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the stress developed at any point ‘P’ inside the body can be completely defined by the two dimensional state of stress: sx = normal stress in X direction. and txy = shear stress which would be equal but opposite in X (cw) and Y (ccw) directions.Two dimensional state of stress. This is called the stress element of point P. The 2D stress at point P is described by a box drawn with its faces perpendicular to X & Y directions. sy = normal stress in Y direction. and the stress element M F2 F4 Fn P M txy P sx X F1 sy Stress Element sy txy Y txy F3 sx txy sx sx X cw txy txy Y sy ccw txy sy When a set of co-planer external forces and moments act on a body. and showing all normal and shear stress vectors (both magnitude and direction) on each face of the box. respectively. .

ONLY ALONG A RECTANGULAR AXIS SYSTEM X -Y. Y the normal and shear stress at a point P.) of this cantilever beam: sy sx txy X Note that. txy=VQ/(Ib). X axis for a cantilever beam is parallel to its length. can be determined using the formulae. rotated at an angle f with the X-Y axis system ? f X . what would be the values of normal and shear stresses at the same point P. can determine the 2D stresses developed inside a part. such as. The question is. that is defined by the shape of the part. if the stresses are measured along another rectangular axis system U-V.The stress formulae that we have learnt thus far. For a combined bending and axial loading (F1. F2 etc. and the stress element is aligned with X-Y axis. sx= Mv/I+P/A. For example. these formulae can only determine stresses parallel to X and Y axis. Y F1 P sx F2 P sy txy txy txy and Y axis is perpendicular to X.

we want to determine the 2D stresses for the same point P. sv. Y sy sx f txy txy txy X txy Y P sy F1 F2 sx Y P X X F f F2 f The Problem is: given sx. when measured along a new coordinate system UV.Knowing the 2D stresses at point P along XY coordinate system. can we determine su. which is rotated by an angle f with respect to the XY system. tuv ? X . txy and f. sy.

respectively are developed on the cut plane sy(LBsinf) txy(LBsinf) sx(LBcosf) f 4. Let.THIS IS HOW WE CAN ACHIEVE THAT 1. . let the internal normal and shear stresses su & tuv. Then the other two sides are Lsinf & Lcosf txy(LBcosf) txy txy txy sx sy txy Y sy f 2. If the thickness of the element is B. To maintain static equilibrium. This plane is normal to u-axis txy sx sx sy Lsinf Lcosf X txy f f 3. then the force acting on each face of the element will be equal to the stress multiplied by the area of the face. We cut the stress element by an arbitrary plane at an angle f. L be the length of the cut side.

Resolving each force in u & v directions Equating forces in u-direction: suLB = sxLBcos2f + syLBsin2f + 2txyLBsinfcosf Or. (2) .txyLBsin2f .sin2f) – (sx-sy) sinfcosf …….CONTINUING f txy(LBcosf) 5.(1) Equating forces in v-direction: tuvLB = txyLBcos2f .sxLBsinfcosf+ syLBsinfcosf Or. Forces acting on the faces = force x area sy(LBsinf) txy(LBsinf) sx(LBcosf) f f f f f 6. tuv = txy(cos2f .. su = sxcos2f + sysin2f + 2txysinfcosf ……….

.. then it can be shown that 2 - Equations 3..... if measured along U-V axis which is at an angle f from X-Y axis.(4) 2 Also....s x sinfcosf + s y sinfcosf  Replacing the square terms of trigonometric functions by double angle terms and rearranging : sx  t xy cos 2f - s x -s y sin 2f .s u  s x cos2 f + s y sin 2 f + 2t xy sin f cosf su  t uv 2 (1 + cos 2f ) + s x +s y sy s x -s y 2 (1 . Since both sets of stresses refer to the stress of the same point..(3) 2 2  t xy (cos2 f .....sin 2 f ) . 4 & 5 gives us the 2D stress values.t xy sin 2f .......... if we cut the stress element by a plane perpendicular to the v .cos 2f ) + t xy sin 2f + cos 2f + t xy sin 2f .... the two sets of stresses are also equivalent.. s x -s y 2 cos 2f ....(5) Y sy txy txy s x +s y txy sv  sx f X X txy sy f .....axis.


and the positive vertical axis represents the positive (clockwise) shear stress (t). sv  sx +sy 2 - Mohr circle is plotted on a rectangular coordinate system in which the positive horizontal axis represents positive (tensile) normal stress (s). cos2f + t xy sin 2f 2 sx -sy 2 sx -s y 2 sin 2f cos2f .t xy sin 2f t s -s -t Thus the plane of the Mohr circle is denoted as s-t plane. which simplifies computation and visualization of the changes in stress values (su. Y x faces have stress: For a stress element sx txy sy cw (sx & txy) sx X txy sy sx X txy Y faces have stress: (  Mohr’s circle implements these three equations sx +sy 2 + sx -s y t uv  t xy cos2f - by a graphical aid. sv & tuv) with the rotation angle f of the measurement axis. the stresses acting on two faces of the stress element are plotted. sx In this s-t plane.-txy) txy Y sy ccw txy sy .

Y sy txy DRAWING MOHR CIRCLE savg(sx+sy)/2 s Normal stress axis (s) . and show the normal and the shear stress vectors on the element. and Y with values sy and –txy. Draw the s-t rectangular axis and label them. The line CX denotes X axis.6. and XY line as the diameter. and CV denotes V axis. To find stress along the new UV axis system. The normal and shear stress values of the points U and V on the s-t plane denote the stresses in U and V directions. CU line denotes U axis. sx X txy 4. draw a line UV rotated at an angle 2f from the XY line. Name them. 7. Join X and Y points by a straight line. Start by drawing the original stress element with its sides parallel to XY axis. Shear stress axis (t) 1. respectively. txy t sx X sy su sy sx -s C sv Y(sy. which intersects the horizontal s axis at C. 3. txy tuv 2.-txy) -t tuv 5. 8. This way we can find stresses for an element rotated at any desired angle f. On the s-t plane. 9. plot X with normal and shear stress values of sx and txy. Draw the Mohr circle using C as the center. C denotes the average normal stress savg=(sx+sy)/2 . and line CY denotes Y axis in Mohr circle.

t xy sin 2f 2 2 2 + .txy)  a( savg(sx+sy)/2 txy sx  Y sy txy sy sx X X s x-s y 2a s x-s y 2 su  cos2f + t xy a sin 2f ) cos2f + t xy sin 2f sx +sy sx -s y cos2f + t xy sin 2f 2 s -sy t uv  t xy cos2f .x sin 2f 2 s +s y sx -s y sv  x cos2f .2f ) 2 sin 2f ) sin 2f  a(cos2 cos2f + sin 2 sin 2f ) Y(sy.cos2 sin 2f ) t xy sx sy txy  a( a cos2f -  t xy cos2f - sx -s y 2a s x-s y Normal Stress axis (s)  a cos(2 .Shear stress axis (t) -s  a sin(2 .2f ) PROOF  a(sin 2 cos2f .

then the shear stress maximizes and the element will have normal stress = savg and Maximum shear stress = tmax x t tmax -s o (savg. for a rotation of 2 angle. Y ’ The element will have only normal stresses s1 & s2. and s1 being the maximum normal stress. if the XY axis line is rotated by an angle 2 ‘ to make it vertical. the shear stress vanishes.tmax) 2’ sy savg s2 txy 2 sx txy Y(sy.Principal Normal Stresses s1 & s2.-tmax) X (sx.-txy) -t (savg. s1 & s2 are called the Principal normal stresses.txy) s1 s . the XY axis line becomes horizontal. Similarly. and Max Shear Stress tmax In the Mohr circle. In the rotated axis s1-s2.

-tmax) Y s 2  s avg .txy) savg s s1 (savg.R f t max  R Principal normal stress element Maximum shear stress element x .-txy) 2   90 .2 -t s 1  s avg + R txy 2 sx X (sx.Formulea for Principal Normal Stresses & Max Shear Stress s avg  t Y sx +s y 2 txy  s x -s y  sx 2 R  + t  xy 2   sy    (savg.tmax) X 2  2t xy -1 2  tan   s x -s y  tmax txy sy sx -s o sy 2’ s2 txy Y(sy.

R  Sin(2 . txy & f sx s x +s y txy 2 t     sy sx -s C txy s u  s avg + R sin(2 .2f ) su s v  s avg .2f ) sv Y(sy. sy.-txy) -t tuv 2  2  + t xy  txy  2t xy 2  tan  s -s y  x X sy s x -s y Radius R   2  -1 sx X tuv C : s avg  txy Y sy savg(sx+sy)/2 s .2f ) t uv  R  Cos(2 . sv & tuv Given sx.Determining su.


Plot point X for sx=20K. Next. Draw line XY and show X & Y axes.000 psi t tmax (8k.4 22.Y For a stress element with sx=20. txy=5k 4.000 psi Draw the Mohr Circle and.000 psi 5. 2.417)  22. 6.2 This completes the Mohr circle.R  8 . Draw the stress element along XY axis. and (ii) max shear stresses element.000 psi sy= -4000 psi.4 o s 2  s avg .4k   8k psi 2 20.6 5k 20k 8k 5k 2 -t (8k.-5k) 2  2     2t xy    tan -1  2  5   tan -1 (0.13  -5 kpsi 2   90 . and X txy= 5000 psi.13k) X (20k. draw two stress elements properly oriented for (i) the principal normal stresses.6 o 2  tan -1  s -s   20 + 4  y  o x o -4k 67.5k) -s s2 -5k 2 s x -s y  20 . Draw the circle with XY as the diameter s avg  sx +s y 2 20k . 4.-13k) s 1  s avg + R  8 + 13  21 kpsi t m ax  R  13 Kpsi  90 o . 20. Plot point Y for sy= -4K. Draw the s-t axes for mohr circle 3.000 psi 4.(-4)   2 2  + t xy   R    + 5  13 kpsi Y(-4k.22. txy=-5k 5.000 psi.6  67. 1. the stress elements s s121k .

t tmax 11.4    33.-13k) 5k 20k s s121k .7o CCW from XY axis.-5k) 33.000 psi 4.7 x -t (8k.7o rotated CCW 2 Draw the tmax stress axis 33. X 22.5k) MAX -s The tmax axis will be 67.000 psi 5. Show the the stresses.6   11.000 psi 20.000 psi PRINCIPAL NORMAL STRESS ELEMENT The principal normal stress axis will be rotated CW Draw the principal stress axis 11.4 22.6 8k 5k Y Y(-4k.3o 2 20.3 STRESS ELEMENT FOR t (8k.3o CW from XY axis.Y 4.000 psi Show the principal stresses. That completes the drawing of the two stress elements o s2 -5k -4k 67.13k) X (20k.

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