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COMMEDIA DELL’ARTE

Drama 20
5 Week Unit Plan
Miss Daver & Mr. Eljamal

 
Ms. Daver & Mr. Eljamal 

 Drama 20: Grade 11 
5 Credits (90 min x 5 days x 17 weeks) 
 

         Course Rationale & Objective:                                                                                                       . 
“Drama  is  both  an  art  form  and  a  medium  for  learning  and  teaching.  It  can  develop  a  whole  person  — 
emotionally,  physically,  intellectually,  imaginatively,  aesthetically,  and  socially”  (Teaching  Resource  Manual).  The 
Drama  20  course  focuses  on  improving  students’  acting  and  playwriting  skills,   which  contribute  to  helping  foster 
positive communication skills by broadening their empathetic understanding of how other people think and react.  

         Course Outline:                                                                                                                                . 
Unit 1: Orientation (1 week)  
Students  will  get  to  know  each  other,  the  space, the  teacher and the course content. The goal is to  feel a sense 
of comfort and ease upon entering the drama classroom.   /  (Technical Theatre: Stage 1­5) 
 
Unit 2: Reader’s Theatre (2 weeks) ­ Speech/Improvisation/Acting [10%] 
Reader’s  Theatre  will  help  students  develop  a  better sense  of  how  to  use  their  vocal  instruments.  By  having 
the  students  play  with  text  in  a  strictly  verbal  format,  they  will  learn  to  develop  characterization  that  adds  a 
level  of  reality  to  their  dramatic  practice.  It  will  also  aid  with  natural  speech  tendencies   such  as:  public 
speaking,  oral  speech,  and  articulation.   By  allowing  students  to  select  the  text  they  work  with,  it  connects 
them to their interest and encourages further participation.  /  (Speech 15­17; Improv 36, Acting 7, 9, 12 & 15) 
Participation will account for 10% of this unit.  
 
Unit 3: Scene Study and Monologues (4 weeks) ­ Speech/Acting/Playwriting [25%] 
Students  will  choose  monologues  from  existing  plays  and  will  prepare  them for performance.  This work will 
include,  choosing  a  script,  analyzing the content, and researching their playwright. Students will also have the 
opportunity  to  work  a  scene  with  another  classmate  in  class.  /  (Speech  18­20;  Acting  1,  3,  8,  &   11; 
Playwriting 3, 8 & 9) 
Participation will account for 10% of this unit. 
 
Unit 4: Theatre for Young Audiences (4 weeks) ­ Speech/Acting/Playwriting [30%] 
Theatre  for  Young  Audiences (TYA) focuses on creating theatre for children aged 6­12. We will explore each 
level  of  a  short  play  (background,  characters,  setting,  climax,  turning  point,  resolution)  which  will  enhance 
student  knowledge  for  their  playwriting  unit.  They  will  also  work  on  blending their skills from the Clowning 
and  Reader’s  Theatre  units  to  prepare  short  performances  (5   mins)  which  will  then   be  presented  to  an 
elementary school.  /  (Speech 21; Acting 10, 13 & 16; Playwriting 5, 12, 10)  
Participation will account for 10% of this unit. 
 
Unit 5: Commedia dell’Arte (5 weeks) ­ Playwriting/Acting/Improvisation/Technical Theatre//Theatre 
Studies [35%] 
See below for rationale and long­term goals.  /  (Playwriting 1, 2, 4­7, 11, 13; Acting 2, 4­6, 14, 17; Improv 
33­35; Tech Theatre: Costume 1­8, Theatre Studies: Medieval Theatre; ICT C7 2.1 & C7 4.1;) 
Participation will account for 10% of this unit. 
 
Unit 6: Theatresports (1 week) ­ Improvisation 
This unit takes place during the week back from January, prior to final exams. Students will have the 
opportunity to engage in a mini­improvised competition in class and improvised sketch comedies.  /  (Improv 
34 & 36) 
 

 

 
Ms. Daver & Mr. Eljamal 

         Unit Rationale (UNIT 4 ­ Commedia dell’Arte)                                                                            . 
Commedia  dell’Arte is an artform that uses a  set amount of archetypal characters to tell a multitude of stories.. 
Using  these  archetypes,  the  students  will  explore  situational  comedy  through improvisational exercises and then begin 
to  create  10­page  storylines  that  feed off  their in­class work. We believe that using Commedia dell’Arte in conjunction 
with  the  playwriting  discipline  will  allow   students  to  focus  on  the  playwriting  process,   while  receiving  inspiration 
through previously established characters (i.e.; pantalone, innamorato, brighella, etc.) 
The  Alberta  Education  Program  of  Studies  for  Drama  (1989)  lends  itself  to  this  form  through the disciplines 
of  Playwriting,  Improvisation,  and  Acting.  By   building  on  previous   units  in  the  course,  students  will  come  into 
Commedia  dell’Arte  with  already­established  skills  that  they  may  use  towards the  creation  and  performance  of  their 
short  play. Through  their  creations,  students  will  be  encouraged  to  write in a non­traditional manner—an exercise that 
will help hone their communication skills and aid them in different areas of their study, as well as future careers.  
Commedia  dell’Arte  expresses  students’  interest,  needs  and   diversity  by  allowing   the  students  to  explore 
through  a  variety  of  disciplines  and   a  multitude  of  activities,  some   of  which  will  be  student­directed.  The  unit  will 
allow  for  every  student  to  express  this particular style of  theatre through the creation of a short scripted performance. It 
also  serves  to  satisfy  the “medieval theatre” portion of the required theatre forms in the Senior High Drama program  of 
studies (p.82) 

         Unit Long­Term Aims (UNIT 4 ­ Commedia dell’Arte)                                                               . 
This unit has been designed with three aims in mind. Each aim serves to measure students developing skills in the 
playwriting, acting and Improvisation disciplines.  
AIM #1:​ Students will demonstrate their ability to use character in a play. 
Students will do this by improvising scenes that pull from the Commedia dell’Arte characters they have 
studied. The following learner expectations from the Alberta Education Drama Curriculum will be met: 





identify character types and their functions and attributes (#6, playwriting) 
demonstrate understanding that a character’s behaviour is motivated by past, present and anticipated future 
experiences (#4, acting) 
demonstrate a character’s main objective within a scene (#5, acting)  
construct a conflict between two characters (protagonist and antagonist) (#11, playwriting) 
sustain a single character in a variety of situations (#33, improvisation) 
demonstrate understanding of the purpose of costume (#1 technical theatre: costume) 

 
AIM #2:​ Students will demonstrate their ability to organize thoughts into a cohesive document. 
Students will do this by writing a ten­paged play that pulls from the Commedia dell’Arte archetypes they have 
studied.​ ​The following learner expectations from the Alberta Ed. Drama Curriculum will be met: 





demonstrate understanding of the basic structure of a play (#1, playwriting) 
define and identify plot, character, thought and diction (#2, playwriting) 
generate and collect ideas that have dramatic possibilities  (#4, playwriting) 
demonstrate understanding of and write exposition (#7, playwriting) 
create and use an interior monologue (#17, acting) 
identify and use operative words in a script (#14, acting) 

 
AIM #3:​ ​Students will demonstrate their ability to transfer their vision onto the stage.  
Students will do this by staging a portion of their ten­paged play which will be peer evaluated. The following 
learner expectations from the Alberta Ed. Drama Curriculum will be met: 




Give and accept constructive criticism (#13, playwriting)  
Create, select and sustain physical details from the character from scripted material (#2, acting)  
Demonstrate a character’s immediate or moment to moment objectives within a scene (#6, acting) 
Recognize the elements of critique (#3, Theatre Studies) 
Demonstrate understanding of how the use of levels and planes can focus the stage picture (#35, 
improvisation) 

 

 
Ms. Daver & Mr. Eljamal 

         DRAMA CURRICULUM OVERVIEW                                                                                        .  
DRAMA 10 CURRICULUM 
● Unit 1: Orientation (1 week) 
● Unit 2: Theatresports — Improvisation focused (3 weeks) [20 %] 
● Unit 3: Presenting Children’s Literature — Speech focused (3 weeks) [20%] 
● Unit 4: Stage Combat — Movement focused (3 weeks) [20%] 
● Unit 5: Intro to Clown — Movement focused (2 weeks) [10] 
● Unit 6: Space and Time — Movement focused (5 week)  [30%] 
 
DRAMA 20 CURRICULUM 
● Unit 1: Orientation (1 week)  
● Unit 2: Reader’s Theatre (2 weeks) — Speech focused [10%] 
● Unit 3: Scene Study and Monologues (4 weeks) — Acting focused [25%] 
● Unit 4: Theatre for Young Audiences (4 weeks) — Acting focused [30%] 
● Unit 5: Commedia dell’Arte (5 weeks) — Playwriting focused [35%] 
● Unit 6: Theatresports (1 week) — Improvisation focused 
 
DRAMA 30 CURRICULUM 
● Unit 1: Orientation (1 week)  
● Unit 2: Vocal Masque — Improvisation focused (4 weeks) [25%] 
● Unit 3: Intro to Musical Theatre — Speech focused (2 weeks) [15%] 
● Unit 4: Shakespeare — Acting focused (3 weeks) [20%] 
● Unit 5: Ten Minute Plays — Directing focused (7 weeks) [40%] 
 
 
 

 

 

 
Ms. Daver & Mr. Eljamal 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 
Ms. Daver & Mr. Eljamal 

 
 
 
 

 

 

 
Ms. Daver & Mr. Eljamal 

               Scope & Sequence Chart (UNIT 4 ­ Commedia dell’Arte)   —  [35%]                                 .   
 
 
TITLE OF LESSON 

Lesson #1 

Lesson #2 

Commedia Archetypes  
(Inquiry Learning) 

Mask­Making  
(Craft­based Learning) 

LENGTH OF LESSON 

4 class periods 

5 class periods 

OBJECTIVES 

Main​:          #4 & #6 Playwriting; 
                   Theatre Studies: Medieval Theatre 
 
Supporting​: ICT C7 #2.1 & C7 #4.1 

Main:​          #1­8 Tech Theatre: Costume;  
                    #2 Acting 
 
Supporting:​ #33 Improvisation  

ANTICIPATORY 
SET/WARM­UP 

Commedia Intro 

Sample Masks 

● Teachers enter in mask 
● 1­minute performance to introduce Commedia 
dell’Arte 
● Discuss how Commedia dell’Arte can lend itself 
to playwriting 

● Bring in sample commedia masks from previous years  
● Display masks and have students guess which mask would 
belong to which of the commedia archetypes researched in the 
previous unit.  
● Discuss what qualities in each mask make us associate them 
with particular archetypes (colour, shape, size, weight, etc…) 

ACTIVITIES 

Lab Research​                                  ​1 class period 

Building Mask Base​                                          ​3 class periods 

 

● Inquiry­based learning about a particular 
commedia archetype 
● Research is done 14 groups of two or three 
● Each group has one commedia archetype 

● Each student gets a plastic half­mask as base.  
● Students will get together in their playwriting groups of 3 and 
decide which archetype is inspiring their build (all 3 masks 
must be different) 
● Students will each get a roll of masking tape and build upon 
the plastic mask, fabricating additional features 
● Students will paper mache over top of the tape structure and 
wait for this to dry. 

Research Prep​                                 ​1 class period 
● Finishing up research  
● Putting together presentations 
● Students print enough 1­paged summaries for 
each playwriting group 

Mask Painting​                                                     ​1 class period 
● Students will paint dry mask with acrylic paint, highlighting 
desired features. 

Presentations​                             ​ 1.5 class periods 
● Groups present their commedia archetype 
● Each presentation has a 10­minute cap­off 

Mask Exploration​                                               ​1 class period 
● Students allow masks to influence their movement through a 
series of guided activities and exercises. 

Playwright Groups​                     ​0.5 class periods 
● Students decide on commedia character they 
want to play.  
● Students get into 10 playwright groups of 3 or 4.  
● No two characters can belong in the same group 

EVALUATION 

Formal/Summative 

 
PURCHASED MATERIALS 
36 plastic masks ($23.00); Two Spools of thick elastic ($10.00);  
10 rolls of masking tape ($50.00); Flour ($5.50); 
Newspaper: Reuse Center  

Formal/Summative 

● Daily Participation ​(averaged for 10% ​full​ unit) 
● Commedia Archetype Presentation &  
Handout ​(20%) 

DIFFERENTIATION 

 

Students who have trouble with web based research 
will have access to the library for book resources and 
librarian assistance.  

 
 
 
 

 

● Daily Participation ​(averaged for 10% ​full​ unit) 
● Mask ​(10%) 

 
 
Students who express lack of confidence with artistic techniques 
will be paired up by the teachers with students who are more 
confident, for additional assistance and support. 

 
Ms. Daver & Mr. Eljamal 

 
 
TITLE OF LESSON 

Lesson #3 

Lesson #4 

Character Exploration 
(Improv­based Learning) 

Documentation 

LENGTH OF LESSON 

3 class periods 

4 class periods  

OBJECTIVES 

Main​:           #5, #4 acting, 
Supporting: ​ #2 playwriting, 
                     #33 improvisation 

Main​:          #1, #7, #11 playwriting; 
Supporting:​ #14, #17 acting  
                    ICT P1 1.1 

ANTICIPATORY 
SET/WARM­UP 

 

 

● Character Exploration 
● Character Questionnaire 

 

● Free Writing 

 
ACTIVITIES 

Atmosphere Walks​                                        ​0.5 class period   Script­Writing Discussion​                    ​0.5 class period  
● Explore the Laban principles in mask. 
● Use scenarios to influence movement  
(ie: “There’s a storm coming and you’re walking home...it 
starts to rain...now it’s raining even harder!” 

Physicalized Story: Build on Laban​              ​0.5 class period 
● Students mime a narrated story, based on suggestions pulled 
from a hat. (i.e. a party, a breakup) 

One Word Story!​                                           ​0.5 class period 
● Students narrate a story one word at a time in a circle  based 
on a suggestion or theme.  

Merging Dialogues​                                       ​0.5 class period 
● Students will explore the space in mask, and begin to interact 
with one another and create stories that they build on.  

Image Connection​                                        ​0.5 class period 
● Students will explore the space in mask, and begin to interact 
with one another and create stories that they build on.  

Mask Activitys​                                              ​0.5 class period 
● Students will trade masks and explore new characters 
through a series of guided scenarios and movements.  

Script­Writing in Lab​       ​                        3 class period 

* at the end of each activity, students will jot down relevant ideas 
in a Playwriting Idea­Books; ideas or images  jotted down that 
they believe will contribute strongly to their finished play. 
EVALUATION 

Formal/Summative 

● Students will work on computers and compose a 
ten­page scripted Commedia dell’Arte­based 
performance 

Informal/Formative  

● Daily Participation  ​(averaged for 10% ​full​ unit) 
● Idea­Books ​(10%)  
 
 

DIFFERENTIATION 

● Class will discuss elements of script­writing  
○ How to format a script 
○ How to document stage directions 
○ How to write dialogue  
○ How to organize scenes and units 
○ How to incorporate plot, character, thought and 
diction within a play 
 
Script­Breakdown​                                  ​0.5 class period 
● Class will compile their ideas; discuss themes, ideas. 
● Students will reflect on their idea­books and bring 
forth ideas that came up in character exploration. 
● Students will make a 1­page summary outlining: 
○ Setting(s) / Location(s) 
○ Characters (Protagonist & Antagonist)  
○ Exposition 
○ Inciting incident  
○ Rising Action 
○ Climax 
○ Falling Action 
○ Denouement 

● Written feedback on scripts 
● Students may make revisions to script 
Formal/Summative 

 

● Daily Participation  ​(averaged for 10% ​full​ unit) 
● Final Script (​25%) 

Students will be encouraged to explore characters in a multitude 
of ways: in writing, by verbalized expression of thought, 
through a visual organizer, such as a mind map or brain dump 
activity. 

Students struggling to write 3 class periods straight may 
choose to workshop portions of their play in the theatre 
and/or drama room. 

 
 
 

 
Ms. Daver & Mr. Eljamal 

 
 

Lesson #5 

TITLE OF LESSON 

Performance Creation and Presentation 

LENGTH OF LESSON 

5 class­periods 

OBJECTIVES 

Main​:          #6 acting, 
                    #34, #35 improvisation,  
 
Supporting​: #3 theatre studies,  
                    #13 playwriting 

ANTICIPATORY 
SET/WARM­UP 

Tableaux 

 

● Students will prepare and present 3­5 tableaux  
● Each tableau will serve to give playwrights a visual of what their script would look like on 
stage (ie: beginning image, middle image, ending image)  

Shake Down 
ACTIVITIES 

 

Scene Rehearsal​                                                                                          ​ 3 class periods 
● Students will select one scene from their play  to perform for the class  
● Students will embody characters represented by the mask that they have made. 
● Students will focus on: objective/characterization, blocking, pace, timing, costume, & 
memorization. 

Scene Performance​                                                                                      ​2 class periods 
● Students will perform their scene and receive both peer and teacher feedback 
● Students will watch all other scene performances and provide feedback.  

EVALUATION 

Informal/Formative 
● Students will receive the verbalized peer feedback. 

Formal/Summative 
● Daily Participation  ​(averaged for 10% ​full​ unit) 
● Final Performance ​(25%) 
DIFFERENTIATION 

 
 

ELL students may use their scripts on stage for reference, during performance. 
 
Students may rehearse and perform their scene outside of the drama room/theatre if it supports 
their storyline better, as long as it is on the school grounds.  
 
Students may choose to film their scene and present it in class, if they feel that the medium 
would better suit their script. 

 

 

SUBJECT: DRAMA 20

TOPIC: COMMEDIA ARCHETYPES (Inquiry Learning)

UNIT: 4 — Commedia dell’Arte
MATERIALS:
• Sample masks
• Computer Lab
• Chromebooks

TOTAL TIME: 4 classes (360 mins)

LESSON OBJECTIVES:
MAIN:
• “generate and collect ideas that have dramatic possibilities” (#4, playwriting)
• “identify character types and their functions and attributes” (#6 playwriting)
• Theatre Studies: Medieval Theatre

SUPPORTING
• "use a variety of technologies to organize and synthesize researched information” (ICT C7 2.1)
• “use appropriate strategies to locate information to meet personal needs” (ICT C7 4.1)

INTRODUCTION: Commedia Introduction
• Teachers enter in mask and perform a 1-minute piece to introduce Commedia
dell’Arte

TIME:
10 mins

• Discus brief history of Commedia dell’Arte
• “Commedia dell’Arte is characterized by masked types”
• “Began in Italy in the 16th century and was responsible for the advent of the actresses and improvised
performances based on sketches or scenarios.”
• “Commedia dell’Arte is shortened from commedia dell’Arte all’improvviso, or ‘comedy of the craft of
improvisation’.”
• “It was played on outside, temporary stages, and relied on various props in place of extensive
scenery.”
• “The characters usually represented fixed social types, stock characters, such as foolish old men,
devious servants, or military officers full of false bravado”.
• “Characters such as Pantalone, El Dottore, or Arlecchino. They bean as satires on Italian ‘types’ and
became the archetypes of many of the favourite characters of 17th- and 18th-century European theatre.

• Discuss how Commedia dell’Arte can lend itself to playwriting
• “We are going to work on creating a play in the same way that they would have done in Italy.”
• “We are going to use Commedia Archetypes to create a story through improvisational playwriting.”

ACTIVITY: Lab Research
• Students get into groups of 2 or 3. (Maximum of 14 groups)
• Each group receives “Lab Research” handout and select a character archetype
from printed list.
• Groups check-off archetypes, as they are selected in order to ensure that no
two groups research the same archetype.
• Research must include:



What is the history of your archetype?
What are the physical characteristics of your archetype?
Provide examples of this archetype in well-known theatre
Provide mask samples for your archetype.

• Research must be based on one of the following archetypes:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Vecchi
Pantalone
Il Dottore
Il Capitano

1 class
(80 mins)

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Inamorato
Inamorata
Zanni
Arlecchino
Columbina
Brighella
Pulcinella
Gros-Guillaume
Comico
Pedrolino

ACTIVITY: Research Prep
• In their groups, students prepare information for presentation
• Presentation format may vary; it is up to the student. May include:





1 class
(90 mins)

Performance-based
Powerpoint
Verbalized lecture
Interactive/Activity-based
Game-based
Team-based

• Each presentation must run between 5 and 10 minutes.
• Students print off one copy of their 1-paged summary for each student in the
class.
ACTIVITY: Presentations
• Groups hand out their 1-paged summaries to the class
• Groups present their presentations (5-10 minutes max)
ACTIVITY: Playwright Groups
• Students get into groups of 3 (maximum 10 groups total)
• These are the groups in which they will be collaborating for the remainder of
the unit.
• Students decide which character they want to portray—no two alike.

1.5 classes
(135 mins)

45 mins

EVALUATION:
Formal/Summative
• Group presentation and handout for each researched character (10% of overall unit)
• Teacher will use checklist to assess the presentation/content of each group

DIFFERENTIATION:
Students who have trouble with web-based research will have access to the library for book
resources and librarian assistance.

SUBJECT: DRAMA 20

TOPIC: CHARACTER EXPLORATION

UNIT: 4 — Commedia dell’Arte
MATERIALS:



Masks
Idea Books
Writing utensils
Suggestions in a hat

TOTAL TIME: 3 classes

LESSON OBJECTIVES:
Main:
• “demonstrate understanding that the character's behaviour is motivated by
past, present and anticipated future expeirences” (#4, acting)
• “demonstrate a character's main objective within a scene” (#5 acting)

Supporting:
• “Sustain a single character in a variety of situations” (#33, improvisation)
• “Define and identify plot, character, thought and diction" (#2, playwriting)

INTRODUCTION: CHARACTER EXPLORATION
• Explain that we will be exploring character physically, mentally and
emotionally today.
• Insist that actors remain in character while their masks are on
• Remind actors that they must first take their masks off, if they intend
on speaking as themselves (i.e., take mask off and then ask "May I go
to the bathroom")

TIME:
5 mins

ACTIVITY: ATMOSPHERE WALKS:
• Students will walk around the space in mask and begin to delve into their character
while exploring the main principles of Laban
• Fast vs. slow
• Direct vs indirect
• Heavy vs light
• Bound vs Free
• Sudden vs Sustained
• Flick vs Glide
• Teacher will yell out series of situations which students will use to deepen their
understanding of character movement. i.e.; how would your character react:
• in a rainstorm
• with someone chasing you through an alley
• when jumping in puddles
• with laser beams shooting at you
• on the moon, with much less gravity
• swimming through mollases
• swim through a crystal lake (breathing underwater)
• walking on fluffy clouds
• walking on hot coals

40 mins

ACTIVITY: PHYSICALIZED STORY: BUILD ON LABAN.

30 mins

• Students will pull a situation from a hat (ie: party, breakup, proposal, etc) and
rehearse it without any speech in groups of 2-3, as a physical story.
• The students will then show this to the class, while the teacher starts adding
suggestions for what to do (ie: what if she says no to your proposal, now what
would the character do?). The students have to follow through physically with
suggestions and build upon character reactions.
• Minimum of 30 suggestions in hat, and students will each get to work with
multiple scenarios by switching.

10 mins

CLOSURE: DISCUSSION
• Students will participate in a discussion and debrief reflecting on today's activities.
• They will respond to the following questions:
• What did that teach you about characterization?
• How will that help you with your play?
• What elements or qualities need to be considered when developing a character?
(i.e. age, ailments, history...)

5 mins

CLOSURE: IDEA BOOKS
• Students will find a space to themselves in the room in their playwriting groups.
• They will jot down notes/ideas/images that they have discovered today, highlighting
key moments and ideas that they believe will serve purpose in their final play.

EVALUATION:
• Students will be evaluated on class participation using a daily rating scale (on the class list)

— END OF DAY ONE —
ACTIVITY: ONE WORD STORY!
• Teachers introduce the game through demonstration
• Students tell a story by contributing one-word at a time to a story in a
circle. (Ex: Student 1 says "Once", Student 2 says "Upon", Student 3
says "A"...etc)
• Whenever a character is introduced, students will join the middle of
the circle and embody said character.

(Ex: "In...the...woods...there...was...a...young...girl"; students steps into
the circle and acts as the girl).
• Only 3 students are allowed to embody a character in the centre of the
circle per story.
• Students receive a suggestion upon which to begin their scene before
starting 

(Ex: Object/Person/Setting, etc.)

25 mins

ACTIVITY: MERGING DIALOGUES

30 mins

• Students will walk through the space in their masks.
• Teacher will yell "MERGE" and a number, followed by a topic. (i.e. "Merge 3, Thank
God It's Friday", or "Merge 5, "Wedding")
• Students will form groups of the corresponding number that has been yelled by the
teacher, and begin improvising small dialogues (including a conflict that needs to be
resolved) around the suggested topic.
• Multiple storylines will occur at once.
• Students will be given a 1 minute warning to wrap up their dialogues.
• Teachers will side-coach in between each new call of "MERGE" while student
continue to mill about the room
• ex: "Remember that you're trying to start a story. Say more than just 'hey, how are
you.' Get to the root of the story faster.
• ex: "You can definitely start with a conflict, you have
• ex: Remember that your topic doesn't necessarily have to be your location. A
Wedding, may allude to a relationship, or a party, or a divorce... Milk your
suggestions"
• ex: "Not every scene has to be a comedy. It's good that you are having fun, but feel
free to explore the dark-side of theatre, as well."

CLOSURE: IDEA BOOK

20 mins

• Students will find a space to themselves in the room individually, making notes, then
regrouping with their playwriting team for discussion.
• They will jot down notes/ideas/images that they have discovered today, highlighting
key moments and ideas that they believe will serve purpose in their final play.

15 mins

CLOSURE: DISCUSSION
• Students will participate in a discussion and debrief reflecting on today's activities.
• They will respond to the following questions:
• What plots conflicts arose? What made them interesting?

• Students will go around the circle and share one possible idea that they may
incorporate in their plays with the class before.

EVALUATION:
• Students will be evaluated on class participation using a daily rating scale (on the class list)

REMINDER:
Ask students to bring an image (from a magazine or printed, or from a book) for the next class. 

It can be anything.

— END OF DAY TWO —

MATERIALS:



Student's masks
Idea Books
Writing utensils
Student's images.

WARM UP: CHARACTER QUESTIONNAIRE

• Students answer questions from a handout as their characters:

10 mins

• ex: What is your character's name?
• ex: Does the character have a nickname?

ACTIVITY: IMAGE CONNECTION
• Students will grab the images they brought in from home as well as their idea books.
• Teacher will instruct students to look at the image and map connections of words based on
what that image represents to them.
• Students wil then select one of the mind map words and write a 2 minute free flow
excersice, never lifting their pen from the page in their idea books.
• Once time is up, they will select 3 impactful words from their free flow writing (an
adjectives, noun, or emotions, etc.)
• The students will get into their playwriting groups and brainstorm how those 3 words
impact their character, and could impact their play/story. Each student will have a chance
to share. They will discuss how to incorportate this into their play.

35 mins

ACTIVITY: MASK ACTIVITY
• Students will trade masks and explore new characters through a series of guided scenarios.
Teacher will say:
• "Take a look at yourself in the mirror, what's the first thing you would do in the
morning, go downstairs and make breakfast...what are you eating?"
• "You get a phone call, who is it? What conversation are you having with them? What
mood does it put you in?"
• "Suddenly you realize you're late for work, you pack your things and run out the door,
when you see your bus! Do you catch it or miss it? How does this make you feel?"
• "Suddenly you see someone looking at you. Who is it? Do you know them? Do you like
them?"
• "Channel the emotion that comes out of this situation, and begin to walk through the
space with that emotion in mind. Where does it hit you? What part of the body does it
affect the most. Lead from there. Find a gesture to keep repeating about this emotion."
• "Find a sound to go with it. Do this at 100% and then roll down and lay on your back
and breathe."

40 mins

CLOSURE: IDEA BOOKS

5 mins

• Students put in any last thoughts into their Idea Books, as they will be collected for
formative assessment at the end of class.

EVALUATION:
• Students will be evaluated on class participation using a daily rating scale (on the class list)
• Teacher will collect idea books and make short formative comments for them for the following week.

DIFFERENTIATION:
Students will be encouraged to explore characters in a multitude of ways: in writing, by verbalized expression of
thought, through a visual organizer, such as a mind map or brain dump activity.

— END OF LESSON —

Character Questionnaire Handout
Ms Daver and Mr Eljamal
Answer the following questions as your character, in your journals.



































What kind of distinguishing facial features does your character have?
Does your character have a birthmark? Where is it? What about scars? How did he/she get hem?
Who are your character's friends and family? Who does she surround herself with? Who are the
people your character is closest to? Who does he/she wish he/she were closest to?
What is his/her biggest fear?
Does s/he have a secret?
What makes your character laugh out loud?
When has your character been in love? Had a broken heart?
What do you consider your greatest achievement?
What is your idea of perfect happiness?
What is your current state of mind?
What is your favourite occupation?
What is your most treasured possession?
What or who is the greatest love of your life?
What is your favourite journey?
What is your most marked characteristic?
When and where were you the happiest?
What is it that you most dislike?
what is your greatest fear?
what is your greatest extravagance?
Which living person do you most despise?
What is your greatest regret?
Which talent would you most like to have?
Where would you like to live?
What do you regard as the lowest depth of misery
What is the quality you most like in a man?
What is the quality you most like in a woman?
What is the trait you most deplore in yourself?
What is the trait you most deplore in others?
What do you most value in your friends?
Who is your favourite hero of fiction?
Which living person do you most admire?
What do you consider the most overrated virtue?
Which words or phrases do you most overuse?
If you could change one thing about yourself, what would it be?
How would you like to die

SUBJECT: DRAMA 20

TOPIC: PERFORMANCE CREATION & PRESENTATION

UNIT: 4 — Commedia dell’Arte
MATERIALS:
• Student Masks

OPTIONALS:
• Props that are appropriate
to to student's scenes.

TOTAL TIME: 5 classes

LESSON OBJECTIVES:
MAIN:
• “demonstrate a character's immediate or moment-to-moment objectives
within a scene” (#6, acting)
• “demonstrate the techniques of sharing, giving and taking focus” (#34,
improvisation)

SUPPORTING:

• “demonstrate understanding of how the use of levels and planes can focus
the stage picture.” (#35, improvisation)

• "recognize the elements of critique" (#3, theatre studies)
• "Give and accept"(#13, playwriting)

WARM UP: Tableaux
• Students will prepare 3-5 tableaux.
• Students will discuss a strong beginning, middle and end image, and put these into a
tableau for the class.
• Class will take a moment or two after tableau to give feedback on the group's theme,
character, and plot.
• Each tableau will serve to give playwrights a visual of what their script may look like
onstage (i.e. visual storytelling)

WARM UP: Shake Down

TIME:
20 mins

2 mins

• Students will perform a body shake-down. They will shake the following body parts in
increments of 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1.
• Left hand, right hand, left foot, right foot, whole body

ACTIVITY: Scene Rehearsal

• Students will select one scene from their play to perform for the class
• Students will embody characters represented by the mask that they have made
• Students will spread out to corners of the drama room, or find alternative spaces in
the school to rehearse.
• Students will focus on:
• Objective & characterization
• Blocking
• Timing
• Costume
• Memorization
• Students will spread out to corners of the drama room, or find alternative spaces in
the school to rehearse.
• Teacher will visit each group and side-coach them through their rehearsal process.
• What is your character's objective right now?
• Why is your character making the decision that they are?
• How can you utilize more levels in this scene?

EVALUATION:
• Teacher will be evaluated on class participation using a daily rating scale (on the class list)

— END OF DAY ONE —

68 mins

ACTIVITY: Scene Rehearsal

• Students will continue with scene rehearsal as from previous class.

90 mins

EVALUATION:
• Teacher will be evaluated on class participation using a daily rating scale (on the class list)

— END OF DAY TWO —
ACTIVITY: Scene Rehearsal

• Students will continue with scene rehearsal as from previous class.

90 mins

EVALUATION:
• Teacher will be evaluated on class participation using a daily rating scale (on the class list)

— END OF DAY THREE —
ACTIVITY: Scene Performance

• Students will perform their scenes and receive both peer and teacher feedback.
• Students will watch each others performances and provide feedback.
• There will be approximately 3-5 minutes of transition time between the scenes for
costuming/set purposes.
• Peer feedback will be based on the "three hugs and a wish" format.

90 mins

EVALUATION:
• Teacher will be evaluated on class participation using a daily rating scale (on the class list)
• Teacher will assess each performance according to Commedia Performance Rubric. (25% of unit grade).

— END OF DAY FOUR —
ACTIVITY: Scene Performance

• Students will continue with scene performance as from previous scene.

90 mins

EVALUATION:
• Teacher will be evaluated on class participation using a daily rating scale (on the class list)
• Teacher will assess each performance according to Commedia Performance Rubric. (25% of unit grade).

DIFFERENTIATION:
• ELL students may sue their scripts on stage for reference, during performance.
• Students may rehearse and perform their scene outside of the drama room/theatre if it better supports their storyline
—as long as it is on the school grounds.
• Students may choose to film their scene and present it in class, if they feel that the medium would better suit their
script

— END OF LESSON —

 
Ms. Daver & Mr. Eljamal 

                UNIT EVALUATION                                                                                                               .  
● Daily Participation — 10% 
● Commedia Archetype Presentation & Handout — 20% 
● Mask —10% 
● Playwright Idea­Books — 10% 
● Final Script — 25% 
● Final Performance 25% 
 
               FORMAL/SUMMATIVE EVALUATIONS                                                                           .  
 
 
*All rubrics will be shared with students, in order to review expectations ahead of time*  

 
 
 
Daily Participation Rubric 

Student exhibited no 
effort, concentration or 
commitment 

Student showed poor 
effort, concentration or 
little commitment 

Student showed 
satisfactory effort, 
concentration or 
commitment 

Student exhibited good 
effort, concentration and 
commitment 

Student showed 
excellent development 
in attitude, skills, effort, 
concentration, 
commitment and 
contribution 

 
Student Name: ______________________
Written Feedback: 
 

___/20 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
Ms. Daver & Mr. Eljamal 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Commedia Archetype Presentation & Handout Rubric 
 

Handout 

No handout was submitted  

Handout was 
disorganized and 
difficult to comprehend 

Handout was mostly 
organized and easy to 
comprehend 

Handout was 
exceptionally organized 
and easy to comprehend 

Content 

Content lacked clarity and 
focus 

Content was rarely clear 
and focused.  

Content was mostly 
clear and focused 

Exceptionally clear, 
focused and interesting 
content with rich details 
and examples 

Presentation 

No demonstration of content 
knowledge, speaking, and 
presenting skills 

Limited demonstration 
of content knowledge, 
speaking, and 
presenting skills 

Considerable 
demonstration of 
content knowledge, 
speaking and presenting 
skills 

Thorough demonstration 
of  content knowledge, 
speaking, and 
presenting skills 

References 

No references used 

Pulled from and cited 
one source 

Pulled from and cited 
two to three sources 

Pulled from and cited 
four or more sources 

 
Student Name: ______________________
Written Feedback: 

___/16 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
Ms. Daver & Mr. Eljamal 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mask Rubric 
FAIL (49%) 

PASS (100%) 

Incomplete 

Complete 

 
Student Name: ______________________
     Written Feedback: 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Idea­Book Rubric 
Evaluated with short written feedback 
FAIL (49%) 

PASS (100%) 

Incomplete 

Complete 

___/100 

 
Student Name: ______________________
      Written Feedback: 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

___/100 

 

 
Ms. Daver & Mr. Eljamal 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Final Performance (Staged) 
Evaluated with short written feedback as to what students need to do to improve, as well as what was done well. 
This will act as a justification of marks. (i.e. if parents ask why their child was placed at a 2 versus a 3) 

 

No performance 

Material presented with little 
interpretations or originality 

Some apparent originality 
displayed through use of 
original interpretation of 
presented materials 

Exceptional originality of 
presented material and 
interpretation 

No performance 

Actors seldom demonstrated 
an understanding of script 
and motivation of characters 
throughout the performance 

Actors demonstrated an 
adequate understanding of 
script and motivation of 
characters throughout the 
performance 

Actors demonstrate an 
exceptional understanding of 
the script and motivation of 
characters throughout the 
performance 

Stage Imagery  

No performance 

Actor seldom showed an 
understanding of how to use 
levels and planes in order to 
focus on a stage picture  

Actors demonstrated an 
adequate understanding of 
how to use levels and planes 
in order to focus on a stage 
picture 

Actors demonstrated an 
exceptional understanding of 
how to use levels and planes in 
order to focus a stage picture. 

Body & Voice 

No performance 

Actor  seldom demonstrated 
the ability to connect to the 
character’s voice and 
movement quality.  

Actor demonstrated an 
adequate understanding of 
how to connect to character’s 
voice and movement quality.  

Actor demonstrated an 
exceptional understanding of 
connection to character’s voice 
and movement quality. 

No performance 

Actors seldom worked 
together to establish the 
mood and meaning of the 
play 

Actors almost always worked 
together to establish the mood 
and meaning of the play 

Actors worked together with 
imagination to establish the 
mood and meaning of the play 

Creativity 

Understanding 

Ensemble 

 
Student Name: ______________________
      Written Feedback: 

___/20 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
Ms. Daver & Mr. Eljamal 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Final Performance (Recorded) 
Evaluated with short written feedback as to what students need to do to improve, as well as what was done well. 
This will act as a justification of marks. (i.e. if parents ask why their child was placed at a 2 versus a 3) 

 

No performance 

Material presented with little 
interpretations or originality 

Some apparent originality 
displayed through use of 
original interpretation of 
presented materials 

Exceptional originality of 
presented material and 
interpretation 

No performance 

Actors seldom demonstrated an 
understanding of script and 
motivation of characters 
throughout the performance 

Actors almost always 
demonstrated an 
understanding of script and 
motivation of characters 
throughout the performance 

Actors demonstrate an 
exceptional understanding of the 
script and motivation of 
characters throughout the 
performance 

Shot 
Compositions  

No performance 

Student seldom showed an 
understanding of how to use shots 
in order to focus on pictures and  

Actors demonstrated an 
adequate understanding of 
how to use levels and planes 
in order to focus on a stage 
picture 

Actors demonstrated an 
exceptional understanding of 
how to use levels and planes in 
order to focus a stage picture. 

Body & Voice 

No performance 

Actor  seldom demonstrated the 
ability to connect to the 
character’s voice and movement 
quality.  

Actor demonstrated an 
adequate understanding of 
how to connect to character’s 
voice and movement quality.  

Actor demonstrated an 
exceptional understanding of 
connection to character’s voice 
and movement quality. 

Ensemble 

No performance 

Actors seldom worked together to 
establish the mood and meaning of 
the play 

Actors almost always worked 
together to establish the mood 
and meaning of the play 

Actors worked together with 
imagination to establish the 
mood and meaning of the play 

Creativity 

Understanding 

 
Student Name: ______________________
Written Feedback: 

___/20 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 

 
Ms. Daver & Mr. Eljamal 

 
 
 
 
 
Final Script Rubric 
Evaluated with short written feedback as to what students need to do to improve, as well as what was done well. 
This will act as a justification of marks. (i.e. if parents ask why their child was placed at a 2 versus a 3) 

 

No script submitted 

Ideas and scenes seem to be 
randomly arranged 

The story is a little hard to follow. 
The transitions are sometimes 
unclear 

The story is well organized. One 
idea or scene follows another in a 
logical sequence with clear 
transitions 

 Setting 

No script submitted 

The reader has trouble figuring 
out when and where the story 
took place. No introduction is 
given, and if there is, specifics are 
not. 

Some vivid descriptive words are 
used to tell the audience when and 
where the story took place. It is not 
clear where all scenes take place 

Many vivid, descriptive words are 
used to tell when and where the 
story took place 

 Dialogue & 
Diction 

No script submitted 

Dialogue is choppy and not 
well­developed. 

Dialogue is well developed, but 
could be more varied in structure 

Dialogue is well developed and 
varied 

Problem & 
Conflict 

No script submitted 

It is not clear what problem the 
main characters face 

It is fairly easy for the reader to 
understand the problem the main 
characters face and why it is a 
problem 

It is very easy for the reader to 
understand the problem the main 
character face and why it is a 
problem. 

Solution & 
Resolution 

No script submitted 

No solution is attempted or it is 
too difficult to understand 

The solution to the play’s central 
problem is easy to understand and is 
somewhat logical 

The solution to the play’s central 
problem is easy to understand, and 
is logical. There are no loose ends 

No script submitted 

It is unclear which character is 
speaking and proper ‘print’ is not 
used correctly throughout. 

It is usually clear to understand 
which character is speaking, but 
proper ‘print’ is not used correctly 
throughout 

It is always clear which character is 
speaking. Proper print and format 
used. 

 Organization 

Script 
Formatting 

 

Student Name: ______________________
      Written Feedback: 

___/24 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 

 
Ms. Daver & Mr. Eljamal 

              INFORMAL/FORMATIVE EVALUATIONS                                                                        .  

 
Reading Scripts  
At  the  end  of  Lesson  #4,  teacher  will  read  script  and  give  students  written formative feedback. Students may then use 
this feedback to improve their script before submitting it for summative evaluation 
 
 
 
Peer Feedback  
Students will give each other peer feedback after their performance in response to the following components:  
1) Quality and Clarity of Setting  
2) Quality and Clarity of Dialogue & Diction  
3) Quality of Creativity  
4) Quality and Clarity of Presentation  
 
 
 
Ideas for Play 
Students  will  go  around  the  circle  and share  with  the  class one possible idea that has arisen in the day which they may  
incorporate into their plays. 
 
 
 
Idea Book Feedback 
Students  will hand in their idea books once before the  final summative hand in, and teacher will  circle one positive idea 
and  make  a  comment  for  students  to  work  on  throughout  their  documentation.  Teacher  will  make  comments  such  as: 
“Great  image,  this  definitely  relates  to  dark  mood,  might   want  to  consider  a  drama  for  the  script  you  write!  Try  to  
incorporate  this  image  somehow,  maybe  in  a line of the  play, or as a set piece?” or “Interesting that you’re so drawn to 
this  character,  I  would  definitely consider a scene with El Dottore if you’d like to incorporate this character. What kind 
of conflict could they have? What kind of resolution could be found?” 
 
 
 
Rehearsal/Performance Preparation Feedback 
While  students  are  putting  their  scenes  together  throughout  the  given  rehearsal  time  slots,  the  teacher  will  map  out 
some time  to go visit each group’s  rehearsal and give verbal feedback after watching the process, for students to be able 
to  think  about  specific  components  of  their work,  or to  make suggestions for  the final performance. Teacher might say 
something  like:  “I  really  like  that  you’re  working on your character so deeply, but consider a  bit more use of the stage, 
there’s a lot of movement in such a concentrated area”. 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 

 
Ms. Daver & Mr. Eljamal 

              GLOSSARY OF TERMS                                                                                                           . 
 
LESSON ONE TERMS 
(Commedia Archetypes) 

LESSON FOUR TERMS  
(Documentation) 

COMMEDIA DELL’ARTE 
CHARACTER 
ANTAGONIST 
PROTAGONIST 
 
 
LESSON TWO TERMS 
(Mask­Making) 

CONFLICT 
EXPOSITION 
PLOT 
SCRIPT FORMAT 
STRUCTURE 
COMEDY 
TRAGEDY 
WORKSHOP 
 
 
LESSON FIVE TERMS  
(Performance Creation & Presentation) 

COLOUR 
TEXTURING 
 
LESSON THREE TERMS  
(Character Exploration) 
DICTION 
OBJECTIVE 
PACE 
RHYTHM 
SCENE 
MOTIVATION 
SCENARIO 
INTERIOR MONOLOGUE 

ACTOR/STAGE DIRECTIONS 
FOCUS 
CRITIQUE 
OFFERING 
THOUGHT 
 
 
 
 

 
ACTOR/STAGE DIRECTIONS ­ ​The playwright’s indication of the expected stage action, vocal interpretation or 
other production arrangements.  
 
ANTAGONIST​ ­ The character who impedes the action of the play. ​(Playwriting, Teacher’s Manual; Senior High 
Drama) 
 
CHARACTER​ ­ The person, created by the playwright, who is appropriate to the plot and thought of the play. 
(Playwriting, Teacher’s Manual; Senior High Drama) 
 
CONFLICT​ ­ A character’s struggle with himself, with an idea, with another character, with the environment. 
(Playwriting, Teacher’s Manual; Senior High Drama) 
 
COLOUR ­
a) Traditional — use of colour governed by historical or architectural precedent.  
 
b) Symbolic — use of colour to denote the character traits of the individual, as well as character 
                                  relationships.  
 
c) Psychological — use of colour to denote the personality of the individual.  

 

 
Ms. Daver & Mr. Eljamal 

(Technical Theatre/Design, Teacher’s Manual; Senior High Drama) 
 
COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE ­ ​A form of theatre characterized by mask “types” which began in Italy in the 16th 
century and was responsible for the advent of the actresses and improvised performances based on sketches or 
scenarios.  
 
COMEDY​ ­ A play that is generally light in tone, concerned with issues that are not serious. Designed to amuse and 
provoke laughter. Often pokes fun at social, political and/or cultural conditions and figures ​(Theatre Studies, Teacher’s 
Manual; Senior High Drama) 
 
CRITIQUE ​­ Evaluating or assessing the effectiveness of the work and/or the appropriateness of the choices made by 
the creator(s) or performer(s); constructive criticism ​(Theatre Studies, Teacher’s Manual; Senior High Drama) 
 
DICTION ­​ The play’s words expressed in a dialogue or monologues that are appropriate to the character and thought 
of the play.  ​(Playwriting, Teacher’s Manual; Senior High Drama) 
 
EXPOSITION​ ­ The necessary background information revealed to the audience. There are two types: information 
known to everyone on stage and information known by some or one of the characters. ​(Playwriting, Teacher’s Manual; 
Senior High Drama) 
 
FOCUS ­ ​ The means, e.g., location, body position, level, used to direct the attention of the audience to a particular 
point, character, line or gesture that is most important at a given moment.  
a)  “Giving” focus — the process whereby one actor takes a less dominant position in order to give more 
emphasis to another actor.  
 
b) “Taking” focus — the process of attracting the attention of the audience at the appropriate moment.  
 
c) “Sharing” focus — the process whereby the attention is shared 
(Improvisation, Teacher’s Manual; Senior High Drama) 
 
INTERIOR MONOLOGUE​ ­ The thoughts of the character; what the character is honestly thinking or feeling each 
moment. (​Acting, Teacher’s Manual; Senior High Drama) 
 
MOTIVATION​ ­​ ​That which disposes someone to speak or behave in a particular way ​(Acting, Teacher’s Manual; 
Senior High Drama) 
 
OBJECTIVE​ ­ The character’s purpose; what it is that the character wants. Objectives must be active and precise — 
that is, capable of being acted and understood by the audience. ​(Playwriting, Teacher’s Manual; Senior High Drama) 
 
OFFERING ​­ Initiating an idea or premise ​(Improvisation, Teacher’s Manual; Senior High Drama) 
 
PACE​ ­ The rate or speed at which characters speak, circulate or move, literally or metaphorically toward a goal. For 
example, an increase in pace may coincide with an increase in emotional or comic tension. ​(Playwriting, Teacher’s 
Manual; Senior High Drama) 
 
PLOT​ ­ The main storyline of a play. ​(Playwriting, Teacher’s Manual; Senior High Drama) 
 

 

 
Ms. Daver & Mr. Eljamal 

PROTAGONIST​ ­ The character who advances the action of the play. ​(Playwriting, Teacher’s Manual; Senior High 
Drama) 
 
RHYTHM​ ­ An ordered, recurrent alteration of strong and weak elements in the flow of sound and silence in speech 
and movement patterns. ​(Playwriting, Teacher’s Manual; Senior High Drama) 
 
SCENARIO​ ­ The narrative description of the play — “this happens and then this, and then this.” The actions always 
involve character, motivations and responses. ​(Playwriting, Teacher’s Manual; Senior High Drama) 
 
SCENE​ ­ Any portion of a dramatic work that can stand on its own as a unit of action. ​(Playwriting, Teacher’s 
Manual; Senior High Drama) 
 
SCRIPT FORMAT​ ­ The traditional typographical form for transcribing the playscript including initial incident, 
rising action, climax and denouement. ​(Playwriting, Teacher’s Manual; Senior High Drama) 
 
STRUCTURE​ ­ The framework or general shape of a script including beginning, middle and end, and initial incident, 
rising action, climax and denouement. ​(Playwriting, Teacher’s Manual; Senior High Drama) 
 
TEXTURING ​­ Painting highlights and shadows on to [an object], thereby giving the illusion of three dimensions and 
texture. 
 
THOUGHT​ ­ The subject, theme, play’s message or idea. ​(Playwriting, Teacher’s Manual; Senior High Drama) 
 
TRAGEDY ​­ A play in which the protagonist fails to achieve desired goals or is overcome by opposing forces. 
Traditionally, the protagonist is brought to catastrophe as a result of his or her own passion, limitation or “tragic flaw” 
(Theatre Studies, Teacher’s Manual; Senior High Drama) 
 
WORKSHOP ​ ­ The process of taking a new script to the stage for a workout; a situation where actors, director, 
designer and playwright contribute to forming and refining the script through discussion, activity and constructive 
criticism. ​(Playwriting, Teacher’s Manual; Senior High Drama) 
 
                Bibliography of Resources                                                                                                                                 . 
○ Commedia dell' Carte Home Page. (n.d.). Retrieved January 29, 2015, from 
http://shane­arts.com/commedia.html 

Calgary's #1 Halloween and costume shop. 2 locations in Calgary. Online orders. (n.d.). Retrieved February 2, 
2015, from https://donshobbyshop.ca/ 

Drama 10­20­30 (Senior High) Program of Studies. (1989, January 1). Retrieved January 29, 2015, from 
https://education.alberta.ca/media/313060/drama10.pdf 

Pura, T. (2002). Stages: Creative ideas for teaching drama. Winnipeg: J. Gordon Shillingford Pub 

Spencer, S. (2002). The playwright's guidebook. New York: Faber and Faber 

Spolin, V. (1986). Theatre games for the classroom. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press. 

Teacher's Resource Manual: Drama Senior High School. (1989). Edmonton, Alberta: Alberta Education 
Cataloguing in Publication Data.