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Beijing Petroleum University

Introduction of oil well drilling bits
Diamond bit
Roller cone bit

Beijing Petroleum University

Roller Cone Bits for Oil Well Drilling
I. Tri-cone rock bit

II. Single–cone bit
III.Application instructions

Beijing Petroleum University

Tri-cone Rock Bits
 Introduction to bit type

 Main bit structure

 Special structure
 Additional structure

Beijing Petroleum University

ROCK BIT TYPE

Diameter Code

Series Code

Classification
Code

Additional
Structure Feature
Code

While the series code of the single cone bit is indicated by “Y x ”.Beijing Petroleum University Bit Series Code: For tri-cone rock bits. which means different design features. and “x” is the design sequence letter. and standard series with the special structure or special structure combinations formed into special series. The series code of oil well drilling bits are shown in the Table. “Y” means one cone. INTRODUCTION TO ROCK BIT TYPE . series codes are divided into 9 standard series according to the main structure features of bearing and sealing. Major improvement in bit structure is regarded as special structure.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Main Structure Features of Bearing and Sealing Rubber O ring sealed journal bearing Rubber O ring sealed journal bearing(improved type) Metal face sealed journal bearing Floating sealed journal bearing Rubber O ring sealed floating bearing(improved type) Rubber O ring sealed roller bearing Metal face sealed roller bearing Floating sealed roller bearing Non-sealed roller bearing Single cone bit with rubber O ring sealed journal bearing Special Series Standard Series T (special gage protection D (equally worn teeth) B (dual water course with low nozzle recess) H HT HD HB HA HAT HAD HAB HJ HJT HJD HJ B HF HFT HFD HFB FA FAT FAD FAB GA GAT GAD GAB GJ GJT GJD GJB GF GFT GFD GFB W YA INTRODUCTION TO ROCK BIT TYPE .Beijing Petroleum University Bit Series Code: Item No.

and the last one is the structure feature code of the bit.Beijing Petroleum University with low 3 Insert bit 4 5 7 ROCK BIT TYPE 8 normal air cool Roller sealed sealed sealed sealed roller roller Bearing roller roller journal journal bearing bearing &gaging bearing &gaging bearing gaging 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 111 114 115 135 Compressive 2 121 Strength and 3 131 134 High drillability 4 1 211 214 2 3 4 1 2 221 Medium 2 Structure feature Grading 1 6 INTRODUCTION TO Lithology soft Steel teeth bit The classification code of bit consists of three digits in accordance with the requirements in SPE/IADC 23937. See the table. Series Classificaion Bit Classification Code: Formation Hardness with High compressive Strength Hard formation With semiabrasive And abrasive Very soft with low Compressive Strength and High drillability Soft to medium With low Compressive Strength Medium hardness With high Compressive Strength hard formation With Semiabrasive And abrasive Very hardness Formation With 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 116 117 126 127 136 137 217 316 321 346 415 512 532 612 435 445 515 535 545 615 632 712 347 417 427 437 447 517 527 537 547 617 627 637 715 732 737 832 837 . The first digit stands for the cutting structure and the formation series code. the second one stands for the formation classification code.

INTRODUCTION TO ROCK BIT TYPE . See the table. the additional structure features. will be added to the classification code.Beijing Petroleum University Additional Structure Features Code: When bits need to be improved or to be reinforced to meet the special requirement of drilling application and the formation. which indicated by one or more letters.

Beijing Petroleum University Additional Structure Features Code: Code C E G L Y H additional structure feature center nozzle extended nozzle recess reinforced bit head bit head OD stablizer lug conical tungsten carbide insert diamond gage teeth INTRODUCTION TO ROCK BIT TYPE .

Beijing Petroleum University For Example: 8 1/2 HJT 537 GL Reinforced bit head OD and Bit head OD stabilization pad Insert bit for drilling in soft to medium hard formation with low compressive strength Metal face sealed journal bearing.9mm INTRODUCTION TO ROCK BIT TYPE .special gage protection Bit diameter is 215.

Beijing Petroleum University Main Bit Structures Structures of H series HA series HJ series GA series GJ series W series K series HF series FA series INTRODUCTION TO TRI-CONE BIT .

Taking good advantage of the cutting ability and cutting speed by optimizing the design of compact numbers and rows. 4). INTRODUCTION TO TRI-CONE BIT .Increasing the reliability of bearing seal by using the high saturated Buna-N rubber O ring seal with optimized compression draught. the exposure height and the special shaped compacts. 2). 3).Improving the seizure resistance of the bearing by applying copper inlays in the ID of cone. and etc.which can stand comparative high bit weight under the normal rotary speed.Being able to stand high WOB by using ring locked cone bearing.Beijing Petroleum University Bit Structure H series H series bit is O ring sealed journal bearing bit .The main features are as follows: 1).

The bit bearing can be ball locked or ring locked. The loading capacity and seizure resistance of the bearing is 1. Bit with ring lock bearing can stand high weight on bit and bit with ball lock bearing can be applied to high rotary speed drilling. the copper inlays and the silver plating applied in the ID of cone improve the loading capacity and seizure resistance.Beijing Petroleum University Bit Structure HA series bit is an improved type of H series product. The main features are as follows: 1). the penetration rate is also increased correspondingly. cutting structure and sealing area besides the advantage of H series bit. O ring seal made of the more wear resistance high saturated Buna-N with the increased seal section.5 times higher than that of H series bit. 2). and adding sealing flange at the outer end of the sealing area increase the reliability of the seal. 3). Some improvement has been made in the bearing. The hard facing on the surface of head bearing. HA series Bit Leg head Bearing O Ring Seal Flange For Sealing Cone Bearing INTRODUCTION TO TRI-CONE BIT .

and the static seals are made of high saturated Buna-N that more heat resistant than conventional Buna-N.Beijing Petroleum University Bit structure HJ series bit is the metal face sealed journal bearing bit.The dynamic sealing rings of the metal face sealing system are metal seals.and the sealing compression is optimized to ensure good contact always being kept on the sealing surface of the two metal rings. HJ series bits have excellent features that applicable for high RPM.Two elastic rubber energizers are separately located in the head and cone sealing areas to form static seal. HJ series INTRODUCTION TO TRI-CONE BIT . The main features are as follows: 1).A pair of well designed high precision metal rings are used to form the bearing axial dynamic sealing. With the reducing of the friction heat and friction force. 2). HJ series bits feature with excellent heat resistance. Therefore. and is the ideal tool for drilling directional well and horizontal well. which is applicable for high speed drilling.3)Taking advantage of ball locked cone. this series of bit can perform consistently in high speed drilling application. which make the friction force on the sealing surfaces reduced by 70% to 80%. Using metal face seal(MFS)-one of the most advanced sealing technology in the world.

INTRODUCTION TO TRI-CONE BIT . The main features are as follows: GA SERIES 1). which can bear high WOB and suit for high RPM drilling. which is the economical and ideal tool for high RPM drilling application. with the roller in the groove recessed into the cone. increases the size of journal.Thrust bearing couple surfaces are treated with anti-friction and hardening processes. which increase both the loading capacity and the seizure resistance. 2). The roller sealed bearing structure.Beijing Petroleum University Bit Structure GA series bit is the rubber O ring sealed roller bearing bit.

Beijing Petroleum University Bit Structure GJ series GJ series bit is the metal face sealed roller bearing bit. INTRODUCTION TO TRI-CONE BIT . and is the ideal tool for drilling directional well and horizontal well. This series of bit can perform consistently in high speed drilling application.

This series of bit can be operated in high RPM drilling.Beijing Petroleum University Bit Structure 2222 W SERIES W series bit is non-sealed roller bearing bit.With the non-sealed bearing. The main features are as follows: 1). which is applicable for geothermal drilling. which is the economical and ideal tool for high RPM drilling and geothermal drilling application.W series bit has the following types of bearing structures: roller-ball-roller-thrust(for bit larger than 12-1/4"). INTRODUCTION TO TRI-CONE BIT . 2). the drilling fluid can go directly into the bearing cavity to cool the bearing.

INTRODUCTION TO TRI-CONE BIT . It is only used for mining.Beijing Petroleum University K SERIES Bit Structure e It is non-sealed roller air bearing bit.

and makes the HF series bit applicable for high RPM.Beijing Petroleum University Bit Structure 浮动密封钻头 HF series bit is floating sealed journal bearing bit that were developed on the basis of HA series products by using floating sealing technology. the compression of the floating seal rubber ring is decreased by 50%. the HF series bit features that a set of metal retaining ring and O ring seal are used to form the floating seal combination. Compared with HA series bit. The floating seal combination can move with the cone. 2). which eliminating the negative effect of the radial play of bearing on the O ring seal during working. resulting in the off-center floating sealing.and extending the service life of seals. The drilling fluid is directed to the floating sealing cavity through the well designed watercourse to cool the O ring. HF series INTRODUCTION TO TRI-CONE BIT . The floating seal combination features with the excellent heat resistance. the O ring seal forms end face sealing and radial sealing with the bearing sealing surfaces of cone and head.Compared with the conventional O ring seal. which reduces the friction heat. The main features are as follows: 1).

Beijing Petroleum University O ring sealed and floating sealed comparison diagram INTRODUCTION TO TRI-CONE BIT .

Beijing Petroleum University Bit Structure FA series bit is a kind of newly developed high speed O ring sealed floating journal bearing rock bit. high heat resistance. 3). Using ball locking bearing makes the bit more applicable for high RPM. 2). which increasing the PV value and make the bearing applicable for high speed drilling. and the surface is treated with solid lubrication grease. This decreases the relative linear velocity of the bearings and reduces the temperature of the friction surfaces. It is the ideal tool for drilling in directional well and horizontal well.Taking advantage of floating bearing structure technology by adding the floating sleeve between the surfaces of journal bearing and adding floating button between the thrust faces. high resilience. The main features are as follows: FA series 1). and high abrasive resistance. The floating parts of the bearing are made of new material which featured with high strength. Comparison diagram of floating bearing and journal bearing INTRODUCTION TO TRI-CONE BIT .

Beijing Petroleum University Bit Structure FA series INTRODUCTION TO TRI-CONE BIT .

Beijing Petroleum University Bit Structure Roller Floating Bearing Threedimension diagram INTRODUCTION TO TRI-CONE BIT .

Beijing Petroleum University Bit Structure Roller Floating Bearing INTRODUCTION TO TRI-CONE BIT .

Equally Worn Compacts Structure(D) INTRODUCTION TO TRI-CONE BIT . Extra Gage Protection (T) ii.Beijing Petroleum University special Structures i.

For extra gage protection steel bit. Inverted radius tooth geometry is used on all rows of teeth. The composite material with crack resistance. impact resistance and better abrasion resistance has been applied in the gauge welding. and minimize wearing on the gage teeth and cone shell. The trimmers will break the uncut rock ribs on the wall of borehole. which increases the depth of the build-up welding material on teeth. INTRODUCTION TO TRI-CONE BIT . 2.Adding one row of trimmers between the gage row and the heel row teeth.Beijing Petroleum University Special Structure Trimmer Extra Gage Protection (T) Structure feature: 1. the shape of teeth and the build-up welding material are improved besides adding gage trimmers.

high strength and high breakage rate. With the types of compacts characterized by equally worn. the bit life can be effectively extended and the penetration rate can be increased about 10%.Beijing Petroleum University Special Structure Equally Worn Compacts Structure(D) Equally Worn Compacts Structure feature: Unequal width crest compacts and unequal width offset “super scoop” chisel-shape compacts are inserted in each land of the cone. INTRODUCTION TO TRI-CONE BIT .

Bit Head OD Stabilization Pad(L) v. Conical Compacts(tungsten carbide insert) (Y) vi. Extended Nozzle (E) iii. Center Nozzle (C) ii. Diamond Enhanced Gage Compacts (H) INTRODUCTION TO TRI-CONE BIT .Beijing Petroleum University Additional Structures i.Reinforced Bit Head OD (G) iv.

The center nozzle is normally used in 77/8" and larger bit for drilling in soft formation. INTRODUCTION TO TRI-CONE BIT .Beijing Petroleum University Additional Structure Center Nozzle Structure Feature:Center nozzle is used Center nozzle in the center of the bit to enhance the cleaning action on the compacts and prevent the bit from balling up.

INTRODUCTION TO TRI-CONE BIT .and increases the hydraulic horsepower. The created high speed jet flow enhanced the cross flow. which can improve the earth breaking rate and thoroughly flush the bottom hole.Beijing Petroleum University Additional Structure Extended Nozzle Structure Feature:Using the extended Extended nozzle nozzle decreases the distance from the nozzle orifice to the bottom hole.

hard facing applied on bit head OD is very important. This is achieved by pressing the special carbide inserts or hard facing applied on the bit head OD and shirttail. INTRODUCTION TO TRI-CONE BIT .Beijing Petroleum University Additional Structure Reinforced Bit Head OD Structure Feature: Reinforced bit head OD The wear resistance and reliability of the bit head OD can directly affect the bit life in drilling applications. so. especially in high abrasive formation. deep drilling and motor drilling applications.

Beijing Petroleum University Additional Structure Bit Head OD Stabilization Pad(L) Bit head stabilization pad Structure Feature: In order to improve the wear resistance of the bit head OD in the kick off sections of horizontal. cluster and directional well drilling applications. the stabilization pad is used on the bit head OD to overcome the off center wear caused by the load deflection and gravity INTRODUCTION TO TRI-CONE BIT .

g. INTRODUCTION TO TRI-CONE BIT .Beijing Petroleum University Additional Structure Conical Compacts (Y) Structure Feature: In hard plastic formation drilling applications. which can get twice the result with the half of the effort. e. when the compact crest is too wide. The upper section of the conical compacts is a long conical shape with chiseling and crushing actions. it is very difficult to penetrate the formation. the penetration rate of the conventional insert bit during drilling in hard plastic formation is very low.

Beijing Petroleum University Additional Structure Diamond Enhanced gage compacts (H) Structure Feature: The gage protection is significantly reinforced and the bit life is prolonged by inserting the diamond enhanced gage compacts in the heel row and gage row of the cone. INTRODUCTION TO TRI-CONE BIT .

with active cutting gage protection compacts and passive anti-friction gage protection compacts inserted on the bit body.Beijing Petroleum University Single Cone Rock Bit(YA) The main structure features: The series of single cone bit is developed on the basis of the mature manufacturing technology of tri-cone rock bit and diamond bit. The main features are as follows: 1. which is applicable for slim hole drilling. INTRODUCTION TO SINGLE CONE BIT . Using two stage gage protection of the cone and the bit body.

the numbers of the row. and optimized the cone shape. Staggered compacts arrangement on the cone.Beijing Petroleum University Single Cone Rock Bit(YA) The main structure features: 2. and the compacts exposure height. INTRODUCTION TO SINGLE CONE BIT . the numbers of compacts.

INTRODUCTION TO SINGLE CONE BIT . and optimized the nozzle combinations.Beijing Petroleum University Single Cone Rock Bit(YA) The main structure features: 3. Two watercourses structure of main and auxiliary are used for the hydraulic system with a jet nozzle and a divergent nozzle.

Hard facing layer applied on head bearing and copper inlay applied on the surface of cone ID improve the performance of bearing. INTRODUCTION TO SINGLE CONE BIT . which ensured the reliability of the bearing sealing. Ball lock bearing makes the bit applicable for high RPM.Beijing Petroleum University Single Cone Rock Bit(YA) The main structure features: 4. The advanced Buna-N rubber seals are used for the journal and bearing pin sealing. 6. 5. and optimized the sealing compression and the special protective structure designing.

Beijing Petroleum University rock bit nozzle M—Mini extended P— protection INTRODUCTION TO ROCK BIT NOZZLES S— standard .

Beijing Petroleum University Application Instructions  Operation instructions  Cautions for applications of rock bits  The impact of rotary speed on ROP  The impact of WOB on ROP  The influence of WOB X RPM on the life of the bearing  The influence of WOB X RPM on the life of bit teeth  Reasonably determine the proper time for pulling up Application Instructions .

especially for the tungsten carbide bit and the speed of tripping in must be appropriately controlled.Beijing Petroleum University Operation Instructions: (1) Inspect the appearance and measure the OD of the bit before it is tripped in. Care should be taken when bit is run into the hard formations. (5) Tripping in of the bit should be operated stably. which have such defects. Application Instructions . (3) To mount the nozzle. cannot be tripped in. therefore it will lead to the premature failure of the sealing ring. (4) When make up the bit. and make sure that the nozzles are in good condition. ensuring the teeth have no breakage. high angle well and irregular well bore to avoid the bit colliding with the borehole wall. (2) Select the suitable nozzle in accordance with the hydraulics program. proper breakout plate should be used to avoid any damage to the nozzle and bit body. Protect the “o”ring from any damage. Those bits. the weld seam without crack and porosity. For such collision may cause the tungsten carbide break or damage to the shirttail. should use the special tools---retaining ring pincers.

thus the stress concentrate on these teeth and probably break them. When the bit is about 1 meter from the bottom. and some teeth of the new bit touch the bottom earlier than the others. Application Instructions . (7) Start up the rotary table under any WOB is prohibited. the bit should be rotated to reach the bottom hole. it may cause the bearing over-heated or snapped-in. Running-in process under low WOB and slow rotary speed should be at least 30 minutes. because if the bit rotates with too high linear velocity. While the bit is making the bottom hole pattern. then the sealing will be in good condition. Once the bit contacts with the bottom hole. and the premature failure to the “o” ring seal. its bearing is running in. it should rotate slowly with low WOB for a while.Beijing Petroleum University Operation Instructions: (6) When the new bit trips in with 3~5 meters from the bottom. because the bottom hole pattern may differ from the profile of the new bit. mud should be thoroughly circulated. (8) The rotary speed must be controlled in the recommended ranges.

and give a full play to the capability of the bit and save the consequent economic cost. or even such serious accidents as breaking or loss of the cone. the instrument malfunction. (2) If the well bore is under-gauge or under abnormal condition. as the surface equipment can not work properly. the tungsten carbide bit should not be lowered into the well under following circumstances. Application Instructions . which requires long time reaming. leading to the undersize of the bit. the premature damage to the bearing. the failure of the seal. (3) In order to prevent any underground problem. the mud property not in accordance with demands or the purifying system can not achieve the predicted effect. Because the heel row compacts of the bit will expose to the high counteracting force from the borehole wall. the tungsten carbide bit cannot be used.Beijing Petroleum University Cautions for Applications of Rock Bits (1) The tungsten carbide bit must be used in the wells with clean bottom-hole and without any fish. thus the cone gage or shirttail will be severely worn.

The rate of penetration is direct proportional to the rotary speed. the bit undergoes shearing action to break the formation. generally. the bit undergoes percussion and crushing action to break formation. then the breaking efficiency can be increased. the bit undergoes shearing 、 percussion and crushing action.Beijing Petroleum University The Impact of Rotary Speed on ROP Rate of penetration Soft formation Medium formation Hard formation Rotary speed (1) In shallow and soft formation. So in the practical drilling operation. (3) In deep and hard formations. the increase of the RPM can not result in the soundly increase of the ROP. Application Instructions . (2) In medium hard formations. The cutters should contact with the rock much longer than it is needed to break the rock. the moderate RPM and medium to high WOB are advised to increase ROP. The cutters are worn only a little if the bit is run in high rotary speed. The ROP can not increase so soundly following the increase of the RPM as it is in the soft formations. So in these formations .

the RPM is direct proportional to the square of WOB.Beijing Petroleum University The impact of WOB on ROP ROP B A P1 P2 WOB The practical drilling operation prove that the WOB has linear relationship with the ROP. In hard formations. and even there are some decrease occurred. the WOB is low and there is only a little cuttings . Application Instructions . as the following Figure shows : in the starting-up period. If the WOB is increased gradually. the ROP will only increase slowly and even drop some amount. Later on. high WOB should be applied. It is due to the unclean condition in the bottom-hole. In soft formations. it is needed to adopt relatively high WOB to break formation due to the high compressive strength. when the WOB has already reached to some values. if the WOB is continually increased . the WOB is in the linear relationship with the ROP. So in this hard formations . the ROP then do not increase obviously. the cleaning condition becomes worse.

C=W·N Where W---WOB(KN) N---RPM(R/MIN) C---Bearing Capability Factor(KN‧R/MIN) Application Instructions . The value of WN is determined by the structure of each journal bearing. we adopt the concept of “WN capability factor” for the drilling operation technician. The high linear velocity will bring about the high friction force and result in the rapid increase of temperature on the bearing. Thus snap-in and damage may occur.Beijing Petroleum University The influence of WOB X RPM on the life of the bearing The life of the sealed journal bearing is related to the linear velocity of the bearing. In order to optimize the performance of the journal bearing bit. it is the multiplication of WOB and RPM.

The upper limits for the WOB and RPM recommended in the table can not be used at the same time. The percussion load is direct proportional to the applied WOB. The strength of percussion is related to the hardness of the rock. the main reason is caused by “percussion". WOB on per unit area and the linear velocity of the cone. Application Instructions .Beijing Petroleum University The influence of WOB and RPM on the life of bit teeth The breakage and fracture of teeth are mainly caused by the fatigue and overstress. So the WOB and RPM directly or indirectly influence on the life of teeth . Bit manufacturers always have recommended WOB and RPM in tables for their bits. no matter what brings such damage.

the journal bearing will be damaged more quickly than the rolling bearing. the ROP will decrease gradually. calculate the changes of every meter cost according to the drilling hours and footages. together with the features of the new bit and formation lithology of the present well as reference . the changes of the torque should be closely observed and analyzed to prevent the loss of the cone. The torque of the bit will increase suddenly or fluctuate continually. according to the service life and dullness of last bit . And also by taking the following factors into consideration. we can estimate preliminary the service life of the new bit. we can adopt the method of analyzing every meter cost. which can be judged from the load on the rotary table and the diesel engine. Therefore. When the solids enter the bearing. the bit should be pulled and changed. (2) Judging the dullness of teeth: If there are no noticeable lithology changes. the movement of the bearing will be stuck. the torque should be read from the torque meter. (1) Judging the wear of the bearing: If the bearing is worn. the footage will not match with the increase of drilling hour. Application Instructions . In deep section or small size bit. when some conspicuous increase of cost are noticed.Beijing Petroleum University Reasonably determine the proper time for pulling-up Generally. So in the practical operation. and taking the information of the offset well . when the teeth is worn. we can determine when to pull it out. If the other drilling parameters are the same.

Beijing Petroleum University The end ! .