confondrons
confondrez
confondront

aurai confondu
auras confondu
aura confondu
Conditional Perfect

aurons confondu
aurez confondu
auront confondu

confondrais
confondrais
confondrait
Present

confondrions
confondriez
confondraient

aurais confondu
aurais confondu
aurait confondu
Past

aurions confondu
auriez confondu
auraient confondu

confonde
confondes
confonde
Imperfect

confondions
confondiez
confondent

aie confondu
aies confondu
ait confondu
Pluperfect

ayons confondu
ayez confondu
aient confondu

confondisse
confondisses
confondt

confondissions eusse confondu


confondissiez eusses confondu
confondissent et confondu

eussions confondu
eussiez confondu
eussent confondu

Note: As a reflexive verb, se confondre (to merge, to become confused) uses the reflexive
pronouns me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses.
Examples 5 and 6 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Vous confondez tout.
Elle me confondit par son innocence.
Tu as confondu ton livre avec le mien.
Il naurait pas confondu la date de notre
rendez-vous avec la date du sien.
Regarde comment toutes les couleurs se
confondent sur ce tableau.
Toutes ses ides ne se seraient pas
confondues sil stait mieux prpar.

You confuse everything.


Her innocence astounds me.
You mistook my book for yours.
He wouldnt have confused the date of our
meeting with the date of yours.
Look how all the colors flow together in
this painting.
All his ideas wouldnt have gotten confused
had he prepared himself better.

connatre / 201

connatre
to know, to be acquainted with, to experience
Present participle: connaissant Past participle: connu
Imperative: connais, connaissez, connaissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

connais
connais
connat
Imperfect

connaissons
connaissez
connaissent

ai connu
as connu
a connu
Pluperfect

avons connu
avez connu
ont connu

connaissais
connaissais
connaissait
Pass Simple

connaissions
connaissiez
connaissaient

avais connu
avais connu
avait connu
Pass Antrieur

avions connu
aviez connu
avaient connu

connus
connus
connut
Future

connmes
conntes
connurent

eus connu
eus connu
eut connu
Future Perfect

emes connu
etes connu
eurent connu

connatrai
connatras
connatra
Conditional

connatrons
connatrez
connatront

aurai connu
auras connu
aura connu
Conditional Perfect

aurons connu
aurez connu
auront connu

connatrais
connatrais
connatrait
Present

connatrions
connatriez
connatraient

aurais connu
aurais connu
aurait connu
Past

aurions connu
auriez connu
auraient connu

connaisse
connaisses
connaisse
Imperfect

connaissions
connaissiez
connaissent

aie connu
aies connu
ait connu
Pluperfect

ayons connu
ayez connu
aient connu

connusse
connusses
connt

connussions
connussiez
connussent

eusse connu
eusses connu
et connu

eussions connu
eussiez connu
eussent connu

Note: As a reflexive verb, se connatre (to know oneself, to meet each other) uses the reflexive
pronouns me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses.
Examples 6, 7, and 8 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Il ne me connat pas.
Je connais cette ville.
Sa bonne fortune ne connat pas de bornes.
Il est dommage quon connaisse la faim dans
ce pays.
Elle ma connu enfant.
Je me connais bien.
Quand il sagit damuser les autres, ils sy
connaissent.
Elles se sont connues luniversit.

He doesnt know me.


I know that city.
Her good fortune knows no limits.
Its a pity that they suffer from poverty in
that country.
She knew me as a child.
I know myself well.
When it comes to amusing others, they are
experts.
They met in college.

202 / connecter

connecter
to connect
Present participle: connectant Past participle: connect
Imperative: connecte, connectez, connectons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

connecte
connectes
connecte
Imperfect

connectons
connectez
connectent

ai connect
as connect
a connect
Pluperfect

avons connect
avez connect
ont connect

connectais
connectais
connectait
Pass Simple

connections
connectiez
connectaient

avais connect
avais connect
avait connect
Pass Antrieur

avions connect
aviez connect
avaient connect

connectai
connectas
connecta
Future

connectmes
connecttes
connectrent

eus connect
eus connect
eut connect
Future Perfect

emes connect
etes connect
eurent connect

connecterai
connecteras
connectera
Conditional

connecterons
connecterez
connecteront

aurai connect
auras connect
aura connect
Conditional Perfect

aurons connect
aurez connect
auront connect

connecterais
connecterais
connecterait
Present

connecterions aurais connect


connecteriez
aurais connect
connecteraient aurait connect
Past

aurions connect
auriez connect
auraient connect

connecte
connectes
connecte
Imperfect

connections
connectiez
connectent

ayons connect
ayez connect
aient connect

connectasse
connectasses
connectt

connectassions eusse connect


connectassiez eusses connect
connectassent et connect

aie connect
aies connect
ait connect
Pluperfect

eussions connect
eussiez connect
eussent connect

Note: As a reflexive verb, se connecter (to get connected, to log on) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 5, 6, and 7 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Connecte le moniteur lordinateur.
Je connecterai ce tlviseur cette prise.
Ils ont connect le tlcopieur au tlphone.
Il est ncessaire que vous ne connectiez rien
cette machine.
Elles se sont connectes un serveur.
Je mtais connecte ce site auparavant.
Sil avait eu un ordinateur il se serait
connect sur lInternet.

Connect the monitor to the computer.


Ill connect this television set to that outlet.
They connected the fax machine to the
telephone.
It is necessary that you dont connect
anything to that machine.
They connected to a server.
I had connected to that site before.
If he had had a computer, he would have
gotten connected to the Internet.

conqurir / 203

conqurir
to conquer
Present participle: conqurant Past participle: conquis
Imperative: conquiers, conqurons, conqurez

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

conquiers
conquiers
conquiert
Imperfect

conqurons
conqurez
conquirent

ai conquis
as conquis
a conquis
Pluperfect

avons conquis
avez conquis
ont conquis

conqurais
conqurais
conqurait
Pass Simple

conqurions
conquriez
conquraient

avais conquis
avais conquis
avait conquis
Pass Antrieur

avions conquis
aviez conquis
avaient conquis

conquis
conquis
conquit
Future

conqumes
conqutes
conquirent

eus conquis
eus conquis
eut conquis
Future Perfect

emes conquis
etes conquis
eurent conquis

conquerrai
conquerras
conquerra
Conditional

conquerrons
conquerrez
conquerront

aurai conquis
auras conquis
aura conquis
Conditional Perfect

aurons conquis
aurez conquis
auront conquis

conquerrais
conquerrais
conquerrait
Present

conquerrions
conquerriez
conquerraient

aurais conquis
aurais conquis
aurait conquis
Past

aurions conquis
auriez conquis
auraient conquis

conquire
conquires
conquire
Imperfect

conqurions
conquriez
conquirent

aie conquis
aies conquis
ait conquis
Pluperfect

ayons conquis
ayez conquis
aient conquis

conquisse
conquisses
conquit

conquissions
conquissiez
conquissent

eusse conquis
eusses conquis
et conquis

eussions conquis
eussiez conquis
eussent conquis

EXAMPLES
Larme conquerra ce pays.
Guillaume le Conqurant conquit
lAngleterre.
Les alpinistes ont conquis cette montagne.
Il ntait pas surprenant quil ait conquis sa
maladie.

The army will conquer that country.


William the Conquerer conquered England.
The mountain climbers conquered that
mountain.
It wasnt surprising that he conquered his
illness.

204 / conseiller

conseiller
to advise, to counsel, to recommend
Present participle: conseillant Past participle: conseill
Imperative: conseille, conseillez, conseillons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

conseille
conseilles
conseille
Imperfect

conseillons
conseillez
conseillent

ai conseill
as conseill
a conseill
Pluperfect

avons conseill
avez conseill
ont conseill

conseillais
conseillais
conseillait
Pass Simple

conseillions
conseilliez
conseillaient

avais conseill
avais conseill
avait conseill
Pass Antrieur

avions conseill
aviez conseill
avaient conseill

conseillai
conseillas
conseilla
Future

conseillmes
conseilltes
conseillrent

eus conseill
eus conseill
eut conseill
Future Perfect

emes conseill
etes conseill
eurent conseill

conseillerai
conseilleras
conseillera
Conditional

conseillerons
conseillerez
conseilleront

aurai conseill
auras conseill
aura conseill
Conditional Perfect

aurons conseill
aurez conseill
auront conseill

conseillerais
conseillerais
conseillerait
Present

conseillerions
conseilleriez
conseilleraient

aurais conseill
aurais conseill
aurait conseill
Past

aurions conseill
auriez conseill
auraient conseill

conseille
conseilles
conseille
Imperfect

conseillions
conseilliez
conseillent

aie conseill
aies conseill
ait conseill
Pluperfect

ayons conseill
ayez conseill
aient conseill

conseillasse
conseillasses
conseillt

conseillassions eusse conseill


conseillassiez eusses conseill
conseillassent et conseill

eussions conseill
eussiez conseill
eussent conseill

EXAMPLES
Je te conseille vivement de mcouter.
Lamour lui conseilla dacheter une jolie
bague de fianailles sa fiance.
Elle ma conseill cet avocat.
Le professeur mavait bien conseill.

I strongly advise you to listen to me.


Love prompted him to buy a pretty
engagement ring for his fiance.
She advised me to go to that lawyer.
The teacher had given me good advice.

consentir / 205

consentir
to consent, to agree, to grant
Present participle: consentant Past participle: consenti
Imperative: consens, consentez, consentons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

consens
consens
consent
Imperfect

consentons
consentez
consentent

ai consenti
as consenti
a consenti
Pluperfect

avons consenti
avez consenti
ont consenti

consentais
consentais
consentait
Pass Simple

consentions
consentiez
consentaient

avais consenti
avais consenti
avait consenti
Pass Antrieur

avions consenti
aviez consenti
avaient consenti

consentis
consentis
consentit
Future

consentmes
consenttes
consentirent

eus consenti
eus consenti
eut consenti
Future Perfect

emes consenti
etes consenti
eurent consenti

consentirai
consentiras
consentira
Conditional

consentirons
consentirez
consentiront

aurai consenti
auras consenti
aura consenti
Conditional Perfect

aurons consenti
aurez consenti
auront consenti

consentirais
consentirais
consentirait
Present

consentirions
consentiriez
consentiraient

aurais consenti
aurais consenti
aurait consenti
Past

aurions consenti
auriez consenti
auraient consenti

consente
consentes
consente
Imperfect

consentions
consentiez
consentent

aie consenti
aies consenti
ait consenti
Pluperfect

ayons consenti
ayez consenti
aient consenti

consentisse
consentisses
consentt

consentissions eusse consenti


consentissiez eusses consenti
consentissent et consenti

eussions consenti
eussiez consenti
eussions consenti

EXAMPLES
Il consent faire la vaisselle.
Y consentira-t-elle?
Elles leur ont consenti la permission de
sortir le soir.
Je naurais pas consenti de laider si javais
su tous les faits.

He agrees to do the dishes.


Will she agree to it?
They granted them permission to go out at
night.
I wouldnt have consented to help him had
I known all the facts.

206 / considrer

considrer
to consider
Present participle: considrant Past participle: considr
Imperative: considre, considrez, considrons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

considre
considres
considre
Imperfect

considrons
considrez
considrent

ai considr
as considr
a considr
Pluperfect

avons considr
avez considr
ont considr

considrais
considrais
considrait
Pass Simple

considrions
considriez
considraient

avais considr
avais considr
avait considr
Pass Antrieur

avions considr
aviez considr
avaient considr

considrai
considras
considra
Future

considrmes
considrtes
considrrent

eus considr
eus considr
eut considr
Future Perfect

emes considr
etes considr
eurent considr

considrerai
considreras
considrera
Conditional

considrerons
considrerez
considreront

aurai considr
auras considr
aura considr
Conditional Perfect

aurons considr
aurez considr
auront considr

considrerais
considrerais
considrerait
Present

considrerions
considreriez
considreraient

aurais considr
aurais considr
aurait considr
Past

aurions considr
auriez considr
auraient considr

considre
considres
considre
Imperfect

considrions
considriez
considrent

aie considr
aies considr
ait considr
Pluperfect

ayons considr
ayez considr
aient considr

considrasse
considrasses
considrt

considrassions
considrassiez
considrassent

eusse considr
eusses considr
et considr

eussions considr
eussiez considr
eussent considr

EXAMPLES
Ils sont trs considrs.
Elle ne considre que son propre bonheur.
Nous ne le considrons pas sage.
Je la considrais comme ma fille.
As-tu considr sa proposition?
Navaient-ils pas considr toutes les
consquences de leurs actes?

They are highly regarded.


She only thinks about her own happiness.
We dont consider him wise.
I considered her to be my daughter.
Did you consider (study) his proposal?
Hadnt they considered all the
consequences of their actions?

construire / 207

construire
to construct
Present participle: construisant Past participle: construit
Imperative: construis, construisez, construisons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

construis
construis
construit
Imperfect

construisons
construisez
construisent

ai construit
as construit
a construit
Pluperfect

avons construit
avez construit
ont construit

construisais
construisais
construisait
Pass Simple

construisions
construisiez
construisaient

avais construit
avais construit
avait construit
Pass Antrieur

avions construit
aviez construit
avaient construit

construisis
construisis
construisit
Future

construismes
construistes
construisirent

eus construit
eus construit
eut construit
Future Perfect

emes construit
etes construit
eurent construit

construirai
construiras
construira
Conditional

construirons
construirez
construiront

aurai construit
aurons construit
auras construit
aurez construit
aura construit
auront construit
Conditional Perfect

construirais
construirais
construirait
Present

construirions
construiriez
construiraient

aurais construit
aurais construit
aurait construit
Past

aurions construit
auriez construit
auraient construit

construise
construises
construise
Imperfect

construisions
construisiez
construisent

aie construit
aies construit
ait construit
Pluperfect

ayons construit
ayez construit
aient construit

construisisse
construisisses
construist

construisissions
construisissiez
construisissent

eusse construit
eusses construit
et construit

eussions construit
eussiez construit
eussent construit

Note: As a reflexive verb, se construire (to build for oneself, to be formed with) uses the
reflexive pronouns me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound
tenses. Examples 5 and 6 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Les ingnieurs construisent un btiment en
ville.
Les ouvriers construisaient un pont.
Le philosophe a construit une nouvelle
thorie.
Il est incroyable que ses tudiants aient
construit cette figure gomtrique.
Le garon sest construit une cabane dans
un arbre.
Cette phrase se construit avec le futur.

The engineers are constructing a building


downtown.
The workers were building a bridge.
The philosopher put together a new theory.
Its incredible that his students constructed
that geometric figure.
The boy built himself a tree house.
That sentence is formed with the future
tense.

208 / consulter

consulter
to consult
Present participle: consultant Past participle: consult
Imperative: consulte, consultez, consultons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

consulte
consultes
consulte
Imperfect

consultons
consultez
consultent

ai consult
as consult
a consult
Pluperfect

avons consult
avez consult
ont consult

consultais
consultais
consultait
Pass Simple

consultions
consultiez
consultaient

avais consult
avais consult
avait consult
Pass Antrieur

avions consult
aviez consult
avaient consult

consultai
consultas
consulta
Future

consultmes
consulttes
consultrent

eus consult
eus consult
eut consult
Future Perfect

emes consult
etes consult
eurent consult

consulterai
consulteras
consultera
Conditional

consulterons
consulterez
consulteront

aurai consult
auras consult
aura consult
Conditional Perfect

aurons consult
aurez consult
auront consult

consulterais
consulterais
consulterait
Present

consulterions
consulteriez
consulteraient

aurais consult
aurais consult
aurait consult
Past

aurions consult
auriez consult
auraient consult

consulte
consultes
consulte
Imperfect

consultions
consultiez
consultent

aie consult
aies consult
ait consult
Pluperfect

ayons consult
ayez consult
aient consult

consultasse
consultasses
consultt

consultassions eusse consult


consultassiez eusses consult
consultassent et consult

eussions consult
eussiez consult
eussent consult

Note: As a reflexive verb, se consulter (to consult each other) uses the reflexive pronouns me,
te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 5 demonstrates reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Pour savoir son numro de tlphone,
consultez lannuaire.
Je consulterai le mdecin demain.
As-tu consult le dictionnaire pour vrifier la
dfinition de ce mot?
a me surprend quelle ait consult un
astrologue.
Elles se sont consultes.

To get his phone number, consult the phone


book.
Ill consult (see) the doctor tomorrow.
Have you consulted the dictionary to check
the meaning of that word?
It surprises me that she consulted an
astrologer.
They consulted each other.

contenir / 209

contenir
to contain, to control
Present participle: contenant Past participle: contenu
Imperative: contiens, contenez, contenons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

contiens
contiens
contient
Imperfect

contenons
contenez
contiennent

ai contenu
as contenu
a contenu
Pluperfect

avons contenu
avez contenu
ont contenu

contenais
contenais
contenait
Pass Simple

contenions
conteniez
contenaient

avais contenu
avais contenu
avait contenu
Pass Antrieur

avions contenu
aviez contenu
avaient contenu

contins
contins
contint
Future

contnmes
contntes
continrent

eus contenu
eus contenu
eut contenu
Future Perfect

emes contenu
etes contenu
eurent contenu

contiendrai
contiendras
contiendra
Conditional

contiendrons
contiendrez
contiendront

aurai contenu
auras contenu
aura contenu
Conditional Perfect

aurons contenu
aurez contenu
auront contenu

contiendrais
contiendrais
contiendrait
Present

contiendrions
contiendriez
contiendraient

aurais contenu
aurais contenu
aurait contenu
Past

aurions contenu
auriez contenu
auraient contenu

contienne
contiennes
contienne
Imperfect

contenions
conteniez
contiennent

aie contenu
aies contenu
ait contenu
Pluperfect

ayons contenu
ayez contenu
aient contenu

continsse
conttinsses
contnt

continssions
continssiez
continssent

eusse contenu
eusses contenu
et contenu

eussions contenu
eussiez contenu
eussent contenu

EXAMPLES
Cette voiture peut contenir seulement quatre
passagers.
Cette eau contient beaucoup de minraux.
Les soldats contiendront les troupes
ennemis.
Quest-ce que cette bote a contenu?
entendre la nouvelle, il navait pas contenu
sa surprise.

This car can only hold (seat) four


passengers.
This water contains a lot of minerals.
The soldiers will contain the enemy troops.
What did this box contain?
Upon hearing the news, he hadnt
contained (controlled) his surprise.

210 / continuer

continuer
to continue
Present participle: continuant Past participle: continu
Imperative: continue, continuez, continuons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

continue
continues
continue
Imperfect

continuons
continuez
continuent

ai continu
as continu
a continu
Pluperfect

avons continu
avez continu
ont continu

continuais
continuais
continuait
Pass Simple

continuions
continuiez
continuaient

avais continu
avais continu
avait continu
Pass Antrieur

avions continu
aviez continu
avaient continu

continuai
continuas
continua
Future

continumes
continutes
continurent

eus continu
eus continu
eut continu
Future Perfect

emes continu
etes continu
eurent continu

continuerai
continueras
continuera
Conditional

continuerons
continuerez
continueront

aurai continu
auras continu
aura continu
Conditional Perfect

aurons continu
aurez continu
auront continu

continuerais
continuerais
continuerait
Present

continuerions
continueriez
continueraient

aurais continu
aurais continu
aurait continu
Past

aurions continu
auriez continu
auraient continu

continue
continues
continue
Imperfect

continuions
continuiez
continuent

aie continu
aies continu
ait continu
Pluperfect

ayons continu
ayez continu
aient continu

continuasse
continuasses
continut

continuassions eusse continu


continuassiez eusses continu
continuassent et continu

eussions continu
eussiez continu
eussent continu

EXAMPLES
Continuez parler.
Nous continuerons nos tudes.
Je continuerai avec la salade.
Ils auraient continu lire si elle ne les avait
pas interrompus.
Bush eut continu de Clinton.

Continue speaking.
Well continue our studies.
Ill have the salad next.
They would have continued reading if she
hadnt interrupted them.
Bush had continued where Clinton left off.

contraindre / 211

contraindre
to compel, to force
Present participle: contraignant Past participle: contraint
Imperative: contrains, contraignez, contraignons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

contrains
contrains
contraint
Imperfect

contraignons
contraignez
contraignent

ai contraint
as contraint
a contraint
Pluperfect

avons contraint
avez contraint
ont contraint

contraignais
contraignais
contraignait
Pass Simple

contraignions
contraigniez
contraignaient

avais contraint
avais contraint
avait contraint
Pass Antrieur

avions contraint
aviez contraint
avaient contraint

contraignis
contraignis
contraignit
Future

contraignmes
contraigntes
contraignirent

eus contraint
eus contraint
eut contraint
Future Perfect

emes contraint
etes contraint
eurent contraint

contraindrai
contraindras
contraindra
Conditional

contraindrons
contraindrez
contraindront

aurai contraint
aurons contraint
auras contraint
aurez contraint
aura contraint
auront contraint
Conditional Perfect

contraindrais
contraindrais
contraindrait
Present

contraindrions
contraindriez
contraindraient

aurais contraint
aurais contraint
aurait contraint
Past

aurions contraint
auriez contraint
auraient contraint

contraigne
contraignes
contraigne
Imperfect

contraignions
contraigniez
contraignent

aie contraint
aies contraint
ait contraint
Pluperfect

ayons contraint
ayez contraint
aient contraint

contraignisse
contraignisses
contraignt

contraignissions
contraignissiez
contraignissent

eusse contraint
eusses contraint
et contraint

eussions contraint
eussiez contraint
eussent contraint

Note: As a reflexive verb, se contraindre (to force oneself) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te,
se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 5 demonstrates reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Rien ne le contraindra se comporter bien.
Je ne veux pas que notre patron vous
contraigne accepter ce poste.
Cela ma contraint laction.
On lavait contraint se retirer des affaires.
Elle sest contrainte tre polie.

Nothing will force her to behave well.


I dont want our boss to force you to accept
that job.
That forced me into action.
They had forced him to retire.
She forced herself to be polite.

212 / contredire

contredire
to contradict, to refute
Present participle: contredisant Past participle: contredit
Imperative: contredis, contredisez, contredisons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

contredis
contredis
contredit
Imperfect

contredisons
contredisez
contredisent

ai contredit
as contredit
a contredit
Pluperfect

avons contredit
avez contredit
ont contredit

contredisais
contredisais
contredisait
Pass Simple

contredisions
contredisiez
contredisaient

avais contredit
avais contredit
avait contredit
Pass Antrieur

avions contredit
aviez contredit
avaient contredit

contredis
contredis
contredit
Future

contredmes
contredtes
contredirent

eus contredit
eus contredit
eut contredit
Future Perfect

emes contredit
etes contredit
eurent contredit

contredirai
contrediras
contredira
Conditional

contredirons
contredirez
contrediront

aurai contredit
auras contredit
aura contredit
Conditional Perfect

aurons contredit
aurez contredit
auront contredit

contredirais
contredirais
contredirait
Present

contredirions
contrediriez
contrediraient

aurais contredit
aurais contredit
aurait contredit
Past

aurions contredit
auriez contredit
auraient contredit

contredise
contredises
contredise
Imperfect

contredisions
contredisiez
contredisent

aie contredit
aies contredit
ait contredit
Pluperfect

ayons contredit
ayez contredit
aient contredit

contredisse
contredisses
contredt

contredissions
contredissiez
contredissent

eusse contredit
eusses contredit
et contredit

eussions contredit
eussiez contredit
eussent contredit

EXAMPLES
Ne me contredisez pas!
Je ne vous contredirai pas.
Le tmoin a contredit la dclaration de
laccus.
Les faits auraient contredit ce quil avait dit.
Ils se sont contredits pendant leur dispute.

Dont contradict me!


I wont contradict you.
The witness contradicted the statement of
the accused.
The facts would have contradicted what he
had said.
They contradicted themselves during their
argument.

contribuer / 213

contribuer
to contribute
Present participle: contribuant Past participle: contribu
Imperative: contribue, contribuez, contribuons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

contribue
contribues
contribue
Imperfect

contribuons
contribuez
contribuent

ai contribu
as contribu
a contribu
Pluperfect

avons contribu
avez contribu
ont contribu

contribuais
contribuais
contribuait
Pass Simple

contribuions
contribuiez
contribuaient

avais contribu
avais contribu
avait contribu
Pass Antrieur

avions contribu
aviez contribu
avaient contribu

contribuai
contribuas
contribua
Future

contribumes
contributes
contriburent

eus contribu
eus contribu
eut contribu
Future Perfect

emes contribu
etes contribu
eurent contribu

contribuerai
contribueras
contribuera
Conditional

contribuerons
contribuerez
contribueront

aurai contribu
auras contribu
aura contribu
Conditional Perfect

aurons contribu
aurez contribu
auront contribu

contribuerais
contribuerais
contribuerait
Present

contribuerions
contribueriez
contribueraient

aurais contribu
aurais contribu
aurait contribu
Past

aurions contribu
auriez contribu
auraient contribu

contribue
contribues
contribue
Imperfect

contribuions
contribuiez
contribuent

aie contribu
aies contribu
ait contribu
Pluperfect

ayons contribu
ayez contribu
aient contribu

contribuasse
contribuasses
contribut

contribuassions
contribuassiez
contribuassent

eusse contribu
eusses contribu
et contribu

eussions contribu
eussiez contribu
eussent contribu

EXAMPLES
Contribuez-vous quelque chose la fte?
Quest-ce qui contribuera son chec?
Ses ides nont gure contribu au succs du
projet.
Toutes ses bonnes qualits avaient contribu
sa popularit.

Are you contibuting something to the


party?
What will contribute to his failure?
His ideas hardly contributed to the success
of the project.
All her good qualities had contributed to
her popularity.

214 / convaincre

convaincre
to convince
Present participle: convainquant Past participle: convaincu
Imperative: convaincs, convainquez, convainquons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

convaincs
convaincs
convainc
Imperfect

convainquons
convainquez
convainquent

ai convaincu
as convaincu
a convaincu
Pluperfect

avons convaincu
avez convaincu
ont convaincu

convainquais
convainquais
convainquait
Pass Simple

convainquions
convainquiez
convainquaient

avais convaincu
avais convaincu
avait convaincu
Pass Antrieur

avions convaincu
aviez convaincu
avaient convaincu

convainquis
convainquis
convainquit
Future

convainqumes
convainqutes
convainquirent

eus convaincu
eus convaincu
eut convaincu
Future Perfect

emes convaincu
etes convaincu
eurent convaincu

convaincrai
convaincras
convaincra
Conditional

convaincrons
convaincrez
convaincront

aurai convaincu
auras convaincu
aura convaincu
Conditional Perfect

aurons convaincu
aurez convaincu
auront convaincu

convaincrais
convaincrais
convaincrait
Present

convaincrions
convaincriez
convaincraient

aurais convaincu
aurais convaincu
aurait convaincu
Past

aurions convaincu
auriez convaincu
auraient convaincu

convainque
convainques
convainque
Imperfect

convainquions
convainquiez
convainquent

aie convaincu
aies convaincu
ait convaincu
Pluperfect

ayons convaincu
ayez convaincu
aient convaincu

eusse convaincu
eusses convaincu
et convaincu

eussions convaincu
eussiez convaincu
eussent convaincu

convainquisse convainquissions
convainquisses convainquissiez
convainqut
convainquissent

EXAMPLES
Elle est convaincue quil russira.
Ils convaincront le jury de leur innocence.
Il ma convaincu que je devais tudier le
franais.
Je ne suis pas sr que tu laies convaincu
partir.

She is convinced that he will succeed.


They will convince the jury of their
innocence.
He convinced me that I should study
French.
Im not sure you convinced him to leave.

convenir / 215

convenir
to suit, to agree
Present participle: convenant Past participle: convenu
Imperative: conviens, convenez, convenons
Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

conviens
conviens
convient

convenons
convenez
conviennent

ai convenu
as convenu
a convenu

avons convenu
avez convenu
ont convenu

Imperfect

Indicative

convenais
convenais
convenait

convenions
conveniez
convenaient

Pluperfect
avais convenu
avais convenu
avait convenu

avions convenu
aviez convenu
avaient convenu

Pass Simple
convins
convins
convint

convnmes
convntes
convinrent

Pass Antrieur
eus convenu
eus convenu
eut convenu

emes convenu
etes convenu
eurent convenu

Future
conviendrai
conviendras
conviendra

conviendrons
conviendrez
conviendront

Future Perfect
aurai convenu
auras convenu
aura convenu

Subjunctive

Conditional

aurons convenu
aurez convenu
auront convenu

Conditional Perfect

conviendrais
conviendrais
conviendrait
Present

conviendrions aurais convenu


conviendriez
aurais convenu
conviendraient aurait convenu
Past

aurions convenu
auriez convenu
auraient convenu

convienne
conviennes
convienne
Imperfect

convenions
conveniez
conviennent

aie convenu
aies convenu
ait convenu
Pluperfect

ayons convenu
ayez convenu
aient convenu

convinsse
convinsses
convnt

convinssions
convinssiez
convinssent

eusse convenu
eusses convenu
et convenu

eussions convenu
eussiez convenu
eussent convenu

Note: Convenir, when followed by the preposition , means to be suitable or to agree.


When followed by the preposition de, the verb means to admit or to acknowledge.
Note: As a reflexive verb, se convenir (to be well-suited to each other) uses the reflexive pronouns se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 7
demonstrates reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Vous avez tort. Convenez-en.
Il convient dtre toujours honnte.
Est-ce que la date de notre rendez-vous vous
convient?
Cette robe conviendra trs bien la
rception.
Il a convenu davoir t un peu svre.
Un lieu avait t convenu pour la fte.
Ils se convenaient.

Youre wrong. Admit it.


It is advisable to always be honest.
Is the date of our meeting convenient
(suitable) to you?
This dress will be very suitable for the
reception.
He admitted to being a bit strict.
A place for the party had been agreed upon.
They were well-suited to each other.

216 / cooprer

cooprer
to cooperate
Present participle: cooprant Past participle: coopr
Imperative: coopre, cooprez, cooprons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

coopre
coopres
coopre
Imperfect

cooprons
cooprez
cooprent

ai coopr
as coopr
a coopr
Pluperfect

avons coopr
avez coopr
ont coopr

cooprais
cooprais
cooprait
Pass Simple

cooprions
coopriez
coopraient

avais coopr
avais coopr
avait coopr
Pass Antrieur

avions coopr
aviez coopr
avaient coopr

cooprai
coopras
coopra
Future

cooprmes
cooprtes
cooprrent

eus coopr
eus coopr
eut coopr
Future Perfect

emes coopr
etes coopr
eurent coopr

cooprerai
coopreras
cooprera
Conditional

cooprerons
cooprerez
coopreront

aurai coopr
auras coopr
aura coopr
Conditional Perfect

aurons coopr
aurez coopr
auront coopr

cooprerais
cooprerais
cooprerait
Present

cooprerions
coopreriez
coopreraient

aurais coopr
aurais coopr
aurait coopr
Past

aurions coopr
auriez coopr
auraient coopr

coopre
coopres
coopre
Imperfect

cooprions
coopriez
cooprent

aie coopr
aies coopr
ait coopr
Pluperfect

ayons coopr
ayez coopr
aient coopr

cooprasse
cooprasses
cooprt

cooprassions eusse coopr


cooprassiez
eusses coopr
cooprassent et coopr

eussions coopr
eussiez coopr
eussent coopr

EXAMPLES
Ils cooprent aider leurs parents.
Ne cooprez-vous jamais?
Na-t-il pas coopr avec la police?
Jaurais coopr si vous maviez parl plus
doucement.

They cooperate in helping their parents.


Dont you ever cooperate?
Didnt he cooperate with the police?
I would have cooperated if you had spoken
to me more gently.

copier / 217

copier
to copy
Present participle: copiant Past participle: copi
Imperative: copie, copiez, copions

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

copie
copies
copie
Imperfect

copions
copiez
copient

ai copi
as copi
a copi
Pluperfect

avons copi
avez copi
ont copi

copiais
copiais
copiait
Pass Simple

copiions
copiiez
copiaient

avais copi
avais copi
avait copi
Pass Antrieur

avions copi
aviez copi
avaient copi

copiai
copias
copia
Future

copimes
copites
copirent

eus copi
eus copi
eut copi
Future Perfect

emes copi
etes copi
eurent copi

copierai
copieras
copiera
Conditional

copierons
copierez
copieront

aurai copi
auras copi
aura copi
Conditional Perfect

aurons copi
aurez copi
auront copi

copierais
copierais
copierait
Present

copierions
copieriez
copieraient

aurais copi
aurais copi
aurait copi
Past

aurions copi
auriez copi
auraient copi

copie
copies
copie
Imperfect

copiions
copiiez
copient

aie copi
aies copi
ait copi
Pluperfect

ayons copi
ayez copi
aient copi

copiasse
copiasses
copit

copiassions
copiassiez
copiassent

eusse copi
eusses copi
et copi

eussions copi
eussiez copi
eussent copi

EXAMPLES
Je copie ces renseignements sur une
disquette.
Il copiait les gestes de son frre.
As-tu copi sur ton voisin lexamen?
Cet lve avait copi le professeur.

Im copying this information onto a


diskette.
He used to copy his brothers gestures.
Did you copy from the person next to you
on the test?
That student had imitated the teacher.

218 / correspondre

correspondre
to correspond
Present participle: correspondant Past participle: correspondu
Imperative: corresponds, correspondez, correspondons
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present
corresponds
corresponds
correspond

correspondons
correspondez
correspondent

Imperfect

Indicative

correspondais
correspondais
correspondait

Subjunctive

avions correspondu
aviez correspondu
avaient correspondu

eus correspondu
eus correspondu
eut correspondu

emes correspondu
etes correspondu
eurent correspondu

aurai correspondu
auras correspondu
aura correspondu

aurons correspondu
aurez correspondu
auront correspondu

aurais correspondu
aurais correspondu
aurait correspondu

aurions correspondu
auriez correspondu
auraient correspondu

Past
correspondions
correspondiez
correspondent

Imperfect
correspondisse
correspondisses
correspondt

avais correspondu
avais correspondu
avait correspondu

Conditional Perfect
correspondrions
correspondriez
correspondraient

Present
corresponde
correspondes
corresponde

avons correspondu
avez correspondu
ont correspondu

Future Perfect
correspondrons
correspondrez
correspondront

Conditional
correspondrais
correspondrais
correspondrait

ai correspondu
as correspondu
a correspondu

Pass Antrieur
correspondmes
correspondtes
correspondirent

Future
correspondrai
correspondras
correspondra

Plural

Pluperfect
correspondions
correspondiez
correspondaient

Pass Simple
correspondis
correspondis
correspondit

Singular
Pass Compos

aie correspondu
aies correspondu
ait correspondu

ayons correspondu
ayez correspondu
aient correspondu

Pluperfect
correspondissions
correspondissiez
correspondissent

eusse correspondu
eusses correspondu
et correspondu

eussions correspondu
eussiez correspondu
eussent correspondu

Note: As a reflexive verb, se correspondre (to correspond with each other) uses the reflexive
pronouns se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 5
demonstrates reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Sa version de laccident ne correspond pas
avec la vtre.
Combien de livres correspondent un
kilogramme?
Javais correspondu avec mon ami plusieurs
fois.
Son tmoignage naurait pas correspondu
celui de M. Blanc.
Elle se sont correspondues.

Her version of the accident doesnt


correspond with yours.
How many pounds equal a kilogram?
I had corresponded with my friend several
times.
His testimony wouldnt have corresponded
with that of Mr. White.
They corresponded with each other.

corriger / 219

corriger
to correct
Present participle: corrigeant Past participle: corrig
Imperative: corrige, corrigez, corrigeons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

corrige
corriges
corrige
Imperfect

corrigeons
corrigez
corrigent

ai corrig
as corrig
a corrig
Pluperfect

avons corrig
avez corrig
ont corrig

corrigeais
corrigeais
corrigeait
Pass Simple

corrigions
corrigiez
corrigeaient

avais corrig
avais corrig
avait corrig
Pass Antrieur

avions corrig
aviez corrig
avaient corrig

corrigeai
corrigeas
corrigea
Future

corrigemes
corrigetes
corrigrent

eus corrig
eus corrig
eut corrig
Future Perfect

emes corrig
etes corrig
eurent corrig

corrigerai
corrigeras
corrigera
Conditional

corrigerons
corrigerez
corrigeront

aurai corrig
auras corrig
aura corrig
Conditional Perfect

aurons corrig
aurez corrig
auront corrig

corrigerais
corrigerais
corrigerait
Present

corrigerions
corrigeriez
corrigeraient

aurais corrig
aurais corrig
aurait corrig
Past

aurions corrig
auriez corrig
auraient corrig

corrige
corriges
corrige
Imperfect

corrigions
corrigiez
corrigent

aie corrig
aies corrig
ait corrig
Pluperfect

ayons corrig
ayez corrig
aient corrig

corrigeasse
corrigeasses
corriget

corrigeassions eusse corrig


corrigeassiez
eusses corrig
corrigeassent et corrig

eussions corrig
eussiez corrig
eussent corrig

EXAMPLES
Corrigez vos devoirs.
Je te corrigerai si tu fais des fautes.
Il a corrig son jugement sur moi.
Le rdacteur avait dj corrig le manuscrit.

Correct your homework.


Ill correct you if you make mistakes.
He changed his opinion of me.
The editor had already corrected the
manuscript.

220 / corrompre

corrompre
to corrupt
Present participle: corrompant Past participle: corrompu
Imperative: corromps, corrompez, corrompons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

corromps
corromps
corrompt
Imperfect

corrompons
corrompez
corrompent

ai corrompu
as corrompu
a corrompu
Pluperfect

avons corrompu
avez corrompu
ont corrompu

corrompais
corrompais
corrompait
Pass Simple

corrompions
corrompiez
corrompaient

avais corrompu
avais corrompu
avait corrompu
Pass Antrieur

avions corrompu
aviez corrompu
avaient corrompu

corrompis
corrompis
corrompit
Future

corrompmes
corromptes
corrompirent

eus corrompu
eus corrompu
eut corrompu
Future Perfect

emes corrompu
etes corrompu
eurent corrompu

corromprai
corrompras
corrompra
Conditional

corromprons
corromprez
corrompront

aurai corrompu
auras corrompu
aura corrompu
Conditional Perfect

aurons corrompu
aurez corrompu
auront corrompu

corromprais
corromprais
corromprait
Present

corromprions
corrompriez
corrompraient

aurais corrompu
aurais corrompu
aurait corrompu
Past

aurions corrompu
auriez corrompu
auraient corrompu

corrompe
corrompes
corrompe
Imperfect

corrompions
corrompiez
corrompent

aie corrompu
aies corrompu
ait corrompu
Pluperfect

ayons corrompu
ayez corrompu
aient corrompu

corrompisse
corrompisses
corrompt

corrompissions eusse corrompu


corrompissiez eusses corrompu
corrompissent et corrompu

eussions corrompu
eussiez corrompu
eussent corrompu

Note: As a reflexive verb, se corrompre (to become corrupt) uses the reflexive pronouns me,
te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 5 demonstrates reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
La base de donnes est corrompue.
On corrompt le juge pour quil dcharge
laccus.
Il est douteux quon corrompe la langue
franaise.
On na pas encore corrompu son esprit.
Les moeurs ne se corrompent pas
facilement.

The database is corrupted.


They bribe the judge so that he will acquit
the accused.
It is doubtful that the French language will
be corrupted.
They havent as yet corrupted his spirit.
Customs dont easily become corrupted.

se coucher / 221

se coucher
to go to bed
Present participle: se couchant Past participle: couch
Imperative: couche-toi, couchez-vous, couchons-nous
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present
me couche
te couches
se couche

nous couchons
vous couchez
se couchent

Imperfect

Indicative

me couchais
te couchais
se couchait

Subjunctive

Imperfect
me couchasse
te couchasses
se coucht

mtais couch(e)
ttais couch(e)
stait couch(e)

nous tions couch(e)s


vous tiez couch(e)(s)
staient couch(e)s

me fus couch(e)
te fus couch(e)
se fut couch(e)

nous fmes couch(e)s


vous ftes couch(e)(s)
se furent couch(e)s

me serai couch(e)
te seras couch(e)
se sera couch(e)

nous serons couch(e)s


vous serez couch(e)(s)
se seront couch(e)s

Conditional Perfect
nous coucherions
vous coucheriez
se coucheraient

Present
me couche
te couches
se couche

nous sommes couch(e)s


vous tes couch(e)(s)
se sont couch(e)s

Future Perfect
nous coucherons
vous coucherez
se coucheront

Conditional
me coucherais
te coucherais
se coucherait

me suis couch(e)
tes couch(e)
sest couch(e)

Pass Antrieur
nous couchmes
vous couchtes
se couchrent

Future
me coucherai
te coucheras
se couchera

Plural

Pluperfect
nous couchions
vous couchiez
se couchaient

Pass Simple
me couchai
te couchas
se coucha

Singular
Pass Compos

me serais couch(e)
te serais couch(e)
se serait couch(e)

nous serions couch(e)s


vous seriez couch(e)(s)
se seraient couch(e)s

Past
nous couchions
vous couchiez
se couchent

me sois couch(e)
te sois couch(e)
se soit couch(e)

nous soyons couch(e)s


vous soyez couch(e)(s)
se soient couch(e)s

Pluperfect
nous couchassions me fusse couch(e)
vous couchassiez te fusses couch(e)
se couchassent
se ft couch(e)

nous fussions couch(e)s


vous fussiez couch(e)
se fussent couch(e)s

Note: Coucher may be used nonreflexively with avoir as its helping verb. Examples 5, 6, 7, 8,
and 9 demonstrate the nonreflexive use of this verb.

EXAMPLES
Couche-toi!
Nous nous coucherons comme les poules.
Le policier stait couch sur le vieillard
pour le protger.
Elles ne se sont pas couches avant minuit.
Elle a couch ses enfants.
Cet htel peut coucher cinquante personnes.
On navait pas couch une phrase
importante dans le contrat.
Ils ont couch chez moi.
Ils ne couchent pas ensemble.

Go to bed.
We will go to bed early.
The police officer had lain down on the
older man to protect him.
They didnt go to bed before midnight.
She put her children to bed.
That hotel can put up fifty people.
They hadnt put an important phrase in the
contract.
They slept at my house.
They arent sleeping together.

222 / coudre

coudre
to sew
Present participle: cousant Past participle: cousu
Imperative: couds, cousez, cousons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

couds
couds
coud
Imperfect

cousons
cousez
cousent

ai cousu
as cousu
a cousu
Pluperfect

avons cousu
avez cousu
ont cousu

cousais
cousais
cousait
Pass Simple

cousions
cousiez
cousaient

avais cousu
avais cousu
avait cousu
Pass Antrieur

avions cousu
aviez cousu
avaient cousu

cousis
cousis
cousit
Future

cousmes
coustes
cousirent

eus cousu
eus cousu
eut cousu
Future Perfect

emes cousu
etes cousu
eurent cousu

coudrai
coudras
coudra
Conditional

coudrons
coudrez
coudront

aurai cousu
auras cousu
aura cousu
Conditional Perfect

aurons cousu
aurez cousu
auront cousu

coudrais
coudrais
coudrait
Present

coudrions
coudirez
coudraient

aurais cousu
aurais cousu
aurait cousu
Past

aurions cousu
auriez cousu
auraient cousu

couse
couses
couse
Imperfect

cousions
cousiez
cousent

aie cousu
aies cousu
ait cousu
Pluperfect

ayons cousu
ayez cousu
aient cousu

cousisse
cousisses
coust

cousissions
cousissiez
cousissent

eusse cousu
eusses cousu
et cousu

eussions cousu
eussiez cousu
eussent cousu

EXAMPLES
Ma soeur coud un bouton pour moi.
Sa grand-mre cousait tout par main.
Qui a cousu cette robe?
La couturire aura cousu seulement une
jupe la machine avant la fin de la journe.

My sister is sewing on a button for me.


Her grandmother used to sew everything
by hand.
Who sewed this dress?
The seamstress will have sewn only one
skirt by machine before the end of the day.

couper / 223

couper
to cut
Present participle: coupant Past participle: coup
Imperative: coupe, coupez, coupons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

coupe
coupes
coupe
Imperfect

coupons
coupez
coupent

ai coup
as coup
a coup
Pluperfect

avons coup
avez coup
ont coup

coupais
coupais
coupait
Pass Simple

coupions
coupiez
coupaient

avais coup
avais coup
avait coup
Pass Antrieur

avions coup
aviez coup
avaient coup

coupai
coupas
coupa
Future

coupmes
couptes
couprent

eus coup
eus coup
eut coup
Future Perfect

emes coup
etes coup
eurent coup

couperai
couperas
coupera
Conditional

couperons
couperez
couperont

aurai coup
auras coup
aura coup
Conditional Perfect

aurons coup
aurez coup
auront coup

couperais
couperais
couperait
Present

couperions
couperiez
couperaient

aurais coup
aurais coup
aurait coup
Past

aurions coup
auriez coup
auraient coup

coupe
coupes
coupe
Imperfect

coupions
coupiez
coupent

aie coup
aies coup
ait coup
Pluperfect

ayons coup
ayez coup
aient coup

coupasse
coupasses
coupt

coupassions
coupassiez
coupassent

eusse coup
eusses coup
et coup

eussions coup
eussiez coup
eussent coup

Note: As a reflexive verb, se couper (to cut [for] oneself) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te,
se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 9 and 10
demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Coupe-moi une tranche de fromage.
Coupez les cartes.
Le boulanger coupe le pain.
Elle coupe avec Roland.
Il en avait les jambes coupes.
a ma coup lapptit.
Ils ont coup leur voyage pour se reposer.
Il avait coup le contact.
Elle sest coup les ongles.
Je mtais coup.

Cut me a slice of cheese.


Cut the cards.
The baker is cutting the bread.
Shes breaking up with Roland.
He was stunned.
That took away my appetite.
They broke up their trip to rest.
He had cut off the ignition.
She cut her nails.
I had cut myself.

224 / courir

courir
to run
Present participle: courant Past participle: couru
Imperative: cours, courez, courons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

cours
cours
court
Imperfect
courais
courais
courait
Pass Simple

courons
courez
courent

ai couru
as couru
a couru
Pluperfect
avais couru
avais couru
avait couru
Pass Antrieur

avons couru
avez couru
ont couru

courus
courus
courut
Future

courmes
courtes
coururent

eus couru
eus couru
eut couru
Future Perfect

emes couru
etes couru
eurent couru

courrai
courras
courra
Conditional

courrons
courrez
courront

aurai couru
auras couru
aura couru
Conditional Perfect

aurons couru
aurez couru
auront couru

courrais
courrais
courrait
Present

courrions
courriez
courraient

aurais couru
aurais couru
aurait couru
Past

aurions couru
auriez couru
auraient couru

coure
coures
coure
Imperfect

courions
couriez
courent

aie couru
aies couru
ait couru
Pluperfect

ayons couru
ayez couru
aient couru

courusse
courusses
court

courussions
courussiez
courussent

eusse couru
eusses couru
et couru

eussions couru
eussiez couru
eussent couru

courions
couriez
couraient

avions couru
aviez couru
avaient couru

EXAMPLES
Il est tomb en courant.
Courez!
Tu cours vite.
Le bruit court quils se marieront.
Sa brosse courait sur la toile.
Laisse courir!
Ils couraient leur ruine.
Il faut que je coure chez le docteur.
Il a couru les cent mtres.
Elle avait couru les magasins toute la
matine.
Auriez-vous couru ce risque?

He fell while running.


Run!
You run quickly.
Rumor has it that they will get married.
His brush was racing across the canvas.
Drop it!
They were headed for disaster.
I have to run to the doctor.
He ran the 100 meter dash.
She had been roaming the stores all
morning.
Would you have run that risk?

coter / 225

coter
to cost
Present participle: cotant Past participle: cot
Imperative: cote, cotez, cotons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

cote
cotes
cote
Imperfect

cotons
cotez
cotent

ai cot
as cot
a cot
Pluperfect

avons cot
avez cot
ont cot

cotais
cotais
cotait
Pass Simple

cotions
cotiez
cotaient

avais cot
avais cot
avait cot
Pass Antrieur

avions cot
aviez cot
avaient cot

cotai
cotas
cota
Future

cotmes
cottes
cotrent

eus cot
eus cot
eut cot
Future Perfect

emes cot
etes cot
eurent cot

coterai
coteras
cotera
Conditional

coterons
coterez
coteront

aurai cot
auras cot
aura cot
Conditional Perfect

aurons cot
aurez cot
auront cot

coterais
coterais
coterait
Present

coterions
coteriez
coteraient

aurais cot
aurais cot
aurait cot
Past

aurions cot
auriez cot
auraient cot

cote
cotes
cote
Imperfect

cotions
cotiez
cotent

aie cot
aies cot
ait cot
Pluperfect

ayons cot
ayez cot
aient cot

cotasse
cotasses
cott

cotassions
cotassiez
cotassent

eusse cot
eusses cot
et cot

eussions cot
eussiez cot
eussent cot

EXAMPLES
a cote combien?
a cote les yeux de la tte.
a ne cote rien dessayer.
Je le ferai cote que cote.
a cotera cher.
a ma cot mille dollars.
Cette faute lavait cot cher.

How much does that cost?


That costs a fortune.
It costs nothing to try.
Ill do it no matter what.
That will cost a lot.
That cost me $1,000.
That mistake had cost him a lot.

226 / couvrir

couvrir
to cover
Present participle: couvrant Past participle: couvert
Imperative: couvre, couvrez, couvrons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

couvre
couvres
couvre
Imperfect

couvrons
couvrez
couvrent

ai couvert
as couvert
a couvert
Pluperfect

avons couvert
avez couvert
ont couvert

couvrais
couvrais
couvrait
Pass Simple

couvrions
couvriez
couvraient

avais couvert
avais couvert
avait couvert
Pass Antrieur

avions couvert
aviez couvert
avaient couvert

couvris
couvris
couvrit
Future

couvrmes
couvrtes
couvrirent

eus couvert
eus couvert
eut couvert
Future Perfect

emes couvert
etes couvert
eurent couvert

couvrirai
couvriras
couvrira
Conditional

couvrirons
couvrirez
couvriront

aurai couvert
auras couvert
aura couvert
Conditional Perfect

aurons couvert
aurez couvert
auront couvert

couvrirais
couvrirais
couvrirait
Present

couvririons
couvririez
couvriraient

aurais couvert
aurais couvert
aurait couvert
Past

aurions couvert
auriez couvert
auraient couvert

couvre
couvres
couvre
Imperfect

couvrions
couvriez
couvrent

aie couvert
aies couvert
ait couvert
Pluperfect

ayons couvert
ayez couvert
aient couvert

couvrisse
couvrisses
couvrt

couvrissions
couvrissiez
couvrissent

eusse couvert
eusses couvert
et couvert

eussions couvert
eussiez couvert
eussent couvert

Note: As a reflexive verb, se couvrir (to cover oneself) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se,
nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 8, 9, and 10
demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Un chapeau lui couvre la tte.
Des photos couvraient tout un mur.
Il faut que les journalistes couvrent cet
vnement.
Elle aurait d couvrir son erreur.
Il ma couverte de baisers.
La musique avait couvert les bruits de la rue.
Nous aurons couvert mille kilomtres avant
la fin du voyage.
Couvrez-vous bien.
Le temps se couvrait.
Le jardin sest couvert de fleurs.

A hat covers his head.


Photographs covered an entire wall.
The journalists have to cover that event.
She should have covered up her mistake.
He showered me with kisses.
Music had covered the street noises.
We will have covered 1,000 kilometers
before the end of the trip.
Cover yourself well.
The weather was getting cloudy.
The garden came into bloom.

craindre / 227

craindre
to fear
Present participle: craignant Past participle: craint
Imperative: crains, craignez, craignons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

crains
crains
craint
Imperfect

craignons
craignez
craignent

ai craint
as craint
a craint
Pluperfect

avons craint
avez craint
ont craint

craignais
craignais
craignait
Pass Simple

craignions
craigniez
craignaient

avais craint
avais craint
avait craint
Pass Antrieur

avions craint
aviez craint
avaient craint

craignis
craignis
craignit
Future

craignmes
craigntes
craignirent

eus craint
eus craint
eut craint
Future Perfect

emes craint
etes craint
eurent craint

craindrai
craindras
craindra
Conditional

craindrons
craindrez
craindront

aurai craint
auras craint
aura craint
Conditional Perfect

aurons craint
aurez craint
auront craint

craindrais
craindrais
craindrait
Present

craindrions
craindriez
craindraient

aurais craint
aurais craint
aurait craint
Past

aurions craint
auriez craint
auraient craint

craigne
craignes
craigne
Imperfect

craignions
craigniez
craignent

aie craint
aies craint
ait craint
Pluperfect

ayons craint
ayez craint
aient craint

craignisse
craignisses
craignt

craignissions
craignissiez
craignissent

eusse craint
eusses craint
et craint

eussions craint
eussiez craint
eussent craint

EXAMPLES
Je ne crains rien.
Il craignait le pire.
Il est regrettable quelle craigne de manquer
lavion.
Elle naurait pas craint la mort.

Im not afraid of anything.


He feared the worst.
Its regrettable that she is afraid of missing
the plane.
She wouldnt have feared death.

228 / crer

crer
to create, to design
Present participle: crant Past participle: cr
Imperative: cre, crez, crons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

cre
cres
cre
Imperfect

crons
crez
crent

ai cr
as cr
a cr
Pluperfect

avons cr
avez cr
ont cr

crais
crais
crait
Pass Simple

crions
criez
craient

avais cr
avais cr
avait cr
Pass Antrieur

avions cr
aviez cr
avaient cr

crai
cras
cra
Future

crmes
crtes
crrent

eus cr
eus cr
eut cr
Future Perfect

emes cr
etes cr
eurent cr

crerai
creras
crera
Conditional

crerons
crerez
creront

aurai cr
auras cr
aura cr
Conditional Perfect

aurons cr
aurez cr
auront cr

crerais
crerais
crerait
Present

crerions
creriez
creraient

aurais cr
aurais cr
aurait cr
Past

aurions cr
auriez cr
auraient cr

cre
cres
cre
Imperfect

crions
criez
crent

aie cr
aies cr
ait cr
Pluperfect

ayons cr
ayez cr
aient cr

crasse
crasses
crt

crassions
crassiez
crassent

eusse cr
eusses cr
et cr

eussions cr
eussiez cr
eussent cr

EXAMPLES
Mon ami cre des bijoux.
Lamiti, a cre quelquefois des difficults.
Elle crera une bonne impression. Jen suis
sr.
Il avait cr une nouvelle ligne de vtements
la mode.
Avez-vous cr cette histoire de toutes
pices?

My friend designs jewelry.


Friendship sometimes causes problems.
She will give a good impression. Im sure
of that.
He had created a new line of fashionable
clothing.
Did you create this story from beginning
to end?

crever / 229

crever
to burst, to puncture
Present participle: crevant Past participle: crev
Imperative: crve, crevez, crevons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

crve
crves
crve
Imperfect

crevons
crevez
crvent

ai crev
as crev
a crev
Pluperfect

avons crev
avez crev
ont crev

crevais
crevais
crevait
Pass Simple

crevions
creviez
crevaient

avais crev
avais crev
avait crev
Pass Antrieur

avions crev
aviez crev
avaient crev

crevai
crevas
creva
Future

crevmes
crevtes
crevrent

eus crev
eus crev
eut crev
Future Perfect

emes crev
etes crev
eurent crev

crverai
crveras
crvera
Conditional

creverons
creverez
crveront

aurai crev
auras crev
aura crev
Conditional Perfect

aurons crev
aurez crev
auront crev

crverais
crverais
crverait
Present

creverions
creveriez
crveraient

aurais crev
aurais crev
aurait crev
Past

aurions crev
auriez crev
auraient crev

crve
crves
crve
Imperfect

crevions
creviez
crvent

aie crev
aies crev
ait crev
Pluperfect

ayons crev
ayez crev
aient crev

crevasse
crevasses
crevt

crevassions
crevassiez
crevassent

eusse crev
eusses crev
et crev

eussions crev
eussiez crev
eussent crev

EXAMPLES
Je crve de faim.
Nous avons un pneu crev.
a te crve les yeux.
Ses parents crevaient dorgueil.
Les nuages ont crev.
Les prix ont crev le plafond.
Elle avait crev son coeur.

Im dying of hunger.
We have a flat tire.
Its as plain as the nose on your face.
His parents were bursting with pride.
The clouds burst.
Prices have gone through the ceiling.
She had broken his heart.

230 / crier

crier
to scream
Present participle: criant Past participle: cri
Imperative: crie, criez, crions

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

crie
cries
crie
Imperfect

crions
criez
crient

ai cri
as cri
a cri
Pluperfect

avons cri
avez cri
ont cri

criais
criais
criait
Pass Simple

criions
criiez
criaient

avais cri
avais cri
avait cri
Pass Antrieur

avions cri
aviez cri
avaient cri

criai
crias
cria
Future

crimes
crites
crirent

eus cri
eus cri
eut cri
Future Perfect

emes cri
etes cri
eurent cri

crierai
crieras
criera
Conditional

crierons
crierez
crieront

aurai cri
auras cri
aura cri
Conditional Perfect

aurons cri
aurez cri
auront cri

crierais
crierais
crierait
Present

crierions
crieriez
crieraient

aurais cri
aurais cri
aurait cri
Past

aurions cri
auriez cri
auraient cri

crie
cries
crie
Imperfect

criions
criiez
crient

aie cri
aies cri
ait cri
Pluperfect

ayons cri
ayez cri
aient cri

criasse
criasses
crit

criassions
criassiez
criassent

eusse cri
eusses cri
et cri

eussions cri
eussiez cri
eussent cri

EXAMPLES
Ne crie plus!
Tant pis!, cria-t-elle.
Jai cri tue-tte.
Elles avaient trop souvent cri au loup.

Stop shouting!
Too bad!, she screamed.
I screamed at the top of my lungs.
They had cried wolf too often.

critiquer / 231

critiquer
to criticize
Present participle: critiquant Past participle: critiqu
Imperative: critique, critiquez, critiquons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

critique
critiques
critique
Imperfect

critiquons
critiquez
critiquent

ai critiqu
as critiqu
a critiqu
Pluperfect

avons critiqu
avez critiqu
ont critiqu

critiquais
critiquais
critiquait
Pass Simple

critiquions
critiquiez
critiquaient

avais critiqu
avais critiqu
avait critiqu
Pass Antrieur

avions critiqu
aviez critiqu
avaient critiqu

critiquai
critiquas
critiqua
Future

critiqumes
critiqutes
critiqurent

eus critiqu
eus critiqu
eut critiqu
Future Perfect

emes critiqu
etes critiqu
eurent critiqu

critiquerai
critiqueras
critiquera
Conditional

critiquerons
critiquerez
critiqueront

aurai critiqu
auras critiqu
aura critiqu
Conditional Perfect

aurons critiqu
aurez critiqu
auront critiqu

critiquerais
critiquerais
critiquerait
Present

critiquerions
critiqueriez
critiqueraient

aurais critiqu
aurais critiqu
aurait critiqu
Past

aurions critiqu
auriez critiqu
auraient critiqu

critique
critiques
critique
Imperfect

critiquions
critiquiez
critiquent

aie critiqu
aies critiqu
ait critiqu
Pluperfect

ayons critiqu
ayez critiqu
aient critiqu

critiquasse
critiquasses
critiqut

critiquassions
critiquassiez
critiquassent

eusse critiqu
eusses critiqu
et critiqu

eussions critiqu
eussiez critiqu
eussent critiqu

EXAMPLES
Ne critiquez pas tout le monde.
Pourquoi est-ce que tu critiques tout?
Elle ma critiqu.
Il avait critiqu le nouveau roman de cet
auteur.

Dont criticize everybody.


Why do you criticize everything?
She criticized me.
He had critically examined the new novel
of that author.

232 / croire

croire
to believe
Present participle: croyant Past participle: cru
Imperative: crois, croyez, croyons
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present
crois
crois
croit

croyons
croyez
croient

Imperfect

Indicative

croyais
croyais
croyait

avais cru
avais cru
avait cru

crmes
crtes
crurent

eus cru
eus cru
eut cru

Subjunctive

emes cru
etes cru
eurent cru

aurai cru
auras cru
aura cru

aurons cru
aurez cru
auront cru

Conditional Perfect
croirions
croiriez
croiraient

aurais cru
aurais cru
aurait cru

aurions cru
auriez cru
auraient cru

Past
croyions
croyiez
croient

Imperfect
crusse
crusses
crt

avions cru
aviez cru
avaient cru

Future Perfect
croirons
croirez
croiront

Present
croie
croies
croie

avons cru
avez cru
ont cru

Pass Antrieur

Conditional
croirais
croirais
croirait

Plural

Pluperfect

Future
croirai
croiras
croira

ai cru
as cru
a cru

croyions
croyiez
croyaient

Pass Simple
crus
crus
crut

Singular
Pass Compos

aie cru
aies cru
ait cru

ayons cru
ayez cru
aient cru

Pluperfect
crussions
crussiez
crussent

eusse cru
eusses cru
et cru

eussions cru
eussiez cru
eussent cru

Note: As a reflexive verb, se croire (to believe oneself to be) uses the reflexive pronouns me,
te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 10 and
11 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Crois-moi.
Je ne le crois pas.
Croyez-vous que oui?
Il nen croit rien.
Elle croit toujours au Pre Nol.
Crois-tu ce rendez-vous important?
Il croyait avoir perdu son cellulaire.
Personne na rpondu alors jai cru quils
sont sortis.
Leurs parents ne les auraient pas cru.
Ils se croient importants.
On se croirait en vacances.

Believe me.
I dont believe it.
Do you think so?
He doesnt believe a word of it.
She still believes in Santa Claus.
Do you think this meeting is important?
He believed he lost his cell phone.
Nobody answered so I thought they went
out.
Their parents wouldnt have believed them.
They think they are important. (They believe
themselves to be important.)
We feel like were on vacation.

crotre / 233

crotre
to grow
Present participle: croissant Past participle: cr
Imperative: cros, croissez, croissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

cros
cros
crot
Imperfect

croissons
croissez
croissent

ai cr
as cr
a cr
Pluperfect

avons cr
avez cr
ont cr

croissais
croissais
croissait
Pass Simple

croissions
croissiez
croissaient

avais cr
avais cr
avait cr
Pass Antrieur

avions cr
aviez cr
avaient cr

crs
crs
crt
Future

crmes
crtes
crrent

eus cr
eus cr
eut cr
Future Perfect

emes cr
etes cr
eurent cr

crotrai
crotras
crotra
Conditional

crotrons
crotrez
crotront

aurai cr
auras cr
aura cr
Conditional Perfect

aurons cr
aurez cr
auront cr

crotrais
crotrais
crotrait
Present

crotrions
crotriez
crotraient

aurais cr
aurais cr
aurait cr
Past

aurions cr
auriez cr
auraient cr

croisse
croisses
croisse
Imperfect

crossions
crossiez
croissent

aie cr
aies cr
ait cr
Pluperfect

ayons cr
ayez cr
aient cr

crsse
crsses
crt

crssions
crssiez
crssent

eusse cr
eusses cr
et cr

eussions cr
eussiez cr
eussent cr

EXAMPLES
Cette fille crot en sagesse.
Les nuits croissent.
Lconomie croissait rapidement.
Leurs inquitudes navaient pas cr.
Il ntait pas surprenant que son
enthousiasme ait cr.

That girl is growing in wisdom.


The nights are getting longer.
The economy was rapidly growing.
Their worries hadnt grown.
It wasnt surprising that his enthusiasm
grew.

234 / cueillir

cueillir
to gather, to pick
Present participle: cueillant Past participle: cueilli
Imperative: cueille, cueillez, cueillons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

cueille
cueilles
cueille
Imperfect

cueillons
cueillez
cueillent

ai cueilli
as cueilli
a cueilli
Pluperfect

avons cueilli
avez cueilli
ont cueilli

cueillais
cueillais
cueillait
Pass Simple

cueillions
cueilliez
cueillaient

avais cueilli
avais cueilli
avait cueilli
Pass Antrieur

avions cueilli
aviez cueilli
avaient cueilli

cueillis
cueillis
cueillit
Future

cueillmes
cueilltes
cueillirent

eus cueilli
eus cueilli
eut cueilli
Future Perfect

emes cueilli
etes cueilli
eurent cueilli

cueillirai
cueilliras
cueillira
Conditional

cueillirons
cueillirez
cueilliront

aurai cueilli
auras cueilli
aura cueilli
Conditional Perfect

aurons cueilli
aurez cueilli
auront cueilli

cueillirais
cueillirais
cueillirait
Present

cueillirions
cueilliriez
cueilliraient

aurais cueilli
aurais cueilli
aurait cueilli
Past

aurions cueilli
auriez cueilli
auraient cueilli

cueille
cueilles
cueille
Imperfect

cueillions
cueilliez
cueillent

aie cueilli
aies cueilli
ait cueilli
Pluperfect

ayons cueilli
ayez cueilli
aient cueilli

cueillisse
cueillisses
cueillt

cueillissions
cueillissiez
cueillissent

eusse cueilli
eusses cueilli
et cueilli

eussions cueilli
eussiez cueilli
eussent cueilli

EXAMPLES
Ne cueillez pas les fleurs.
Elles cueillent des poires.
Il faut que nous cueillions des fraises.
Ils ont cueilli les pommes.

Dont pick the flowers.


They are gathering pears.
We have to pick strawberries.
They picked apples.

cuire / 235

cuire
to cook
Present participle: cuissant Past participle: cuit
Imperative: cuis, cuisez, cuisons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

cuis
cuis
cuit
Imperfect

cuisons
cuisez
cuisent

ai cuit
as cuit
a cuit
Pluperfect

avons cuit
avez cuit
ont cuit

cuisais
cuisais
cuisait
Pass Simple

cuisions
cuisiez
cuisaient

avais cuit
avais cuit
avait cuit
Pass Antrieur

avions cuit
aviez cuit
avaient cuit

cuisais
cuisais
cuisait
Future

cuisions
cuisiez
cuisaient

eus cuit
eus cuit
eut cuit
Future Perfect

emes cuit
etes cuit
eurent cuit

cuirai
cuiras
cuira
Conditional

cuirons
cuirez
cuiront

aurai cuit
auras cuit
aura cuit
Conditional Perfect

aurons cuit
aurez cuit
auront cuit

cuirais
cuirais
cuirait
Present

cuirions
cuiriez
cuiraient

aurais cuit
aurais cuit
aurait cuit
Past

aurions cuit
auriez cuit
auraient cuit

cuise
cuises
cuise
Imperfect

cuisions
cuisiez
cuisent

aie cuit
aies cuit
ait cuit
Pluperfect

ayons cuit
ayez cuit
aient cuit

cuisisse
cuisisses
cuist

cuisissons
cuisissiez
cuisissent

eusse cuit
eusses cuit
et cuit

eussions cuit
eussiez cuit
eussent cuit

EXAMPLES
Laissez cuire feu doux.
Les pommes cuisent dans leur jus.
Il cuisaient au soleil.
Mes yeux me cuisaient.
Elle a cuit le repas.
Il aurait cuit les lgumes.

Cook gently.
The apples cook in their juice.
They were roasting in the sun.
My eyes were burning me.
She cooked the meal.
He would have cooked the vegetables.

236 / cuisiner

cuisiner
to cook
Present participle: cuisinant Past participle: cuisin
Imperative: cuisine, cuisinez, cuisinons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

cuisine
cuisines
cuisine
Imperfect

cuisinons
cuisinez
cuisinent

ai cuisin
as cuisin
a cuisin
Pluperfect

avons cuisin
avez cuisin
ont cuisin

cuisinais
cuisinais
cuisinait
Pass Simple

cuisinions
cuisiniez
cuisinaient

avais cuisin
avais cuisin
avait cuisin
Pass Antrieur

avions cuisin
aviez cuisin
avaient cuisin

cuisinai
cuisinas
cuisina
Future

cuisinmes
cuisintes
cuisinrent

eus cuisin
eus cuisin
eut cuisin
Future Perfect

emes cuisin
etes cuisin
eurent cuisin

cuisinerai
cuisineras
cuisinera
Conditional

cuisinerons
cuisinerez
cuisineront

aurai cuisin
auras cuisin
aura cuisin
Conditional Perfect

aurons cuisin
aurez cuisin
auront cuisin

cuisinerais
cuisinerais
cuisinerait
Present

cuisinerions
cuisineriez
cuisineraient

aurais cuisin
aurais cuisin
aurait cuisin
Past

aurions cuisin
auriez cuisin
auraient cuisin

cuisine
cuisines
cuisine
Imperfect

cuisinions
cuisiniez
cuisinent

aie cuisin
aies cuisin
ait cuisin
Pluperfect

ayons cuisin
ayez cuisin
aient cuisin

cuisinasse
cuisinasses
cuisint

cuisinassions
cuisinassiez
cuisinassent

eusse cuisin
eusses cuisin
et cuisin

eussions cuisin
eussiez cuisin
eussent cuisin

EXAMPLES
Cuisinez-vous bien?
Ne lui parle pas quand elle cuisine.
Jai cuisin hier soir.
tais-tu surpris que jaie cuisin ce repas?

Do you cook well?


Dont talk to her while she is cooking.
I cooked last night.
Were you surprised that I cooked that
meal?

danser / 237

danser
to dance
Present participle: dansant Past participle: dans
Imperative: danse, dansez, dansons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

danse
danses
danse
Imperfect

dansons
dansez
dansent

ai dans
as dans
a dans
Pluperfect

avons dans
avez dans
ont dans

dansais
dansais
dansait
Pass Simple

dansions
dansiez
dansaient

avais dans
avais dans
avait dans
Pass Antrieur

avions dans
aviez dans
avaient dans

dansai
dansas
dansa
Future

dansmes
danstes
dansrent

eus dans
eus dans
eut dans
Future Perfect

emes dans
etes dans
eurent dans

danserai
danseras
dansera
Conditional

danserons
danserez
danseront

aurai dans
auras dans
aura dans
Conditional Perfect

aurons dans
aurez dans
auront dans

danserais
danserais
danserait
Present

danserions
danseriez
danseraient

aurais dans
aurais dans
aurait dans
Past

aurions dans
auriez dans
auraient dans

danse
danses
danse
Imperfect

dansions
dansiez
dansent

aie dans
aies dans
ait dans
Pluperfect

ayons dans
ayez dans
aient dans

dansasse
dansasses
danst

dansassions
dansassiez
dansassent

eusse dans
eusses dans
et dans

Eussions dans
eussiez dans
eussent dans

EXAMPLES
Voulez-vous danser avec moi?
Les mots dansaient devant mes yeux.
Il a trs bien dans le tango.
Tu avais dans drlement bien.

Would you like to dance with me?


The words were dancing in front of my
eyes.
He danced the tango very well.
You had danced rather well.

238 / dbarrasser

dbarrasser
to clear off, to get rid of
Present participle: dbarrassant Past participle: dbarrass
Imperative: dbarrasse, dbarrassez, dbarrassons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

dbarrasse
dbarrasses
dbarrasse
Imperfect

dbarrassons
dbarrassez
dbarrassent

ai dbarrass
as dbarrass
a dbarrass
Pluperfect

avons dbarrass
avez dbarrass
ont dbarrass

dbarrassais
dbarrassais
dbarrassait
Pass Simple

dbarrassions
dbarrassiez
dbarrassaient

avais dbarrass
avais dbarrass
avait dbarrass
Pass Antrieur

avions dbarrass
aviez dbarrass
avaient dbarrass

dbarrassai
dbarrassas
dbarrassa
Future

dbarrassmes
dbarrasstes
dbarrassrent

eus dbarrass
eus dbarrass
eut dbarrass
Future Perfect

emes dbarrass
etes dbarrass
eurent dbarrass

dbarrasserai
dbarrasseras
dbarrassera
Conditional

dbarrasserons
dbarrasserez
dbarrasseront

aurai dbarrass
auras dbarrass
aura dbarrass
Conditional Perfect

aurons dbarrass
aurez dbarrass
auront dbarrass

dbarrasserais
dbarrasserais
dbarrasserait
Present

dbarrasserions
dbarrasseriez
dbarrasseraient

aurais dbarrass
aurais dbarrass
aurait dbarrass
Past

aurions dbarrass
auriez dbarrass
auraient dbarrass

dbarrasse
dbarrasses
dbarrasse
Imperfect

dbarrassions
dbarrassiez
dbarrassent

aie dbarrass
aies dbarrass
ait dbarrass
Pluperfect

ayons dbarrass
ayez dbarrass
aient dbarrass

dbarrassasse
dbarrassasses
dbarrasst

dbarrassassions
dbarrassassiez
dbarrassassent

eusse dbarrass
eusses dbarrass
et dbarrass

eussions dbarrass
eussiez dbarrass
eussent dbarrass

Note: As a reflexive verb, se dbarrasser (de) (to get rid of) uses the reflexive pronouns me,
te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 5 and 6
demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Dbarrasse le plancher!
Ce docteur dbarrasse les gens de leurs
mauvaises habitudes.
Le garon na pas encore dbarrass la table.
Si tu avais fait tes devoirs plus tt tu en
serais dbarrass.
Dbarrasse-toi!
Elle ne stait pas dbarrasse de ses
mauvais sentiments.

Beat it!
That doctor relieves people of their bad
habits.
The waiter hasnt cleared the table yet.
If you had done your homework earlier,
you would have gotten it out of the way.
Put your things down!
She hadnt gotten rid of her bad feelings.

dbrouiller / 239

dbrouiller
to disentangle, to sort out
Present participle: dbrouillant Past participle: dbrouill
Imperative: dbrouille, dbrouillez, dbrouillons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

dbrouille
dbrouilles
dbrouille
Imperfect

dbrouillons
dbrouillez
dbrouillent

ai dbrouill
as dbrouill
a dbrouill
Pluperfect

avons dbrouill
avez dbrouill
ont dbrouill

dbrouillais
dbrouillais
dbrouillait
Pass Simple

dbrouillions
dbrouilliez
dbrouillaient

avais dbrouill
avais dbrouill
avait dbrouill
Pass Antrieur

avions dbrouill
aviez dbrouill
avaient dbrouill

dbrouillai
dbrouillas
dbrouilla
Future

dbrouillmes
dbrouilltes
dbrouillrent

eus dbrouill
eus dbrouill
eut dbrouill
Future Perfect

emes dbrouill
etes dbrouill
eurent dbrouill

dbrouillerai
dbrouilleras
dbrouillera
Conditional

dbrouillerons
dbrouillerez
dbrouilleront

aurai dbrouill
aurons dbrouill
auras dbrouill
aurez dbrouill
aura dbrouill
auront dbrouill
Conditional Perfect

dbrouillerais
dbrouillerais
dbrouillerait
Present

dbrouillerions
dbrouilleriez
dbrouilleraient

aurais dbrouill
aurais dbrouill
aurait dbrouill
Past

aurions dbrouill
auriez dbrouill
auraient dbrouill

dbrouille
dbrouilles
dbrouille
Imperfect

dbrouillions
dbrouilliez
dbrouillent

aie dbrouill
aies dbrouill
ait dbrouill
Pluperfect

ayons dbrouill
ayez dbrouill
aient dbrouill

dbrouillasse
dbrouillasses
dbrouillt

dbrouillassions
dbrouillassiez
dbrouillassent

eusse dbrouill
eusses dbrouill
et dbrouill

eussions dbrouill
eussiez dbrouill
eussent dbrouill

Note: As a reflexive verb, se dbrouiller (to manage) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se,
nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 5, 6, and 7
demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
On dbrouille les affaires.
Il dbrouillera lnigme.
Je lai dbrouill en franais.
On navait pas encore dbrouill le mystre.
Dbrouillez-vous!
Son fils se dbrouille bien.
Elles stait dbrouille pour obtenir une
augmentation de salaire.

They sort out the affairs.


He will unravel the enigma.
I taught him the basics of French.
They hadnt sorted out (untangled) the
mystery yet.
Sort things out for yourself.
Her son does well for himself.
She had somehow managed to get herself
a raise.

240 / dcevoir

dcevoir
to deceive, to disappoint
Present participle: dcevant Past participle: du
Imperative: dois, dcevez, dcevons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

dois
dois
doit
Imperfect

dcevons
dcevez
doivent

ai du
as du
a du
Pluperfect

avons du
avez du
ont du

dcevais
dcevais
dcevait
Pass Simple

dcevions
dceviez
dcevaient

avais du
avais du
avait du
Pass Antrieur

avions du
aviez du
avaient du

dus
dus
dut
Future

dmes
dtes
durent

eus du
eus du
eut du
Future Perfect

emes du
etes du
eurent du

dcevrai
dcevras
dcevra
Conditional

dcevrons
dcevrez
dcevront

aurai du
auras du
aura du
Conditional Perfect

aurons du
aurez du
auront du

dcevrais
dcevrais
dcevrait
Present

dcevrions
dcevriez
dcevraient

aurais du
aurais du
aurait du
Past

aurions du
auriez du
auraient du

doive
doives
doive
Imperfect

dcevions
dceviez
doivent

aie du
aies du
ait du
Pluperfect

ayons du
ayez du
aient du

dusse
dusses
dt

dusse
dusses
dut

eusse du
eusses du
et du

eussions du
eussiez du
eussent du

EXAMPLES
Il ne voulait pas decevoir mes esprits.
Je ne dcois jamais personne.
Tu mas du.
Il aurait t du par ta rponse.

He didnt want to dash my spirits.


I never disappoint anyone.
You disappointed me.
He would have been disappointed by your
response.

dchirer / 241

dchirer
to tear, to rip
Present participle: dchirant Past participle: dchir
Imperative: dchire, dchirez, dchirons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

dchire
dchires
dchire
Imperfect

dchirons
dchirez
dchirent

ai dchir
as dchir
a dchir
Pluperfect

avons dchir
avez dchir
ont dchir

dchirais
dchirais
dchirait
Pass Simple

dchirions
dchiriez
dchiraient

avais dchir
avais dchir
avait dchir
Pass Antrieur

avions dchir
aviez dchir
avaient dchir

dchirai
dchiras
dchira
Future

dchirmes
dchirtes
dchirrent

eus dchir
eus dchir
eut dchir
Future Perfect

emes dchir
etes dchir
eurent dchir

dchirerai
dchireras
dchirera
Conditional

dchirerons
dchirerez
dchireront

aurai dchir
auras dchir
aura dchir
Conditional Perfect

aurons dchir
aurez dchir
auront dchir

dchirerais
dchirerais
dchirerait
Present

dchirerions
dchireriez
dchireraient

aurais dchir
aurais dchir
aurait dchir
Past

aurions dchir
auriez dchir
auraient dchir

dchire
dchires
dchire
Imperfect

dchirions
dchiriez
dchirent

aie dchir
aies dchir
ait dchir
Pluperfect

ayons dchir
ayez dchir
aient dchir

dchirasse
dchirasses
dchirt

dchirassions
dchirassiez
dchirassent

eusse dchir
eusses dchir
et dchir

eussions dchir
eussiez dchir
eussent dchir

Note: As a reflexive verb, se dchirer (to tear, to rip, to burst) uses the reflexive pronouns me,
te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 7 and 8
demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Ne dchire pas ce papier.
La guerre civile continue dchirer le pays.
Il est dchir par la tristesse.
Elle a dchir le tissu en deux.
Le bruit des animaux avait dchir le
silence.
Aurais-tu dchir une recette de ce
magazine?
Son coeur sest dchir.
Elle va se dchirer.

Dont rip that paper.


Civil war continues to rip apart the country.
He is torn by sadness.
She tore the material in two.
The noise of animals had pierced the
silence.
Would you have ripped a recipe from that
magazine?
His heart broke.
She is going to tear her clothes.

242 / dcider

dcider
to decide
Present participle: dcidant Past participle: dcid
Imperative: dcide, dcidez, dcidons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

dcide
dcides
dcide
Imperfect

dcidons
dcidez
dcident

ai dcid
as dcid
a dcid
Pluperfect

avons dcid
avez dcid
ont dcid

dcidais
dcidais
dcidait
Pass Simple

dcidions
dcidiez
dcidaient

avais dcid
avais dcid
avait dcid
Pass Antrieur

avions dcid
aviez dcid
avaient dcid

dcidai
dcidas
dcida
Future

dcidmes
dcidtes
dcidrent

eus dcid
eus dcid
eut dcid
Future Perfect

emes dcid
etes dcid
eurent dcid

dciderai
dcideras
dcidera
Conditional

dciderons
dciderez
dcideront

aurai dcid
auras dcid
aura dcid
Conditional Perfect

aurons dcid
aurez dcid
auront dcid

dciderais
dciderais
dciderait
Present

dciderions
dcideriez
dcideraient

aurais dcid
aurais dcid
aurait dcid
Past

aurions dcid
auriez dcid
auraient dcid

dcide
dcides
dcide
Imperfect

dcidions
dcidiez
dcident

aie dcid
aies dcid
ait dcid
Pluperfect

ayons dcid
ayez dcid
aient dcid

dcidasse
dcidasses
dcidt

dcidassions
dcidassiez
dcidassent

eusse dcid
eusses dcid
et dcid

eussions dcid
eussiez dcid
eussent dcid

Note: As a reflexive verb, se dcider (to decide to) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se,
nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 6, 7, and 8
demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Cest lui de dcider son sort.
Cest toi qui dcide pour ta soeur?
Les rsultats de lenqute decideront
lurgence du problme.
Quest-ce que tu as dcid de faire?
Navait-il pas dcid de dmissioner?
Dcide-toi!
Laffaire se dcidera demain.
Elle sest dcide faire un voyage.

Its up to him to decide his fate.


Do you decide for your sister?
The results of the inquiry will decide the
urgency of the problem.
What did you decide to do?
Hadnt he decided to resign?
Make up your mind!
The matter will be settled tomorrow.
She decided to take a trip.

dcouvrir / 243

dcouvrir
to discover, to reveal
Present participle: dcouvrant Past participle: dcouvert
Imperative: dcouvre, dcouvrez, dcouvrons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

dcouvre
dcouvres
dcouvre
Imperfect

dcouvrons
dcouvrez
dcouvrent

ai dcouvert
as dcouvert
a dcouvert
Pluperfect

avons dcouvert
avez dcouvert
ont dcouvert

dcouvrais
dcouvrais
dcouvrait
Pass Simple

dcouvrions
dcouvriez
dcouvraient

avais dcouvert
avais dcouvert
avait dcouvert
Pass Antrieur

avions dcouvert
aviez dcouvert
avaient dcouvert

dcouvris
dcouvris
dcouvrit
Future

dcouvrmes
dcouvrtes
dcouvrirent

eus dcouvert
eus dcouvert
eut dcouvert
Future Perfect

emes dcouvert
etes dcouvert
eurent dcouvert

dcouvrirai
dcouvriras
dcouvrira
Conditional

dcouvrirons
dcouvrirez
dcouvriront

aurai dcouvert
auras dcouvert
aura dcouvert
Conditional Perfect

aurons dcouvert
aurez dcouvert
auront dcouvert

dcouvrirais
dcouvrirais
dcouvrirait
Present

dcouvririons
dcouvririez
dcouvriraient

aurais dcouvert
aurais dcouvert
aurait dcouvert
Past

aurions dcouvert
auriez dcouvert
auraient dcouvert

dcouvre
dcouvres
dcouvre
Imperfect

dcouvrions
dcouvriez
dcouvrent

aie dcouvert
aies dcouvert
ait dcouvert
Pluperfect

ayons dcouvert
ayez dcouvert
aient dcouvert

dcouvrisse
dcouvrisses
dcouvrt

dcouvrissions eusse dcouvert


dcouvrissiez eusses dcouvert
dcouvrissent et dcouvert

eussions dcouvert
eussiez dcouvert
eussent dcouvert

EXAMPLES
Elle porte une mini-jupe qui dcouvre les
cuisses.
Dcouvrez Paris.
Marie Curie dcouvrit le radium.
Les policiers ont dcouvert un complot.
Je lui ai dcouvert une sensibilit
inattendue.
Il ne lui avait pas dcouvert ses intentions.

Shes wearing a mini-skirt that reveals her


thighs.
Discover Paris.
Marie Curie discovered radium.
The police officers discovered a plot.
I discovered an unexpected sensitivity in
him.
He hadnt revealed his intentions to her.

244 / dcrire

dcrire
to describe
Present participle: dcrivant Past participle: dcrit
Imperative: dcris, dcrivez, dcrivons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

dcris
dcris
dcrit
Imperfect

dcrivons
dcrivez
dcrivent

ai dcrit
as dcrit
a dcrit
Pluperfect

avons dcrit
avez dcrit
ont dcrit

dcrivais
dcrivais
dcrivait
Pass Simple

dcrivions
dcriviez
dcrivaient

avais dcrit
avais dcrit
avait dcrit
Pass Antrieur

avions dcrit
aviez dcrit
avaient dcrit

dcrivis
dcrivis
dcrivit
Future

dcrivmes
dcrivtes
dcrivirent

eus dcrit
eus dcrit
eut dcrit
Future Perfect

emes dcrit
etes dcrit
eurent dcrit

dcrirai
dcriras
dcrira
Conditional

dcrirons
dcrirez
dcriront

aurai dcrit
auras dcrit
aura dcrit
Conditional Perfect

aurons dcrit
aurez dcrit
auront dcrit

dcrirai
dcriras
dcrira
Present

dcrirons
dcrirez
dcriront

aurais dcrit
aurais dcrit
aurait dcrit
Past

aurions dcrit
auriez dcrit
auraient dcrit

dcrive
dcrives
dcrive
Imperfect

dcrivions
dcriviez
dcrivent

aie dcrit
aies dcrit
ait dcrit
Pluperfect

ayons dcrit
ayez dcrit
aient dcrit

dcrivisse
dcrivisses
dcrivt

dcrivissions
dcrivissiez
dcrivissent

eusse dcrit
eusses dcrit
et dcrit

eussions dcrit
eussiez dcrit
eussent dcrit

Note: As a reflexive verb, se dcrire (to describe oneself) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te,
se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 5 demonstrates reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Dcris ta nouvelle maison.
La mouche dcrivait des cercles.
Il a dcrit son voyage.
Il faut que tu me dcrives ta voiture.
Elle se dcrit comme quelquun dimportant.

Describe your new house.


The fly flew in circles.
He described his trip.
You have to describe your car to me.
She describes herself as someone
important.

dcrocher / 245

dcrocher
to take down, to pick up
Present participle: dcrochant Past participle: dcroch
Imperative: dcroche, dcrochez, dcrochons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

dcroche
dcroches
dcroche
Imperfect

dcrochons
dcrochez
dcrochent

ai dcroch
as dcroch
a dcroch
Pluperfect

avons dcroch
avez dcroch
ont dcroch

dcrochais
dcrochais
dcrochait
Pass Simple

dcrochions
dcrochiez
dcrochaient

avais dcroch
avais dcroch
avait dcroch
Pass Antrieur

avions dcroch
aviez dcroch
avaient dcroch

dcrochai
dcrochas
dcrocha
Future

dcrochmes
dcrochtes
dcrochrent

eus dcroch
eus dcroch
eut dcroch
Future Perfect

emes dcroch
etes dcroch
eurent dcroch

dcrocherai
dcrocheras
dcrochera
Conditional

dcrocherons
dcrocherez
dcrocheront

aurai dcroch
auras dcroch
aura dcroch
Conditional Perfect

aurons dcroch
aurez dcroch
auront dcroch

dcrocherais
dcrocherais
dcrocherait
Present

dcrocherions
dcrocheriez
dcrocheraient

aurais dcroch
aurais dcroch
aurait dcroch
Past

aurions dcroch
auriez dcroch
auraient dcroch

dcroche
dcroches
dcroche
Imperfect

dcrochions
dcrochiez
dcrochent

aie dcroch
aies dcroch
ait dcroch
Pluperfect

ayons dcroch
ayez dcroch
aient dcroch

dcrochasse
dcrochasses
dcrocht

dcrochassions
dcrochassiez
dcrochassent

eusse dcroch
eusses dcroch
et dcroch

eussions dcroch
eussiez dcroch
eussent dcroch

Note: As a reflexive verb, se dcrocher (to fall down, to become unhooked) uses the reflexive
pronouns me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses.
Example 7 demonstrates reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Ne dcroche pas!
Le tlphone est dcroch.
Elle dcrochera les rideaux dans un
moment.
Ils dcrochaient leurs manteaux du portemanteau.
Le petit garon a dcroch son poisson.
Il fallait que nous ayons dcroch les
tableaux.
Les wagons se sont dcrochs.

Dont pick up the phone!


The telephone is off the hook.
She will take down the curtains in a
moment.
They were taking down their coats from the
coat rack.
The little boy unhooked his fish.
We had to take down the pictures.
The wagons became unhooked.

246 / dfaillir

dfaillir
to faint, to fail, to grow weak
Present participle: dfaillant Past participle: dfailli
Imperative: dfaille, dfaillez, dfaillons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

dfaille
dfailles
dfaille
Imperfect

dfaillons
dfaillez
dfaillent

ai dfailli
as dfailli
a dfailli
Pluperfect

dfaillais
dfaillais
dfaillait
Pass Simple

dfaillions
dfailliez
dfaillaient

avais dfailli
avais dfailli
avait dfailli
Pass Antrieur

avions dfailli
aviez dfailli
avaient dfailli

dfaillis
dfaillis
dfaillit
Future

dfaillmes
dfailltes
dfaillirent

eus dfailli
eus dfailli
eut dfailli
Future Perfect

emes dfailli
etes dfailli
eurent dfailli

dfaillirai
dfailliras
dfaillira
Conditional

dfaillirons
dfaillirez
dfailliront

aurai dfailli
auras dfailli
aura dfailli
Conditional Perfect

aurons dfailli
aurez dfailli
auront dfailli

dfaillirais
dfaillirais
dfaillirait
Present

dfaillirions
dfailliriez
dfailliraient

aurais dfailli
aurais dfailli
aurait dfailli
Past

aurions dfailli
auriez dfailli
auraient dfailli

dfaille
dfailles
dfaille
Imperfect

dfaillions
dfailliez
dfaillent

aie dfailli
aies dfailli
ait dfailli
Pluperfect

ayons dfailli
ayez dfailli
aient dfailli

dfaillissse
dfaillisses
dfaillt

dfaillissions
dfaillissiez
dfaillissent

eusse dfailli
eusses dfailli
et dfailli

eussions dfailli
eussiez dfailli
eussent dfailli

avons dfailli
avez dfailli
ont dfailli

Note: Dfaillir is not often used in the future or the conditional.

EXAMPLES
Elles dfaillaient de joie.
Il tait rare que son courage lait dfailli.
Ma mmoire ne maurait pas dfailli.
Sa volont lavait dfailli.

They felt faint with joy.


It was rare that his courage failed him.
My memory wouldnt have failed me.
Her will had failed her.

dfendre / 247

dfendre
to defend, to forbid
Present participle: dfendant Past participle: dfendu
Imperative: dfends, dfendez, dfendons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

dfends
dfends
dfend
Imperfect

dfendons
dfendez
dfendent

ai dfendu
as dfendu
a dfendu
Pluperfect

avons dfendu
avez dfendu
ont dfendu

dfendais
dfendais
dfendait
Pass Simple

dfendions
dfendiez
dfendaient

avais dfendu
avais dfendu
avait dfendu
Pass Antrieur

avions dfendu
aviez dfendu
avaient dfendu

dfendis
dfendis
dfendit
Future

dfendmes
dfendtes
dfendirent

eus dfendu
eus dfendu
eut dfendu
Future Perfect

emes dfendu
etes dfendu
eurent dfendu

dfendrai
dfendras
dfendra
Conditional

dfendrons
dfendrez
dfendront

aurai dfendu
auras dfendu
aura dfendu
Conditional Perfect

aurons dfendu
aurez dfendu
auront dfendu

dfendrais
dfendrais
dfendrait
Present

dfendrions
dfendriez
dfendraient

aurais dfendu
aurais dfendu
aurait dfendu
Past

aurions dfendu
auriez dfendu
auraient dfendu

dfende
dfendes
dfende
Imperfect

dfendions
dfendiez
dfendent

aie dfendu
aies dfendu
ait dfendu
Pluperfect

ayons dfendu
ayez dfendu
aient dfendu

dfendisse
dfendisses
dfendt

dfendissions
dfendissiez
dfendissent

eusse dfendu
eusses dfendu
et dfendu

eussions dfendu
eussiez dfendu
eussent dfendu

Note: As a reflexive verb, se dfendre (to defend oneself) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te,
se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 6, 7, 8, and
9 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Elle dfend toujours ses ides.
Son pre lui dfend de fumer.
Il est dfendu de marcher sur le gazon.
Jai dfendu mes opinions.
Le docteur lui avait dfendu de boire de
lalcool.
Elle se dfend bien en politique.
Je ne pouvais pas me dfendre de rire.
Ils se dfendirent dtre pessmistes.
Le journaliste sest dfendu contre ses
critiques.

She always defends her ideas.


His father forbids him from smoking.
It is forbidden to walk on the grass.
I defended my opinions.
The doctor had forbidden her to drink
alcohol.
She does well in politics.
I couldnt refrain from laughing.
They denied being pessimistic.
The journalist defended himself against his
critics.

248 / demander

demander
to ask for, to demand
Present participle: demandant Past participle: demand
Imperative: demande, demandez, demandons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

demande
demandes
demande
Imperfect

demandons
demandez
demandent

ai demand
as demand
a demand
Pluperfect

avons demand
avez demand
ont demand

demandais
demandais
demandait
Pass Simple

demandions
demandiez
demandaient

avais demand
avais demand
avait demand
Pass Antrieur

avions demand
aviez demand
avaient demand

demandai
demandas
demanda
Future

demandmes
demandtes
demandrent

eus demand
eus demand
eut demand
Future Perfect

emes demand
etes demand
eurent demand

demanderai
demanderas
demandera
Conditional

demanderons
demanderez
demanderont

aurai demand
aurons demand
auras demand
aurez demand
aura demand
auront demand
Conditional Perfect

demanderais
demanderais
demanderait
Present

demanderions
demanderiez
demanderaient

aurais demand
aurais demand
aurait demand
Past

aurions demand
auriez demand
auraient demand

demande
demandes
demande
Imperfect

demandions
demandiez
demandent

aie demand
aies demand
ait demand
Pluperfect

ayons demand
ayez demand
aient demand

demandasse
demandasses
demandt

demandassions
demandassiez
demandassent

eusse demand
eusses demand
et demand

eussions demand
eussiez demand
eussent demand

Note: As a reflexive verb, se demander (to ask oneself, to wonder) uses the reflexive pronouns
me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 7
and 8 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Tu demandes trop.
Ce travail demande un effort.
Les employs demanderont dix dollars
lheure.
On ma demand mes coordonnes.
Le malade avait demand un docteur.
Il ne maurait pas demand un service.
Nous nous demandons o manger.
Je me demande sil vaut mieux partir tout
de suite.

You ask for too much.


This work requires effort.
The employes will ask for ten dollars an
hour.
They asked me for my name and address.
The sick person had demanded a doctor.
He wouldnt have asked me for a favor.
We are wondering where to eat.
I wonder if it is better to leave immediately.

dmnager / 249

dmnager
to move residence
Present participle: dmnageant Past participle: dmnag
Imperative: dmnage, dmnagez, dmnageons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

dmnage
dmnages
dmnage
Imperfect

dmnageons
dmnagez
dmnagent

ai dmnag
as dmnag
a dmnag
Pluperfect

avons dmnag
avez dmnag
ont dmnag

dmnageais
dmnageais
dmnageait
Pass Simple

dmnagions
dmnagiez
dmnageaient

avais dmnag
avais dmnag
avait dmnag
Pass Antrieur

avions dmnag
aviez dmnag
avaient dmnag

dmnageai
dmnageas
dmnagea
Future

dmnagemes
dmnagetes
dmnagrent

eus dmnag
eus dmnag
eut dmnag
Future Perfect

emes dmnag
etes dmnag
eurent dmnag

dmnagerai
dmnageras
dmnagera
Conditional

dmnagerons
dmnagerez
dmnageront

aurai dmnag
aurons dmnag
auras dmnag
aurez dmnag
aura dmnag
auront dmnag
Conditional Perfect

dmnagerais
dmnagerais
dmnagerait
Present

dmnagerions
dmnageriez
dmnageraient

aurais dmnag
aurais dmnag
aurait dmnag
Past

aurions dmnag
auriez dmnag
auraient dmnag

dmnage
dmnages
dmnage
Imperfect

dmnagions
dmnagiez
dmnagent

aie dmnag
aies dmnag
ait dmnag
Pluperfect

ayons dmnag
ayez dmnag
aient dmnag

dmnageasse
dmnageasses
dmnaget

dmnageassions
dmnageassiez
dmnageassent

eusse dmnag
eusses dmnag
et dmnag

eussions dmnag
eussiez dmnag
eussent dmnag

EXAMPLES
Nous dmnageons bientt.
Cet aprs-midi ils dmnageront les
meubles.
La famille Martin a dmnag rcemment.
Naurait-elle pas dmnag ses affaires du
bureau avant la fin de la journe?

We are moving soon.


This afternoon they will move the furniture
out.
The Martin family moved recently.
Wouldnt she have moved her things out of
the office before the end of the day?

250 / demeurer

demeurer
to live, to remain
Present participle: demeurant Past participle: demeur
Imperative: demeure, demeurez, demeurons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

demeure
demeures
demeure
Imperfect

demeurons
demeurez
demeurent

ai demeur
as demeur
a demeur
Pluperfect

avons demeur
avez demeur
ont demeur

demeurais
demeurais
demeurait
Pass Simple

demeurions
demeuriez
demeuraient

avais demeur
avais demeur
avait demeur
Pass Antrieur

avions demeur
aviez demeur
avaient demeur

demeurai
demeuras
demeura
Future

demeurmes
demeurtes
demeurrent

eus demeur
eus demeur
eut demeur
Future Perfect

emes demeur
etes demeur
eurent demeur

demeurerai
demeureras
demeurera
Conditional

demeurerons
demeurerez
demeureront

aurai demeur
auras demeur
aura demeur
Conditional Perfect

aurons demeur
aurez demeur
auront demeur

demeurerais
demeurerais
demeurerait
Present

demeurerions
demeureriez
demeureraient

aurais demeur
aurais demeur
aurait demeur
Past

aurions demeur
auriez demeur
auraient demeur

demeure
demeures
demeure
Imperfect

demeurions
demeuriez
demeurent

aie demeur
aies demeur
ait demeur
Pluperfect

ayons demeur
ayez demeur
aient demeur

demeurasse
demeurasses
demeurt

demeurassions eusse demeur


demeurassiez eusses demeur
demeurassent et demeur

eussions demeur
eussiez demeur
eussent demeur

EXAMPLES
Tu demeures tout prs de moi.
Il demeurait responsable pour laccident.
La voiture lui est demeur de son pre.
Jai demeur Paris.
La tension avait longtemps demeur dans la
salle de confrence.

You live very close to me.


He remained responsible for the accident.
The car was left to them by their father.
(They inherited the car from their father.)
I lived in Paris.
The tension had lingered for a long time in
the conference room.

se dpcher (de) / 251

se dpcher (de)
to hurry
Present participle: se dpchant Past participle: dpch
Imperative: dpche-toi, dpchez-vous, dpchons-nous
Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

me dpche
te dpches
se dpche

nous dpchons
vous dpchez
se dpchent

me suis dpch(e)
tes dpch(e)
sest dpch(e)

nous sommes
dpch(e)s
vous tes dpch(e)(s)
se sont dpch(e)s

Subjunctive

Indicative

Imperfect

Pluperfect

me dpchais
te dpchais
se dpchait
Pass Simple

nous dpchions
vous dpchiez
se dpchaient

mtais dpch(e)
ttais dpch(e)
stait dpch(e)
Pass Antrieur

nous tions dpch(e)s


vous tiez dpch(e)(s)
staient dpch(e)s

me dpchai
te dpchas
se dpcha
Future

nous dpchmes
vous dpchtes
se dpchrent

me fus dpch(e)
te fus dpch(e)
se fut dpch(e)
Future Perfect

nous fmes dpch(e)s


vous ftes dpch(e)(s)
se furent dpch(e)s

me dpcherai
te dpcheras
se dpchera
Conditional

nous dpcherons
vous dpcherez
se dpcheront

me serai dpch(e)
te seras dpch(e)
se sera dpch(e)
Conditional Perfect

nous serons dpch(e)s


vous serez dpch(e)(s)
se seront dpch(e)s

me dpcherais nous dpcherions


te dpcherais vous dpcheriez
se dpcherait se dpcheraient

me serais dpch(e) nous serions dpch(e)s


te serais dpch(e) vous seriez dpch(e)(s)
se serait dpch(e) se seraient dpch(e)s

Present

Past

me dpche
te dpches
se dpche
Imperfect

nous dpchions
vous dpchiez
se dpchent

me sois dpch(e)
te sois dpch(e)
se soit dpch(e)
Pluperfect

nous soyons dpch(e)s


vous soyez dpch(e)(s)
se soient dpch(e)s

me dpchasse nous dpchassions me fusse dpch(e) nous fussions


te dpchasses vous dpchassiez te fusses dpch(e) dpch(e)s
se dpcht
se dpchassent
se ft dpch(e)
vous fussiez dpch(e)
se fussent dpch(e)s

EXAMPLES
En se dpchant, elle a perdu son quilbre.
Dpche-toi!
Je me dpche.
Nous nous dpchions.
Ils se sont dpchs de partir.

While hurrying, she lost her balance.


Hurry up!
Im hurrying.
We were hurrying along.
They hurried to leave.

252 / dpendre (de)

dpendre (de)
to depend (on)
Present participle: dpendant Past participle: dpendu
Imperative: dpends, dpendez, dpendons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

dpends
dpends
dpend
Imperfect

dpendons
dpendez
dpendent

ai dpendu
as dpendu
a dpendu
Pluperfect

avons dpendu
avez dpendu
ont dpendu

dpendais
dpendais
dpendait
Pass Simple

dpendions
dpendiez
dpendaient

avais dpendu
avais dpendu
avait dpendu
Pass Antrieur

avions dpendu
aviez dpendu
avaient dpendu

dpendis
dpendis
dpendit
Future

dpendmes
dpendtes
dpendirent

eus dpendu
eus dpendu
eut dpendu
Future Perfect

emes dpendu
etes dpendu
eurent dpendu

dpendrai
dpendras
dpendra
Conditional

dpendrons
dpendrez
dpendront

aurai dpendu
auras dpendu
aura dpendu
Conditional Perfect

aurons dpendu
aurez dpendu
auront dpendu

dpendrais
dpendrais
dpendrait
Present

dpendrions
dpendriez
dpendraient

aurais dpendu
aurais dpendu
aurait dpendu
Past

aurions dpendu
auriez dpendu
auraient dpendu

dpende
dpendes
dpende
Imperfect

dpendions
dpendiez
dpendent

aie dpendu
aies dpendu
ait dpendu
Pluperfect

ayons dpendu
ayez dpendu
aient dpendu

dpendisse
dpendisses
dpendt

dpendissions
dpendissiez
dpendissent

eusse dpendu
eusses dpendu
et dpendu

eussions dpendu
eussiez dpendu
eussent dpendu

EXAMPLES
Je ne dpends de personne.
Tu joues au tennis? a dpend.
On sortira? a dpendra du temps.
Cette fois-ci il na pas dpendu de son ami.
Ils nauraient pas dpendu de leurs parents.

I am not dependent on anyone.


Are you going to play tennis? It depends.
Will we go out? That will depend on the
weather.
That time he didnt depend on his friend.
They wouldnt have been dependent on
their parents.

dpenser / 253

dpenser
to spend
Present participle: depensant Past participle: depens
Imperative: depense, depensez, depensons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

depense
depenses
depense
Imperfect

depensons
depensez
depensent

ai depens
as depens
a depens
Pluperfect

avons depens
avez depens
ont depens

depensais
depensais
depensait
Pass Simple

depensions
depensiez
depensaient

avais depens
avais depens
avait depens
Pass Antrieur

avions depens
aviez depens
avaient depens

depensai
depensas
depensa
Future

depensmes
depenstes
depensrent

eus depens
eus depens
eut depens
Future Perfect

emes depens
etes depens
eurent depens

depenserai
depenseras
depensera
Conditional

depenserons
depenserez
depenseront

aurai depens
auras depens
aura depens
Conditional Perfect

aurons depens
aurez depens
auront depens

depenserais
depenserais
depenserait
Present

depenserions
depenseriez
depenseraient

aurais depens
aurais depens
aurait depens
Past

aurions depens
auriez depens
auraient depens

depense
depenses
depense
Imperfect

depensions
depensiez
depensent

aie depens
aies depens
ait depens
Pluperfect

ayons depens
ayez depens
aient depens

depensasse
depensasses
depenst

depensassions eusse depens


depensassiez eusses depens
depensassent et depens

eussions depens
eussiez depens
eussent depens

Note: As a reflexive verb, se dpenser (to exert oneself) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se,
nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 6 demonstrates
reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Elle dpense beaucoup en vtements.
Tu dpenses inutilement ta salive.
Ils dpensaient tout leur hritage avec
sagesse.
Jai dpens une fortune pour faire btir une
maison.
Nous avions dpens sans compter.
Il stait dpns physiquement en faisant
des exercices.

She spends a lot on clothes.


Youre wasting your breath.
They spent their inheritance wisely.
I spent a fortune to have a house built.
We had spent lavishly.
He had expended energy doing exercises.

254 / dplaire

dplaire
to displease
Present participle: dplaisant Past participle: dplu
Imperative: dplais, dplaisez, dplaisons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

dplais
dplais
dplat
Imperfect

dplaisons
dplaisez
dplaisent

ai dplu
as dplu
a dplu
Pluperfect

avons dplu
avez dplu
ont dplu

dplaisais
dplaisais
dplaisait
Pass Simple

dplaisions
dplaisiez
dplaisaient

avais dplu
avais dplu
avait dplu
Pass Antrieur

avions dplu
aviez dplu
avaient dplu

dplus
dplus
dplut
Future

dplmes
dpltes
dplurent

eus dplu
eus dplu
eut dplu
Future Perfect

emes dplu
etes dplu
eurent dplu

dplairai
dplairas
dplaira
Conditional

dplairons
dplairez
dplairont

aurai dplu
auras dplu
aura dplu
Conditional Perfect

aurons dplu
aurez dplu
auront dplu

dplairais
dplairais
dplairait
Present

dplairions
dplairiez
dplairaient

aurais dplu
aurais dplu
aurait dplu
Past

aurions dplu
auriez dplu
auraient dplu

dplaise
dplaises
dplaise
Imperfect

dplaisions
dplaisiez
dplaisent

aie dplu
aies dplu
ait dplu
Pluperfect

ayons dplu
ayez dplu
aient dplu

dplusse
dplusses
dplt

dplussions
dplussiez
dplussent

eusse dplu
eusses dplu
et dplu

eussions dplu
eussiez dplu
eussent dplu

Note: As a reflexive verb, se dplaire (to dislike, to be unhappy in) uses the reflexive pronouns
me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 5
and 6 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Le professeur dplat toute la classe.
a ne lui dplairait pas de le faire.
Cela ma dplu.
Cette rsolution aurait dplu tout le
monde.
Elles se dplaisent en ville.
Elles se sont dplu ds le commencement.

The teacher is disliked by the whole class.


She wouldnt mind doing it.
That displeased me.
That resolution would have displeased
everyone.
They dont like it (are unhappy) in the city.
They disliked each other from the
beginning.

dranger / 255

dranger
to disturb, to bother
Present participle: drangeant Past participle: drang
Imperative: drange, drangez, drangeons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

drange
dranges
drange
Imperfect

drangeons
drangez
drangent

ai drang
as drang
a drang
Pluperfect

avons drang
avez drang
ont drang

drangeais
drangeais
drangeait
Pass Simple

drangions
drangiez
drangeaient

avais drang
avais drang
avait drang
Pass Antrieur

avions drang
aviez drang
avaient drang

drangeai
drangeas
drangea
Future

drangemes
drangetes
drangrent

eus drang
eus drang
eut drang
Future Perfect

emes drang
etes drang
eurent drang

drangerai
drangeras
drangera
Conditional

drangerons
drangerez
drangeront

aurai drang
aurons drang
auras drang
aurez drang
aura drang
auront drang
Conditional Perfect

drangerais
drangerais
drangerait
Present

drangerions
drangeriez
drangeraient

aurais drang
aurais drang
aurait drang
Past

aurions drang
auriez drang
auraient drang

drange
dranges
drange
Imperfect

drangions
drangiez
drangent

aie drang
aies drang
ait drang
Pluperfect

ayons drang
ayez drang
aient drang

drangeasse
drangeasses
dranget

drangeassions
drangeassiez
drangeassent

eusse drang
eusses drang
et drang

eussions drang
eussiez drang
eussent drang

Note: As a reflexive verb, se dranger (to trouble oneself, to move) uses the reflexive pronouns
me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 5
and 6 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Ne me drangez pas tout le temps.
a te drange si je fume?
Attention! Vous avez drang mes papiers.
Ce film laurait drange normment.
Ils se sont drangs pour rien.
Elle sest drange pour me laisser sortir.

Dont bother me all the time.


Will it bother you if I smoke?
Watch out! You disturbed my papers.
That film would have really bothered her.
They bothered themselves for nothing.
She moved to let me leave.

256 / descendre

descendre*
to descend, to go down, to take down
Present participle: descendant Past participle: descendu
Imperative: descends, descendez, descendons
*Uses tre as its helping verb.

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

descends
descends
descend
Imperfect

descendons
descendez
descendent

suis descendu(e)
es descendu(e)
est descendu(e)
Pluperfect

sommes descendu(e)s
tes descendu(e)(s)
sont descendu(e)s

descendais
descendais
descendait
Pass Simple

descendions
descendiez
descendaient

tais descendu(e)
tais descendu(e)
tait descendu(e)
Pass Antrieur

tions descendu(e)s
tiez descendu(e)(s)
taient descendu(e)s

descendis
descendis
descendit
Future

descendmes
descendtes
descendirent

fus descendu(e)
fus descendu(e)
fut descendu(e)
Future Perfect

fmes descendu(e)s
ftes descendu(e)(s)
furent descendu(e)s

descendrai
descendras
descendra
Conditional

descendrons
descendrez
descendront

serai descendu(e)
seras descendu(e)
sera descendu(e)
Conditional Perfect

serons descendu(e)s
serez descendu(e)(s)
seront descendu(e)s

descendrais
descendrais
descendrait
Present

descendrions
descendriez
descendraient

serais descendu(e)
serais descendu(e)
serait descendu(e)
Past

serions descendu(e)s
seriez descendu(e)(s)
seraient descendu(e)s

descende
descendes
descende
Imperfect

descendions
descendiez
descendent

sois descendu(e)
sois descendu(e)
soit descendu(e)
Pluperfect

soyons descendu(e)s
soyez descendu(e)(s)
soient descendu(e)s

descendisse
descendisses
descendt

descendissions fusse descendu(e)


descendissiez fusses descendu(e)
descendissent ft descendu(e)

fussions descendu(e)s
fussiez descendu(e)(s)
fussent descendu(e)s

Note: Descendre, as an intransitive verb, uses the helping verb tre in compound tenses. As
a transitive verb (one that has a direct object), descendre uses the helping verb avoir in compound tenses. See Examples 9 and 10.

EXAMPLES
Descends de ton nuage!
Descendez me parler.
Ne descends pas vite les escaliers.
Le bateau mouche descend la Seine.
Le chat descendait de larbre.
Sa robe lui descendait jusquaux chevilles.
Elle est descendue du train.
Un brouillard est descendu sur le village.
Jai descendu les stores.
Elle avait descendu les marches.

Come back down to earth!


Come down to speak to me.
Dont go down the stairs quickly.
The fly boat goes down the Seine.
The cat was coming down from the tree.
Her dress came down to her ankles.
She got off the train.
A fog descended on the village.
I pulled down the shades.
She had gone down the steps.

dsesprer / 257

dsesprer
to drive to despair
Present participle: dsesprant Past participle: dsespr
Imperative: dsespre, dsesprez, dsesprons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

dsespre
dsespres
dsespre
Imperfect

dsesprons
dsesprez
dsesprent

ai dsespr
as dsespr
a dsespr
Pluperfect

avons dsespr
avez dsespr
ont dsespr

dsesprais
dsesprais
dsesprait
Pass Simple

dsesprions
dsespriez
dsespraient

avais dsespr
avais dsespr
avait dsespr
Pass Antrieur

avions dsespr
aviez dsespr
avaient dsespr

dsesprai
dsespras
dsespra
Future

dsesprmes
dsesprtes
dsesprrent

eus dsespr
eus dsespr
eut dsespr
Future Perfect

emes dsespr
etes dsespr
eurent dsespr

dsesprerai
dsespreras
dsesprera
Conditional

dsesprerons
dsesprerez
dsespreront

aurai dsespr
auras dsespr
aura dsespr
Conditional Perfect

aurons dsespr
aurez dsespr
auront dsespr

dsesprerais
dsesprerais
dsesprerait
Present

dsesprerions
dsespreriez
dsespreraient

aurais dsespr
aurais dsespr
aurait dsespr
Past

aurions dsespr
auriez dsespr
auraient dsespr

dsespre
dsespres
dsespre
Imperfect

dsesprions
dsespriez
dsesprent

aie dsespr
aies dsespr
ait dsespr
Pluperfect

ayons dsespr
ayez dsespr
aient dsespr

dsesprasse
dsesprasses
dsesprt

dsesprassions
dsesprassiez
dsesprassent

eusse dsespr
eusses dsespr
et dsespr

eussions dsespr
eussiez dsespr
eussent dsespr

EXAMPLES
Elle dsespre son mari.
Ils dspraient de la situation.
Navait-il pas dsespr de leur faire
comprendre la situation?
Il aurait dsespr de mon bonheur.

She drives her husband to despair.


They despaired of the situation.
Hadnt he despaired of making them
understand the situation?
He would have despaired of my being
happy.

258 / se dshabiller

se dshabiller
to undress
Present participle: se dshabillant Past participle: dshabill
Imperative: dshabille-toi, dshabillez-vous, dshabillons-nous
Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

me dshabille
te dshabilles
se dshabille

nous dshabillons
vous dshabillez
se dshabillent

me suis dshabill(e)
tes dshabill(e)
sest dshabill(e)

nous sommes
dshabill(e)s
vous tes dshabill(e)(s)
se sont dshabill(e)s

Indicative

Imperfect
me dshabillais
te dshabillais
se dshabillait

Pluperfect
nous dshabillions
vous dshabilliez
se dshabillaient

Pass Simple
me dshabillai
te dshabillas
se dshabilla

nous tions dshabill(e)s


vous tiez dshabill(e)(s)
staient dshabill(e)s

Pass Antrieur
nous dshabillmes
vous dshabilltes
se dshabillrent

Future
me dshabillerai
te dshabilleras
se dshabillera

mtais dshabill(e)
ttais dshabill(e)
stait dshabill(e)
me fus dshabill(e)
te fus dshabill(e)
se fut dshabill(e)

nous fmes dshabill(e)s


vous ftes dshabill(e)(s)
se furent dshabill(e)s

Future Perfect
nous dshabillerons
vous dshabillerez
se dshabilleront

Conditional

me serai dshabill(e)
te seras dshabill(e)
se sera dshabill(e)

nous serons dshabill(e)s


vous serez dshabill(e)(s)
se seront dshabill(e)s

Conditional Perfect

me dshabillerais nous dshabillerions me serais dshabill(e) nous serions dshabill(e)s


te serais dshabill(e) vous seriez dshabill(e)(s)
te dshabillerais vous dshabilleriez
se serait dshabill(e) se seraient dshabill(e)s
se dshabillerait se dshabilleraient

Subjunctive

Present
me dshabille
te dshabilles
se dshabille

Past
nous dshabillions
vous dshabilliez
se dshabillent

Imperfect

me sois dshabill(e)
te sois dshabill(e)
se soit dshabill(e)

nous soyons dshabill(e)s


vous soyez dshabill(e)(s)
se soient dshabill(e)s

Pluperfect

me fusse dshabill(e)
me dshabillasse nous
te fusses dshabill(e)
te dshabillasses dshabillassions
vous dshabillassiez se ft dshabill(e)
se dshabillt
se dshabillassent

nous fussions
dshabill(e)s
vous fussiez dshabill(e)
se fussent dshabill(e)s

Note: Habiller may be used nonreflexively with avoir as its helping verb. Example 5 demonstrates the nonreflexive use of this verb.

EXAMPLES
Ne te dshabille pas!
Elle se dshabille vite.
Ils se sont dshabills.
Je me serais pas dshabill si javais su
quils venaient.
La mre a dshabill son enfant.

Dont get undressed!


Shes getting undressed quickly.
They got undressed.
I wouldnt have gotten undressed if I had
known they were coming.
The mother undressed her child.

dsirer / 259

dsirer
to desire
Present participle: dsirant Past participle: dsir
Imperative: dsire, dsirez, dsirons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

dsire
dsires
dsire
Imperfect

dsirons
dsirez
dsirent

ai dsir
as dsir
a dsir
Pluperfect

avons dsir
avez dsir
ont dsir

dsirais
dsirais
dsirait
Pass Simple

dsirions
dsiriez
dsiraient

avais dsir
avais dsir
avait dsir
Pass Antrieur

avions dsir
aviez dsir
avaient dsir

dsirai
dsiras
dsira
Future

dsirmes
dsirtes
dsirrent

eus dsir
eus dsir
eut dsir
Future Perfect

emes dsir
etes dsir
eurent dsir

dsirerai
dsireras
dsirera
Conditional

dsirerons
dsirerez
dsireront

aurai dsir
auras dsir
aura dsir
Conditional Perfect

aurons dsir
aurez dsir
auront dsir

dsirerais
dsirerais
dsirerait
Present

dsirerions
dsireriez
dsireraient

aurais dsir
aurais dsir
aurait dsir
Past

aurions dsir
auriez dsir
auraient dsir

dsire
dsires
dsire
Imperfect

dsirions
dsiriez
dsirent

aie dsir
aies dsir
ait dsir
Pluperfect

ayons dsir
ayez dsir
aient dsir

dsirasse
dsirasses
dsirt

dsirassions
dsirassiez
dsirassent

eusse dsir
eusses dsir
et dsir

eussions dsir
eussiez dsir
eussent dsir

EXAMPLES
Quest-ce que vous dsirez?
a laisse beaucoup dsirer.
Dsires-tu quon fasse une promenade?
Nous dsirions faire une croisire.
Jaurais dsir rester la maison.

What do you want?


That leaves a lot to be desired.
Do you want us to take a walk?
We wanted to go on a cruise.
I would have wanted to stay home.

260 / dsobir

dsobir
to disobey
Present participle: dsobissant Past participle: dsobi
Imperative: dsobis, dsobissez, dsobissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

dsobis
dsobis
dsobit
Imperfect

dsobissons
dsobissez
dsobissent

ai dsobi
as dsobi
a dsobi
Pluperfect

avons dsobi
avez dsobi
ont dsobi

dsobissais
dsobissais
dsobissait
Pass Simple

dsobissions avais dsobi


dsobissiez
avais dsobi
dsobissaient avait dsobi
Pass Antrieur

avions dsobi
aviez dsobi
avaient dsobi

dsobis
dsobis
dsobit
Future

dsobmes
dsobtes
dsobirent

eus dsobi
eus dsobi
eut dsobi
Future Perfect

emes dsobi
etes dsobi
eurent dsobi

dsobirai
dsobiras
dsobira
Conditional

dsobirons
dsobirez
dsobiront

aurai dsobi
auras dsobi
aura dsobi
Conditional Perfect

aurons dsobi
aurez dsobi
auront dsobi

dsobirais
dsobirais
dsobirait
Present

dsobirions
dsobiriez
dsobiraient

aurais dsobi
aurais dsobi
aurait dsobi
Past

aurions dsobi
auriez dsobi
auraient dsobi

dsobisse
dsobisses
dsobisse
Imperfect

dsobissions
dsobissiez
dsobissent

aie dsobi
aies dsobi
ait dsobi
Pluperfect

ayons dsobi
ayez dsobi
aient dsobi

dsobisse
dsobisses
dsobt

dsobissions
dsobissiez
dsobissent

eusse dsobi
eusses dsobi
et dsobi

eussions dsobi
eussiez dsobi
eussent dsobi

EXAMPLES
Ne dsobis pas tes parents!
Elle dsobissait toujours leurs ordres.
Imagine-toi! Ces enfants mont dsobi.
Il navait pas dsobi tout le temps.

Dont disobey your parents!


She always disobeyed their orders.
Can you imagine! Those children disobeyed
me.
He hadnt always disobeyed.

dtendre / 261

dtendre
to slacken, to loosen
Present participle: dtendant Past participle: dtendu
Imperative: dtends, dtendez, dtendons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

dtends
dtends
dtend
Imperfect

dtendons
dtendez
dtendent

ai dtendu
as dtendu
a dtendu
Pluperfect

avons dtendu
avez dtendu
ont dtendu

dtendais
dtendais
dtendait
Pass Simple

dtendions
dtendiez
dtendaient

avais dtendu
avais dtendu
avait dtendu
Pass Antrieur

avions dtendu
aviez dtendu
avaient dtendu

dtendis
dtendis
dtendit
Future

dtendmes
dtendtes
dtendirent

eus dtendu
eus dtendu
eut dtendu
Future Perfect

emes dtendu
etes dtendu
eurent dtendu

dtendrai
dtendras
dtendra
Conditional

dtendrons
dtendrez
dtendront

aurai dtendu
auras dtendu
aura dtendu
Conditional Perfect

aurons dtendu
aurez dtendu
auront dtendu

dtendrais
dtendrais
dtendrait
Present

dtendrions
dtendriez
dtendraient

aurais dtendu
aurais dtendu
aurait dtendu
Past

aurions dtendu
auriez dtendu
auraient dtendu

dtende
dtendes
dtende
Imperfect

dtendions
dtendiez
dtendent

aie dtendu
aies dtendu
ait dtendu
Pluperfect

ayons dtendu
ayez dtendu
aient dtendu

dtendisse
dtendisses
dtendt

dtendissions
dtendissiez
dtendissent

eusse dtendu
eusses dtendu
et dtendu

eussions dtendu
eussiez dtendu
eussent dtendu

Note: As a reflexive verb, se dtendre (to lose tension, to relax) uses the reflexive pronouns
me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 5, 6,
and 7 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Dans un moment il va dtendre ses jambes.
Il dtend ses nerfs en buvant du th.
Ce jour de cong ma dtendu.
Ils avaient dtendu la situation.
Dtends-toi!
Je me suis dtendu.
Ils parle calmement lun lautre pour que
leurs rapports se dtendent.

In a moment he is going to unbend (relax)


his legs.
He calms his nerves by drinking tea.
This day off relaxed me.
They eased the situation.
Relax!
I relaxed.
They speak calmly to each other so that the
tension in their relations is less strained.

262 / dtruire

dtruire
to destroy
Present participle: dtruisant Past participle: dtruit
Imperative: dtruis, dtruisez, dtruisons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

dtruis
dtruis
dtruit
Imperfect

dtruisons
dtruisez
dtruisent

ai dtruit
as dtruit
a dtruit
Pluperfect

avons dtruit
avez dtruit
ont dtruit

dtruisais
dtruisais
dtruisait
Pass Simple

dtruisions
dtruisiez
dtruisaient

avais dtruit
avais dtruit
avait dtruit
Pass Antrieur

avions dtruit
aviez dtruit
avaient dtruit

dtruisis
dtruisis
dtruisit
Future

dtruismes
dtruistes
dtruisirent

eus dtruit
eus dtruit
eut dtruit
Future Perfect

emes dtruit
etes dtruit
eurent dtruit

dtruirai
dtruiras
dtruira
Conditional

dtruirons
dtruirez
dtruiront

aurai dtruit
auras dtruit
aura dtruit
Conditional Perfect

aurons dtruit
aurez dtruit
auront dtruit

dtruirais
dtruirais
dtruirait
Present

dtruirions
dtruiriez
dtruiraient

aurais dtruit
aurais dtruit
aurait dtruit
Past

aurions dtruit
auriez dtruit
auraient dtruit

dtruise
dtruises
dtruise
Imperfect

dtruisions
dtruisiez
dtruisent

aie dtruit
aies dtruit
ait dtruit
Pluperfect

ayons dtruit
ayez dtruit
aient dtruit

dtruisisse
dtruisisses
dtruist

dtruisissions
dtruisissiez
dtruisissent

eusse dtruit
eusses dtruit
et dtruit

eussions dtruit
eussiez dtruit
eussent dtruit

EXAMPLES
Cet enfant dtruit tous ses jouets.
Il dtruisait toutes les pices conviction
quand les investigateurs sont arrivs.
Lincendie avait dtruit toute la fort.
Il est dommage que louragan ait dtruit ces
difices.

That child destroys all his toys.


He was destroying all the incriminating
documents when the investigators arrived.
The fire had destroyed the entire forest.
It is a shame that the hurricane destroyed
those buildings.

devenir / 263

devenir*
to become
Present participle: devenant Past participle: devenu
Imperative: deviens, devenez, devenons
*Uses tre as its helping verb.

Subjuncvive

Indicavive

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

deviens
deviens
devient
Imperfect

devenons
devenez
deviennent

suis devenu(e)
es devenu(e)
est devenu(e)
Pluperfect

sommes devenu(e)s
tes devenu(e)(s)
sont devenu(e)s

devenais
devenais
devenait
Pass Simple

devenions
deveniez
devenaient

tais devenu(e)
tais devenu(e)
tait devenu(e)
Pass Antrieur

tions devenu(e)s
tiez devenu(e)(s)
taient devenu(e)s

devins
devins
devint
Future

devnmes
devntes
devinrent

fus devenu(e)
fus devenu(e)
fut devenu(e)
Future Perfect

fmes devenu(e)s
ftes devenu(e)(s)
furent devenu(e)s

deviendrai
deviendras
deviendra
Conditional

deviendrons
deviendrez
deviendront

serai devenu(e)
seras devenu(e)
sera devenu(e)
Conditional Perfect

serons devenu(e)s
serez devenu(e)(s)
seront devenu(e)s

deviendrais
deviendrais
deviendrait
Present

deviendrions
deviendriez
deviendraient

serais devenu(e)
serais devenu(e)
serait devenu(e)
Past

serions devenu(e)s
seriez devenu(e)(s)
seraient devenu(e)s

devienne
deviennes
devienne
Imperfect

devenions
deveniez
deviennent

sois devenu(e)
sois devenu(e)
soit devenu(e)
Pluperfect

soyons devenu(e)s
soyez devenu(e)(s)
soient devenu(e)s

devinsse
devinsses
devnt

devinssions
devinssiez
devinssent

fusse devenu(e)
fusses devenu(e)
ft devenu(e)

fussions devenu(e)s
fussiez devenu(e)(s)
fussent devenu(e)s

EXAMPLES
Quallez-vous devenir?
Il devient de plus en plus goste.
Que deviendrait-elle sans ton aide?
Il est devenu tout ple.
Quest devenu mon parapluie?
Qutiez-vous devenus? On vous cherchait
partout.

What is going to happen to you?


He is becoming more and more selfish.
What would have become of her without
your help?
He turned very pale.
What happened to my umbrella?
What had become of you? We were looking
for you everywhere.

264 / devoir

devoir
to have to, to owe
Present participle: devant
Imperative: Not used

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Past participle: d (dus, due, dues)


Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

dois
dois
doit
Imperfect

devons
devez
doivent

ai d
as d
a d
Pluperfect

avons d
avez d
ont d

devais
devais
devait
Pass Simple

devions
deviez
devaient

avais d
avais d
avait d
Pass Antrieur

avions d
aviez d
avaient d

dus
dus
dut
Future

dmes
dtes
durent

eus d
eus d
eut d
Future Perfect

emes d
etes d
eurent d

devrai
devras
devra
Conditional

devrons
devrez
devront

aurai d
auras d
aura d
Conditional Perfect

aurons d
aurez d
auront d

devrais
devrais
devrait
Present

devrions
devriez
devraient

aurais d
aurais d
aurait d
Past

aurions d
auriez d
auraient d

doive
doives
doive
Imperfect

devions
deviez
doivent

aie d
aies d
ait d
Pluperfect

ayons d
ayez d
aient d

dusse
dusses
dt

dussions
dussiez
dussent

eusse d
eusses d
et d

eussions d
eussiez d
eussent d

Note: The past participle d becomes dus, dues, or dues when agreement is required (see
Examples 9 and 10). As a reflexive verb, se devoir (to have a duty to, to owe each other) uses
the reflexive pronouns me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound
tenses. Examples 9 and 10 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Tu me dois cinquante euros.
Les tudiants doivent le respect
leurs professeurs.
qui doit-on ce repas magnifique?
Je devais garder ma promesse.
Cela devait arriver.
Tu devrais couter mes conseils.
Donnez-moi ce qui mest d.
Vous aviez d vous tromper.
Vous vous tes dus la vrit.
Ces filles staient dues lhonntet.

You owe me fifty euros.


Students ought to respect (owe respect to) their
teachers.
Whom do we have to thank for this magnificent meal?
I had to keep my promise.
That was bound to happen.
You should (ought to) listen to my advice.
Give me what is owed to me.
You must have been mistaken.
You owed it to each other to tell the truth.
Those girls had a duty to be honest with one another.

dner / 265

dner
to dine
Present participle: dnant Past participle: dn
Imperative: dne, dnez, dnons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

dne
dnes
dne
Imperfect

dnons
dnez
dnent

ai dn
as dn
a dn
Pluperfect

avons dn
avez dn
ont dn

dnais
dnais
dnait
Pass Simple

dnions
dniez
dnaient

avais dn
avais dn
avait dn
Pass Antrieur

avions dn
aviez dn
avaient dn

dnai
dnas
dna
Future

dnmes
dntes
dnrent

eus dn
eus dn
eut dn
Future Perfect

emes dn
etes dn
eurent dn

dnerai
dneras
dnera
Conditional

dnerons
dnerez
dneront

aurai dn
auras dn
aura dn
Conditional Perfect

aurons dn
aurez dn
auront dn

dnerais
dnerais
dnerait
Present

dnerions
dneriez
dneraient

aurais dn
aurais dn
aurait dn
Past

aurions dn
auriez dn
auraient dn

dne
dnes
dne
Imperfect

dnions
dniez
dnent

aie dn
aies dn
ait dn
Pluperfect

ayons dn
ayez dn
aient dn

dnasse
dnasses
dnt

dnassions
dnassiez
dnassent

eusse dn
eusses dn
et dn

eussions dn
eussiez dn
eussent dn

EXAMPLES
quelle heure est-ce quon dne?
Nous dnions toujours chez nous.
Ils ont dn seulement dun sandwich.
Nous aurions dn aux chandelles sil avait
voulu clbrer sa fte.

At what time will we be dining?


We always ate at home.
They only had a sandwich for dinner.
We would have dined by candlelight if he
had wanted to celebrate his birthday.

266 / dire

dire
to say, to tell
Present participle: disant Past participle: dit
Imperative: dis, dites, disons
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present
dis
dis
dit

disons
dites
disent

ai dit
as dit
a dit

disions
disiez
disaient

avais dit
avais dit
avait dit

dmes
dtes
dirent

eus dit
eus dit
eut dit

dirons
direz
diront

aurai dit
auras dit
aura dit

dirions
diriez
diraient

aurais dit
aurais dit
aurait dit

Imperfect

Indicative

disais
disais
disait

Subjunctive

aurons dit
aurez dit
auront dit
aurions dit
auriez dit
auraient dit

Past
disions
disiez
disent

aie dit
aies dit
ait dit

dissions
dissiez
dissent

eusse dit
eusses dit
et dit

Imperfect
disse
disses
dt

emes dit
etes dit
eurent dit

Conditional Perfect

Present
dise
dises
dise

avions dit
aviez dit
avaient dit

Future Perfect

Conditional
dirais
dirais
dirait

avons dit
avez dit
ont dit

Pass Antrieur

Future
dirai
diras
dira

Plural

Pluperfect

Pass Simple
dis
dis
dit

Singular
Pass Compos

ayons dit
ayez dit
aient dit

Pluperfect
eussions dit
eussiez dit
eussent dit

Note: As a reflexive verb, se dire (to say to oneself, to claim) uses the reflexive pronouns me,
te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 12, 13,
14, and 15 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
a te dit daller au parc?
a ne me dit rien.
Ce nom me dit quelque chose.
Dites-moi votre nom.
Dis maman, quand est-ce quon mange?
Comme disent les docteurs, il ne faut pas fumer.
Il disait des btises.
Comment dirais-je?
Que veux-tu que je dise?
Je lui ai dit de me laisser tranquille.
Elles mavaient dit trop souvent des mensonges.
Je me suis dit que je devais partir.
Il se dit professeur.
a ne se dit pas comme a en franais.
On se dirait en France.

Do you feel like going to the park?


I dont feel like it at all.
That name rings a bell to me.
Tell me your name.
Hey mom, when are we going to eat?
As the doctors say, one shouldnt smoke.
He was talking nonsense.
How should I put it?
What do you want me to say?
I told her to leave me alone.
They had told me lies too often.
I told myself that I should leave.
He claims to be a teacher.
Thats not said like that in French.
You would think we were in France.

diriger / 267

diriger
to direct
Present participle: dirigeant Past participle: dirig
Imperative: dirige, dirigez, dirigeons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

dirige
diriges
dirige
Imperfect

dirigeons
dirigez
dirigent

ai dirig
as dirig
a dirig
Pluperfect

avons dirig
avez dirig
ont dirig

dirigeais
dirigeais
dirigeait
Pass Simple

dirigions
dirigiez
dirigeaient

avais dirig
avais dirig
avait dirig
Pass Antrieur

avions dirig
aviez dirig
avaient dirig

dirigeai
dirigeas
dirigea
Future

dirigemes
dirigetes
dirigrent

eus dirig
eus dirig
eut dirig
Future Perfect

emes dirig
etes dirig
eurent dirig

dirigerai
dirigeras
dirigera
Conditional

dirigerons
dirigerez
dirigeront

aurai dirig
auras dirig
aura dirig
Conditional Perfect

aurons dirig
aurez dirig
auront dirig

dirigerais
dirigerais
dirigerait
Present

dirigerions
dirigeriez
dirigeraient

aurais dirig
aurais dirig
aurait dirig
Past

aurions dirig
auriez dirig
auraient dirig

dirige
diriges
dirige
Imperfect

dirigions
dirigiez
dirigent

aie dirig
aies dirig
ait dirig
Pluperfect

ayons dirig
ayez dirig
aient dirig

dirigeasse
dirigeasses
diriget

dirigeassions
dirigeassiez
dirigeassent

eusse dirig
eusses dirig
et dirig

eussions dirig
eussiez dirig
eussent dirig

Note: As a reflexive verb, se diriger (to make ones way towards) uses the reflexive pronouns
me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 8, 9,
and 10 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Cette quipe de football est bien dirige.
Son pre dirige une usine.
Il faut que vous dirigiez votre attention sur le
conferencier.
Elle a bien dirig sa vie.
On ma mal dirig.
Lavarice avait dirig sa vie.
Ce savant avait dirig des recherches scientifiques
importantes.
La voiture se dirigeait vers le nord.
Je me suis dirig vers la sortie.
Elles staient diriges vers une solution au
problme.

That soccer team is managed well.


Her father is in charge of a factory.
You should direct your attention to the speaker.
She managed her life well.
I was misled.
Greed had directed his life.
That scientist had directed important scientific
research.
The car was heading north.
I made my way to the exit.
They had seemed to be heading toward a solution
to the problem.

268 / disparatre

disparatre
to disappear
Present participle: disparaissant Past participle: disparu
Imperative: disparais, disparaissez, disparaissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

disparais
disparais
disparat
Imperfect

disparaissons
disparaissez
disparaissent

ai disparu
as disparu
a disparu
Pluperfect

avons disparu
avez disparu
ont disparu

disparaissais
disparaissais
disparaissait
Pass Simple

disparaissions avais disparu


disparaissiez
avais disparu
disparaissaient avait disparu
Pass Antrieur

avions disparu
aviez disparu
avaient disparu

disparus
disparus
disparut
Future

disparmes
dispartes
disparurent

eus disparu
eus disparu
eut disparu
Future Perfect

emes disparu
etes disparu
eurent disparu

disparatrai
disparatras
disparatra
Conditional

disparatrons
disparatrez
disparatront

aurai disparu
auras disparu
aura disparu
Conditional Perfect

aurons disparu
aurez disparu
auront disparu

disparatrais
disparatrais
disparatrait
Present

disparatrions
disparatriez
disparatraient

aurais disparu
aurais disparu
aurait disparu
Past

aurions disparu
auriez disparu
auraient disparu

disparaisse
disparaisses
disparaisse
Imperfect

disparaissions
disparaissiez
disparaissent

aie disparu
aies disparu
ait disparu
Pluperfect

ayons disparu
ayez disparu
aient disparu

disparusse
disparusses
dispart

disparussions
disparussiez
disparussent

eusse disparu
eusses disparu
et disparu

eussions disparu
eussiez disparu
eussent disparu

EXAMPLES
Pour lviter, je disparais.
Sa cicatrice disparaissait graduellement.
Mon argent a disparu mystrieusement.
Malheureusement le voleur a disparu dans
la foule.
Il avait disparu sans laisser de traces.
Il ntait pas certain que les marins aient
disparu en mer.

In order to avoid him, Ill slip away.


Her scar was gradually disappearing.
My money disappeared mysteriously.
Unfortunately, the thief had disappeared
into the crowd.
He had disappeared without a trace.
It wasnt certain that the sailors died at sea.

se disputer / 269

se disputer
to quarrel, to argue
Present participle: se disputant Past participle: disput
Imperative: dispute-toi, disputez-vous, disputons-nous

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

me dispute
te disputes
se dispute
Imperfect

nous disputons
vous disputez
se disputent

me suis disput(e)
tes disput(e)
sest disput(e)
Pluperfect

nous sommes disput(e)s


vous tes disput(e)(s)
se sont disput(e)s

me disputais
te disputais
se disputait
Pass Simple

nous disputions
vous disputiez
se disputaient

mtais disput(e)
ttais disput(e)
stait disput(e)
Pass Antrieur

nous tions disput(e)s


vous tiez disput(e)(s)
staient disput(e)s

me disputai
te disputas
se disputa
Future

nous disputmes
vous disputtes
se disputrent

me fus disput(e)
te fus disput(e)
se fut disput(e)
Future Perfect

nous fmes disput(e)s


vous ftes disput(e)(s)
se furent disput(e)s

me disputerai
te disputeras
se disputera
Conditional

nous disputerons
vous disputerez
se disputeront

me serai disput(e) nous serons disput(e)s


te seras disput(e)
vous serez disput(e)(s)
se sera disput(e)
se seront disput(e)s
Conditional Perfect

me disputerais nous disputerions


te disputerais vous disputeriez
se disputerait se disputeraient
Present

me serais disput(e) nous serions disput(e)s


te serais disput(e) vous seriez disput(e)(s)
se serait disput(e) se seraient disput(e)s
Past

me dispute
te disputes
se dispute
Imperfect

me sois disput(e)
te sois disput(e)
se soit disput(e)
Pluperfect

nous disputions
vous disputiez
se disputent

me disputasse nous disputassions me fusse disput(e)


te disputasses vous disputassiez
te fusses disput(e)
se disputt
se disputassent
se ft disput(e)

nous soyons disput(e)s


vous soyez disput(e)(s)
se soient disput(e)s
nous fussions disput(e)s
vous fussiez disput(e)
se fussent disput(e)s

Note: Disputer (to fight over) may be used nonreflexively with avoir as its helping verb.
Examples 6 and 7 demonstrate the nonreflexive use of this verb.

EXAMPLES
Ne nous disputons pas.
Deux candidats se disputent un sige au
snat.
Ses trois frres se disputaient toujours.
Je me suis dispute avec mon oncle.
Pourquoi te serais-tu disput avec eux?
Elle dispute la premire place son amie.
On a disput le match en France.

Lets not fight.


Two candidates are fighting over a seat in
the senate.
Her three brothers were always fighting.
I argued with my uncle.
Why would you have argued with them?
She is fighting over first place with her
friend.
The match was played in France.

270 / distinguer

distinguer
to distinguish
Present participle: distinguant Past participle: distingu
Imperative: distingue, distinguez, distinguons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

distingue
distingues
distingue
Imperfect

distinguons
distinguez
distinguent

ai distingu
as distingu
a distingu
Pluperfect

avons distingu
avez distingu
ont distingu

distinguais
distinguais
distinguait
Pass Simple

distinguions
distinguiez
distinguaient

avais distingu
avais distingu
avait distingu
Pass Antrieur

avions distingu
aviez distingu
avaient distingu

distinguai
distinguas
distingua
Future

distingumes
distingutes
distingurent

eus distingu
eus distingu
eut distingu
Future Perfect

emes distingu
etes distingu
eurent distingu

distinguerai
distingueras
distinguera
Conditional

distinguerons
distinguerez
distingueront

aurai distingu
auras distingu
aura distingu
Conditional Perfect

aurons distingu
aurez distingu
auront distingu

distinguerais
distinguerais
distinguerait
Present

distinguerions aurais distingu


distingueriez
aurais distingu
distingueraient aurait distingu
Past

aurions distingu
auriez distingu
auraient distingu

distingue
distingues
distingue
Imperfect

distinguions
distinguiez
distinguent

ayons distingu
ayez distingu
aient distingu

distinguasse
distinguasses
distingut

distinguassions eusse distingu


distinguassiez eusses distingu
distinguassent et distingu

aie distingu
aies distingu
ait distingu
Pluperfect

eussions distingu
eussiez distingu
eussent distingu

Note: As a reflexive verb, se distinguer (to distinguish oneself) uses the reflexive pronouns
me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 9,
10, and 11 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Ne pouvez-vous pas distinguer le bien du mal?

Cant you distinguish good from bad?

Quest-ce qui distingue ces deux chaises?


Ses longs cheveux roux la distinguera des autres
filles.
Tu le distingueras son chapeau bleu.

What distinguishes these two chairs?


Her long red hair will distinguish her from the
other girls.
You will be able to pick him out by his blue hat.

Elle a distingu son petit ami dans la foule.

She picked out her boyfriend in the crowd.

On la distingue pour faire un discours.

She was singled out to make a speech.

Aviez-vous distingu lironie de la situation?

Had you distinguised the irony of the situation?

On avait distingu ce mdecin pour son travail.

That doctor was honored for his work.

Ces vases se distinguent par leur couleur.

These vases distinguish themselves by their color.

Elles se distinguent par leur absence.

They are conspicious by their absence.

Cette femme sest distingue par son courage.

That woman distinguished herself by her courage.

distraire / 271

distraire
to distract
Present participle: distrayant Past participle: distrait
Imperative: distrais, distrayez, distrayons

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

distrais
distrais
distrait
Imperfect

distrayons
distrayez
distraient

ai distrait
as distrait
a distrait
Pluperfect

avons distrait
avez distrait
ont distrait

distrayais
distrayais
distrayait
Pass Simple

distrayions
distrayiez
distrayaient

avais distrait
avais distrait
avait distrait
Pass Antrieur

avions distrait
aviez distrait
avaient distrait

eus distrait
eus distrait
eut distrait
Future Perfect

emes distrait
etes distrait
eurent distrait

Not used

Subjunctive

Future
distrayais
distrayais
distrayait
Conditional

distrayions
distrayiez
distrayaient

aurai distrait
auras distrait
aura distrait
Conditional Perfect

aurons distrait
aurez distrait
auront distrait

distrairais
distrairais
distrairait
Present

distrairions
distrairiez
distrairaient

aurais distrait
aurais distrait
aurait distrait
Past

aurions distrait
auriez distrait
auraient distrait

distraie
distraies
distraie
Imperfect

distrayions
distrayiez
distraient

aie distrait
aies distrait
ait distrait
Pluperfect

ayons distrait
ayez distrait
aient distrait

eusse distrait
eusses distrait
et distrait

eussions distrait
eussiez distrait
eussent distrait

Not used

Note: As a reflexive verb, se distraire (to amuse, to enjoy oneself) uses the reflexive pronouns
me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 5
demonstrates reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Le bruit distrait son attention.
Je ne vous distraira pas.
Tu mas distrait de mes soucis.
Il aurait distrait des fonds de la banque sil
aurait pu le faire.
Elle sest distraite en allant au thtre.

The noise is distracting his attention.


I wont distract you.
You distracted me from my worries.
He would have stolen money from the bank
if he could have.
She enjoyed herself by going to the theater.

272 / donner

donner
to give
Present participle: donnant Past participle: donn
Imperative: donne, donnez, donnons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

donne
donnes
donne
Imperfect

donnons
donnez
donnent

ai donn
as donn
a donn
Pluperfect

avons donn
avez donn
ont donn

donnais
donnais
donnait
Pass Simple

donnions
donniez
donnaient

avais donn
avais donn
avait donn
Pass Antrieur

avions donn
aviez donn
avaient donn

donnai
donnas
donna
Future

donnmes
donntes
donnrent

eus donn
eus donn
eut donn
Future Perfect

emes donn
etes donn
eurent donn

donnerai
donneras
donnera
Conditional

donnerons
donnerez
donneront

aurai donn
auras donn
aura donn
Conditional Perfect

aurons donn
aurez donn
auront donn

donnerais
donnerais
donnerait
Present

donnerions
donneriez
donneraient

aurais donn
aurais donn
aurait donn
Past

aurions donn
auriez donn
auraient donn

donne
donnes
donne
Imperfect

donnions
donniez
donnent

aie donn
aies donn
ait donn
Pluperfect

ayons donn
ayez donn
aient donn

donnasse
donnasses
donnt

donnassions
donnassiez
donnassent

eusse donn
eusses donn
et donn

eussions donn
eussiez donn
eussent donn

Note: As a reflexive verb, se donner (to give oneself) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se,
nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 10, 11, 12, and
13 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Des chocolats? Donne-men, sil te plat.
a donne soif.
On la donne pour une femme sage.
Le patron lui donnera tout le temps
ncessaire pour finir le travail.
Je voudrais une chambre qui donne sur la
mer.
Il me donnera son adresse e-mail.
Je lui ai donn mon coeur.
Vous avez donn un joli cadeau Marie.
Elle mavait donn un coup de main.
Ils se sont donns leur travail.
Elle sest donne fond.
Vous vous tes donn des nouvelles.
Je mtais donne la peine de taider.

Chocolates? Please give me some.


That makes you (feel) thirsty.
She is said to be a wise woman.
The boss will give him all the time necessary
to finish the work.
I would like a room overlooking the sea.
He will give me his e-mail address.
I gave him my heart.
You gave a pretty gift to Marie.
She had given me a helping hand.
They devoted themselves to their work.
She gave it her all.
You exchanged news.
I had gone to a lot of trouble to help you.

dormir / 273

dormir
to sleep
Present participle: dormant Past participle: dormi
Imperative: dors, dormez, dormons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

dors
dors
dort
Imperfect

dormons
dormez
dorment

ai dormi
as dormi
a dormi
Pluperfect

avons dormi
avez dormi
ont dormi

dormais
dormais
dormait
Pass Simple

dormions
dormiez
dormaient

avais dormi
avais dormi
avait dormi
Pass Antrieur

avions dormi
aviez dormi
avaient dormi

dormis
dormis
dormit
Future

dormmes
dormtes
dormirent

eus dormi
eu dormi
eut dormi
Future Perfect

emes dormi
ees dormi
eurent dormi

dormirai
dormiras
dormira
Conditional

dormirons
dormirez
dormiront

aurai dormi
auras dormi
aura dormi
Conditional Perfect

aurons dormi
aurez dormi
auront dormi

dormirai
dormiras
dormira
Present

dormirons
dormirez
dormiront

aurais dormi
aurais dormi
aurait dormi
Past

aurions dormi
auriez dormi
auraient dormi

dorme
dormes
dorme
Imperfect

dormions
dormiez
dorment

aie dormi
aies dormi
ait dormi
Pluperfect

ayons dormi
ayez dormi
aient dormi

dormisse
dormisses
dormt

dormissions
dormissiez
dormissent

eusse dormi
eusses dormi
et dormi

eussions dormi
eussiez dormi
eussent dormi

EXAMPLES
Dors bien.
Parlez-vous en dormant?
Elle dort debout.
Tout dormait dans la chambre du bb.
Il nen dormait pas.
Elle dormait sur ses devoirs.
Elle a mal dormi.
Il est surprenant que les enfants naient pas
bien dormis.

Sleep well.
Do you talk in your sleep?
She cant keep her eyes open.
Everything was quiet in the babys room.
He was losing sleep over it.
She wasnt concentrating on her
homework.
She slept poorly.
It is surprising that the children didnt sleep
well.

274 / durer

durer
to last, to endure
Present participle: durant Past participle: dur
Imperative: dure, durez, durons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

dure
dures
dure
Imperfect

durons
durez
durent

ai dur
as dur
a dur
Pluperfect

avons dur
avez dur
ont dur

durais
durais
durait
Pass Simple

durions
duriez
duraient

avais dur
avais dur
avait dur
Pass Antrieur

avions dur
aviez dur
avaient dur

durai
duras
dura
Future

durmes
durtes
durrent

eus dur
eus dur
eut dur
Future Perfect

emes dur
etes dur
eurent dur

durerai
dureras
durera
Conditional

durerons
durerez
dureront

aurai dur
auras dur
aura dur
Conditional Perfect

aurons dur
aurez dur
auront dur

durerais
durerais
durerait
Present

durerions
dureriez
dureraient

aurais dur
aurais dur
aurait dur
Past

aurions dur
auriez dur
auraient dur

dure
dures
dure
Imperfect

durions
duriez
durent

aie dur
aies dur
ait dur
Pluperfect

ayons dur
ayez dur
aient dur

durasse
durasses
durt

durassions
durassiez
durassent

eusse dur
eusses dur
et dur

eussions dur
eussiez dur
eussent dur

EXAMPLES
a dure combien de temps?
Ils durent, leurs problmes.
Le carnaval durera deux semaines.
a na que trop dur.
Le dfil avait dur toute la journe.

How long does this last?


Their problems have gone on for ages.
The carnival will last two weeks.
That has gone on for too long already.
The parade had lasted the whole day.

blouir / 275

blouir
to dazzle
Present participle: blouissant Past participle: bloui
Imperative: blouis, blouissez, blouissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

blouis
blouis
blouit
Imperfect

blouissons
blouissez
blouissent

ai bloui
as bloui
a bloui
Pluperfect

avons bloui
avez bloui
ont bloui

blouissais
blouissais
blouissait
Pass Simple

blouissions
blouissiez
blouissaient

avais bloui
avais bloui
avait bloui
Pass Antrieur

avions bloui
aviez bloui
avaient bloui

blouis
blouis
blouit
Future

bloumes
bloutes
blouirent

eus bloui
eus bloui
eut bloui
Future Perfect

emes bloui
etes bloui
eurent bloui

blouirai
blouiras
blouira
Conditional

blouirons
blouirez
blouiront

aurai bloui
auras bloui
aura bloui
Conditional Perfect

aurons bloui
aurez bloui
auront bloui

blouirais
blouirais
blouirait
Present

blouirions
blouiriez
blouiraient

aurais bloui
aurais bloui
aurait bloui
Past

aurions bloui
auriez bloui
auraient bloui

blouisse
blouisses
blouisse
Imperfect

blouissions
blouissiez
blouissent

aie bloui
aies bloui
ait bloui
Pluperfect

ayons bloui
ayez bloui
aient bloui

blouisse
blouisses
blout

blouissions
blouissiez
blouissent

eusse bloui
eusses bloui
et bloui

eussions bloui
eussiez bloui
eussent bloui

EXAMPLES
Il a un sourire blouissant.
Son talent blouit tout le monde.
Ses yeux blouissaient de beaut.
Ils ont bloui les femmes par leur gentillesse.

He has a dazzling smile.


His talent dazzles everyone.
His eyes were dazzling with beauty.
They dazzled the women with their
kindness.

276 / changer

changer
to exchange
Present participle: changeant

Past participle: chang

Imperative: change, changez, changeons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

change
changes
change
Imperfect

changeons
changez
changent

ai chang
as chang
a chang
Pluperfect

avons chang
avez chang
ont chang

changeais
changeais
changeait
Pass Simple

changions
changiez
changeaient

avais chang
avais chang
avait chang
Pass Antrieur

avions chang
aviez chang
avaient chang

changeai
changeas
changea
Future

changemes
changetes
changrent

eus chang
eus chang
eut chang
Future Perfect

emes chang
etes chang
eurent chang

changerai
changeras
changera
Conditional

changerons
changerez
changeront

aurai chang
auras chang
aura chang
Conditional Perfect

aurons chang
aurez chang
auront chang

changerais
changerais
changerait
Present

changerions
changeriez
changeraient

aurais chang
aurais chang
aurait chang
Past

aurions chang
auriez chang
auraient chang

change
changes
change
Imperfect

changions
changiez
changent

aie chang
aies chang
ait chang
Pluperfect

ayons chang
ayez chang
aient chang

changeasse
changeasses
changet

changeassions eusse chang


changeassiez eusses chang
changeassent et chang

eussions chang
eussiez chang
eussent chang

EXAMPLES
Jchange des lettres avec mon
correspondant franais.
Les deux hommes changrent des regards.
Nous avons chang quelques mots.
Il avait chang son vlo contre un autre.

I exchange letters with my French pen pal.


The two men exchanged looks.
We exchanged a few words.
He had exchanged his bicycle for another.

schapper / 277

schapper
to escape
Present participle: schappant Past participle: chapp
Imperative: chappe-toi, chappez-vous, chappons-nous
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present
mchappe
tchappes
schappe

nous chappons
vous chappez
schappent

Imperfect

Indicative

mchappais
tchappais
schappait

Subjunctive

Imperfect
mchappasse
tchappasses
schappt

mtais chapp(e)
ttais chapp(e)
stait chapp(e)

nous tions chapp(e)s


vous tiez chapp(e)(s)
staient chapp(e)s

me fus chapp(e)
te fus chapp(e)
se fut chapp(e)

nous fmes chapp(e)s


vous ftes chapp(e)(s)
se furent chapp(e)s

me serai chapp(e)
te seras chapp(e)
se sera chapp(e)

nous serons chapp(e)s


vous serez chapp(e)(s)
se seront chapp(e)s

Conditional Perfect
nous chapperions
vous chapperiez
schapperaient

Present
mchappe
tchappes
schappe

nous sommes chapp(e)s


vous tes chapp(e)(s)
se sont chapp(e)s

Future Perfect
nous chapperons
vous chapperez
schapperont

Conditional
mchapperais
tchapperais
s chapperait

me suis chapp(e)
tes chapp(e)
sest chapp(e)

Pass Antrieur
nous chappmes
vous chapptes
schapprent

Future
mchapperai
tchapperas
schappera

Plural

Pluperfect
nous chappions
vous chappiez
schappaient

Pass Simple
mchappai
tchappas
schappa

Singular
Pass Compos

me serais chapp(e)
te serais chapp(e)
se serait chapp(e)

nous serions chapp(e)s


vous seriez chapp(e)(s)
se seraient chapp(e)s

Past
nous chappions
vous chappiez
schappent

me sois chapp(e)
te sois chapp(e)
se soit chapp(e)

nous soyons chapp(e)s


vous soyez chapp(e)(s)
se soient chapp(e)s

Pluperfect
nous chappassions me fusse chapp(e)
vous chappassiez te fusses chapp(e)
schappassent
se ft chapp(e)

nous fussions chapp(e)s


vous fussiez chapp(e)
se fussent chapp(e)s

Note: chapper may be used nonreflexively with avoir as its helping verb. Examples 5, 6, and
7 demonstrate the nonreflexive use of this verb.

EXAMPLES
On ne schappe pas facilement de prison.
Fido sest chapp de sa cage.
Il stait chapp pour un moment pour faire
un coup de tlphone.
Des flammes schappaient de la fentre.
Un cri de joie lui chappa.
Rien ne ma chapp.
Ce problme ne mavait pas chapp.

It isnt easy to escape from prison.


Fido escaped from his cage.
He had escaped for a moment to make a
phone call.
Flames escaped from the window.
She let out a cry of joy.
Nothing escaped me.
That problem hadnt escaped me.

278 / claircir

claircir
to light up
Present participle: claircissant Past participle: clairci
Imperative: claircis, claircissez, claircissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

claircis
claircis
claircit
Imperfect

claircissons
claircissez
claircissent

ai clairci
as clairci
a clairci
Pluperfect

avons clairci
avez clairci
ont clairci

claircissais
claircissais
claircissait
Pass Simple

claircissions
claircissiez
claircissaient

avais clairci
avais clairci
avait clairci
Pass Antrieur

avions clairci
aviez clairci
avaient clairci

claircis
claircis
claircit
Future

claircmes
clairctes
claircirent

eus clairci
eus clairci
eut clairci
Future Perfect

emes clairci
etes clairci
eurent clairci

claircirai
clairciras
claircira
Conditional

claircirons
claircirez
clairciront

aurai clairci
auras clairci
aura clairci
Conditional Perfect

aurons clairci
aurez clairci
auront clairci

claircirais
claircirais
claircirait
Present

claircirions
clairciriez
clairciraient

aurais clairci
aurais clairci
aurait clairci
Past

aurions clairci
auriez clairci
auraient clairci

claircisse
claircisses
claircisse
Imperfect

claircissions
claircissiez
claircissent

aie clairci
aies clairci
ait clairci
Pluperfect

ayons clairci
ayez clairci
aient clairci

claircisse
claircisses
clairct

claircissions
claircissiez
claircissent

eusse clairci
eusses clairci
et clairci

eussions clairci
eussiez clairci
eussent clairci

Note: As a reflexive verb, sclaircir (to clear up) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se, nous,
and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 6 and 7 demonstrate
reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Cette lampe claircira la chambre.
Sil avait le temps, il vous claircirait sur ce
point.
As-tu clairci le problme?
Il tait important quon ait clairci les
arbres.
Ils auront clairci le mystre avant la fin de
la journe.
Je me suis claircie la voix.
Le ciel ne se sera pas clairci avant midi.

This lamp will light up the room.


If he had the time, he would enlighten you
on that point.
Did you clear up the problem?
It was important that they had thinned out
the trees.
They will have solved the mystery before
the end of the day.
I cleared my throat.
The sky will not have cleared before noon.

couter / 279

couter
to listen (to)
Present participle: coutant Past participle: cout
Imperative: coute, coutez, coutons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

coute
coutes
coute
Imperfect

coutons
coutez
coutent

ai cout
as cout
a cout
Pluperfect

avons cout
avez cout
ont cout

coutais
coutais
coutait
Pass Simple

coutions
coutiez
coutaient

avais cout
avais cout
avait cout
Pass Antrieur

avions cout
aviez cout
avaient cout

coutai
coutas
couta
Future

coutmes
couttes
coutrent

eus cout
eus cout
eut cout
Future Perfect

emes cout
etes cout
eurent cout

couterai
couteras
coutera
Conditional

couterons
couterez
couteront

aurai cout
auras cout
aura cout
Conditional Perfect

aurons cout
aurez cout
auront cout

couterais
couterais
couterait
Present

couterions
couteriez
couteraient

aurais cout
aurais cout
aurait cout
Past

aurions cout
auriez cout
auraient cout

coute
coutes
coute
Imperfect

coutions
coutiez
coutent

aie cout
aies cout
ait cout
Pluperfect

ayons cout
ayez cout
aient cout

coutasse
coutasses
coutt

coutassions
coutassiez
coutassent

eusse cout
eusses cout
et cout

eussions cout
eussiez cout
eussent cout

Note: As a reflexive verb, scouter (to take ones advice) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te,
se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 5 demonstrates reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
coute-moi!
Je tcoute.
Ont-ils cout secrtement?
Javais cout de toutes mes oreilles.
Elle ne sest jamais coute.

Listen to me!
Im listening to you.
Did they eavesdrop?
I was all ears.
She never took her own advice.

280 / craser

craser
to crush
Present participle: crasant Past participle: cras
Imperative: crase, crasez, crasons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

crase
crases
crase
Imperfect

crasons
crasez
crasent

ai cras
as cras
a cras
Pluperfect

avons cras
avez cras
ont cras

crasais
crasais
crasait
Pass Simple

crasions
crasiez
crasaient

avais cras
avais cras
avait cras
Pass Antrieur

avions cras
aviez cras
avaient cras

crasai
crasas
crasa
Future

crasmes
crastes
crasrent

eus cras
eus cras
eut cras
Future Perfect

emes cras
etes cras
eurent cras

craserai
craseras
crasera
Conditional

craserons
craserez
craseront

aurai cras
auras cras
aura cras
Conditional Perfect

aurons cras
aurez cras
auront cras

craserais
craserais
craserait
Present

craserions
craseriez
craseraient

aurais cras
aurais cras
aurait cras
Past

aurions cras
auriez cras
auraient cras

crase
crases
crase
Imperfect

crasions
crasiez
crasent

aie cras
aies cras
ait cras
Pluperfect

ayons cras
ayez cras
aient cras

crasasse
crasasses
crast

crasassions
crasassiez
crasassent

eusse cras
eusses cras
et cras

eussions cras
eussiez cras
eussent cras

Note: As a reflexive verb, scraser (to crash, to be crushed) uses the reflexive pronouns me,
te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 5 and 6
demonstrates reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Ncrase pas les fourmis!
Tu danses si mal que tu mcrases les pieds!
La foule nous a crass.
Les impts avaient cras les citoyens.
La voiture sest ecrase contre le mur.
Les femmes staient crases pour profiter
des soldes.

Dont squash the ants!


You dance so poorly that youre stepping on
my feet!
The crowd crushed us.
The taxes had crushed the citizens.
The car crashed into the wall.
The women were falling over each other to
take advantage of the sales.

crire / 281

crire
to write
Present participle: crivant Past participle: crit
Imperative: cris, crivez, crivons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

cris
cris
crit
Imperfect

crivons
crivez
crivent

ai crit
as crit
a crit
Pluperfect

avons crit
avez crit
ont crit

crivais
crivais
crivait
Pass Simple

crivions
criviez
crivaient

avais crit
avais crit
avait crit
Pass Antrieur

avions crit
aviez crit
avaient crit

crivis
crivis
crivit
Future

crivmes
crivtes
crivirent

eus crit
eus crit
eut crit
Future Perfect

emes crit
etes crit
eurent crit

crirai
criras
crira
Conditional

crirons
crirez
criront

aurai crit
auras crit
aura crit
Conditional Perfect

aurons crit
aurez crit
auront crit

crirai
criras
crira
Present

crirons
crirez
criront

aurais crit
aurais crit
aurait crit
Past

aurions crit
auriez crit
auraient crit

crive
crives
crive
Imperfect

crivions
criviez
crivent

aie crit
aies crit
ait crit
Pluperfect

ayons crit
ayez crit
aient crit

crivisse
crivisses
crivt

crivissions
crivissiez
crivissent

eusse crit
eusses crit
et crit

eussions crit
eussiez crit
eussent crit

Note: As a reflexive verb, scrire (to write to each other) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te,
se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 6 and 7
demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Sa honte est crite sur son visage.
Ctait crit noir sur blanc.
Tu cris drlement bien.
Il est urgent que tu mcrives vite.
Je tai crit deux messages par courrier
lectronique.
Comment a scrit?
Ils se sont crits assez souvent.

His shame is written on his face.


It was written in black and white.
You really write well.
It is urgent that you write to me quickly.
I wrote you two e-mail messages.
How do you write that?
They wrote to each other rather often.

282 / effacer

effacer
to erase
Present participle: effaant Past participle: effac
Imperative: efface, effacez, effaons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

efface
effaces
efface
Imperfect

effaons
effacez
effacent

ai effac
as effac
a effac
Pluperfect

avons effac
avez effac
ont effac

effaais
effaais
effaait
Pass Simple

effacions
effaciez
effaaient

avais effac
avais effac
avait effac
Pass Antrieur

avions effac
aviez effac
avaient effac

effaai
effaas
effaa
Future

effaames
effaates
effacrent

eus effac
eus effac
eut effac
Future Perfect

emes effac
etes effac
eurent effac

effacerai
effaceras
effacera
Conditional

effacerons
effacerez
effaceront

aurai effac
auras effac
aura effac
Conditional Perfect

aurons effac
aurez effac
auront effac

effacerais
effacerais
effacerait
Present

effacerions
effaceriez
effaceraient

aurais effac
aurais effac
aurait effac
Past

aurions effac
auriez effac
auraient effac

efface
effaces
efface
Imperfect

effacions
effaciez
effacent

aie effac
aies effac
ait effac
Pluperfect

ayons effac
ayez effac
aient effac

effaasse
effaasses
effaat

effaassions
effaassiez
effaassent

eusse effac
eusses effac
et effac

eussions effac
eussiez effac
eussent effac

Note: As a reflexive verb, seffacer (to fade, to wear away) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te,
se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 5, 6, and 7
demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Effacez le tableau, sil vous plat.
Cette gomme neffacera pas ces fautes.
Elle a tout effac et puis elle a recommenc.
Ce maquillage navait pas du tout effac ses
rides.
Le racisme, seffacera-t-il jamais?
La beaut sefface avec le temps.
Son cauchemar ne sest pas effac
facilement.

Please erase the board.


This eraser wont erase those mistakes.
She erased everything and then she started
over.
That makeup hadnt smoothed her wrinkles
at all.
Will racism ever disappear?
Beauty fades with time.
His nightmare didnt fade easily (was hard
to forget).

effrayer / 283

effrayer
to frighten
Present participle: effrayant Past participle: effray
Imperative: effraie, effrayez, effrayons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

effraie
effraies
effraie
Imperfect

effrayons
effrayez
effraient

ai effray
as effray
a effray
Pluperfect

avons effray
avez effray
ont effray

effrayais
effrayais
effrayait
Pass Simple

effrayions
effrayiez
effrayaient

avais effray
avais effray
avait effray
Pass Antrieur

avions effray
aviez effray
avaient effray

effrayai
effrayas
effraya
Future

effraymes
effraytes
effrayrent

eus effray
eus effray
eut effray
Future Perfect

emes effray
etes effray
eurent effray

effraierai
effraieras
effraiera
Conditional

effraierons
effraierez
effraieront

aurai effray
auras effray
aura effray
Conditional Perfect

aurons effray
aurez effray
auront effray

effraierais
effraierais
effraierait
Present

effraierions
effraieriez
effraieraient

aurais effray
aurais effray
aurait effray
Past

aurions effray
auriez effray
auraient effray

effraie
effraies
effraie
Imperfect

effrayions
effrayiez
effraient

aie effray
aies effray
ait effray
Pluperfect

ayons effray
ayez effray
aient effray

effrayasse
effrayasses
effrayt

effrayassions
effrayassiez
effrayassent

eusse effray
eusses effray
et effray

eussions effray
eussiez effray
eussent effray

Note: For verbs ending in ayer, it is optional to change y to i in the familiar singular imperative, present, future, conditional, and present subjunctive forms. As a reflexive verb, seffrayer
(to become frightened) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the
helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 6 demonstrates reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Est-ce que les fantmes vous effrayent?
Rien ne leffraiera.
Il nest pas raisonnable que ce film vous
effrayiez.
Tu mas effray.
Cette histoire ne maurait pas effray.
Elles se sont effrayes.

Do ghosts scare you?


Nothing will scare him.
It is unreasonable that that film scares you.
You scared me.
That story wouldnt have scared me.
They became frightened.

284 / largir

largir
to enlarge
Present participle: largissant Past participle: largi
Imperative: largis, largissez, largissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

largis
largis
largit
Imperfect

largissons
largissez
largissent

ai largi
as largi
a largi
Pluperfect

avons largi
avez largi
ont largi

largissais
largissais
largissait
Pass Simple

largissions
largissiez
largissaient

avais largi
avais largi
avait largi
Pass Antrieur

avions largi
aviez largi
avaient largi

largis
largis
largit
Future

largmes
largtes
largirent

eus largi
eus largi
eut largi
Future Perfect

emes largi
etes largi
eurent largi

largirai
largiras
largira
Conditional

largirons
largirez
largiront

aurai largi
auras largi
aura largi
Conditional Perfect

aurons largi
aurez largi
auront largi

largirais
largirais
largirait
Present

largirions
largiriez
largiraient

aurais largi
aurais largi
aurait largi
Past

aurions largi
auriez largi
auraient largi

largisse
largisses
largisse
Imperfect

largissions
largissiez
largissent

aie largi
aies largi
ait largi
Pluperfect

ayons largi
ayez largi
aient largi

largisse
largisses
largt

largissions
largissiez
largissent

eusse largi
eusses largi
et largi

eussions largi
eussiez largi
eussent largi

Note: As a reflexive verb, slargir (to broaden, to get wider) uses the reflexive pronouns me,
te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 5 and 6
demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Il largit ce pantalon.
Jlargirai ce document de vingt pour cent.
On lui a largi les chaussures.
Le tailleur navait pas encore largi sa robe.
Malheureusement, ce pull sest largi.
Ses ides staient largies.

He is letting out this pair of pants.


I will enlarge this document by twenty
percent.
They stretched his shoes.
The tailor hadnt as yet enlarged her dress.
Unfortunately, this sweater got stretched
(out).
His ideas had broadened.

lever / 285

lever
to raise
Present participle: levant Past participle: lev
Imperative: lve, levez, levons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

lve
lves
lve
Imperfect

levons
levez
lvent

ai lev
as lev
a lev
Pluperfect

avons lev
avez lev
ont lev

levais
levais
levait
Pass Simple

levions
leviez
levaient

avais lev
avais lev
avait lev
Pass Antrieur

avions lev
aviez lev
avaient lev

levai
levas
leva
Future

levmes
levtes
levrent

eus lev
eus lev
eut lev
Future Perfect

emes lev
etes lev
eurent lev

lverai
lveras
lvera
Conditional

lverons
lverez
lveront

aurai lev
auras lev
aura lev
Conditional Perfect

aurons lev
aurez lev
auront lev

lverais
lverais
lverait
Present

lverions
lveriez
lveraient

aurais lev
aurais lev
aurait lev
Past

aurions lev
auriez lev
auraient lev

lve
lves
lve
Imperfect

levions
leviez
lvent

aie lev
aies lev
ait lev
Pluperfect

ayons lev
ayez lev
aient lev

levasse
levasses
levt

levassions
levassiez
levassent

eusse lev
eusses lev
et lev

eussions lev
eussiez lev
eussent lev

Note: As a reflexive verb, slever (to rise up) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se, nous, and
vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 5 and 6 demonstrate
reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Sa fille est leve maintenant.
Ils lveront un monument.
Tu as bien lev ton enfant.
Les lves ont lev leurs voix pour protester.
La temprature slve.
Leurs voix staient leves.

His daughter is grown now.


They will build a monument.
You raised your child well.
The students raised their voices to protest.
The temperature is rising.
Their voices had risen.

286 / lire

lire
to elect
Present participle: lisant Past participle: lu
Imperative: lis, lisez, lisons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

lis
lis
lit
Imperfect

lisons
lisez
lisent

ai lu
as lu
a lu
Pluperfect

avons lu
avez lu
ont lu

lisais
lisais
lisait
Pass Simple

lisions
lisiez
lisaient

avais lu
avais lu
avait lu
Pass Antrieur

avions lu
aviez lu
avaient lu

lus
lus
lut
Future

lmes
ltes
lurent

eus lu
eus lu
eut lu
Future Perfect

emes lu
etes lu
eurent lu

lirai
liras
lira
Conditional

lirons
lirez
liront

aurai lu
auras lu
aura lu
Conditional Perfect

aurons lu
aurez lu
auront lu

lirais
lirais
lirait
Present

lirions
liriez
liraient

aurais lu
aurais lu
aurait lu
Past

aurions lu
auriez lu
auraient lu

lise
lises
lise
Imperfect

lisions
lisiez
lisent

aie lu
aies lu
ait lu
Pluperfect

ayons lu
ayez lu
aient lu

lusse
lusses
lt

lussions
lussiez
lussent

eusse lu
eusses lu
et lu

eussions lu
eussiez lu
eussent lu

EXAMPLES
On lira un nouveau prsident.
Elle a t lue secrtaire.
On a lu M. Renard au snat.
Les citoyens navaient pas encore lu leur
maire.

They will elect a new president.


She was elected secretary.
They elected Mr. Renard to the senate.
The citizens hadnt as yet elected their
mayor.

sloigner / 287

sloigner
to move away from
Present participle: sloignant Past participle: loign
Imperative: loigne-toi, loignez-vous, loignons-nous
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present
mloigne
tloignes
sloigne

nous loignons
vous loignez
sloignent

Imperfect

Indicative

mloignais
tloignais
sloignait

Subjunctive

nous tions loign(e)s


vous tiez loign(e)(s)
staient loign(e)s

me fus loign(e)
te fus loign(e)
se fut loign(e)

nous fmes loign(e)s


vous ftes loign(e)(s)
se furent loign(e)s

me serai loign(e)
te seras loign(e)
se sera loign(e)

nous serons loign(e)s


vous serez loign(e)(s)
se seront loign(e)s

me serais loign(e)
te serais loign(e)
se serait loign(e)

nous serions loign(e)s


vous seriez loign(e)(s)
se seraient loign(e)s

Past
nous loignions
vous loigniez
sloignent

Imperfect
mloignasse
tloignasses
sloignt

mtais loign(e)
ttais loign(e)
stait loign(e)

Conditional Perfect
nous loignerions
vous loigneriez
sloigneraient

Present
mloigne
tloignes
sloigne

nous sommes loign(e)s


vous tes loign(e)(s)
se sont loign(e)s

Future Perfect
nous loignerons
vous loignerez
sloigneront

Conditional
mloignerais
tloignerais
s loignerait

me suis loign(e)
tes loign(e)
sest loign(e)

Pass Antrieur
nous loignmes
vous loigntes
sloignrent

Future
mloignerai
tloigneras
sloignera

Plural

Pluperfect
nous loignions
vous loigniez
sloignaient

Pass Simple
mloignai
tloignas
sloigna

Singular
Pass Compos

me sois loign(e)
te sois loign(e)
se soit loign(e)

nous soyons loign(e)s


vous soyez loign(e)(s)
se soient loign(e)s

Pluperfect
nous loignassions me fusse loign(e)
vous loignassiez
te fusses loign(e)
sloignassent
se ft loign(e)

nous fussions loign(e)s


vous fussiez loign(e)
se fussent loign(e)s

Note: loigner (to move away, to take away) may be used nonreflexively with avoir as its
helping verb. Examples 6 and 7 demonstrate the nonreflexive use of this verb.

EXAMPLES
Ne vous loignez pas trop.
Tu tloignes du sujet.
Lorage sloignait.
Il savait quelle sloignait de lui.
Il sest loign de laccident.
loignez cette chaise de la fentre, sil vous
plat.
Cette route les a loigns de la ville.

Dont go too far away.


Youre getting off the subject.
The storm was moving away.
He knew that she was becoming more and
more distant.
He moved away from the accident.
Please move that chair away from the
window.
That road took them away from the city.

288 / embellir

embellir
to embellish, to beautify
Present participle: embellissant Past participle: embelli
Imperative: embellis, embellissez, embellissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

embellis
embellis
embellit
Imperfect

embellissons
embellissez
embellissent

ai embelli
as embelli
a embelli
Pluperfect

avons embelli
avez embelli
ont embelli

embellissais
embellissais
embellissait
Pass Simple

embellissions
embellissiez
embellissaient

avais embelli
avais embelli
avait embelli
Pass Antrieur

avions embelli
aviez embelli
avaient embelli

embellis
embellis
embellit
Future

embellmes
embelltes
embellirent

eus embelli
eus embelli
eut embelli
Future Perfect

emes embelli
etes embelli
eurent embelli

embellirai
embelliras
embellira
Conditional

embellirons
embellirez
embelliront

aurai embelli
auras embelli
aura embelli
Conditional Perfect

aurons embelli
aurez embelli
auront embelli

embellirais
embellirais
embellirait
Present

embellirions
embelliriez
embelliraient

aurais embelli
aurais embelli
aurait embelli
Past

aurions embelli
auriez embelli
auraient embelli

embellisse
embellisses
embellisse
Imperfect

embellissions
embellissiez
embellissent

aie embelli
aies embelli
ait embelli
Pluperfect

ayons embelli
ayez embelli
aient embelli

embellisse
embellisses
embellt

embellissions
embellissiez
embellissent

eusse embelli
eusses embelli
et embelli

eussions embelli
eussiez embelli
eussent embelli

EXAMPLES
Ces fleurs embellissent le jardin.
Il faut que tu nembellisse pas le rcit.
On embellira cette place publique.
Elle a embelli la vrit.
Le professeur avait-il embelli la lgende?

These flowers beautify the garden.


You mustnt embellish the story.
They are going to beautify this public
square.
She embellished the truth.
Had the teacher embellished the legend?

embrasser / 289

embrasser
to hug, to embrace, to kiss
Present participle: embrassant Past participle: embrass
Imperative: embrasse, embrassez, embrassons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

embrasse
embrasses
embrasse
Imperfect

embrassons
embrassez
embrassent

ai embrass
as embrass
a embrass
Pluperfect

avons embrass
avez embrass
ont embrass

embrassais
embrassais
embrassait
Pass Simple

embrassions
embrassiez
embrassaient

avais embrass
avais embrass
avait embrass
Pass Antrieur

avions embrass
aviez embrass
avaient embrass

embrassai
embrassas
embrassa
Future

embrassmes
embrasstes
embrassrent

eus embrass
eus embrass
eut embrass
Future Perfect

emes embrass
etes embrass
eurent embrass

embrasserai
embrasseras
embrassera
Conditional

embrasserons
embrasserez
embrasseront

aurai embrass
aurons embrass
auras embrass
aurez embrass
aura embrass
auront embrass
Conditional Perfect

embrasserais
embrasserais
embrasserait
Present

embrasserions
embrasseriez
embrasseraient

aurais embrass
aurais embrass
aurait embrass
Past

aurions embrass
auriez embrass
auraient embrass

embrasse
embrasses
embrasse
Imperfect

embrassions
embrassiez
embrassent

aie embrass
aies embrass
ait embrass
Pluperfect

ayons embrass
ayez embrass
aient embrass

embrassasse
embrassasses
embrasst

embrassassions
embrassassiez
embrassassent

eusse embrass
eusses embrass
et embrass

eussions embrass
eussiez embrass
eussent embrass

Note: As a reflexive verb, sembrasser (to kiss each other) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te,
se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 5 demonstrates reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Embrasse-moi.
Embrasseront-ils cette cause?
Il ma embrass en pleine bouche!
Je naurais pas embrass cette carrire.
Ils se sont embrasss.

Give me a kiss.
Will they embrace that cause?
He kissed me right on the lips!
I wouldnt have embraced that career.
They kissed each other.

290 / mettre

mettre
to emit
Present participle: mettant Past participle: mis
Imperative: mets, mettez, mettons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

mets
mets
met
Imperfect

mettons
mettez
mettent

ai mis
as mis
a mis
Pluperfect

avons mis
avez mis
ont mis

mettais
mettais
mettait
Pass Simple

mettions
mettiez
mettaient

avais mis
avais mis
avait mis
Pass Antrieur

avions mis
aviez mis
avaient mis

mis
mis
mit
Future

mmes
mtes
mirent

eus mis
eus mis
eut mis
Future Perfect

emes mis
etes mis
eurent mis

mettrai
mettras
mettra
Conditional

mettrons
mettrez
mettront

aurai mis
auras mis
aura mis
Conditional Perfect

aurons mis
aurez mis
auront mis

mettrais
mettrais
mettrait
Present

mettrions
mettriez
mettraient

aurais mis
aurais mis
aurait mis
Past

aurions mis
auriez mis
auraient mis

mette
mettes
mette
Imperfect

mettions
mettiez
mettent

aie mis
aies mis
ait mis
Pluperfect

ayons mis
ayez mis
aient mis

misse
misses
mt

missions
missiez
missent

eusse mis
eusses mis
et mis

eussions mis
eussiez mis
eussent mis

EXAMPLES
Ce lampadaire met beaucoup de lumire.
Sil y a du danger, son avion mettra des
signaux.
Ce psychologue a mis une hypothse
intressante.
Cette entreprise avait mis des actions.

This floor lamp emits a lot of light.


If there is any danger, his airplane will emit
signals.
That psychologist put forward an
interesting hypothesis.
That company had issued stocks.

emmener / 291

emmener
to take away (people)
Present participle: emmenant Past participle: emmen
Imperative: emmne, emmenez, emmenons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

emmne
emmnes
emmne
Imperfect

emmenons
emmenez
emmnent

ai emmen
as emmen
a emmen
Pluperfect

avons emmen
avez emmen
ont emmen

emmenais
emmenais
emmenait
Pass Simple

emmenions
emmeniez
emmenaient

avais emmen
avais emmen
avait emmen
Pass Antrieur

avions emmen
aviez emmen
avaient emmen

emmenai
emmenas
emmena
Future

emmenmes
emmentes
emmenrent

eus emmen
eus emmen
eut emmen
Future Perfect

emes emmen
etes emmen
eurent emmen

emmnerai
emmneras
emmnera
Conditional

emmnerons
emmnerez
emmneront

aurai emmen
auras emmen
aura emmen
Conditional Perfect

aurons emmen
aurez emmen
auront emmen

emmnerais
emmnerais
emmnerait
Present

emmnerions
emmneriez
emmneraient

aurais emmen
aurais emmen
aurait emmen
Past

aurions emmen
auriez emmen
auraient emmen

emmne
emmnes
emmne
Imperfect

emmenions
emmeniez
emmnent

aie emmen
aies emmen
ait emmen
Pluperfect

ayons emmen
ayez emmen
aient emmen

emmenasse
emmenasses
emment

emmenassions eusse emmen


emmenassiez eusses emmen
emmenassent et emmen

eussions emmen
eussiez emmen
eussent emmen

EXAMPLES
Emmne-moi avec toi!
Elle emmne son frre cadet au cinma
chaque samedi.
Le garde a emmen le criminel en prison.
Il nous avait emmens la plage en voiture.

Take me along with you!


She takes her little brother to the movies
every Saturday.
The guard took the criminal away to
prison.
He had taken us to the beach by car.

292 / mouvoir

mouvoir
to move (touch emotionally)
Present participle: mouvant Past participle: mu
Imperative: meus, mouvez, mouvons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

meus
meus
meut
Imperfect

mouvons
mouvez
meuvent

ai mu
as mu
a mu
Pluperfect

avons mu
avez mu
ont mu

mouvais
mouvais
mouvait
Pass Simple

mouvions
mouviez
mouvaient

avais mu
avais mu
avait mu
Pass Antrieur

avions mu
aviez mu
avaient mu

mus
mus
mut
Future

mmes
mtes
murent

eus mu
eus mu
eut mu
Future Perfect

emes mu
etes mu
eurent mu

mouvrai
mouvras
mouvra
Conditional

mouvrons
mouvrez
mouvront

aurai mu
auras mu
aura mu
Conditional Perfect

aurons mu
aurez mu
auront mu

mouvrais
mouvrais
mouvrait
Present

mouvrions
mouvriez
mouvraient

aurais mu
aurais mu
aurait mu
Past

aurions mu
auriez mu
auraient mu

meuve
meuves
meuve
Imperfect

mouvions
mouviez
meuvent

aie mu
aies mu
ait mu
Pluperfect

ayons mu
ayez mu
aient mu

musse
musses
mt

mussions
mussiez
mussent

eusse mu
eusses mu
et mu

eussions mu
eussiez mu
eussent mu

Note: As a reflexive verb, smouvoir (to be moved) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se,
nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 6 and 7 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Cette musique mmeut.
Son problme ne lmut pas.
Leur pauvret mouvait tout le monde.
Son courage la mue jusquaux larmes.
Ses mnaces ne mavait gure mu.
Ils ne smeuvent de rien.
Elle sest mue la vue de son nouveau-n.

That music moves me.


His problem didnt upset her.
Their poverty moved everyone.
His courage moved her to tears.
His threats hardly moved me.
Nothing bothers them.
She was moved at the sight of her newborn
infant.

empcher / 293

empcher
to prevent
Present participle: empchant Past participle: empch
Imperative: empche, empchez, empchons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

empche
empches
empche
Imperfect

empchons
empchez
empchent

ai empch
as empch
a empch
Pluperfect

avons empch
avez empch
ont empch

empchais
empchais
empchait
Pass Simple

empchions
empchiez
empchaient

avais empch
avais empch
avait empch
Pass Antrieur

avions empch
aviez empch
avaient empch

empchai
empchas
empcha
Future

empchmes
empchtes
empchrent

eus empch
eus empch
eut empch
Future Perfect

emes empch
etes empch
eurent empch

empcherai
empcheras
empchera
Conditional

empcherons
empcherez
empcheront

aurai empch
auras empch
aura empch
Conditional Perfect

aurons empch
aurez empch
auront empch

empcherais
empcherais
empcherait
Present

empcherions
empcheriez
empcheraient

aurais empch
aurais empch
aurait empch
Past

aurions empch
auriez empch
auraient empch

empche
empches
empche
Imperfect

empchions
empchiez
empchent

aie empch
aies empch
ait empch
Pluperfect

ayons empch
ayez empch
aient empch

empchasse
empchasses
empcht

empchassions
empchassiez
empchassent

eusse empch
eusses empch
et empch

eussions empch
eussiez empch
eussent empch

Note: As a reflexive verb, sempcher (to stop oneself from doing something) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses.
Examples 6 and 7 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Quest-ce que a empche?
Quest-ce qui lempchait de russir?
Ce bruit ne mempchera pas de dormir.
Il ma empch de sortir.
Personne ne laurait empch de partir.
Je ne peux pas mempcher de rire.
Elle sest empche de pleurer.

What difference does that make?


What was preventing him from succeeding?
That noise wont stop me from sleeping.
He prevented me from going out.
No one would have stopped him from
leaving.
I cant stop laughing.
She stopped crying.

294 / employer

employer
to use, to employ
Present participle: employant Past participle: employ
Imperative: emploie, employez, employons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

emploie
emploies
emploie
Imperfect

employons
employez
emploient

ai employ
as employ
a employ
Pluperfect

avons employ
avez employ
ont employ

employais
employais
employait
Pass Simple

employions
employiez
employaient

avais employ
avais employ
avait employ
Pass Antrieur

avions employ
aviez employ
avaient employ

employai
employas
employa
Future

employmes
employtes
employrent

eus employ
eus employ
eut employ
Future Perfect

emes employ
etes employ
eurent employ

emploierai
emploieras
emploiera
Conditional

emploierons
emploierez
emploieront

aurai employ
auras employ
aura employ
Conditional Perfect

aurons employ
aurez employ
auront employ

emploierais
emploierais
emploierait
Present

emploierions
emploieriez
emploieraient

aurais employ
aurais employ
aurait employ
Past

aurions employ
auriez employ
auraient employ

emploie
emploies
emploie
Imperfect

employions
employiez
emploient

aie employ
aies employ
ait employ
Pluperfect

ayons employ
ayez employ
aient employ

employasse
employasses
employt

employassions eusse employ


employassiez eusses employ
employassent et employ

eussions employ
eussiez employ
eussent employ

EXAMPLES
Tu nemploies pas ce mot correctement.
Il emploiera nimporte quel moyen de
transport pour faire son voyage.
Jai employ tout mon temps crire ce
livre.
On lavait employe comme mannequin.

You arent using that word correctly.


He will use any means of transportation to
take his trip.
I used all my time to write this book.
They had employed her as a model.

emporter / 295

emporter
to take away
Present participle: emportant Past participle: emport
Imperative: emporte, emportez, emportons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

emporte
emportes
emporte
Imperfect

emportons
emportez
emportent

ai emport
as emport
a emport
Pluperfect

avons emport
avez emport
ont emport

emportais
emportais
emportait
Pass Simple

emportions
emportiez
emportaient

avais emport
avais emport
avait emport
Pass Antrieur

avions emport
aviez emport
avaient emport

emportai
emportas
emporta
Future

emportmes
emporttes
emportrent

eus emport
eus emport
eut emport
Future Perfect

emes emport
etes emport
eurent emport

emporterai
emporteras
emportera
Conditional

emporterons
emporterez
emporteront

aurai emport
auras emport
aura emport
Conditional Perfect

aurons emport
aurez emport
auront emport

emporterais
emporterais
emporterait
Present

emporterions
emporteriez
emporteraient

aurais emport
aurais emport
aurait emport
Past

aurions emport
auriez emport
auraient emport

emporte
emportes
emporte
Imperfect

emportions
emportiez
emportent

aie emport
aies emport
ait emport
Pluperfect

ayons emport
ayez emport
aient emport

emportasse
emportasses
emportt

emportassions eusse emport


emportassiez eusses emport
emportassent et emport

eussions emport
eussiez emport
eussent emport

EXAMPLES
Emportez ces documents.
Jemporte quelque chose lire.
Son imagination lemportait.
Louragan a emport le toit de leur maison.
Nous avions emport le prix.

Take away those documents.


Im taking along something to read.
His imagination was carrying him away.
The hurricane took away the roof of their
house.
We had won the prize.

296 / emprunter

emprunter
to borrow
Present participle: empruntant Past participle: emprunt
Imperative: emprunte, empruntez, empruntons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

emprunte
empruntes
emprunte
Imperfect

empruntons
empruntez
empruntent

ai emprunt
as emprunt
a emprunt
Pluperfect

avons emprunt
avez emprunt
ont emprunt

empruntais
empruntais
empruntait
Pass Simple

empruntions
empruntiez
empruntaient

avais emprunt
avais emprunt
avait emprunt
Pass Antrieur

avions emprunt
aviez emprunt
avaient emprunt

empruntai
empruntas
emprunta
Future

empruntmes
emprunttes
empruntrent

eus emprunt
eus emprunt
eut emprunt
Future Perfect

emes emprunt
etes emprunt
eurent emprunt

emprunterai
emprunteras
empruntera
Conditional

emprunterons
emprunterez
emprunteront

aurai emprunt
auras emprunt
aura emprunt
Conditional Perfect

aurons emprunt
aurez emprunt
auront emprunt

emprunterais
emprunterais
emprunterait
Present

emprunterions
emprunteriez
emprunteraient

aurais emprunt
aurais emprunt
aurait emprunt
Past

aurions emprunt
auriez emprunt
auraient emprunt

emprunte
empruntes
emprunte
Imperfect

empruntions
empruntiez
empruntent

aie emprunt
aies emprunt
ait emprunt
Pluperfect

ayons emprunt
ayez emprunt
aient emprunt

empruntasse
empruntasses
empruntt

empruntassions eusse emprunt


empruntassiez
eusses emprunt
empruntassent et emprunt

eussions emprunt
eussiez emprunt
eussent emprunt

EXAMPLES
Ce livre emprunte son sujet cette lgende.
Ma soeur mempruntera ma voiture.
Langlais a emprunt cette phrase du
franais.

This book is based on that legend.


My sister will borrow my car from me.
English borrowed that phrase from French.

encombrer / 297

encombrer
to clutter, to obstruct, to congest
Present participle: encombrant Past participle: encombr
Imperative: encombre, encombrez, encombrons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

encombre
encombres
encombre
Imperfect

encombrons
encombrez
encombrent

ai encombr
as encombr
a encombr
Pluperfect

avons encombr
avez encombr
ont encombr

encombrais
encombrais
encombrait
Pass Simple

encombrions
encombriez
encombraient

avais encombr
avais encombr
avait encombr
Pass Antrieur

avions encombr
aviez encombr
avaient encombr

encombrai
encombras
encombra
Future

encombrmes
encombrtes
encombrrent

eus encombr
eus encombr
eut encombr
Future Perfect

emes encombr
etes encombr
eurent encombr

encombrerai
encombreras
encombrera
Conditional

encombrerons
encombrerez
encombreront

aurai encombr
auras encombr
aura encombr
Conditional Perfect

aurons encombr
aurez encombr
auront encombr

encombrerais
encombrerais
encombrerait
Present

encombrerions
encombreriez
encombreraient

aurais encombr
aurais encombr
aurait encombr
Past

aurions encombr
auriez encombr
auraient encombr

encombre
encombres
encombre
Imperfect

encombrions
encombriez
encombrent

aie encombr
aies encombr
ait encombr
Pluperfect

ayons encombr
ayez encombr
aient encombr

encombrasse
encombrasses
encombrt

encombrassions
encombrassiez
encombrassent

eusse encombr
eusses encombr
et encombr

eussions encombr
eussiez encombr
eussent encombr

Note: As a reflexive verb, sencombrer de (to load oneself down with) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 7 demonstrates reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Ce fichier encombre le disque.
Ces botes mencombraient.
Les rues taient encombres.
Dans une minute, les tudiants
encombreront les couloirs.
Elles mavaient encombr plus quelles ne
mavaient aid.
Est-il possible que les lignes tlphoniques
aient t encombres cette heure?
Je me suis encombre de paquets.

That file is using up too much disk space.


Those boxes were loading me down.
The streets were congested.
In a minute, the students will obstruct the
hallways.
They had hindered me more than they had
helped me.
Is it possible that the telephone lines were
tied up at that time?
I loaded myself down with packages.

298 / encourager

encourager
to encourage
Present participle: encourageant Past participle: encourag
Imperative: encourage, encouragez, encourageons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

encourage
encourages
encourage
Imperfect

encourageons
encouragez
encouragent

ai encourag
as encourag
a encourag
Pluperfect

avons encourag
avez encourag
ont encourag

encourageais
encourageais
encourageait
Pass Simple

encouragions
encouragiez
encourageaient

avais encourag
avais encourag
avait encourag
Pass Antrieur

avions encourag
aviez encourag
avaient encourag

encourageai
encourageas
encouragea
Future

encouragemes
encouragetes
encouragrent

eus encourag
eus encourag
eut encourag
Future Perfect

emes encourag
etes encourag
eurent encourag

encouragerai
encourageras
encouragera
Conditional

encouragerons
encouragerez
encourageront

aurai encourag
auras encourag
aura encourag
Conditional Perfect

aurons encourag
aurez encourag
auront encourag

encouragerais
encouragerais
encouragerait
Present

encouragerions
encourageriez
encourageraient

aurais encourag
aurais encourag
aurait encourag
Past

aurions encourag
auriez encourag
auraient encourag

encourage
encourages
encourage
Imperfect

encouragions
encouragiez
encouragent

aie encourag
aies encourag
ait encourag
Pluperfect

ayons encourag
ayez encourag
aient encourag

encourageasse
encourageasses
encouraget

encourageassions eusse encourag


encourageassiez eusses encourag
encourageassent et encourag

eussions encourag
eussiez encourag
eussent encourag

EXAMPLES
Nencourageons pas ses mauvaises
habitudes.
Ses parents lencourageront aller
luniversit.
Le public a encourag les acteurs.
La bonne conomie avait encourag les
investissements.

Lets not encourage his bad habits.


His parents will encourage him to go to
college.
The audience encouraged the actors.
The good economy had encouraged
investments.

sendormir / 299

sendormir
to fall asleep
Present participle: sendormant Past participle: endormi
Imperative: endors-toi, endormez-vous, dormons-nous
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Plural

Present
mendors
tendors
sendort

nous endormons
vous endormez
sendorment

nous endormirions
vous endormiriez
sendormiraient

Indicative
Subjunctive

nous tions endormi(e)s


vous tiez endormi(e)(s)
staient endormi(e)s

me fus endormi(e)
te fus endormi(e)
se fut endormi(e)

nous fmes endormi(e)s


vous ftes endormi(e)(s)
se furent endormi(e)s

me serai endormi(e)
te seras endormi(e)
se sera endormi(e)

nous serons endormi(e)s


vous serez endormi(e)(s)
se seront endormi(e)s

me serais endormi(e)
te serais endormi(e)
se serait endormi(e)

nous serions endormi(e)s


vous seriez endormi(e)(s)
se seraient endormi(e)s

Past
nous endormions
vous endormiez
sendorment

Imperfect
mendormisse
tendormisses
sendormt

mtais endormi(e)
ttais endormi(e)
stait endormi(e)

Conditional Perfect

Present
mendorme
tendormes
sendorme

nous sommes endormi(e)s


vous tes endormi(e)(s)
se sont endormi(e)s

Future Perfect
nous endormirons
vous endormirez
sendormiront

Conditional
mendormirais
tendormirais
sendormirait

me suis endormi(e)
tes endormi(e)
sest endormi(e)

Pass Antrieur
nous endormmes
vous endormtes
sendormirent

Future
mendormirai
tendormiras
sendormira

Plural

Pluperfect
nous endormions
vous endormiez
sendormaient

Pass Simple
mendormis
tendormis
sendormit

Singular
Pass Compos

Imperfect
mendormais
tendormais
sendormait

Compound Tenses

me sois endormi(e)
te sois endormi(e)
se soit endormi(e)

nous soyons endormi(e)s


vous soyez endormi(e)(s)
se soient endormi(e)s

Pluperfect
nous endormissions
vous endormissiez
sendormissent

me fusse endormi(e)
te fusses endormi(e)
se ft endormi(e)

nous fussions endormi(e)s


vous fussiez endormi(e)
se fussent endormi(e)s

Note: Endormir (to put to sleep) may be used nonreflexively with avoir as its helping verb.
Example 6 demonstrates the nonreflexive use of this verb.

EXAMPLES
Ne vous endormez pas!
Ce nest pas le moment de vous endormir.
Gnralement je mendors tout de suite.
Ils se sont endormis minuit.
quelle heure vous tes-vous endormis?
La mre a endormi son enfant.

Dont go to sleep!
Now is not the time to fall asleep.
Usually I fall asleep immediately.
They fell asleep at midnight.
At what time did you fall asleep?
The mother put her child to sleep.

300 / enfoncer

enfoncer
to stick in
Present participle: enfonant Past participle: enfonc
Imperative: enfonce, enfoncez, enfonons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

enfonce
enfonces
enfonce
Imperfect

enfonons
enfoncez
enfoncent

ai enfonc
as enfonc
a enfonc
Pluperfect

avons enfonc
avez enfonc
ont enfonc

enfonais
enfonais
enfonait
Pass Simple

enfoncions
enfonciez
enfonaient

avais enfonc
avais enfonc
avait enfonc
Pass Antrieur

avions enfonc
aviez enfonc
avaient enfonc

enfonai
enfonas
enfona
Future

enfonmes
enfontes
enfoncrent

eus enfonc
eus enfonc
eut enfonc
Future Perfect

emes enfonc
etes enfonc
eurent enfonc

enfoncerai
enfonceras
enfoncera
Conditional

enfoncerons
enfoncerez
enfonceront

aurai enfonc
auras enfonc
aura enfonc
Conditional Perfect

aurons enfonc
aurez enfonc
auront enfonc

enfoncerais
enfoncerais
enfoncerait
Present

enfoncerions
enfonceriez
enfonceraient

aurais enfonc
aurais enfonc
aurait enfonc
Past

aurions enfonc
auriez enfonc
auraient enfonc

enfonce
enfonces
enfonce
Imperfect

enfoncions
enfonciez
enfoncent

aie enfonc
aies enfonc
ait enfonc
Pluperfect

ayons enfonc
ayez enfonc
aient enfonc

enfonasse
enfonasses
enfont

enfonassions
enfonassiez
enfonassent

eusse enfonc
eusses enfonc
et enfonc

eussions enfonc
eussiez enfonc
eussent enfonc

Note: As a reflexive verb, senfoncer (to bury onself) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se,
nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 6 and 7 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
La porte enfonce sur ses poids.
Les enfants enfonaient dans la boue
jusquaux genoux.
Il enfoncera les clous dans le bois coup de
marteau.
Elle a enfonc les mains dans ses poches.
Qui avait enfonc le devant de son vlo?
Nous nous sommes enfoncs sous les draps.
Papa stait enfonc dans son fauteuil.

The door is giving in under his weight.


The children sank up to their knees in the
mud.
He will hammer the nails into the wood.
She stuck her hands in her pockets.
Who had smashed in the front of his
bicycle?
We buried ourselves under the sheets.
Papa had buried himself in his armchair.

enfouir / 301

enfouir
to bury, to tuck away
Present participle: enfouissant Past participle: enfoui
Imperative: enfouis, enfouissez, enfouissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

enfouis
enfouis
enfouit
Imperfect

enfouissons
enfouissez
enfouissent

ai enfoui
as enfoui
a enfoui
Pluperfect

avons enfoui
avez enfoui
ont enfoui

enfouissais
enfouissais
enfouissait
Pass Simple

enfouissions
enfouissiez
enfouissaient

avais enfoui
avais enfoui
avait enfoui
Pass Antrieur

avions enfoui
aviez enfoui
avaient enfoui

enfouis
enfouis
enfouit
Future

enfoumes
enfoutes
enfouirent

eus enfoui
eus enfoui
eut enfoui
Future Perfect

emes enfoui
etes enfoui
eurent enfoui

enfouirai
enfouiras
enfouira
Conditional

enfouirons
enfouirez
enfouiront

aurai enfoui
auras enfoui
aura enfoui
Conditional Perfect

aurons enfoui
aurez enfoui
auront enfoui

enfouirais
enfouirais
enfouirait
Present

enfouirions
enfouiriez
enfouiraient

aurais enfoui
aurais enfoui
aurait enfoui
Past

aurions enfoui
auriez enfoui
auraient enfoui

enfouisse
enfouisses
enfouisse
Imperfect

enfouissions
enfouissiez
enfouissent

aie enfoui
aies enfoui
ait enfoui
Pluperfect

ayons enfoui
ayez enfoui
aient enfoui

enfouisse
enfouisses
enfout

enfouissions
enfouissiez
enfouissent

eusse enfoui
eusses enfoui
et enfoui

eussions enfoui
eussiez enfoui
eussent enfoui

Note: As a reflexive verb, senfouir (to bury oneself) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se,
nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 6 demonstrates
reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Les buissons taient enfouis dans la neige.
Il enfouissait quelque chose dans le jardin
quand son ami la interrompu.
Elle enfouira la lettre damour dans son
tiroir.
Il a enfoui son mouchoir dans sa poche.
Elle avait enfoui sa photo dans un livre.
Elle sest enfouie sous les couvertures.

The bushes were buried in the snow.


He was burying something in the garden
when his friend interrupted him.
She will tuck away the love letter in her
drawer.
He tucked his handkerchief into his pocket.
She had buried his photo in a book.
She buried herself under the blankets.

302 / senfuir

senfuir
to run away, to slip away, to escape
Present participle: senfuyant Past participle: enfui
Imperative: enfuis-toi, enfuyez-vous, enfuyons-nous

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

menfuis
tenfuis
senfuit
Imperfect

nous enfuyons
vous enfuyez
senfuient

me suis enfui(e)
tes enfui(e)
sest enfui(e)
Pluperfect

nous sommes enfui(e)s


vous tes enfui(e)(s)
se sont enfui(e)s

menfuyais
tenfuyais
senfuyait
Pass Simple

nous enfuyions
vous enfuyiez
senfuyaient

mtais enfui(e)
ttais enfui(e)
stait enfui(e)
Pass Antrieur

nous tions enfui(e)s


vous tiez enfui(e)(s)
staient enfui(e)s

menfuis
tenfuis
senfuit
Future

nous enfumes
vous enfutes
senfuirent

me fus enfui(e)
te fus enfui(e)
se fut enfui(e)
Future Perfect

nous fmes enfui(e)s


vous ftes enfui(e)(s)
se furent enfui(e)s

menfuirai
tenfuiras
senfuira
Conditional

nous enfuirons
vous enfuirez
senfuiront

me serai enfui(e)
te seras enfui(e)
se sera enfui(e)
Conditional Perfect

nous serons enfui(e)s


vous serez enfui(e)(s)
se seront enfui(e)s

menfuirais
tenfuirais
senfuirait
Present

nous enfuirions
vous enfuiriez
senfuiraient

me serais enfui(e)
te serais enfui(e)
se serait enfui(e)
Past

nous serions enfui(e)s


vous seriez enfui(e)(s)
se seraient enfui(e)s

menfuie
tenfuies
senfuie
Imperfect

nous enfuyions
vous enfuyiez
senfuient

me sois enfui(e)
te sois enfui(e)
se soit enfui(e)
Pluperfect

nous soyons enfui(e)s


vous soyez enfui(e)(s)
se soient enfui(e)s

menfuisse
tenfuisses
senfut

nous enfuissions
vous enfuissiez
senfuissent

me fussenfui(e)
te fusses enfui(e)
se ft enfui(e)

nous fussions enfui(e)s


vous fussiez enfui(e)
se fussent enfui(e)s

EXAMPLES
Ne tenfuis pas!
Les voleurs senfuyaient de la banque.
Mon chien sest enfui.
Ces hommes staient enfuis du
gouvernement despotique de leur pays.

Dont run away!


The thiefs were running away from the
bank.
My dog ran away.
Those men had fled from the despotic
government of their country.

engager / 303

engager
to commit, to hire, to involve, to insert
Present participle: engageant Past participle: engag
Imperative: engage, engagez, engageons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

engage
engages
engage
Imperfect

engageons
engagez
engagent

ai engag
as engag
a engag
Pluperfect

avons engag
avez engag
ont engag

engageais
engageais
engageait
Pass Simple

engagions
engagiez
engageaient

avais engag
avais engag
avait engag
Pass Antrieur

avions engag
aviez engag
avaient engag

engageai
engageas
engagea
Future

engagemes
engagetes
engagrent

eus engag
eus engag
eut engag
Future Perfect

emes engag
etes engag
eurent engag

engagerai
engageras
engagera
Conditional

engagerons
engagerez
engageront

aurai engag
auras engag
aura engag
Conditional Perfect

aurons engag
aurez engag
auront engag

engagerais
engagerais
engagerait
Present

engagerions
engageriez
engageraient

aurais engag
aurais engag
aurait engag
Past

aurions engag
auriez engag
auraient engag

engage
engages
engage
Imperfect

engagions
engagiez
engagent

aie engag
aies engag
ait engag
Pluperfect

ayons engag
ayez engag
aient engag

engageasse
engageasses
engaget

engageassions eusse engag


engageassiez eusses engag
engageassent et engag

eussions engag
eussiez engag
eussent engag

Note: As a reflexive verb, sengager (to commit oneself) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te,
se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 6, 7, and 8
demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Elle engage cet artiste faire son portrait.
Cette promesse tengagerait laider.
Jai engag la cl dans lallumage.
Elle a engag cet homme dans une
conversation intressante.
a lavait engag dans une affaire financire.
Tu savais quoi tu tengageais?
Elle sest engage comme serveuse.
Est-ce que ces pays sengageront dans une
guerre?

She is hiring that artist to do her portrait.


That promise would commit you to helping
him.
I inserted the key in the ignition.
She engaged that man in an interesting
conversation.
That had involved him in a financial deal.
Did you know what you were getting
yourself into?
She took on a job as a waitress.
Will those countries engage in a war?

304 / enlever

enlever
to remove, to take off
Present participle: enlevant Past participle: enlev
Imperative: enlve, enlevez, enlevons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

enlve
enlves
enlve
Imperfect

enlevons
enlevez
enlvent

ai enlev
as enlev
a enlev
Pluperfect

avons enlev
avez enlev
ont enlev

enlevais
enlevais
enlevait
Pass Simple

enlevions
enleviez
enlevaient

avais enlev
avais enlev
avait enlev
Pass Antrieur

avions enlev
aviez enlev
avaient enlev

enlevai
enlevas
enleva
Future

enlevmes
enlevtes
enlevrent

eus enlev
eus enlev
eut enlev
Future Perfect

emes enlev
etes enlev
eurent enlev

enlverai
enlveras
enlvera
Conditional

enlverons
enlverez
enlveront

aurai enlev
auras enlev
aura enlev
Conditional Perfect

aurons enlev
aurez enlev
auront enlev

enlverais
enlverais
enlverait
Present

enlverions
enlveriez
enlveraient

aurais enlev
aurais enlev
aurait enlev
Past

aurions enlev
auriez enlev
auraient enlev

enlve
enlves
enlve
Imperfect

enlevions
enleviez
enlvent

aie enlev
aies enlev
ait enlev
Pluperfect

ayons enlev
ayez enlev
aient enlev

enlevasse
enlevasses
enlevt

enlevassions
enlevassiez
enlevassent

eusse enlev
eusses enlev
et enlev

eussions enlev
eussiez enlev
eussent enlev

Note: As a reflexive verb, senlever (to come off, to come out) uses the reflexive pronouns me,
te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 6 and 7
demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Enlve ton chapeau.
Il enlve ses pieds du divan.
Il faut que les boueurs enlvent ses vieux
meubles.
Elle a enlev la tache de la nappe.
On lui avait enlev son espoir.
a senlve facilement?
La tache sest enleve sans un grand effort.

Take off your hat.


He takes his feet off the chair.
The sanitation men have to take away his
old furniture.
She removed the stain from the tablecloth.
They had taken her hope away.
Does that come off easily?
The stain came out with little effort.

ennuyer / 305

ennuyer
to bore, to weary
Present participle: ennuyant Past participle: ennuy
Imperative: ennuie, ennuyez, ennuyons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

ennuie
ennuies
ennuie
Imperfect

ennuyons
ennuyez
ennuient

ai ennuy
as ennuy
a ennuy
Pluperfect

avons ennuy
avez ennuy
ont ennuy

ennuyais
ennuyais
ennuyait
Pass Simple

ennuyions
ennuyiez
ennuyaient

avais ennuy
avais ennuy
avait ennuy
Pass Antrieur

avions ennuy
aviez ennuy
avaient ennuy

ennuyai
ennuyas
ennuya
Future

ennuymes
ennuytes
ennuyrent

eus ennuy
eus ennuy
eut ennuy
Future Perfect

emes ennuy
etes ennuy
eurent ennuy

ennuierai
ennuieras
ennuiera
Conditional

ennuierons
ennuierez
ennuieront

aurai ennuy
auras ennuy
aura ennuy
Conditional Perfect

aurons ennuy
aurez ennuy
auront ennuy

ennuierais
ennuierais
ennuierait
Present

ennuierions
ennuieriez
ennuieraient

aurais ennuy
aurais ennuy
aurait ennuy
Past

aurions ennuy
auriez ennuy
auraient ennuy

ennuie
ennuies
ennuie
Imperfect

ennuyions
ennuyiez
ennuient

aie ennuy
aies ennuy
ait ennuy
Pluperfect

ayons ennuy
ayez ennuy
aient ennuy

ennuyasse
ennuyasses
ennuyt

ennuyassions
ennuyassiez
ennuyassent

eusse ennuy
eusses ennuy
et ennuy

eussions ennuy
eussiez ennuy
eussent ennuy

EXAMPLES
Ce travail? a mennuie.
Il mennuyait avec ses plaisanteries.
Ce livre ma beaucoup ennuy.
Son long discours nous avait ennuy.

That work? It bores me.


I was getting tired of his jokes.
That book bored me a lot.
His long speech had bored us.

306 / sennuyer

sennuyer
to become bored
Present participle: sennuyant Past participle: ennuy
Imperative: ennuie-toi, ennuyez-vous, ennuyons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

mennuie
tennuies
sennuie
Imperfect

nous ennuyons
vous ennuyez
sennuient

me suis ennuy(e)
tes ennuy(e)
sest ennuy(e)
Pluperfect

nous sommes ennuy(e)s


vous tes ennuy(e)(s)
se sont ennuy(e)s

mennuyais
tennuyais
sennuyait
Pass Simple

nous ennuyions
vous ennuyiez
sennuyaient

mtais ennuy(e)
ttais ennuy(e)
stait ennuy(e)
Pass Antrieur

nous tions ennuy(e)s


vous tiez ennuy(e)(s)
staient ennuy(e)s

mennuyai
tennuyas
sennuya
Future

nous ennuymes
vous ennuytes
sennuyrent

me fus ennuy(e)
te fus ennuy(e)
se fut ennuy(e)
Future Perfect

nous fmes ennuy(e)s


vous ftes ennuy(e)(s)
se furent ennuy(e)s

mennuierai
tennuieras
sennuiera
Conditional

nous ennuierons
vous ennuierez
sennuieront

me serai ennuy(e)
te seras ennuy(e)
se sera ennuy(e)
Conditional Perfect

nous serons ennuy(e)s


vous serez ennuy(e)(s)
se seront ennuy(e)s

mennuierais
tennuierais
sennuierait
Present

nous ennuierions
vous ennuieriez
sennuieraient

me serais ennuy(e)
te serais ennuy(e)
se serait ennuy(e)
Past

nous serions ennuy(e)s


vous seriez ennuy(e)(s)
se seraient ennuy(e)s

mennuie
tennuies
sennuie
Imperfect

nous ennuyions
vous ennuyiez
sennuient

me sois ennuy(e)
te sois ennuy(e)
se soit ennuy(e)
Pluperfect

nous soyons ennuy(e)s


vous soyez ennuy(e)(s)
se soient ennuy(e)s

mennuyasse
tennuyasses
sennuyt

nous ennuyassions
vous ennuyassiez
sennuyassent

me fusse ennuy(e)
te fusses ennuy(e)
se ft ennuy(e)

nous fussions ennuy(e)s


vous fussiez ennuy(e)
se fussent ennuy(e)s

EXAMPLES
On ne sennuie jamais en ville.
Ils sennuyait mourir lopra.
Je ne me suis jamais ennuy dans la classe
de franais.
Elles ne staient pas ennuyes en visitant
Paris.

One never gets bored in the city.


They were bored to tears at the opera.
I was never bored in French class.
They had never gotten bored while visiting
Paris.

enregistrer / 307

enregistrer
to record, to register
Present participle: enregistrant Past participle: enregistr
Imperative: enregistre, enregistrez, enregistrons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

enregistre
enregistres
enregistre
Imperfect

enregistrons
enregistrez
enregistrent

ai enregistr
as enregistr
a enregistr
Pluperfect

avons enregistr
avez enregistr
ont enregistr

enregistrais
enregistrais
enregistrait
Pass Simple

enregistrions
enregistriez
enregistraient

avais enregistr
avais enregistr
avait enregistr
Pass Antrieur

avions enregistr
aviez enregistr
avaient enregistr

enregistrai
enregistras
enregistra
Future

enregistrmes
enregistrtes
enregistrrent

eus enregistr
eus enregistr
eut enregistr
Future Perfect

emes enregistr
etes enregistr
eurent enregistr

enregistrerai
enregistreras
enregistrera
Conditional

enregistrerons
enregistrerez
enregistreront

aurai enregistr
auras enregistr
aura enregistr
Conditional Perfect

aurons enregistr
aurez enregistr
auront enregistr

enregistrerais
enregistrerais
enregistrerait
Present

enregistrerions
enregistreriez
enregistreraient

aurais enregistr
aurais enregistr
aurait enregistr
Past

aurions enregistr
auriez enregistr
auraient enregistr

enregistre
enregistres
enregistre
Imperfect

enregistrions
enregistriez
enregistrent

aie enregistr
aies enregistr
ait enregistr
Pluperfect

ayons enregistr
ayez enregistr
aient enregistr

enregistrasse
enregistrasses
enregistrt

enregistrassions eusse enregistr


enregistrassiez eusses enregistr
enregistrassent et enregistr

eussions enregistr
eussiez enregistr
eussent enregistr

EXAMPLES
Cest enregistr.
Enregistrez vos bagages ici.
Le gouvernement enregiste une
augmentation de chmage.
Elle enregistra sa chanson favorite sur CD.
Ils ont enregistr ma plainte.
Notre entreprise a enregistr un bnfice de
deux millions.
Le rpondeur avait enregistr trois
messages.

Ive made a mental note of it.


Check your bags in here.
The government has seen an increase in
unemployment.
She will record her favorite song on a CD.
Theyve recorded my complaint.
Our company showed a profit of two
million.
The answering machine had recorded three
messages.

308 / enrichir

enrichir
to enrich
Present participle: enrichissant Past participle: enrichi
Imperative: enrichis, enrichissez, enrichissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

enrichis
enrichis
enrichit
Imperfect

enrichissons
enrichissez
enrichissent

ai enrichi
as enrichi
a enrichi
Pluperfect

avons enrichi
avez enrichi
ont enrichi

enrichissais
enrichissais
enrichissait
Pass Simple

enrichissions
enrichissiez
enrichissaient

avais enrichi
avais enrichi
avait enrichi
Pass Antrieur

avions enrichi
aviez enrichi
avaient enrichi

enrichis
enrichis
enrichit
Future

enrichmes
enrichtes
enrichirent

eus enrichi
eus enrichi
eut enrichi
Future Perfect

emes enrichi
etes enrichi
eurent enrichi

enrichirai
enrichiras
enrichira
Conditional

enrichirons
enrichirez
enrichiront

aurai enrichi
auras enrichi
aura enrichi
Conditional Perfect

aurons enrichi
aurez enrichi
auront enrichi

enrichirais
enrichirais
enrichirait
Present

enrichirions
enrichiriez
enrichiraient

aurais enrichi
aurais enrichi
aurait enrichi
Past

aurions enrichi
auriez enrichi
auraient enrichi

enrichisse
enrichisses
enrichisse
Imperfect

enrichissions
enrichissiez
enrichissent

aie enrichi
aies enrichi
ait enrichi
Pluperfect

ayons enrichi
ayez enrichi
aient enrichi

enrichisse
enrichisses
enricht

enrichissions
enrichissiez
enrichissent

eusse enrichi
eusses enrichi
et enrichi

eussions enrichi
eussiez enrichi
eussent enrichi

Note: As a reflexive verb, senrichir (to get rich) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se, nous,
and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 5 and 6 demonstrate
reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Cette uvre enrichit sa collection dart
moderne.
Cette entreprise enrichira son catalogue.
Des mots franais ont enrichi la langue
anglaise.
Ses inventions lavaient enrichie.
Ils se sont enrichis.
Sa collection de timbres sest beaucoup
enrichie.

That piece enriches his modern-art


collection.
That business will expand its catalogue.
Some French words have enriched the
English language.
Her inventions had made her rich.
They became richer.
His stamp collection became more
valuable.

enseigner / 309

enseigner
to teach
Present participle: enseignant Past participle: enseign
Imperative: enseigne, enseignez, enseignons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

enseigne
enseignes
enseigne
Imperfect

enseignons
enseignez
enseignent

ai enseign
as enseign
a enseign
Pluperfect

avons enseign
avez enseign
ont enseign

enseignais
enseignais
enseignait
Pass Simple

enseignions
enseigniez
enseignaient

avais enseign
avais enseign
avait enseign
Pass Antrieur

avions enseign
aviez enseign
avaient enseign

enseignai
enseignas
enseigna
Future

enseignmes
enseigntes
enseignrent

eus enseign
eus enseign
eut enseign
Future Perfect

emes enseign
etes enseign
eurent enseign

enseignerai
enseigneras
enseignera
Conditional

enseignerons
enseignerez
enseigneront

aurai enseign
auras enseign
aura enseign
Conditional Perfect

aurons enseign
aurez enseign
auront enseign

enseignerais
enseignerais
enseignerait
Present

enseignerions aurais enseign


enseigneriez
aurais enseign
enseigneraient aurait enseign
Past

aurions enseign
auriez enseign
auraient enseign

enseigne
enseignes
enseigne
Imperfect

enseignions
enseigniez
enseignent

ayons enseign
ayez enseign
aient enseign

enseignasse
enseignasses
enseignt

enseignassions eusse enseign


enseignassiez eusses enseign
enseignassent et enseign

aie enseign
aies enseign
ait enseign
Pluperfect

eussions enseign
eussiez enseign
eussent enseign

EXAMPLES
Le professeur enseigne cinq classes de
franais.
Elle nenseignerait pas au niveau
lmentaire.
Mon mari ma enseign conduire.
Leur pre leur avait enseign lire.

The teacher teaches five French classes.


She wouldnt teach at the elementary level.
My husband taught me how to drive.
Their father had taught them to read.

310 / entendre

entendre
to hear, to understand, to intend
Present participle: entendant Past participle: entendu
Imperative: entends, entendez, entendons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

entends
entends
entend
Imperfect

entendons
entendez
entendent

ai entendu
as entendu
a entendu
Pluperfect

avons entendu
avez entendu
ont entendu

entendais
entendais
entendait
Pass Simple

entendions
entendiez
entendaient

avais entendu
avais entendu
avait entendu
Pass Antrieur

avions entendu
aviez entendu
avaient entendu

entendis
entendis
entendit
Future

entendmes
entendtes
entendirent

eus entendu
eus entendu
eut entendu
Future Perfect

emes entendu
etes entendu
eurent entendu

entendrai
entendras
entendra
Conditional

entendrons
entendrez
entendront

aurai entendu
auras entendu
aura entendu
Conditional Perfect

aurons entendu
aurez entendu
auront entendu

entendrais
entendrais
entendrait
Present

entendrions
entendriez
entendraient

aurais entendu
aurais entendu
aurait entendu
Past

aurions entendu
auriez entendu
auraient entendu

entende
entendes
entende
Imperfect

entendions
entendiez
entendent

aie entendu
aies entendu
ait entendu
Pluperfect

ayons entendu
ayez entendu
aient entendu

entendisse
entendisses
entendt

entendissions
entendissiez
entendissent

eusse entendu
eusses entendu
et entendu

eussions entendu
eussiez entendu
eussent entendu

EXAMPLES
Je nentends pas trs bien.
Cest entendu.
Quest-ce que tu entends par l?
Il entendait Robert parler.
Elles nentendaient rien de la chimie.
As-tu entendu ce bruit?
Nous avons entendu dire que le vol arrivera
tard.
Avez-vous entendu parler de ce film?
Javais entendu y rester.

I dont hear very well.


Its understood.
What do you mean by that?
He heard Robert speak.
They didnt know the first thing about
chemistry.
Did you hear that noise?
We heard it said that the flight will arrive
late.
Have you heard anything about that film?
I had intended to stay there.

sentendre / 311

sentendre
to get along, to hear each other
Present participle: sentendant Past participle: entendu
Imperative: entends-toi, entendez-vous, entendons-nous
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Plural

Present
mentends
tentends
sentend

nous entendons
vous entendez
sentendent

Indicative
Subjunctive

Imperfect
mentendisse
tentendisses
sentendt

mtais entendu(e)
ttais entendu(e)
s tait entendu(e)

nous tions entendu(e)s


vous tiez entendu(e)(s)
staient entendu(e)s

me fus entendu(e)
te fus entendu(e)
se fut entendu(e)

nous fmes entendu(e)s


vous ftes entendu(e)(s)
se furent entendu(e)s

me serai entendu(e)
te seras entendu(e)
se sera entendu(e)

nous serons entendu(e)s


vous serez entendu(e)(s)
se seront entendu(e)s

Conditional Perfect
nous entendrions
vous entendriez
sentendraient

Present
mentende
tentendes
sentende

nous sommes entendu(e)s


vous tes entendu(e)(s)
se sont entendu(e)s

Future Perfect
nous entendrons
vous entendrez
sentendront

Conditional
mentendrais
tentendrais
sentendrait

me suis entendu(e)
tes entendu(e)
sest entendu(e)

Pass Antrieur
nous entendmes
vous entendtes
sentendirent

Future
mentendrai
tentendras
sentendra

Plural

Pluperfect
nous entendions
vous entendiez
sentendaient

Pass Simple
mentendis
tentendis
sentendit

Singular
Pass Compos

Imperfect
mentendais
tentendais
sentendait

Compound Tenses

me serais entendu(e)
te serais entendu(e)
se serait entendu(e)

nous serions entendu(e)s


vous seriez entendu(e)(s)
se seraient entendu(e)s

Past
nous entendions
vous entendiez
sentendent

me sois entendu(e)
te sois entendu(e)
se soit entendu(e)

nous soyons entendu(e)s


vous soyez entendu(e)(s)
se soient entendu(e)s

Pluperfect
nous entendissions me fusse entendu(e)
vous entendissiez te fusses entendu(e)
sentendissent
se ft entendu(e)

nous fussions entendu(e)s


vous fussiez entendu(e)
se fussent entendu(e)s

EXAMPLES
Vous ne vous entendez pas.
Je te tlphone ce soir. a sentend.
Ce mot ne sentend plus gure.
Elle sy entend!
Je ne mentends plus cause de tout ce
bruit.
Ses deux cousines sentendaient trs bien.
Leur dispute sentendait depuis leur
appartement.
Ils se sont entendus.
Nous nous sommes entendus sur plusieurs
points.

You dont know what you are saying.


Ill call you tonight. Thats understood.
That word is hardly ever used today.
She knows what shes doing.
I cant hear myself think because of all that
noise
His two cousins were getting along well.
Their argument could be heard from their
apartment.
They heard each other.
We agreed on many points.

312 / entourer

entourer
to surround
Present participle: entourant Past participle: entour
Imperative: entoure, entourez, entourons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

entoure
entoures
entoure
Imperfect

entourons
entourez
entourent

ai entour
as entour
a entour
Pluperfect

avons entour
avez entour
ont entour

entourais
entourais
entourait
Pass Simple

entourions
entouriez
entouraient

avais entour
avais entour
avait entour
Pass Antrieur

avions entour
aviez entour
avaient entour

entourai
entouras
entoura
Future

entourmes
entourtes
entourrent

eus entour
eus entour
eut entour
Future Perfect

emes entour
etes entour
eurent entour

entourerai
entoureras
entourera
Conditional

entourerons
entourerez
entoureront

aurai entour
auras entour
aura entour
Conditional Perfect

aurons entour
aurez entour
auront entour

entourerais
entourerais
entourerait
Present

entourerions
entoureriez
entoureraient

aurais entour
aurais entour
aurait entour
Past

aurions entour
auriez entour
auraient entour

entoure
entoures
entoure
Imperfect

entourions
entouriez
entourent

aie entour
aies entour
ait entour
Pluperfect

ayons entour
ayez entour
aient entour

entourasse
entourasses
entourt

entourassions
entourassiez
entourassent

eusse entour
eusses entour
et entour

eussions entour
eussiez entour
eussent entour

Note: As a reflexive verb, sentourer (to surround oneself) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te,
se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 5 demonstrates reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
La ville qui nous entoure est vaste.
Elle entoura ses parents daffection.
On a entour le jardin dune clture.
Il avait entour son bras dun pansement.
Ils se sont entours de luxe.

The city that surrounds us is huge.


She surrounded her parents with love.
They put a fence around the garden.
He had put a bandage around his arm.
They surrounded themselves with luxury.

entreprendre / 313

entreprendre
to undertake, to begin
Present participle: entreprenant Past participle: entrepris
Imperative: entreprends, entreprenez, entreprenons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

entreprends
entreprends
entreprend
Imperfect

entreprenons
entreprenez
entreprennent

ai entrepris
as entrepris
a entrepris
Pluperfect

avons entrepris
avez entrepris
ont entrepris

entreprenais
entreprenais
entreprenait
Pass Simple

entreprenions
entrepreniez
entreprenaient

avais entrepris
avais entrepris
avait entrepris
Pass Antrieur

avions entrepris
aviez entrepris
avaient entrepris

entrepris
entrepris
entreprit
Future

entreprmes
entreprtes
entreprirent

eus entrepris
eus entrepris
eut entrepris
Future Perfect

emes entrepris
etes entrepris
eurent entrepris

entreprendrai
entreprendras
entreprendra
Conditional

entreprendrons
entreprendrez
entreprendront

aurai entrepris
auras entrepris
aura entrepris
Conditional Perfect

aurons entrepris
aurez entrepris
auront entrepris

entreprendrais
entreprendrais
entreprendrait
Present

entreprendrions aurais entrepris


entreprendriez
aurais entrepris
entreprendraient aurait entrepris
Past

aurions entrepris
auriez entrepris
auraient entrepris

entreprenne
entreprennes
entreprenne
Imperfect

entreprenions
entrepreniez
entreprennent

aie entrepris
aies entrepris
ait entrepris
Pluperfect

ayons entrepris
ayez entrepris
aient entrepris

entreprisse
entreprisses
entreprt

entreprissions
entreprissiez
entreprissent

eusse entrepris
eusses entrepris
et entrepris

eussions entrepris
eussiez entrepris
eussent entrepris

EXAMPLES
Il entreprend un travail important.
Elle mentrprit sur le sujet la politique.
Ils ont entrepris un voyage au Ple Nord.
Auraient-elles entrepris ces recherches?

He is beginning an important job.


She tackled me on the subject of politics.
They undertook a trip to the North Pole.
Would they have undertaken that research?

314 / entrer

entrer*
to enter
Present participle: entrant Past participle: entr
Imperative: entre, entrez, entrons
*Uses tre as its helping verb.

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

entre
entres
entre
Imperfect

entrons
entrez
entrent

suis entr(e)
es entr(e)
est entr(e)
Pluperfect

sommes entr(e)s
tes entr(e)(s)
sont entr(e)s

entrais
entrais
entrait
Pass Simple

entrions
entriez
entraient

tais entr(e)
tais entr(e)
tait entr(e)
Pass Antrieur

tions entr(e)s
tiez entr(e)(s)
taient entr(e)s

entrai
entras
entra
Future

entrmes
entrtes
entrrent

fus entr(e)
fus entr(e)
fut entr(e)
Future Perfect

fmes entr(e)s
ftes entr(e)(s)
furent entr(e)s

entrerai
entreras
entrera
Conditional

entrerons
entrerez
entreront

serai entr(e)
seras entr(e)
sera entr(e)
Conditional Perfect

serons entr(e)s
serez entr(e)(s)
seront entr(e)s

entrerais
entrerais
entrerait
Present

entrerions
entreriez
entreraient

serais entr(e)
serais entr(e)
serait entr(e)
Past

serions entr(e)s
seriez entr(e)(s)
seraient entr(e)s

entre
entres
entre
Imperfect

entrions
entriez
entrent

sois entr(e)
sois entr(e)
soit entr(e)
Pluperfect

soyons entr(e)s
soyez entr(e)(s)
soient entr(e)s

entrasse
entrasses
entrt

entrassions
entrassiez
entrassent

fusse entr(e)
fusses entr(e)
ft entr(e)

fussions entr(e)s
fussiez entr(e)(s)
fussent entr(e)s

EXAMPLES
Entrez!
a nentre pas.
Comment pouvez-vous entrer cette voiture
dans le garage?
Il parlait au cellulaire en entrant dans son
bureau.
Elle navait pas sa cl alors elle est entre par
la fentre.
La pluie tait entre de partout.
Il est incroyable que les arbres soient entrs
dans le toit de la maison.

Come in!
That doesnt fit.
How can you fit that car in the garage?
He was speaking on his cell phone while
entering his office.
She didnt have her key so she entered
through the window.
The rain had come in everywhere.
It is incredible that the trees crashed into
the roof of the house.

entretenir / 315

entretenir
to maintain, to look after
Present participle: entretenant Past participle: entretenu
Imperative: entretiens, entretenez, entretenons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

entretiens
entretiens
entretient
Imperfect

entretenons
entretenez
entretiennent

ai entretenu
as entretenu
a entretenu
Pluperfect

avons entretenu
avez entretenu
ont entretenu

entretenais
entretenais
entretenait
Pass Simple

entretenions
entreteniez
entretenaient

avais entretenu
avais entretenu
avait entretenu
Pass Antrieur

avions entretenu
aviez entretenu
avaient entretenu

entretins
entretins
entretint
Future

entretnmes
entretntes
entretinrent

eus entretenu
eus entretenu
eut entretenu
Future Perfect

emes entretenu
etes entretenu
eurent entretenu

entretiendrai
entretiendras
entretiendra
Conditional

entretiendrons
entretiendrez
entretiendront

aurai entretenu
auras entretenu
aura entretenu
Conditional Perfect

aurons entretenu
aurez entretenu
auront entretenu

entretiendrais
entretiendrais
entretiendrait
Present

entretiendrions
entretiendriez
entretiendraient

aurais entretenu
aurais entretenu
aurait entretenu
Past

aurions entretenu
auriez entretenu
auraient entretenu

entretienne
entretiennes
entretienne
Imperfect

entretenions
entreteniez
entretiennent

aie entretenu
aies entretenu
ait entretenu
Pluperfect

ayons entretenu
ayez entretenu
aient entretenu

entretinsse
entrettinsses
entretnt

entretinssions
entretinssiez
entretinssent

eusse entretenu
eusses entretenu
et entretenu

eussions entretenu
eussiez entretenu
eussent entretenu

Note: As a reflexive verb, sentretenir (to converse with, to support oneself, to keep oneself in
shape) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre
in compound tenses. Examples 5, 6, and 7 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Le concierge entretient la proprit.
Entretient-il une correspondance avec son
ami?
Nous avons entretenu nos beaux souvenirs.
Ne tavait-elle pas entretenu pendant des
heures?
Vous vous entreteniez haute voix.
Nous nous sommes entretenus tout seuls.
Elles se sont entretenues en bonne forme.

The concierge maintains the property.


Does he maintain correspondence with his
friend?
We kept our beautiful memories alive.
Hadnt she conversed with you for hours?
You were conversing in a loud voice.
We supported ourselves on our own.
They kept themselves in good shape.

316 / envahir

envahir
to invade, to sweep through
Present participle: envahissant Past participle: envahi
Imperative: envahis, envahissez, envahissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

envahis
envahis
envahit
Imperfect

envahissons
envahissez
envahissent

ai envahi
as envahi
a envahi
Pluperfect

avons envahi
avez envahi
ont envahi

envahissais
envahissais
envahissait
Pass Simple

envahissions
envahissiez
envahissaient

avais envahi
avais envahi
avait envahi
Pass Antrieur

avions envahi
aviez envahi
avaient envahi

envahis
envahis
envahit
Future

envahmes
envahtes
envahirent

eus envahi
eus envahi
eut envahi
Future Perfect

emes envahi
etes envahi
eurent envahi

envahirai
envahiras
envahira
Conditional

envahirons
envahirez
envahiront

aurai envahi
auras envahi
aura envahi
Conditional Perfect

aurons envahi
aurez envahi
auront envahi

envahirais
envahirais
envahirait
Present

envahirions
envahiriez
envahiraient

aurais envahi
aurais envahi
aurait envahi
Past

aurions envahi
auriez envahi
auraient envahi

envahisse
envahisses
envahisse
Imperfect

envahissions
envahissiez
envahissent

aie envahi
aies envahi
ait envahi
Pluperfect

ayons envahi
ayez envahi
aient envahi

envahisse
envahisses
envaht

envahissions
envahissiez
envahissent

eusse envahi
eusses envahi
et envahi

eussions envahi
eussiez envahi
eussent envahi

EXAMPLES
Les voitures de marque trangre
envahissent notre march.
La fatigue nous envahissait.
Un virus a envahi mon disque dur.
Le dictateur avait envahi le pays.

Our market is being invaded (overrun) with


foreign cars.
Fatigue was overcoming us.
A virus invaded my hard drive.
The dictator had invaded the country.

envoyer / 317

envoyer
to send
Present participle: envoyant Past participle: envoy
Imperative: envoie, envoyez, envoyons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

envoie
envoies
envoie
Imperfect

envoyons
envoyez
envoient

ai envoy
as envoy
a envoy
Pluperfect

avons envoy
avez envoy
ont envoy

envoyais
envoyais
envoyait
Pass Simple

envoyions
envoyiez
envoyaient

avais envoy
avais envoy
avait envoy
Pass Antrieur

avions envoy
aviez envoy
avaient envoy

envoyai
envoyas
envoya
Future

envoymes
envoytes
envoyrent

eus envoy
eus envoy
eut envoy
Future Perfect

emes envoy
etes envoy
eurent envoy

enverrai
enverras
enverra
Conditional

enverrons
enverrez
enverront

aurai envoy
auras envoy
aura envoy
Conditional Perfect

aurons envoy
aurez envoy
auront envoy

enverrais
enverrais
enverrait
Present

enverrions
enverriez
enverraient

aurais envoy
aurais envoy
aurait envoy
Past

aurions envoy
auriez envoy
auraient envoy

envoie
envoies
envoie
Imperfect

envoyions
envoyiez
envoient

aie envoy
aies envoy
ait envoy
Pluperfect

ayons envoy
ayez envoy
aient envoy

envoyasse
envoyasses
envoyt

envoyassions
envoyassiez
envoyassent

eusse envoy
eusses envoy
et envoy

eussions envoy
eussiez envoy
eussent envoy

EXAMPLES
Envoie-lui une carte danniversaire.
Je tenvoie des baisers.
Je tenverrai mon adresse lectronique
aussitt que possible.
Papa avait envoy Lucie au supermarch.
Nous avons envoy chercher le mdecin.

Send him a birthday card.


Im sending (blowing) you kisses.
Ill send you my e-mail address as soon as
possible.
Dad had sent Lucy to the supermarket.
We sent for the doctor.

318 / esprer

esprer
to hope
Present participle: esprant Past participle: espr
Imperative: espre, esprez, esprons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

espre
espres
espre
Imperfect

esprons
esprez
esprent

ai espr
as espr
a espr
Pluperfect

avons espr
avez espr
ont espr

esprais
esprais
esprait
Pass Simple

esprions
espriez
espraient

avais espr
avais espr
avait espr
Pass Antrieur

avions espr
aviez espr
avaient espr

esprai
espras
espra
Future

esprmes
esprtes
esprrent

eus espr
eus espr
eut espr
Future Perfect

emes espr
etes espr
eurent espr

esprerai
espreras
esprera
Conditional

esprerons
esprerez
espreront

aurai espr
auras espr
aura espr
Conditional Perfect

aurons espr
aurez espr
auront espr

esprerais
esprerais
esprerait
Present

esprerions
espreriez
espreraient

aurais espr
aurais espr
aurait espr
Past

aurions espr
auriez espr
auraient espr

espre
espres
espre
Imperfect

esprions
espriez
esprent

aie espr
aies espr
ait espr
Pluperfect

ayons espr
ayez espr
aient espr

esprasse
esprasses
esprt

esprassions
esprassiez
esprassent

eusse espr
eusses espr
et espr

eussions espr
eussiez espr
eussent espr

EXAMPLES
Il faut esprer en son intgrit.
Jespre quelle peut venir.
Ils ne tesperaient plus.
Elle na rien espr.
Eus-tu espr de laide?

You have to have faith in his integrity.


I hope she can come.
They had given up all hope of seeing you.
She hoped for nothing.
Had you hoped for some help?

essayer (de) / 319

essayer (de)
to try (to), to try on
Present participle: essayant Past participle: essay
Imperative: essaie, essayez, essayons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

essaie
essaies
essaie
Imperfect

essayons
essayez
essaient

ai essay
as essay
a essay
Pluperfect

avons essay
avez essay
ont essay

essayais
essayais
essayait
Pass Simple

essayions
essayiez
essayaient

avais essay
avais essay
avait essay
Pass Antrieur

avions essay
aviez essay
avaient essay

essayai
essayas
essaya
Future

essaymes
essaytes
essayrent

eus essay
eus essay
eut essay
Future Perfect

emes essay
etes essay
eurent essay

essaierai
essaieras
essaiera
Conditional

essaierons
essaierez
essaieront

aurai essay
auras essay
aura essay
Conditional Perfect

aurons essay
aurez essay
auront essay

essaierais
essaierais
essaierait
Present

essaierions
essaieriez
essaieraient

aurais essay
aurais essay
aurait essay
Past

aurions essay
auriez essay
auraient essay

essaie
essaies
essaie
Imperfect

essayions
essayiez
essaient

aie essay
aies essay
ait essay
Pluperfect

ayons essay
ayez essay
aient essay

essayasse
essayasses
essayt

essayassions
essayassiez
essayassent

eusse essay
eusses essay
et essay

eussions essay
eussiez essay
eussent essay

Note: For verbs ending in ayer, it is optional to change y to i in the familiar singular imperative, present, future, conditional, and present subjunctive forms.

EXAMPLES
Il faut que tu essaies ce manteau.
Nous essaierons de te revoir demain matin.
Jai esssay un nouveau produit alimentaire.
Elle avait essay de rparer sa voiture sans
succs.

You have to try on this coat.


We will try to see you again tomorrow
morning.
I tried a new food product.
She had tried unsuccessfully to repair her
car.

320 / essuyer

essuyer
to wipe
Present participle: essuyant Past participle: essuy
Imperative: essuie, essuyez, essuyons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

essuie
essuies
essuie
Imperfect

essuyons
essuyez
essuient

ai essuy
as essuy
a essuy
Pluperfect

avons essuy
avez essuy
ont essuy

essuyais
essuyais
essuyait
Pass Simple

essuyions
essuyiez
essuyaient

avais essuy
avais essuy
avait essuy
Pass Antrieur

avions essuy
aviez essuy
avaient essuy

essuyai
essuyas
essuya
Future

essuymes
essuytes
essuyrent

eus essuy
eus essuy
eut essuy
Future Perfect

emes essuy
etes essuy
eurent essuy

essuierai
essuieras
essuiera
Conditional

essuierons
essuierez
essuieront

aurai essuy
auras essuy
aura essuy
Conditional Perfect

aurons essuy
aurez essuy
auront essuy

essuierais
essuierais
essuierait
Present

essuierions
essuieriez
essuieraient

aurais essuy
aurais essuy
aurait essuy
Past

aurions essuy
auriez essuy
auraient essuy

essuie
essuies
essuie
Imperfect

essuyions
essuyiez
essuient

aie essuy
aies essuy
ait essuy
Pluperfect

ayons essuy
ayez essuy
aient essuy

essuyasse
essuyasses
essuyt

essuyassions
essuyassiez
essuyassent

eusse essuy
eusses essuy
et essuy

eussions essuy
eussiez essuy
eussent essuy

Note: As a reflexive verb, sessuyer (to dry oneself) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se,
nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 5 demonstrates
reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Essuie tes larmes.
Jessuierai la table dans un moment.
Il a essuy ses pieds avant dentrer dans la
maison.
Le soleil, aura-t-il essuy nos vtements
avant la fin de la journee?
Elle sest essuy les mains.

Dry your tears.


Ill dry the table in a minute.
He dried his feet before entering the house.
Will the sun have dried our clothes before
the end of the day?
She dried her hands.

tablir / 321

tablir
to establish
Present participle: tablissant Past participle: tabli
Imperative: tablis, tablissez, tablissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

tablis
tablis
tablit
Imperfect

tablissons
tablissez
tablissent

ai tabli
as tabli
a tabli
Pluperfect

avons tabli
avez tabli
ont tabli

tablissais
tablissais
tablissait
Pass Simple

tablissions
tablissiez
tablissaient

avais tabli
avais tabli
avait tabli
Pass Antrieur

avions tabli
aviez tabli
avaient tabli

tablis
tablis
tablit
Future

tablmes
tabltes
tablirent

eus tabli
eus tabli
eut tabli
Future Perfect

emes tabli
etes tabli
eurent tabli

tablirai
tabliras
tablira
Conditional

tablirons
tablirez
tabliront

aurai tabli
auras tabli
aura tabli
Conditional Perfect

aurons tabli
aurez tabli
auront tabli

tablirais
tablirais
tablirait
Present

tablirions
tabliriez
tabliraient

aurais tabli
aurais tabli
aurait tabli
Past

aurions tabli
auriez tabli
auraient tabli

tablisse
tablisses
tablisse
Imperfect

tablissions
tablissiez
tablissent

aie tabli
aies tabli
ait tabli
Pluperfect

ayons tabli
ayez tabli
aient tabli

tablisse
tablisses
tablt

tablissions
tablissiez
tablissent

eusse tabli
eusses tabli
et tabli

eussions tabli
eussiez tabli
eussent tabli

Note: As a reflexive verb, stablir (to settle, to develop) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te,
se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 7 and 8
demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Sa rputation est tablie sur son honntet.
Il tablissent leur demeure Paris.
Le professeur tablira ses rgles en classe.
On na pas encore tabli la paix dans ce
pays.
Ils ont tabli leur fille avocate.
Elle avait tabli son innocence devant le jury.
Un nouveau restaurant sest tabli en ville.
Des liens profonds se sont tablis entre eux.

His reputation is built upon his honesty.


They set up house in Paris.
The teacher will establish his rules in class.
They havent established peace yet in that
country.
They set up their daughter as a lawyer.
She had established her innocence in front
of the jury.
A new restaurant established itself
downtown.
Strong ties developed between them.

322 / teindre

teindre
to extinguish, to turn off
Present participle: teignant Past participle: teint
Imperative: teins, teignez, teignons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

teins
teins
teint
Imperfect

teignons
teignez
teignent

ai teint
as teint
a teint
Pluperfect

avons teint
avez teint
ont teint

teignais
teignais
teignait
Pass Simple

teignions
teigniez
teignaient

avais teint
avais teint
avait teint
Pass Antrieur

avions teint
aviez teint
avaient teint

teignis
teignis
teignit
Future

teignmes
teigntes
teignirent

eus teint
eus teint
eut teint
Future Perfect

emes teint
etes teint
eurent teint

teindrai
teindras
teindra
Conditional

teindrons
teindrez
teindront

aurai teint
auras teint
aura teint
Conditional Perfect

aurons teint
aurez teint
auront teint

teindrais
teindrais
teindrait
Present

teindrions
teindriez
teindraient

aurais teint
aurais teint
aurait teint
Past

aurions teint
auriez teint
auraient teint

teigne
teignes
teigne
Imperfect

teignions
teigniez
teignent

aie teint
aies teint
ait teint
Pluperfect

ayons teint
ayez teint
aient teint

teignisse
teignisses
teignt

teignissions
teignissiez
teignissent

eusse teint
eusses teint
et teint

eussions teint
eussiez teint
eussent teint

Note: As a reflexive verb, steindre (to die, to go out) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se,
nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 5 and 6 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
teignez la lumire.
Arrivera-t-il teindre sa colre?
Les pompiers teindront cet incendie.
As-tu dj teint la tlvision?
Leur amour sest teint.
Le feu stait teint.

Turn out the light.


Will he succeed in subduing his anger?
The firefighters will put out (extinguish)
that fire.
Have you turned off the television already?
Their love died.
The fire had gone out.

tendre / 323

tendre
to stretch out
Present participle: tendant Past participle: tendu
Imperative: tends, tendez, tendons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

tends
tends
tend
Imperfect

tendons
tendez
tendent

ai tendu
as tendu
a tendu
Pluperfect

avons tendu
avez tendu
ont tendu

tendais
tendais
tendait
Pass Simple

tendions
tendiez
tendaient

avais tendu
avais tendu
avait tendu
Pass Antrieur

avions tendu
aviez tendu
avaient tendu

tendis
tendis
tendit
Future

tendmes
tendtes
tendirent

eus tendu
eus tendu
eut tendu
Future Perfect

emes tendu
etes tendu
eurent tendu

tendrai
tendras
tendra
Conditional

tendrons
tendrez
tendront

aurai tendu
auras tendu
aura tendu
Conditional Perfect

aurons tendu
aurez tendu
auront tendu

tendrais
tendrais
tendrait
Present

tendrions
tendriez
tendraient

aurais tendu
aurais tendu
aurait tendu
Past

aurions tendu
auriez tendu
auraient tendu

tende
tendes
tende
Imperfect

tendions
tendiez
tendent

aie tendu
aies tendu
ait tendu
Pluperfect

ayons tendu
ayez tendu
aient tendu

tendisse
tendisses
tendt

tendissions
tendissiez
tendissent

eusse tendu
eusses tendu
et tendu

eussions tendu
eussiez tendu
eussent tendu

EXAMPLES
Naturellement, elle ntend pas le linge
dehors quand il pleut.
Le roi tendit son pouvoir sur le peuple.
Il faut que le chef tende la sauce deau.
Loiseau a tendu ses ailes.
Il a tendu ses bras pour lembrasser.
Elle avait tendu le journal sur la table.

Naturally, she doesnt hang the laundry


outside when it rains.
The king increased his power over the
people.
The chef has to thin the sauce with water.
The bird spread its wings.
He spread his arms to hug her.
She had spread the newpaper out on the
table.

324 / stendre

stendre
to stretch out
Present participle: stendant Past participle: tendu
Imperative: tends-toi, tendez-vous, tendons-nous

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

mtends
ttends
stend
Imperfect

nous tendons
vous tendez
stendent

me suis tendu(e)
tes tendu(e)
sest tendu(e)

nous sommes tendu(e)s


vous tes tendu(e)(s)
se sont tendu(e)s

mtendais
ttendais
stendait
Pass Simple

nous tendions
vous tendiez
stendaient

mtais tendu(e)
ttais tendu(e)
s tait tendu(e)
Pass Antrieur

nous tions tendu(e)s


vous tiez tendu(e)(s)
staient tendu(e)s

mtendis
ttendis
stendit
Future

nous tendmes
vous tendtes
stendirent

me fus tendu(e)
te fus tendu(e)
se fut tendu(e)
Future Perfect

nous fmes tendu(e)s


vous ftes tendu(e)(s)
se furent tendu(e)s

mtendrai
ttendras
stendra
Conditional

nous tendrons
vous tendrez
stendront

me serai tendu(e)
te seras tendu(e)
se sera tendu(e)
Conditional Perfect

nous serons tendu(e)s


vous serez tendu(e)(s)
se seront tendu(e)s

mtendrais
ttendrais
stendrait
Present

nous tendrions
vous tendriez
stendraient

me serais tendu(e)
te serais tendu(e)
se serait tendu(e)
Past

nous serions tendu(e)s


vous seriez tendu(e)(s)
se seraient tendu(e)s

mtende
ttendes
stende
Imperfect

nous tendions
vous tendiez
stendent

me sois tendu(e)
te sois tendu(e)
se soit tendu(e)
Pluperfect

nous soyons tendu(e)s


vous soyez tendu(e)(s)
se soient tendu(e)s

mtendisse
ttendisses
stendt

nous tendissions
vous tendissiez
stendissent

me fusse tendu(e)
te fusses tendu(e)
se ft tendu(e)

nous fussions tendu(e)s


vous fussiez tendu(e)
se fussent tendu(e)s

Pluperfect

EXAMPLES
Il faut que tu ttendes sur le divan.
Elle stendra sur le sujet de finances.
Les montagnes stendaient perte de vue.
Sest-elle tendue?
Son vocabulaire sest tendu.
Le petit village sest tendu.

You have to lie down on the sofa.


She will elaborate on the subject of
finances.
The mountains stretched out as far as the
eye could see.
Did she lie down?
His vocabulary increased.
The small village expanded.

tinceler / 325

tinceler
to sparkle, to shine
Present participle: tincelant Past participle: tincel
Imperative: tincelle, tincelez, tincelons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

tincelle
tincelles
tincelle
Imperfect

tincelons
tincelez
tincellent

ai tincel
as tincel
a tincel
Pluperfect

avons tincel
avez tincel
ont tincel

tincelais
tincelais
tincelait
Pass Simple

tincelions
tinceliez
tincelaient

avais tincel
avais tincel
avait tincel
Pass Antrieur

avions tincel
aviez tincel
avaient tincel

tincelai
tincelas
tincela
Future

tincelmes
tinceltes
tincelrent

eus tincel
eus tincel
eut tincel
Future Perfect

emes tincel
etes tincel
eurent tincel

tincellerai
tincelleras
tincellera
Conditional

tincellerons
tincellerez
tincelleront

aurai tincel
auras tincel
aura tincel
Conditional Perfect

aurons tincel
aurez tincel
auront tincel

tincellerais
tincellerais
tincellerait
Present

tincellerions
tincelleriez
tincelleraient

aurais tincel
aurais tincel
aurait tincel
Past

aurions tincel
auriez tincel
auraient tincel

tincelle
tincelles
tincelle
Imperfect

tincelions
tinceliez
tincellent

aie tincel
aies tincel
ait tincel
Pluperfect

ayons tincel
ayez tincel
aient tincel

tincelasse
tincelasses
tincelt

tincelassions
tincelassiez
tincelassent

eusse tincel
eusses tincel
et tincel

eussions tincel
eussiez tincel
eussent tincel

EXAMPLES
Les toiles tincellent dans le ciel.
Son diamant tincelait.
Ses yeux ont tincel de joie.
La beaut de lactrice avait tincel devant
les camras.

The stars are twinkling in the sky.


Her diamond was sparkling.
His eyes glittered with joy.
The actresss beauty had sparkled in front
of the cameras.

326 / stonner (de)

stonner (de)
to be astonished at, surprised by
Present participle: stonnant Past participle: tonn
Imperative: tonne-toi, tonnez-vous, tonnons-nous

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

mtonne
ttonnes
stonne
Imperfect

nous tonnons
vous tonnez
stonnent

me suis tonn(e)
tes tonn(e)
sest tonn(e)
Pluperfect

nous sommes tonn(e)s


vous tes tonn(e)(s)
se sont tonn(e)s

mtonnais
ttonnais
stonnait
Pass Simple

nous tonnions
vous tonniez
stonnaient

mtais tonn(e)
ttais tonn(e)
stait tonn(e)
Pass Antrieur

nous tions tonn(e)s


vous tiez tonn(e)(s)
staient tonn(e)s

mtonnai
ttonnas
stonna
Future

nous tonnmes
vous tonntes
stonnrent

me fus tonn(e)
te fus tonn(e)
se fut tonn(e)
Future Perfect

nous fmes tonn(e)s


vous ftes tonn(e)(s)
se furent tonn(e)s

mtonnerai
ttonneras
stonnera
Conditional

nous tonnerons
vous tonnerez
stonneront

me serai tonn(e)
te seras tonn(e)
se sera tonn(e)
Conditional Perfect

nous serons tonn(e)s


vous serez tonn(e)(s)
se seront tonn(e)s

mtonnerais
ttonnerais
stonnerait
Present

nous tonnerions
vous tonneriez
stonneraient

me serais tonn(e)
te serais tonn(e)
se serait tonn(e)
Past

nous serions tonn(e)s


vous seriez tonn(e)(s)
se seraient tonn(e)s

mtonne
ttonnes
stonne
Imperfect

nous tonnions
vous tonniez
stonnent

me sois tonn(e)
te sois tonn(e)
se soit tonn(e)
Pluperfect

nous soyons tonn(e)s


vous soyez tonn(e)(s)
se soient tonn(e)s

mtonnasse
ttonnasses
stonnt

nous tonnassions me fusstonn(e)


vous tonnassiez te fusses tonn(e)
stonnassent
se ft tonn(e)

nous fussions tonn(e)s


vous fussiez tonn(e)
se fussent tonn(e)s

EXAMPLES
On ne doit pas stonner sils arrivent en
retard.
Je mtonne de son attitude.
Elle sest tonne de te voir la fte.
Te serais-tu tonn de nos prouesses?
Tu mtonnes!
a ne mtonnerait pas.
Les rsultats du match nous ont tonns.

One shouldnt be surprised if they arrive


late.
Im surprised by his attitude.
She was surprised to see you at the party.
Would you have been astonished (amazed)
by our prowess?
You astonish me!
That wouldnt surprise me.
The results of the game surprised us.

tourdir / 327

tourdir
to daze, to stun, to deafen
Present participle: tourdissant Past participle: tourdi
Imperative: tourdis, tourdissez, tourdissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

tourdis
tourdis
tourdit
Imperfect

tourdissons
tourdissez
tourdissent

ai tourdi
as tourdi
a tourdi
Pluperfect

avons tourdi
avez tourdi
ont tourdi

tourdissais
tourdissais
tourdissait
Pass Simple

tourdissions
tourdissiez
tourdissaient

avais tourdi
avais tourdi
avait tourdi
Pass Antrieur

avions tourdi
aviez tourdi
avaient tourdi

tourdis
tourdis
tourdit
Future

tourdmes
tourdtes
tourdirent

eus tourdi
eus tourdi
eut tourdi
Future Perfect

emes tourdi
etes tourdi
eurent tourdi

tourdirai
tourdiras
tourdira
Conditional

tourdirons
tourdirez
tourdiront

aurai tourdi
auras tourdi
aura tourdi
Conditional Perfect

aurons tourdi
aurez tourdi
auront tourdi

tourdirais
tourdirais
tourdirait
Present

tourdirions
tourdiriez
tourdiraient

aurais tourdi
aurais tourdi
aurait tourdi
Past

aurions tourdi
auriez tourdi
auraient tourdi

tourdisse
tourdisses
tourdisse
Imperfect

tourdissions
tourdissiez
tourdissent

aie tourdi
aies tourdi
ait tourdi
Pluperfect

ayons tourdi
ayez tourdi
aient tourdi

tourdisse
tourdisses
tourdt

tourdissions
tourdissiez
tourdissent

eusse tourdi
eusses tourdi
et tourdi

eussions tourdi
eussiez tourdi
eussent tourdi

EXAMPLES
Ces bruits mtourdissent.
Le vin ttourdira.
Son succs nous a tourdis.
Laltitude de lavion mavait tourdi.

Those noises are deafening.


Wine will make you giddy (dizzy).
His success stunned us.
The altitude of the plane had made my
head spin.

328 / tre

tre
to be
Present participle: tant Past participle: t
Imperative: sois, soyez, soyons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

suis
es
est
Imperfect

sommes
tes
sont

ai t
as t
a t
Pluperfect

avons t
avez t
ont t

tais
tais
tait
Pass Simple

tions
tiez
taient

avais t
avais t
avait t
Pass Antrieur

avions t
aviez t
avaient t

fus
fus
fut
Future

fmes
ftes
furent

eus t
eus t
eut t
Future Perfect

emes t
etes t
eurent t

serai
seras
sera
Conditional

serons
serez
seront

aurai t
auras t
aura t
Conditional Perfect

aurons t
aurez t
auront t

serais
serais
serait
Present

serions
seriez
seraient

aurais t
aurais t
aurait t
Past

aurions t
auriez t
auraient t

sois
sois
soit
Imperfect

soyons
soyez
soient

aie t
aies t
ait t
Pluperfect

ayons t
ayez t
aient t

fusse
fusses
ft

fussions
fussiez
fussent

eusse t
eusses t
et t

eussions t
eussiez t
eussent t

EXAMPLES
Sois prudent!
Je pense, donc je suis.
Elle est intelligente.
Nous sommes le onze juillet.
Sil tait en retard le patron serait fch.
Il faut que tu sois plus patient.
As-tu jamais t en France?
la fin de lanne elle aura t chef du
dpartement pendant dix ans.
Ses bijoux avaient t vols.

Be careful!
I think, therefore I am.
She is intelligent.
Its July 11th.
If he were late the boss would be angry.
You have to be more patient.
Have you ever been to France?
By the end of the year, she will have been
the head of the department for ten years.
Her jewelry had been stolen.

tudier / 329

tudier
to study, to examine
Present participle: tudiant Past participle: tudi
Imperative: tudie, tudiez, tudions

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

tudie
tudies
tudie
Imperfect

tudions
tudiez
tudient

ai tudi
as tudi
a tudi
Pluperfect

avons tudi
avez tudi
ont tudi

tudiais
tudiais
tudiait
Pass Simple

tudiions
tudiiez
tudiaient

avais tudi
avais tudi
avait tudi
Pass Antrieur

avions tudi
aviez tudi
avaient tudi

tudiai
tudias
tudia
Future

tudimes
tudites
tudirent

eus tudi
eus tudi
eut tudi
Future Perfect

emes tudi
etes tudi
eurent tudi

tudierai
tudieras
tudiera
Conditional

tudierons
tudierez
tudieront

aurai tudi
auras tudi
aura tudi
Conditional Perfect

aurons tudi
aurez tudi
auront tudi

tudierais
tudierais
tudierait
Present

tudierions
tudieriez
tudieraient

aurais tudi
aurais tudi
aurait tudi
Past

aurions tudi
auriez tudi
auraient tudi

tudie
tudies
tudie
Imperfect

tudiions
tudiiez
tudient

aie tudi
aies tudi
ait tudi
Pluperfect

ayons tudi
ayez tudi
aient tudi

tudiasse
tudiasses
tudit

tudiassions
tudiassiez
tudiassent

eusse tudi
eusses tudi
et tudi

eussions tudi
eussiez tudi
eussent tudi

Note: As a reflexive verb, studier (to study each other) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se,
nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 6 demonstrates
reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
tudiez ces verbes!
En tudiant une langue trangre on
apprend beaucoup de la culture du peuple.
Elle ltudiait constammant pour savoir sil
faisait son travail consciencieusement.
On a tudi le trait soigneusement.
Il avait tudi le pour et le contre.
Les deux ennemis se sont tudis avant de
se battre.

Study these verbs!


By studying a foreign language, you learn a
lot about the culture of the people.
She was observing him constantly
to find out if he was doing his work
conscientiously.
They studied the treaty carefully.
He had studied the pros and cons.
The two enemies studied each other before
fighting.

330 / svader

svader
to escape
Present participle: svadant Past participle: vad
Imperative: vade-toi, vadez-vous, vadons-nous

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

mvade
tvades
svade
Imperfect

nous vadons
vous vadez
svadent

me suis vad(e)
tes vad(e)
sest vad(e)
Pluperfect

nous sommes vad(e)s


vous tes vad(e)(s)
se sont vad(e)s

mvadais
tvadais
svadait
Pass Simple

nous vadions
vous vadiez
svadaient

mtais vad(e)
ttais vad(e)
stait vad(e)
Pass Antrieur

nous tions vad(e)s


vous tiez vad(e)(s)
staient vad(e)s

mvadai
tvadas
svada
Future

nous vadmes
vous vadtes
svadrent

me fus vad(e)
te fus vad(e)
se fut vad(e)
Future Perfect

nous fmes vad(e)s


vous ftes vad(e)(s)
se furent vad(e)s

mvaderai
tvaderas
svadera
Conditional

nous vaderons
vous vaderez
svaderont

me serai vad(e)
te seras vad(e)
se sera vad(e)
Conditional Perfect

nous serons vad(e)s


vous serez vad(e)(s)
se seront vad(e)s

mvaderais
tvaderais
svaderait
Present

nous vaderions
vous vaderiez
svaderaient

me serais vad(e)
te serais vad(e)
se serait vad(e)
Past

nous serions vad(e)s


vous seriez vad(e)(s)
se seraient vad(e)s

mvade
tvades
svade
Imperfect

nous vadions
vous vadiez
svadent

me sois vad(e)
te sois vad(e)
se soit vad(e)
Pluperfect

nous soyons vad(e)s


vous soyez vad(e)(s)
se soient vad(e)s

mvadasse
tvadasses
svadt

nous vadassions me fusse vad(e)


vous vadassiez te fusses vad(e)
svadassent
se ft vad(e)

nous fussions vad(e)s


vous fussiez vad(e)
se fussent vad(e)s

EXAMPLES
Elle avait besoin de svader.
Il svade en coutant la musique classique.
Je me suis vade de la ralit en lisant.
Les prisonniers staient vite vads des
mains de lennemi.

She needed to get away.


He escapes by listening to classical music.
I escaped reality by reading.
The prisoners had rapidly escaped from the
hands of the enemy.

svanouir / 331

svanouir
to faint, to disappear
Present participle: svanouissant Past participle: vanoui
Imperative: vanouis-toi, vanouissez-vous, vanouissons-nous
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Plural

Present
mvanouis
tvanouis
svanouit

nous vanouissons
vous vanoussiez
svanouissent

Indicative

mtais vanoui(e)
ttais vanoui(e)
stait vanoui(e)

nous vanoumes
vous vanoutes
svanouirent

me fus vanoui(e)
te fus vanoui(e)
se fut vanoui(e)

nous vanouirons
vous vanouirez
svanouiront

me serai vanoui(e)
te seras vanoui(e)
se sera vanoui(e)

Subjunctive

nous fmes vanoui(e)s


vous ftes vanoui(e)(s)
se furent vanoui(e)s
nous serons vanoui(e)s
vous serez vanoui(e)(s)
se seront vanoui(e)s

Conditional Perfect
nous vanouirions
vous vanouiriez
svanouiraient

me serais vanoui(e)
te serais vanoui(e)
se serait vanoui(e)

nous serions vanoui(e)s


vous seriez vanoui(e)(s)
se seraient vanoui(e)s

Past
nous vanouissions
vous vanouissiez
svanouissent

Imperfect
mvanouisse
tvanouisses
svanout

nous tions vanoui(e)s


vous tiez vanoui(e)(s)
staient vanoui(e)s

Future Perfect

Present
mvanouisse
tvanouisses
svanouisse

nous sommes vanoui(e)s


vous tes vanoui(e)(s)
se sont vanoui(e)s

Pass Antrieur

Conditional
mvanouirais
tvanouirais
svanouirait

Plural

Pluperfect

Future
mvanouirai
tvanouiras
svanouira

me suis vanoui(e)
tes vanoui(e)
sest vanoui(e)

nous vanouissions
vous vanouissiez
svanouissaient

Pass Simple
mvanouis
tvanouis
svanouit

Singular
Pass Compos

Imperfect
mvanouissais
tvanouissais
svanouissait

Compound Tenses

me sois vanoui(e)
te sois vanoui(e)
se soit vanoui(e)

nous soyons vanoui(e)s


vous soyez vanoui(e)(s)
se soient vanoui(e)s

Pluperfect
nous vanouissions
vous vanouissiez
svanouissent

me fusse vanoui(e)
te fusses vanoui(e)
se ft vanoui(e)

nous fussions vanoui(e)s


vous fussiez vanoui(e)
se fussent vanoui(e)s

EXAMPLES
Il svanouit quand il ne mange pas assez.
Je ne mvanouirai pas en regardant
lopration.
Elle sest vanouie de joie.
Ses craintes staient vanouies.

He faints when he doesnt eat enough.


I wont faint while watching the operation.
She fainted with joy.
Her fears had disappeared.

332 / exagrer

exagrer
to exaggerate
Present participle: exagrant Past participle: exagr
Imperative: exagre, exagrez, exagrons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

exagre
exagres
exagre
Imperfect

exagrons
exagrez
exagrent

ai exagr
as exagr
a exagr
Pluperfect

avons exagr
avez exagr
ont exagr

exagrais
exagrais
exagrait
Pass Simple

exagrions
exagriez
exagraient

avais exagr
avais exagr
avait exagr
Pass Antrieur

avions exagr
aviez exagr
avaient exagr

exagrai
exagras
exagra
Future

exagrmes
exagrtes
exagrrent

eus exagr
eus exagr
eut exagr
Future Perfect

emes exagr
etes exagr
eurent exagr

exagrerai
exagreras
exagrera
Conditional

exagrerons
exagrerez
exagreront

aurai exagr
auras exagr
aura exagr
Conditional Perfect

aurons exagr
aurez exagr
auront exagr

exagrerais
exagrerais
exagrerait
Present

exagrerions
exagreriez
exagreraient

aurais exagr
aurais exagr
aurait exagr
Past

aurions exagr
auriez exagr
auraient exagr

exagre
exagres
exagre
Imperfect

exagrions
exagriez
exagrent

aie exagr
aies exagr
ait exagr
Pluperfect

ayons exagr
ayez exagr
aient exagr

exagrasse
exagrasses
exagrt

exagrassions
exagrassiez
exagrassent

eusse exagr
eusses exagr
et exagr

eussions exagr
eussiez exagr
eussent exagr

Note: As a reflexive verb, sexagrer (to be exaggerated, to be overrated) uses the reflexive
pronouns me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses.
Example 5 demonstrates reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Nexagrons rien.
Tu exagres!
On a beaucoup exagr limportance de son
discours.
Je navais pas exagr la difficult de ce
projet.
Les avantages de cette carte de crdit
sexagrent.

Lets not exaggerate.


Youre exaggerating! (Youre going too far!)
The importance of his speech was highly
exaggerated.
I hadnt exaggerated the difficulty of that
project.
The advantages of that credit card are
overrated.

exclure / 333

exclure
to exclude
Present participle: excluant Past participle: exclu
Imperative: exclus, excluez, excluons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

exclus
exclus
exclut
Imperfect

excluons
excluez
excluent

ai exclu
as exclu
a exclu
Pluperfect

avons exclu
avez exclu
ont exclu

excluais
excluais
excluait
Pass Simple

excluions
excluiez
excluaient

avais exclu
avais exclu
avait exclu
Pass Antrieur

avions exclu
aviez exclu
avaient exclu

exclus
exclus
exclut
Future

exclmes
excltes
exclurent

eus exclu
eus exclu
eut exclu
Future Perfect

emes exclu
etes exclu
eurent exclu

exclurai
excluras
exclura
Conditional

exclurons
exclurez
excluront

aurai exclu
auras exclu
aura exclu
Conditional Perfect

aurons exclu
aurez exclu
auront exclu

exclurais
exclurais
exclurait
Present

exclurions
excluriez
excluraient

aurais exclu
aurais exclu
aurait exclu
Past

aurions exclu
auriez exclu
auraient exclu

exclue
exclues
exclue
Imperfect

excluions
excluiez
excluent

aie exclu
aies exclu
ait exclu
Pluperfect

ayons exclu
ayez exclu
aient exclu

exclusse
exclusses
exclt

exclussions
exclussiez
exclussent

eusse exclu
eusses exclu
et exclu

eussions exclu
eussiez exclu
eussent exclu

Note: As a reflexive verb, sexclure (to be mutually exclusive) uses the reflexive pronouns me,
te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 5 demonstrates reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Ce prix exclut les impts.
Excluais-tu la viande de ton rgime?
Il a t exclu temporairement de lcole.
On avait exclu ce joueur de son quipe.
Ces ides sexcluent mutuellement.

That price excludes taxes.


Were you excluding meat from your diet?
He was temporarily suspended from
school.
That player had been suspended from his
team.
Those ideas are mutually exclusive.

334 / excuser

excuser
to excuse, to forgive
Present participle: excusant Past participle: excus
Imperative: excuse, excusez, excusons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

excuse
excuses
excuse
Imperfect

excusons
excusez
excusent

ai excus
as excus
a excus
Pluperfect

avons excus
avez excus
ont excus

excusais
excusais
excusait
Pass Simple

excusions
excusiez
excusaient

avais excus
avais excus
avait excus
Pass Antrieur

avions excus
aviez excus
avaient excus

excusai
excusas
excusa
Future

excusmes
excustes
excusrent

eus excus
eus excus
eut excus
Future Perfect

emes excus
etes excus
eurent excus

excuserai
excuseras
excusera
Conditional

excuserons
excuserez
excuseront

aurai excus
auras excus
aura excus
Conditional Perfect

aurons excus
aurez excus
auront excus

excuserais
excuserais
excuserait
Present

excuserions
excuseriez
excuseraient

aurais excus
aurais excus
aurait excus
Past

aurions excus
auriez excus
auraient excus

excuse
excuses
excuse
Imperfect

excusions
excusiez
excusent

aie excus
aies excus
ait excus
Pluperfect

ayons excus
ayez excus
aient excus

excusasse
excusasses
excust

excusassions
excusassiez
excusassent

eusse excus
eusses excus
et excus

eussions excus
eussiez excus
eussent excus

Note: As a reflexive verb, sexcuser (to excuse oneself) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se,
nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 5 and 6 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Excusez-moi.
Son explication de son comportement
nexcusait rien.
Le patron na pas excus son retard.
Le professeur lavait excuse de faire ses
devoirs.
Qui sexcuse saccuse.
Elle sest excuse pour un moment.

Excuse me.
His explanation of his behavior was no
excuse.
The boss didnt excuse his lateness.
The teacher had excused her from doing
her homework.
Apologizing is a way of admitting guilt.
She excused herself for a moment.

exiger / 335

exiger
to demand, to require
Present participle: exigeant Past participle: exig
Imperative: exige, exigez, exigeons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

exige
exiges
exige
Imperfect

exigeons
exigez
exigent

ai exig
as exig
a exig
Pluperfect

avons exig
avez exig
ont exig

exigeais
exigeais
exigeait
Pass Simple

exigions
exigiez
exigeaient

avais exig
avais exig
avait exig
Pass Antrieur

avions exig
aviez exig
avaient exig

exigeai
exigeas
exigea
Future

exigemes
exigetes
exigrent

eus exig
eus exig
eut exig
Future Perfect

emes exig
etes exig
eurent exig

exigerai
exigeras
exigera
Conditional

exigerons
exigerez
exigeront

aurai exig
auras exig
aura exig
Conditional Perfect

aurons exig
aurez exig
auront exig

exigerais
exigerais
exigerait
Present

exigerions
exigeriez
exigeraient

aurais exig
aurais exig
aurait exig
Past

aurions exig
auriez exig
auraient exig

exige
exiges
exige
Imperfect

exigions
exigiez
exigent

aie exig
aies exig
ait exig
Pluperfect

ayons exig
ayez exig
aient exig

exigeasse
exigeasses
exiget

exigeassions
exigeassiez
exigeassent

eusse exig
eusses exig
et exig

eussions exig
eussiez exig
eussent exig

EXAMPLES
Son mtier exige beaucoup de patience.
Jexigerai quelle maide.
Il ma exig des excuses.
Lentreprise avait exig trois rfrences.

Her profession demands (requires) a lot of


patience.
I will insist that she help me.
He demanded an apology from me.
The business had required three references.

336 / expliquer

expliquer
to explain
Present participle: expliquant Past participle: expliqu
Imperative: explique, expliquez, expliquons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

explique
expliques
explique
Imperfect

expliquons
expliquez
expliquent

ai expliqu
as expliqu
a expliqu
Pluperfect

avons expliqu
avez expliqu
ont expliqu

expliquais
expliquais
expliquait
Pass Simple

expliquions
expliquiez
expliquaient

avais expliqu
avais expliqu
avait expliqu
Pass Antrieur

avions expliqu
aviez expliqu
avaient expliqu

expliquai
expliquas
expliqua
Future

expliqumes
expliqutes
expliqurent

eus expliqu
eus expliqu
eut expliqu
Future Perfect

emes expliqu
etes expliqu
eurent expliqu

expliquerai
expliqueras
expliquera
Conditional

expliquerons
expliquerez
expliqueront

aurai expliqu
auras expliqu
aura expliqu
Conditional Perfect

aurons expliqu
aurez expliqu
auront expliqu

expliquerais
expliquerais
expliquerait
Present

expliquerions
expliqueriez
expliqueraient

aurais expliqu
aurais expliqu
aurait expliqu
Past

aurions expliqu
auriez expliqu
auraient expliqu

explique
expliques
explique
Imperfect

expliquions
expliquiez
expliquent

aie expliqu
aies expliqu
ait expliqu
Pluperfect

ayons expliqu
ayez expliqu
aient expliqu

expliquasse
expliquasses
expliqut

expliquassions eusse expliqu


expliquassiez eusses expliqu
expliquassent et expliqu

eussions expliqu
eussiez expliqu
eussent expliqu

Note: As a reflexive verb, sexpliquer (to explain oneself) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te,
se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 5, 6, and 7
demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Explique-moi le problme.
Sa note expliquera son absence.
Elle ma expliqu comment faire une mousse
au chocolat.
Mais tu ne mavais rien expliqu.
Je mexplique.
Allez vous expliquer avec votre pre.
Ils se sont bien expliqus.

Explain the problem to me.


His note will explain his absence.
She explained to me how to make a
chocolate mousse.
But you havent explained anything to me.
Let me explain myself.
Go and have a talk with your father.
They explained themselves well.

sexprimer / 337

sexprimer
to express oneself
Present participle: sexprimant Past participle: exprim
Imperative: exprime-toi, exprimez-vous, exprimons-nous
Mode

Simple Tenses
Singular

Compound Tenses
Plural

Present
mexprime
texprimes
sexprime

nous exprimons
vous exprimez
sexpriment

Imperfect

Indicative

mexprimais
texprimais
sexprimait

Subjunctive

nous tions exprim(e)s


vous tiez exprim(e)(s)
staient exprim(e)s

me fus exprim(e)
te fus exprim(e)
se fut exprim(e)

nous fmes exprim(e)s


vous ftes exprim(e)(s)
se furent exprim(e)s

me serai exprim(e)
te seras exprim(e)
se sera exprim(e)

nous serons exprim(e)s


vous serez exprim(e)(s)
se seront exprim(e)s

me serais exprim(e)
te serais exprim(e)
se serait exprim(e)

nous serions exprim(e)s


vous seriez exprim(e)(s)
se seraient exprim(e)s

Past
nous exprimions
vous exprimiez
sexpriment

Imperfect
mexprimasse
texprimasses
sexprimt

mtais exprim(e)
ttais exprim(e)
stait exprim(e)

Conditional Perfect
nous exprimerions
vous exprimeriez
sexprimeraient

Present
mexprime
texprimes
sexprime

nous sommes exprim(e)s


vous tes exprim(e)(s)
se sont exprim(e)s

Future Perfect
nous exprimerons
vous exprimerez
sexprimeront

Conditional
mexprimerais
texprimerais
sexprimerait

me suis exprim(e)
tes exprim(e)
sest exprim(e)

Pass Antrieur
nous exprimmes
vous exprimtes
sexprimrent

Future
mexprimerai
texprimeras
sexprimera

Plural

Pluperfect
nous exprimions
vous exprimiez
sexprimaient

Pass Simple
mexprimai
texprimas
sexprima

Singular
Pass Compos

me sois exprim(e)
te sois exprim(e)
se soit exprim(e)

nous soyons exprim(e)s


vous soyez exprim(e)(s)
se soient exprim(e)s

Pluperfect
nous exprimassions me fusse exprim(e)
vous exprimassiez te fusses exprim(e)
sexprimassent
se ft exprim(e)

nous fussions exprim(e)s


vous fussiez exprim(e)
se fussent exprim(e)s

Note: Exprimer may be used nonreflexively with avoir as its helping verb. Examples 5 and 6
demonstrate the nonreflexive use of this verb.

EXAMPLES
Tu texprimes bien.
La peine sexprima dans ses yeux.
Elle sest bien exprime tant bien que mal.
cause du bruit ils staient exprims par
gestes.
Les prix sont exprims en euros.
Les mots nexpriment pas mes vrais
sentiments.

You express yourself well.


Pain showed in her eyes.
She expressed herself well.
Because of the noise, theyd used gestures
to express themselves.
The prices are expressed in euros.
Words dont explain my true feelings.

338 / extraire

extraire
to extract
Present participle: extrayant Past participle: extrait
Imperative: extrais, extrayez, extrayons

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

extrais
extrais
extrait
Imperfect

extrayons
extrayez
extraient

ai extrait
as extrait
a extrait
Pluperfect

avons extrait
avez extrait
ont extrait

extrayais
extrayais
extrayait
Pass Simple

extrayions
extrayiez
extrayaient

avais extrait
avais extrait
avait extrait
Pass Antrieur

avions extrait
aviez extrait
avaient extrait

eus extrait
eus extrait
eut extrait
Future Perfect

emes extrait
etes extrait
eurent extrait

Not used

Subjunctive

Future
extrayais
extrayais
extrayait
Conditional

extrayions
extrayiez
extrayaient

aurai extrait
auras extrait
aura extrait
Conditional Perfect

aurons extrait
aurez extrait
auront extrait

extrairais
extrairais
extrairait
Present

extrairions
extrairiez
extrairaient

aurais extrait
aurais extrait
aurait extrait
Past

aurions extrait
auriez extrait
auraient extrait

extraie
extraies
extraie
Imperfect

extrayions
extrayiez
extraient

aie extrait
aies extrait
ait extrait
Pluperfect

ayons extrait
ayez extrait
aient extrait

eusse extrait
eusses extrait
et extrait

eussions extrait
eussiez extrait
eussent extrait

Not used

Note: As a reflexive verb, sextraire de (to extricate oneself from) uses the reflexive pronouns
me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 5
demonstrates reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Extrayez la racine carre de ce numro.
Les ingnieurs extrayait des minraux des
rochers.
Elle a extrait le jus de trois citrons.
On avait extrait des chardes de sa main
gauche.
Ils se sont extraits du taxi.

Get the square root of that number.


The engineers were extracting minerals
from the rocks.
She extracted the juice from three lemons.
They had taken splinters out of his left
hand.
They climbed out of the taxi.

se fcher (contre) / 339

se fcher (contre)
to become angry (with)
Present participle: se fchant Past participle: fch
Imperative: fche-toi, fchez-vous, fchons-nous

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

me fche
te fches
se fche
Imperfect

nous fchons
vous fchez
se fchent

me suis fch(e)
tes fch(e)
sest fch(e)
Pluperfect

nous sommes fch(e)s


vous tes fch(e)(s)
se sont fch(e)s

me fchais
te fchais
se fchait
Pass Simple

nous fchions
vous fchiez
se fchaient

mtais fch(e)
ttais fch(e)
stait fch(e)
Pass Antrieur

nous tions fch(e)s


vous tiez fch(e)(s)
staient fch(e)s

me fchai
te fchas
se fcha
Future

nous fchmes
vous fchtes
se fchrent

me fus fch(e)
te fus fch(e)
se fut fch(e)
Future Perfect

nous fmes fch(e)s


vous ftes fch(e)(s)
se furent fch(e)s

me fcherai
te fcheras
se fchera
Conditional

nous fcherons
vous fcherez
se fcheront

me serai fch(e)
te seras fch(e)
se sera fch(e)
Conditional Perfect

nous serons fch(e)s


vous serez fch(e)(s)
se seront fch(e)s

me fcherais
te fcherais
se fcherait
Present

nous fcherions
vous fcheriez
se fcheraient

me serais fch(e)
te serais fch(e)
se serait fch(e)
Past

nous serions fch(e)s


vous seriez fch(e)(s)
se seraient fch(e)s

me fche
te fches
se fche
Imperfect

nous fchions
vous fchiez
se fchent

me sois fch(e)
te sois fch(e)
se soit fch(e)
Pluperfect

nous soyons fch(e)s


vous soyez fch(e)(s)
se soient fch(e)s

me fchasse
te fchasses
se fcht

nous fchassions
vous fchassiez
se fchassent

me fusse fch(e)
te fusses fch(e)
se ft fch(e)

nous fussions fch(e)s


vous fussiez fch(e)
se fussent fch(e)s

Note: Fcher (to anger) may be used nonreflexively with avoir as its helping verb. Examples
5 and 6 demonstrate the nonreflexive use of this verb.

EXAMPLES
Ne te fche pas!
Si tu dis la vrit je ne me fcherai pas.
Elle sest fche contre sa meilleure amie.
Ils staient fchs pour rien.
Cette triste histoire nous fche.
Vous lavez fch davantage.

Dont get angry!


If you tell the truth, I wont get angry.
She got angry at her best friend.
They had gotten angry for nothing.
That sad story grieves us.
You made him even even angrier.

340 / faillir

faillir
to fail, to err, to come short
Present participle: Not used
Imperative: Not used

Past participle: failli

Note: Only the tenses indicated are used.


Mode

Simple Tenses

Singular
Present

Compound Tenses

Plural

Not used

Imperfect

Indicative

Not used

Pass Simple
faillis
faillis
faillit
Future

faillmes
failltes
faillirent

Not used

Conditional
Not used

Subjunctive

Present
Not used

Imperfect
Not used

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

ai failli
as failli
a failli
Pluperfect

avons failli
avez failli
ont failli

avais faille
avais faille
avait failli
Pass Antrieur

avions failli
aviez failli
avaient failli

eus failli
eus failli
eut failli
Future Perfect

emes failli
etes failli
eurent failli

aurai failli
auras failli
aura failli
Conditional Perfect

aurons failli
aurez failli
auront failli

aurais failli
aurais failli
aurait failli
Past

aurions failli
auriez failli
auraient failli

aie failli
aies failli
ait failli
Pluperfect

ayons failli
ayez failli
aient failli

eusse faille
eusses faille
et failli

eussions failli
eussiez failli
eussent failli

EXAMPLES
Elle a failli russir.
Ils ont failli se faire lu.
Jai failli me faire craser.
Nous navons pas failli notre parole.

She almost succeeded.


They almost got themselves elected.
I almost got run over.
We were true to our word.

faire / 341

faire
to make, to do
Present participle: faisant Past participle: fait
Imperative: fais, faites, faisons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

fais
fais
fait
Imperfect

faisons
faites
font

ai fait
as fait
a fait
Pluperfect

avons fait
avez fait
ont fait

faisais
faisais
faisait
Pass Simple

faisions
faisiez
faisaient

avais fait
avais fait
avait fait
Pass Antrieur

avions fait
aviez fait
avaient fait

fis
fis
fit
Future

fmes
ftes
firent

eus fait
eus fait
eut fait
Future Perfect

emes fait
etes fait
eurent fait

ferai
feras
fera
Conditional

ferons
ferez
feront

aurai fait
auras fait
aura fait
Conditional Perfect

aurons fait
aurez fait
auront fait

ferais
ferais
ferait
Present

ferions
feriez
feraient

aurais fait
aurais fait
aurait fait
Past

aurions fait
auriez fait
auraient fait

fasse
fasses
fasse
Imperfect

fassions
fassiez
fassent

aie fait
aies fait
ait fait
Pluperfect

ayons fait
ayez fait
aient fait

fisse
fisses
ft

fissions
fissiez
fissent

eusse fait
eusses fait
et fait

eussions fait
eussiez fait
eussent fait

Note: As a reflexive verb, se faire (to make, to do for oneself) uses the reflexive pronouns
me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 6
through 12 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Il fait froid (chaud, du vent, du soleil, beau, mauvais). It is cold (hot, windy, sunny, nice weather, bad weather).
Nous ferons du ski.

Well go skiing.

Elle ferait du piano si elle avait loccasion.

She would play the piano if she had the opportunity.

Jai fait de mon mieux.

I did my best.

Quest-ce quil avait fait de ces cls?

What had he done with his keys?

Elle se fait cinq mille euros par mois.

She makes five thousand euros per month.

a ne se fait pas.

That isnt done.

Il se faisait tard.

It was getting late.

Ne ten fais pas!

Dont worry.

Il se fait faire un costume.

He has a suit made for himself.

Je me suis fait un gteau.

I made a cake for myself.

Je ne me suis pas fait beaucoup dennemis lcole. I didnt make a lot of enemies at school.

342 / falloir

falloir
to be necessary
Present participle: Not used
Imperative: Not used

Past participle: fallu

Note: Only the tenses indicated are used.


Mode

Simple Tenses

Subjunctive

Indicative

Singular
Present

Compound Tenses

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

il faut
Imperfect

il a fallu
Pluperfect

il fallait
Pass Simple

il avait fallu
Pass Antrieur

il fallut
Future

il eut fallu
Future Perfect

il faudra
Conditional

ill aura fallu


Conditional Perfect

il faudrait
Present

il aurait fallu
Past

il faille
Imperfect

il ait fallu
Pluperfect

il fallt

il et fallu

Plural

EXAMPLES
Il faut rserver une table lavance.
Il me faut un stylo.
Il fallait finir vite.
Il faudra que vous alliez la banque.
Il lui a fallu une heure pour conduire en
ville.
Il aurait fallu que vous nous ayez avertis.

You have to reserve a table in advance.


I need a pen.
It was necessary to finish quickly.
It will be necessary for you to go to the
bank.
He needed an hour to drive to the city.
You should have warned us.

feindre / 343

feindre
to pretend, to feign
Present participle: feignant Past participle: feint
Imperative: feins, feignez, feignons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

feins
feins
feint
Imperfect

feignons
feignez
feignent

ai feint
as feint
a feint
Pluperfect

avons feint
avez feint
ont feint

feignais
feignais
feignait
Pass Simple

feignions
feigniez
feignaient

avais feint
avais feint
avait feint
Pass Antrieur

avions feint
aviez feint
avaient feint

feignis
feignis
feignit
Future

feignmes
feigntes
feignirent

eus feint
eus feint
eut feint
Future Perfect

emes feint
etes feint
eurent feint

feindrai
feindras
feindra
Conditional

feindrons
feindrez
feindront

aurai feint
auras feint
aura feint
Conditional Perfect

aurons feint
aurez feint
auront feint

feindrais
feindrais
feindrait
Present

feindrions
feindriez
feindraient

aurais feint
aurais feint
aurait feint
Past

aurions feint
auriez feint
auraient feint

feigne
feignes
feigne
Imperfect

feignions
feigniez
feignent

aie feint
aies feint
ait feint
Pluperfect

ayons feint
ayez feint
aient feint

feignisse
feignisses
feignt

feignissions
feignissiez
feignissent

eusse feint
eusses feint
et feint

eussions feint
eussiez feint
eussent feint

EXAMPLES
Ne feins pas lignorance.
Elles feignaient dtre humbles.
Il a feint davoir faim.
Pourquoi avaient-ils feint la colre?

Dont feign ignorance.


They pretended to be humble.
He pretended to be hungry.
Why had they pretended to be angry?

344 / fermer

fermer
to close, to shut
Present participle: fermant Past participle: ferm
Imperative: ferme, fermez, fermons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

ferme
fermes
ferme
Imperfect

fermons
fermez
ferment

ai ferm
as ferm
a ferm
Pluperfect

avons ferm
avez ferm
ont ferm

fermais
fermais
fermait
Pass Simple

fermions
fermiez
fermaient

avais ferm
avais ferm
avait ferm
Pass Antrieur

avions ferm
aviez ferm
avaient ferm

fermai
fermas
ferma
Future

fermmes
fermtes
fermrent

eus ferm
eus ferm
eut ferm
Future Perfect

emes ferm
etes ferm
eurent ferm

fermerai
fermeras
fermera
Conditional

fermerons
fermerez
fermeront

aurai ferm
auras ferm
aura ferm
Conditional Perfect

aurons ferm
aurez ferm
auront ferm

fermerais
fermerais
fermerait
Present

fermerions
fermeriez
fermeraient

aurais ferm
aurais ferm
aurait ferm
Past

aurions ferm
auriez ferm
auraient ferm

ferme
fermes
ferme
Imperfect

fermions
fermiez
ferment

aie ferm
aies ferm
ait ferm
Pluperfect

ayons ferm
ayez ferm
aient ferm

fermasse
fermasses
fermt

fermassions
fermassiez
fermassent

eusse ferm
eusses ferm
et ferm

eussions ferm
eussiez ferm
eussent ferm

Note: As a reflexive verb, se fermer (to close, to shut) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se,
nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 5 and 6 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Fermez la porte, sil vous plat.
Les banques sont fermes le dimanche.
Il a ferm le robinet.
On avait ferm le magasin cinq heures.
a ne se ferme pas facilement.
Ses yeux se sont ferms.

Please shut the door.


Banks are closed on Sunday.
He turned off the faucet.
They had closed the store at five oclock.
That doesnt close easily.
Her eyes closed.

feuilleter / 345

feuilleter
to leaf through
Present participle: feuilletant Past participle: feuillet
Imperative: feuillette, feuilletez, feuilletons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

feuillette
feuillettes
feuillette
Imperfect

feuilletons
feuilletez
feuillettent

ai feuillet
as feuillet
a feuillet
Pluperfect

avons feuillet
avez feuillet
ont feuillet

feuilletais
feuilletais
feuilletait
Pass Simple

feuilletions
feuilletiez
feuilletaient

avais feuillet
avais feuillet
avait feuillet
Pass Antrieur

avions feuillet
aviez feuillet
avaient feuillet

feuilletai
feuilletas
feuilleta
Future

feuilletmes
feuillettes
feuilletrent

eus feuillet
eus feuillet
eut feuillet
Future Perfect

emes feuillet
etes feuillet
eurent feuillet

feuilletterai
feuilletteras
feuillettera
Conditional

feuilletterons
feuilletterez
feuilletteront

aurai feuillet
auras feuillet
aura feuillet
Conditional Perfect

aurons feuillet
aurez feuillet
auront feuillet

feuilletterais
feuilletterais
feuilletterait
Present

feuilletterions
feuilletteriez
feuilletteraient

aurais feuillet
aurais feuillet
aurait feuillet
Past

aurions feuillet
auriez feuillet
auraient feuillet

feuillette
feuillettes
feuillette
Imperfect

feuilletions
feuilletiez
feuillettent

aie feuillet
aies feuillet
ait feuillet
Pluperfect

ayons feuillet
ayez feuillet
aient feuillet

feuilletasse
feuilletasses
feuillett

feuilletassions
feuilletassiez
feuilletassent

eusse feuillet
eusses feuillet
et feuillet

eussions feuillet
eussiez feuillet
eussent feuillet

EXAMPLES
Feuilletez cette brochure.
Je feuillette les pages de ce magazine.
As-tu feuillet ce livre?
Il avait feuillet larticle.

Leaf through this brochure.


Im leafing through the pages of that
magazine.
Have you leafed through this book?
He had skimmed the article.

346 / ficeler

ficeler
to tie
Present participle: ficelant Past participle: ficel
Imperative: ficelle, ficelez, ficelons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

ficelle
ficelles
ficelle
Imperfect

ficelons
ficelez
ficellent

ai ficel
as ficel
a ficel
Pluperfect

avons ficel
avez ficel
ont ficel

ficelais
ficelais
ficelait
Pass Simple

ficelions
ficeliez
ficelaient

avais ficel
avais ficel
avait ficel
Pass Antrieur

avions ficel
aviez ficel
avaient ficel

ficelai
ficelas
ficela
Future

ficelmes
ficeltes
ficelrent

eus ficel
eus ficel
eut ficel
Future Perfect

emes ficel
etes ficel
eurent ficel

ficellerai
ficelleras
ficellera
Conditional

ficellerons
ficellerez
ficelleront

aurai ficel
auras ficel
aura ficel
Conditional Perfect

aurons ficel
aurez ficel
auront ficel

ficellerais
ficellerais
ficellerait
Present

ficellerions
ficelleriez
ficelleraient

aurais ficel
aurais ficel
aurait ficel
Past

aurions ficel
auriez ficel
auraient ficel

ficelle
ficelles
ficelle
Imperfect

ficelions
ficeliez
ficellent

aie ficel
aies ficel
ait ficel
Pluperfect

ayons ficel
ayez ficel
aient ficel

ficelasse
ficelasses
ficelt

ficelassions
ficelassiez
ficelassent

eusse ficel
eusses ficel
et ficel

eussions ficel
eussiez ficel
eussent ficel

EXAMPLES
Ficelle ce paquet, sil te plat.
Le film est bien ficel.
Il a ficel son frre comme un prisonnier!
Elle avait dj ficel le rti.

Please tie up this package.


The film is well put together.
He tied up his brother like a prisoner!
She had already tied up the roast.

se fier () / 347

se fier ()
to trust
Present participle: se fiant Past participle: fi
Imperative: fie-toi, fiez-vous, fions-nous

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

me fie
te fies
se fie
Imperfect

nous fions
vous fiez
se fient

me suis fi(e)
tes fi(e)
sest fi(e)
Pluperfect

nous sommes fi(e)s


vous tes fi(e)(s)
se sont fi(e)s

me fiais
te fiais
se fiait
Pass Simple

nous fiions
vous fiiez
se fiaient

mtais fi(e)
ttais fi(e)
stait fi(e)
Pass Antrieur

nous tions fi(e)s


vous tiez fi(e)(s)
staient fi(e)s

me fiai
te fias
se fia
Future

nous fimes
vous fites
se firent

me fus fi(e)
te fus fi(e)
se fut fi(e)
Future Perfect

nous fmes fi(e)s


vous ftes fi(e)(s)
se furent fi(e)s

me fierai
te fieras
se fiera
Conditional

nous fierons
vous fierez
se fieront

me serai fi(e)
te seras fi(e)
se sera fi(e)
Conditional Perfect

nous serons fi(e)s


vous serez fi(e)(s)
se seront fi(e)s

me fierais
te fierais
se fierait
Present

nous fierions
vous fieriez
se fieraient

me serais fi(e)
te serais fi(e)
se serait fi(e)
Past

nous serions fi(e)s


vous seriez fi(e)(s)
se seraient fi(e)s

me fie
te fies
se fie
Imperfect

nous fiions
vous fiiez
se fient

me sois fi(e)
te sois fi(e)
se soit fi(e)
Pluperfect

nous soyons fi(e)s


vous soyez fi(e)(s)
se soient fi(e)s

me fiasse
te fiasses
se fit

nous fiassions
vous fiassiez
se fiassent

me fusse fi(e)
te fusses fi(e)
se ft fi(e)

nous fussions fi(e)s


vous fussiez fi(e)
se fussent fi(e)s

EXAMPLES
Tu ne dois pas te fier lui.
Ne te fie pas ce quelle crit.
Je me fie ma mmoire.
Elles se fiaient ce quil avait dit.
Ils se sont fis leurs instincts.

You shouldnt trust him.


Dont trust what she writes.
I trust my memory.
They trusted what he had said.
They trusted their instincts.

348 / finir

finir
to finish
Present participle: finissant Past participle: fini
Imperative: finis, finissez, finissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

finis
finis
finit
Imperfect

finissons
finissez
finissent

ai fini
as fini
a fini
Pluperfect

avons fini
avez fini
ont fini

finissais
finissais
finissait
Pass Simple

finissions
finissiez
finissaient

avais fini
avais fini
avait fini
Pass Antrieur

avions fini
aviez fini
avaient fini

finis
finis
finit
Future

finmes
fintes
finirent

eus fini
eus fini
eut fini
Future Perfect

emes fini
etes fini
eurent fini

finirai
finiras
finira
Conditional

finirons
finirez
finiront

aurai fini
auras fini
aura fini
Conditional Perfect

aurons fini
aurez fini
auront fini

finirais
finirais
finirait
Present

finirions
finiriez
finiraient

aurais fini
aurais fini
aurait fini
Past

aurions fini
auriez fini
auraient fini

finisse
finisses
finisse
Imperfect

finissions
finissiez
finissent

aie fini
aies fini
ait fini
Pluperfect

ayons fini
ayez fini
aient fini

finisse
finisses
fint

finissions
finissiez
finissent

eusse fini
eusses fini
et fini

eussions fini
eussiez fini
eussent fini

EXAMPLES
Finissez vos devoirs.
Les classes finissent demain.
Il finissait son repas.
a finira bien.
Jai fini mon travail.
As-tu fini de rire?
Elle avait fini par choisir un restaurant
franais.

Finish your homework.


Classes are over tomorrow.
He was finishing his meal.
That will turn out well.
I finished my work.
Have you finished laughing?
She ended up choosing a French
restaurant.

fonctionner / 349

fonctionner
to function
Present participle: fonctionnant Past participle: fonctionn
Imperative: fonctionne, fonctionnez, fonctionnons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

fonctionne
fonctionnes
fonctionne
Imperfect

fonctionnons
fonctionnez
fonctionnent

ai fonctionn
as fonctionn
a fonctionn
Pluperfect

avons fonctionn
avez fonctionn
ont fonctionn

fonctionnais
fonctionnais
fonctionnait
Pass Simple

fonctionnions
fonctionniez
fonctionnaient

avais fonctionn
avais fonctionn
avait fonctionn
Pass Antrieur

avions fonctionn
aviez fonctionn
avaient fonctionn

fonctionnai
fonctionnas
fonctionna
Future

fonctionnmes
fonctionntes
fonctionnrent

eus fonctionn
eus fonctionn
eut fonctionn
Future Perfect

emes fonctionn
etes fonctionn
eurent fonctionn

fonctionnerai
fonctionneras
fonctionnera
Conditional

fonctionnerons
fonctionnerez
fonctionneront

aurai fonctionn
auras fonctionn
aura fonctionn
Conditional Perfect

aurons fonctionn
aurez fonctionn
auront fonctionn

fonctionnerais
fonctionnerais
fonctionnerait
Present

fonctionnerions
fonctionneriez
fonctionneraient

aurais fonctionn
aurais fonctionn
aurait fonctionn
Past

aurions fonctionn
auriez fonctionn
auraient fonctionn

fonctionne
fonctionnes
fonctionne
Imperfect

fonctionnions
fonctionniez
fonctionnent

aie fonctionn
aies fonctionn
ait fonctionn
Pluperfect

ayons fonctionn
ayez fonctionn
aient fonctionn

fonctionnasse
fonctionnasses
fonctionnt

fonctionnassions eusse fonctionn


fonctionnassiez eusses fonctionn
fonctionnassent et fonctionn

eussions fonctionn
eussiez fonctionn
eussent fonctionn

EXAMPLES
Cette radio fonctionne mal.
Comprenez-vous comment elle fonctionne?
Hier soir la tlvision ne fonctionnait pas.
Ce vieux rfrigrateur, a-t-il jamais
fonctionn?

That radio works poorly.


Do you know what makes her tick?
Last night the television wasnt working.
That old refrigerator, did it ever work?

350 / fondre

fondre
to melt
Present participle: fondant Past participle: fondu
Imperative: fonds, fondez, fondons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

fonds
fonds
fond
Imperfect

fondons
fondez
fondent

ai fondu
as fondu
a fondu
Pluperfect

avons fondu
avez fondu
ont fondu

fondais
fondais
fondait
Pass Simple

fondions
fondiez
fondaient

avais fondu
avais fondu
avait fondu
Pass Antrieur

avions fondu
aviez fondu
avaient fondu

fondis
fondis
fondit
Future

fondmes
fondtes
fondirent

eus fondu
eus fondu
eut fondu
Future Perfect

emes fondu
etes fondu
eurent fondu

fondrai
fondras
fondra
Conditional

fondrons
fondrez
fondront

aurai fondu
auras fondu
aura fondu
Conditional Perfect

aurons fondu
aurez fondu
auront fondu

fondrais
fondrais
fondrait
Present

fondrions
fondriez
fondraient

aurais fondu
aurais fondu
aurait fondu
Past

aurions fondu
auriez fondu
auraient fondu

fonde
fondes
fonde
Imperfect

fondions
fondiez
fondent

aie fondu
aies fondu
ait fondu
Pluperfect

ayons fondu
ayez fondu
aient fondu

fondisse
fondisses
fondt

fondissions
fondissiez
fondissent

eusse fondu
eusses fondu
et fondu

eussions fondu
eussiez fondu
eussent fondu

Note: As a reflexive verb, se fondre (to merge, to melt in with) uses the reflexive pronouns
me, te, se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 6
demonstrates reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
a fond dans la bouche.
Les glaons fondaient.
La neige a fondu.
Maman a fait fondre le chocolat pour sa
mousse.
Nous fondions devant le sourire de cet
acteur.
Les dtails de laccident staient fondus
dans sa mmoire.

It melts in your mouth.


The ice cubes were melting.
The snow melted.
Mom melted the chocolate for her mousse.
That actors smile makes us melt.
The details of the accident were lost (merged)
in her memory.

forcer / 351

forcer
to force, to compel
Present participle: forant Past participle: forc
Imperative: force, forcez, forons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

force
forces
force
Imperfect

forons
forcez
forcent

ai forc
as forc
a forc
Pluperfect

avons forc
avez forc
ont forc

forais
forais
forait
Pass Simple

forcions
forciez
foraient

avais forc
avais forc
avait forc
Pass Antrieur

avions forc
aviez forc
avaient forc

forai
foras
fora
Future

forames
forates
forcrent

eus forc
eus forc
eut forc
Future Perfect

emes forc
etes forc
eurent forc

forcerai
forceras
forcera
Conditional

forcerons
forcerez
forceront

aurai forc
auras forc
aura forc
Conditional Perfect

aurons forc
aurez forc
auront forc

forcerais
forcerais
forcerait
Present

forcerions
forceriez
forceraient

aurais forc
aurais forc
aurait forc
Past

aurions forc
auriez forc
auraient forc

force
forces
force
Imperfect

forcions
forciez
forcent

aie forc
aies forc
ait forc
Pluperfect

ayons forc
ayez forc
aient forc

forasse
forasses
fort

forassions
forassiez
forassent

eusse forc
eusses forc
et forc

eussions forc
eussiez forc
eussent forc

Note: As a reflexive verb, se forcer (to force oneself) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se,
nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 5 demonstrates
reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Ne forcez pas sinon vous le casserez.
Son interprtation force le sens du passage.
Son docteur la forc garder le lit.
Ils mavaient forc la main.
Elle sest force faire le mnage.

Dont force it or you will break it.


His interpretation stretches the meaning of
the passage.
His doctor forced him to stay in bed.
They forced my hand.
She forced herself to do the housework.

352 / fournir

fournir
to furnish, to provide
Present participle: fournissant Past participle: fourni
Imperative: fournis, fournissez, fournissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

fournis
fournis
fournit
Imperfect

fournissons
fournissez
fournissent

ai fourni
as fourni
a fourni
Pluperfect

avons fourni
avez fourni
ont fourni

fournissais
fournissais
fournissait
Pass Simple

fournissions
fournissiez
fournissaient

avais fourni
avais fourni
avait fourni
Pass Antrieur

avions fourni
aviez fourni
avaient fourni

fournis
fournis
fournit
Future

fournmes
fourntes
fournirent

eus fourni
eus fourni
eut fourni
Future Perfect

emes fourni
etes fourni
eurent fourni

fournirai
fourniras
fournira
Conditional

fournirons
fournirez
fourniront

aurai fourni
auras fourni
aura fourni
Conditional Perfect

aurons fourni
aurez fourni
auront fourni

fournirais
fournirais
fournirait
Present

fournirions
fourniriez
fourniraient

aurais fourni
aurais fourni
aurait fourni
Past

aurions fourni
auriez fourni
auraient fourni

fournisse
fournisses
fournisse
Imperfect

fournissions
fournissiez
fournissent

aie fourni
aies fourni
ait fourni
Pluperfect

ayons fourni
ayez fourni
aient fourni

fournisse
fournisses
fournt

fournissions
fournissiez
fournissent

eusse fourni
eusses fourni
et fourni

eussions fourni
eussiez fourni
eussent fourni

EXAMPLES
Il fournit son client en vtements.
Ils lui fournissaient le vivre et le couvert.
Nous avons fourni des cartes didentit au
douanier.
Elle mavait fourni loccasion de gagner
beaucoup dargent.

He furnishes his client with clothing.


They provided him with food and lodging.
We provided identification cards to the
customs officer.
She gave me the opportunity to earn a lot
of money.

frapper / 353

frapper
to hit
Present participle: frappant Past participle: frapp
Imperative: frappe, frappez, frappons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

frappe
frappes
frappe
Imperfect

frappons
frappez
frappent

ai frapp
as frapp
a frapp
Pluperfect

avons frapp
avez frapp
ont frapp

frappais
frappais
frappait
Pass Simple

frappions
frappiez
frappaient

avais frapp
avais frapp
avait frapp
Pass Antrieur

avions frapp
aviez frapp
avaient frapp

frappai
frappas
frappa
Future

frappmes
frapptes
frapprent

eus frapp
eus frapp
eut frapp
Future Perfect

emes frapp
etes frapp
eurent frapp

frapperai
frapperas
frappera
Conditional

frapperons
frapperez
frapperont

aurai frapp
auras frapp
aura frapp
Conditional Perfect

aurons frapp
aurez frapp
auront frapp

frapperais
frapperais
frapperait
Present

frapperions
frapperiez
frapperaient

aurais frapp
aurais frapp
aurait frapp
Past

aurions frapp
auriez frapp
auraient frapp

frappe
frappes
frappe
Imperfect

frappions
frappiez
frappent

aie frapp
aies frapp
ait frapp
Pluperfect

ayons frapp
ayez frapp
aient frapp

frappasse
frappasses
frappt

frappassions
frappassiez
frappassent

eusse frapp
eusses frapp
et frapp

eussions frapp
eussiez frapp
eussent frapp

Note: As a reflexive verb, se frapper (to hit oneself) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se,
nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Example 7 demonstrates
reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Frappez avant dentrer.
Ce qui me frappe cest son talent.
Elle a frapp tout le monde par son
enthousiasme.
Qui a frapp la porte?
Elle avait frapp Louise par hasard.
Dans sa colre aurait-il frapp sur la table?
Elle sest frapp le front.

Knock before you enter.


What strikes me is his talent.
Everyone was struck by her enthusiasm.
Who knocked on the door?
She had hit Louise by accident.
In his anger, would he have banged on the
table?
She tapped on her forehead.

354 / frmir

frmir
to tremble
Present participle: frmissant Past participle: frmi
Imperative: frmis, frmissez, frmissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

frmis
frmis
frmit
Imperfect

frmissons
frmissez
frmissent

ai frmi
as frmi
a frmi
Pluperfect

avons frmi
avez frmi
ont frmi

frmissais
frmissais
frmissait
Pass Simple

frmissions
frmissiez
frmissaient

avais frmi
avais frmi
avait frmi
Pass Antrieur

avions frmi
aviez frmi
avaient frmi

frmis
frmis
frmit
Future

frmmes
frmtes
frmirent

eus frmi
eus frmi
eut frmi
Future Perfect

emes frmi
etes frmi
eurent frmi

frmirai
frmiras
frmira
Conditional

frmirons
frmirez
frmiront

aurai frmi
auras frmi
aura frmi
Conditional Perfect

aurons frmi
aurez frmi
auront frmi

frmirais
frmirais
frmirait
Present

frmirions
frmiriez
frmiraient

aurais frmi
aurais frmi
aurait frmi
Past

aurions frmi
auriez frmi
auraient frmi

frmisse
frmisses
frmisse
Imperfect

frmissions
frmissiez
frmissent

aie frmi
aies frmi
ait frmi
Pluperfect

ayons frmi
ayez frmi
aient frmi

frmisse
frmisses
frmt

frmissions
frmissiez
frmissent

eusse frmi
eusses frmi
et frmi

eussions frmi
eussiez frmi
eussent frmi

EXAMPLES
Cet incident ma fait frmir.
Le pauvre chien frmit de froid.
Elle frmissait de tout son corps.
Il aurait frmi sil avait entendu cette
histoire.

That incident made me shudder.


The poor dog is shivering from the cold.
Her whole body was shaking.
He would have shuddered had he heard
that story.

fuir / 355

fuir
to flee, to avoid, to shun
Present participle: fuyant Past participle: fui
Imperative: fuis, fuyez, fuyons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

fuis
fuis
fuit
Imperfect

fuyons
fuyez
fuient

ai fui
as fui
a fui
Pluperfect

avons fui
avez fui
ont fui

fuyais
fuyais
fuyait
Pass Simple

fuyions
fuyiez
fuyaient

avais fui
avais fui
avait fui
Pass Antrieur

avions fui
aviez fui
avaient fui

fuis
fuis
fuit
Future

fumes
futes
fuirent

eus fui
eus fui
eut fui
Future Perfect

emes fui
etes fui
eurent fui

fuirai
fuiras
fuira
Conditional

fuirons
fuirez
fuiront

aurai fui
auras fui
aura fui
Conditional Perfect

aurons fui
aurez fui
auront fui

fuirais
fuirais
fuirait
Present

fuirions
fuiriez
fuiraient

aurais fui
aurais fui
aurait fui
Past

aurions fui
auriez fui
auraient fui

fuie
fuies
fuie
Imperfect

fuyions
fuyiez
fuient

aie fui
aies fui
ait fui
Pluperfect

ayons fui
ayez fui
aient fui

fuisse
fuisses
fut

fuissions
fuissiez
fuissent

eusse fui
eusses fui
et fui

eussions fui
eussiez fui
eussent fui

EXAMPLES
Fuit-il ses obligations?
Le bonheur la fuit.
Ils ont fui le pays.
Aurait-il fui la tentation?

Does he avoid his obligations?


Happiness eludes her.
They fled the country.
Would he have fled from temptation?

356 / fumer

fumer
to smoke
Present participle: fumant Past participle: fum
Imperative: fume, fumez, fumons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

fume
fumes
fume
Imperfect

fumons
fumez
fument

ai fum
as fum
a fum
Pluperfect

avons fum
avez fum
ont fum

fumais
fumais
fumait
Pass Simple

fumions
fumiez
fumaient

avais fum
avais fum
avait fum
Pass Antrieur

avions fum
aviez fum
avaient fum

fumai
fumas
fuma
Future

fummes
fumtes
fumrent

eus fum
eus fum
eut fum
Future Perfect

emes fum
etes fum
eurent fum

fumerai
fumeras
fumera
Conditional

fumerons
fumerez
fumeront

aurai fum
auras fum
aura fum
Conditional Perfect

aurons fum
aurez fum
auront fum

fumerais
fumerais
fumerait
Present

fumerions
fumeriez
fumeraient

aurais fum
aurais fum
aurait fum
Past

aurions fum
auriez fum
auraient fum

fume
fumes
fume
Imperfect

fumions
fumiez
fument

aie fum
aies fum
ait fum
Pluperfect

ayons fum
ayez fum
aient fum

fumasse
fumasses
fumt

fumassions
fumassiez
fumassent

eusse fum
eusses fum
et fum

eussions fum
eussiez fum
eussent fum

EXAMPLES
En fumant elle sest brle.
Je ne fume jamais.
Elles fumaient de rage.
Elle fumait cigarette sur cigarette.
As-tu jamais fum de cigare?
la fin de la fte il aura fum quinze
cigarettes.

While smoking she burned herself.


I never smoke.
They were fuming with anger.
She was chain-smoking.
Have you ever smoked a cigar?
By the end of the party he will have smoked
fifteen cigarettes.

gagner / 357

gagner
to win, to earn, to gain
Present participle: gagnant Past participle: gagn
Imperative: gagne, gagnez, gagnons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

gagne
gagnes
gagne
Imperfect

gagnons
gagnez
gagnent

ai gagn
as gagn
a gagn
Pluperfect

avons gagn
avez gagn
ont gagn

gagnais
gagnais
gagnait
Pass Simple

gagnions
gagniez
gagnaient

avais gagn
avais gagn
avait gagn
Pass Antrieur

avions gagn
aviez gagn
avaient gagn

gagnai
gagnas
gagna
Future

gagnmes
gagntes
gagnrent

eus gagn
eus gagn
eut gagn
Future Perfect

emes gagn
etes gagn
eurent gagn

gagnerai
gagneras
gagnera
Conditional

gagnerons
gagnerez
gagneront

aurai gagn
auras gagn
aura gagn
Conditional Perfect

aurons gagn
aurez gagn
auront gagn

gagnerais
gagnerais
gagnerait
Present

gagnerions
gagneriez
gagneraient

aurais gagn
aurais gagn
aurait gagn
Past

aurions gagn
auriez gagn
auraient gagn

gagne
gagnes
gagne
Imperfect

gagnions
gagniez
gagnent

aie gagn
aies gagn
ait gagn
Pluperfect

ayons gagn
ayez gagn
aient gagn

gagnasse
gagnasses
gagnt

gagnassions
gagnassiez
gagnassent

eusse gagn
eusses gagn
et gagn

eussions gagn
eussiez gagn
eussent gagn

EXAMPLES
Tu as tout gagner.
Il gagne bien sa vie.
Il faut que nous gagnions du temps.
Le feu gagna les edifices voisins.
Ce fromage gagnera vieillir.
Nous gagnerions travailler ensemble.
Ils ont gagn le championnat.
Le candidat a gagn cinq points dans les
sondages.
Elle avait gagn le coeur de cet homme.

You have everything to gain.


He earns a good living.
We have to save time.
The fire spread to the neighboring
buildings.
This cheese will improve with age.
Wed be better off working together.
They won the championship.
The candidate gained five points in the poll.
She had won that mans heart.

358 / garantir

garantir
to guarantee, to insure
Present participle: garantissant Past participle: garanti
Imperative: garantis, garantissez, garantissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

garantis
garantis
garantit
Imperfect

garantissons
garantissez
garantissent

ai garanti
as garanti
a garanti
Pluperfect

avons garanti
avez garanti
ont garanti

garantissais
garantissais
garantissait
Pass Simple

garantissions
garantissiez
garantissaient

avais garanti
avais garanti
avait garanti
Pass Antrieur

avions garanti
aviez garanti
avaient garanti

garantis
garantis
garantit
Future

garantmes
garanttes
garantirent

eus garanti
eus garanti
eut garanti
Future Perfect

emes garanti
etes garanti
eurent garanti

garantirai
garantiras
garantira
Conditional

garantirons
garantirez
garantiront

aurai garanti
auras garanti
aura garanti
Conditional Perfect

aurons garanti
aurez garanti
auront garanti

garantirais
garantirais
garantirait
Present

garantirions
garantiriez
garantiraient

aurais garanti
aurais garanti
aurait garanti
Past

aurions garanti
auriez garanti
auraient garanti

garantisse
garantisses
garantisse
Imperfect

garantissions
garantissiez
garantissent

aie garanti
aies garanti
ait garanti
Pluperfect

ayons garanti
ayez garanti
aient garanti

garantisse
garantisses
garantt

garantissions
garantissiez
garantissent

eusse garanti
eusses garanti
et garanti

eussions garanti
eussiez garanti
eussent garanti

Note: As a reflexive verb, se garantir (to protect oneself) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se,
nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 5 and 6 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Je te garantis la vrit de ce document.
Il faut que vous me garantissiez cet
emprunt.
Ces bijoux sont trs prcieux. Le bijoutier
me la garanti.
Elle ne vous aurait pas garanti que le
plombier viendrait aujourdhui.
La famille Rocher sest garantie contre
lincendie.
Les actionnaires se sont garantis contre la
dvaluation de leuro.

I can vouch for the veracity of this


document.
You must guarantee this loan for me.
These jewels are very precious. The jeweler
assured me of that.
She wouldnt have assured you that the
plumber would come today.
The Rocher family insured itself against
fire.
The shareholders guarded against the
devaluation of the euro.

garder / 359

garder
to guard, to keep, to look after
Present participle: gardant Past participle: gard
Imperative: garde, gardez, gardons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

garde
gardes
garde
Imperfect

gardons
gardez
gardent

ai gard
as gard
a gard
Pluperfect

avons gard
avez gard
ont gard

gardais
gardais
gardait
Pass Simple

gardions
gardiez
gardaient

avais gard
avais gard
avait gard
Pass Antrieur

avions gard
aviez gard
avaient gard

gardai
gardas
garda
Future

gardmes
gardtes
gardrent

eus gard
eus gard
eut gard
Future Perfect

emes gard
etes gard
eurent gard

garderai
garderas
gardera
Conditional

garderons
garderez
garderont

aurai gard
auras gard
aura gard
Conditional Perfect

aurons gard
aurez gard
auront gard

garderais
garderais
garderait
Present

garderions
garderiez
garderaient

aurais gard
aurais gard
aurait gard
Past

aurions gard
auriez gard
auraient gard

garde
gardes
garde
Imperfect

gardions
gardiez
gardent

aie gard
aies gard
ait gard
Pluperfect

ayons gard
ayez gard
aient gard

gardasse
gardasses
gardt

gardassions
gardassiez
gardassent

eusse gard
eusses gard
et gard

eussions gard
eussiez gard
eussent gard

Note: As a reflexive verb, se garder (to keep, to beware of) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te,
se, nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 10, 11, and
12 demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Si tu es malade, garde le lit.

If youre sick, stay in bed.

Gardez la monnaie.

Keep the change.

Il garde les enfants de Mme Juneau.

He is watching Mrs. Juneaus children.

Ce manteau vous gardera du froid.

This coat will protect you from the cold.

Elle ne gardera jamais ce secret.

She will never keep that secret.

Il faut que vous gardiez la tte haute.

You have to hold your head up high.

Jai gard le meilleur pour la fin.

I saved the best for last.

Elle avait tout gard.

She had held on to everything.

Il tait ncessaire quil ait gard son calme.

He had to stay calm.

a se garde bien.

It keeps well.

Gardez-vous de manger trop de matires grasses.


Vous allez lui crire. Je men garderai bien.

Beware of eating too much fat.


Youre going to write to him. Thats one thing I
wouldnt do.

360 / garnir

garnir
to garnish, to fit out with, to cover
Present participle: garnissant Past participle: garni
Imperative: garnis, garnissez, garnissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

garnis
garnis
garnit
Imperfect

garnissons
garnissez
garnissent

ai garni
as garni
a garni
Pluperfect

avons garni
avez garni
ont garni

garnissais
garnissais
garnissait
Pass Simple

garnissions
garnissiez
garnissaient

avais garni
avais garni
avait garni
Pass Antrieur

avions garni
aviez garni
avaient garni

garnis
garnis
garnit
Future

garnmes
garntes
garnirent

eus garni
eus garni
eut garni
Future Perfect

emes garni
etes garni
eurent garni

garnirai
garniras
garnira
Conditional

garnirons
garnirez
garniront

aurai garni
auras garni
aura garni
Conditional Perfect

aurons garni
aurez garni
auront garni

garnirais
garnirais
garnirait
Present

garnirions
garniriez
garniraient

aurais garni
aurais garni
aurait garni
Past

aurions garni
auriez garni
auraient garni

garnisse
garnisses
garnisse
Imperfect

garnissions
garnissiez
garnissent

aie garni
aies garni
ait garni
Pluperfect

ayons garni
ayez garni
aient garni

garnisse
garnisses
garnt

garnissions
garnissiez
garnissent

eusse garni
eusses garni
et garni

eussions garni
eussiez garni
eussent garni

EXAMPLES
Il ma donn une bote garnie de chocolats.
Je garnirai ce tiroir de papier.
Le cuisinier garnissait les plats de lgumes.
Si tu tais rest chez elle, elle aurait garni le
rfrigrateur de nourriture.
Maman avait garni la table de fleurs.

He gave me a box full of chocolate.


Ill line this drawer with paper.
The cook was setting out vegetables on
plates.
If you had stayed at her house, she would
have stocked the refrigerator with food.
Mom decorated the table with flowers.

gaspiller / 361

gaspiller
to waste
Present participle: gaspillant Past participle: gaspill
Imperative: gaspille, gaspillez, gaspillons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

gaspille
gaspilles
gaspille
Imperfect

gaspillons
gaspillez
gaspillent

ai gaspill
as gaspill
a gaspill
Pluperfect

avons gaspill
avez gaspill
ont gaspill

gaspillais
gaspillais
gaspillait
Pass Simple

gaspillions
gaspilliez
gaspillaient

avais gaspill
avais gaspill
avait gaspill
Pass Antrieur

avions gaspill
aviez gaspill
avaient gaspill

gaspillai
gaspillas
gaspilla
Future

gaspillmes
gaspilltes
gaspillrent

eus gaspill
eus gaspill
eut gaspill
Future Perfect

emes gaspill
etes gaspill
eurent gaspill

gaspillerai
gaspilleras
gaspillera
Conditional

gaspillerons
gaspillerez
gaspilleront

aurai gaspill
auras gaspill
aura gaspill
Conditional Perfect

aurons gaspill
aurez gaspill
auront gaspill

gaspillerais
gaspillerais
gaspillerait
Present

gaspillerions
gaspilleriez
gaspilleraient

aurais gaspill
aurais gaspill
aurait gaspill
Past

aurions gaspill
auriez gaspill
auraient gaspill

gaspille
gaspilles
gaspille
Imperfect

gaspillions
gaspilliez
gaspillent

aie gaspill
aies gaspill
ait gaspill
Pluperfect

ayons gaspill
ayez gaspill
aient gaspill

gaspillasse
gaspillasses
gaspillt

gaspillassions
gaspillassiez
gaspillassent

eusse gaspill
eusses gaspill
et gaspill

eussions gaspill
eussiez gaspill
eussent gaspill

EXAMPLES
Ne gaspille pas ton temps.
Quest-ce que vous gaspillez!
Elle ne gaspillera pas ses talents.
En faisant ce travail inutile il a gaspill son
nergie.
Il tait triste que ce pays ait gaspill ses
ressources naturelles.

Dont waste your time.


How wasteful you are!
She wont waste her talents.
By doing that useless work he wasted his
energy.
It was sad that that country wasted its
natural resources.

362 / geler

geler
to freeze
Present participle: gelant Past participle: gel
Imperative: gle, gelez, gelons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

gle
gles
gle
Imperfect

gelons
gelez
glent

ai gel
as gel
a gel
Pluperfect

avons gel
avez gel
ont gel

gelais
gelais
gelait
Pass Simple

gelions
geliez
gelaient

avais gel
avais gel
avait gel
Pass Antrieur

avions gel
aviez gel
avaient gel

gelai
gelas
gela
Future

gelmes
geltes
gelrent

eus gel
eus gel
eut gel
Future Perfect

emes gel
etes gel
eurent gel

glerai
gleras
glera
Conditional

glerons
glerez
gleront

aurai gel
auras gel
aura gel
Conditional Perfect

aurons gel
aurez gel
auront gel

glerais
glerais
glerait
Present

glerions
gleriez
gleraient

aurais gel
aurais gel
aurait gel
Past

aurions gel
auriez gel
auraient gel

gle
gles
gle
Imperfect

gelions
geliez
glent

aie gel
aies gel
ait gel
Pluperfect

ayons gel
ayez gel
aient gel

gelasse
gelasses
gelt

gelassions
gelassiez
gelassent

eusse gel
eusses gel
et gel

eussions gel
eussiez gel
eussent gel

Note: As a reflexive verb, se geler (to freeze) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se, nous, and
vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 5 and 6 demonstrate
reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Il gle.
Cette eau glera dans la glacire.
Le froid a gel la rivire.
Sil avait fait froid, le tuyau aurait gel.
On se gle.
Vous allez vous geler dehors.

Its freezing.
That water will freeze in the freezer.
The cold froze the river.
If it had been cold, the pipe would have
frozen.
Were freezing.
Youll get frozen stiff outside.

gmir / 363

gmir
to moan, to groan
Present participle: gmissant Past participle: gmi
Imperative: gmis, gmissez, gmissons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

gmis
gmis
gmit
Imperfect

gmissons
gmissez
gmissent

ai gmi
as gmi
a gmi
Pluperfect

avons gmi
avez gmi
ont gmi

gmissais
gmissais
gmissait
Pass Simple

gmissions
gmissiez
gmissaient

avais gmi
avais gmi
avait gmi
Pass Antrieur

avions gmi
aviez gmi
avaient gmi

gmis
gmis
gmit
Future

gmmes
gmtes
gmirent

eus gmi
eus gmi
eut gmi
Future Perfect

emes gmi
etes gmi
eurent gmi

gmirai
gmiras
gmira
Conditional

gmirons
gmirez
gmiront

aurai gmi
auras gmi
aura gmi
Conditional Perfect

aurons gmi
aurez gmi
auront gmi

gmirais
gmirais
gmirait
Present

gmirions
gmiriez
gmiraient

aurais gmi
aurais gmi
aurait gmi
Past

aurions gmi
auriez gmi
auraient gmi

gmisse
gmisses
gmisse
Imperfect

gmissions
gmissiez
gmissent

aie gmi
aies gmi
ait gmi
Pluperfect

ayons gmi
ayez gmi
aient gmi

gmisse
gmisses
gmt

gmissions
gmissiez
gmissent

eusse gmi
eusses gmi
et gmi

eussions gmi
eussiez gmi
eussent gmi

EXAMPLES
Elle gmit tout le temps.
Le vent gmissait.
Quand il a boug le plancher a gmi.
Cet homme avait gmi sur son sort sans
cesse.

She moans all the time.


The wind was moaning.
When he moved, the floor creaked.
That man had bemoaned his fate
incessantly.

364 / gner

gner
to annoy, to bother
Present participle: gnant Past participle: gn
Imperative: gne, gnez, gnons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses

Singular
Present

Plural

Singular
Pass Compos

Plural

gne
gnes
gne
Imperfect

gnons
gnez
gnent

ai gn
as gn
a gn
Pluperfect

avons gn
avez gn
ont gn

gnais
gnais
gnait
Pass Simple

gnions
gniez
gnaient

avais gn
avais gn
avait gn
Pass Antrieur

avions gn
aviez gn
avaient gn

gnai
gnas
gna
Future

gnmes
gntes
gnrent

eus gn
eus gn
eut gn
Future Perfect

emes gn
etes gn
eurent gn

gnerai
gneras
gnera
Conditional

gnerons
gnerez
gneront

aurai gn
auras gn
aura gn
Conditional Perfect

aurons gn
aurez gn
auront gn

gnerais
gnerais
gnerait
Present

gnerions
gneriez
gneraient

aurais gn
aurais gn
aurait gn
Past

aurions gn
auriez gn
auraient gn

gne
gnes
gne
Imperfect

gnions
gniez
gnent

aie gn
aies gn
ait gn
Pluperfect

ayons gn
ayez gn
aient gn

gnasse
gnasses
gnt

gnassions
gnassiez
gnassent

eusse gn
eusses gn
et gn

eussions gn
eussiez gn
eussent gn

Note: As a reflexive verb, se gner (to put oneself out) uses the reflexive pronouns me, te, se,
nous, and vous, as well as the helping verb tre in compound tenses. Examples 7 through 10
demonstrate reflexive use of the verb.

EXAMPLES
Je ne voudrais pas te gner.
a me gne.
Ce bureau me gne le passage.
Son attitude la gnait.
a vous gnerait de ne pas parler au
cellulaire?
Il ne ma pas gn.
Ne te gne pas pour nous.
Ne vous gnez pas!
On se gne six dans cette maison.
Elle ne sest pas gne pour lui dire la vrit.

I dont want to bother you.


That bothers me.
This desk is in my way.
His attitude bothered her (made her feel
uncomfortable).
Would it bother you not to speak on your
cell phone?
He didnt bother me.
Dont put yourself out for us.
Do you mind!
This house is too small for the six of us.
She told him the truth straight out.

goter / 365

goter
to taste
Present participle: gotant Past participle: got
Imperative: gote, gotez, gotons

Subjunctive

Indicative

Mode

Simple Tenses

Compound Tenses