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Cement Evaluation

- Sonic Tools

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4.0 Cement Evaluation - Sonic Tools
4.1 Why Cement Bond Logging?
4.1 Why Cement Bond Logging?
4.2 Tool diagram and theory of operation

4.3 Cement Bonding
4.4 Cement Bond Interpretation
4.5 Log Quality Control
4.6 Advantages/ Disadvantages of CBL/VDL
4.7 Exercises

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4.0 Cement Evaluation - Sonic Tools
4.1 Why Cement Bond Logging?
Evaluate zone to zone isolation
Evaluate cement to casing bond
Evaluate cement to formation bond
Identify cement top
Provide correlation between open and casedhole using GR-CCL
Cement returns to surface does not mean
there is good cement bonding throughout the
well and a decision not to run a cement bond
log as a result is a bad decision.
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4.2 Tool diagram and theory of operation

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CBL Tool Diagram

4.2 Tool diagram and theory of operation

Casing
Cement

Formation

Mud

t

20 kHz
Transmitter

3 ft
Receiver

Bonded cement
CBL amplitude

t
5 ft
Receiver
VDL
0
100
CBL amp

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Rigid steel Gemoco centralizer who’s outside diameter match exactly the casing inside diameter should always be attached to the CBL tool.4. There is only one transmitter however and two receivers at distances of 3 and 5 feet from the transmitter. unlike the open-hole Sonic tool. As with the Sonic open-hole tool the Compressional or P waves are used to measure the time to travel from the transmitter to the receiver. 6 . Centralization of the CBL is therefore critical to its operation. The CBL tool is uncompensated.2 Tool diagram and theory of operation The CBL is similar in operation the open hole Sonic tool. This will ensure good centralization.

2 Tool diagram and theory of operation CBL (Cement Bond Log) Signal VDL (Variable Density Log) Signal 7 .4.

If there is good bond the amplitude will be very small. will primarily measure the cement to casing bond. This is commonly known as the TT3 (Travel Time 3 foot) or CBL (Cement Bond Log) signal.2 Tool Diagram and theory of operation CBL Signal The 3-foot signal from the transmitter to the first receiver.4. The CBL signal amplitude is measured by the height of this first arrival. The TT3 travel time is measured between the transmitter pulse at the start and the amplitude arrive 'E2'. If there is little or no bond the amplitude of the signal will be very large. 8 . Here the horizontal line is the threshold detection.

4.2 Tool Diagram and theory of operation CBL Signal Electronic detection has been developed where the signal arrival can be tracked within a viewing window. 9 . This method can also be employed on full wave sonic tools to detect open-hole Compressional arrivals behind casing.

Parameters for CBL detection 10 .

The 5-foot waveform is used differently to the 3 foot. Large signal amplitude also indicates bad cement to formation bond and small amplitude good cement to formation bond. and will predominately measure the cement to formation bond. This is commonly known as the TT5 (Travel Time 5 foot) or VDL (Variable Density Log) signal.2 Tool Diagram and theory of operation VDL Signal A Similar Compressional wave will be measured with the 5-foot signal from the transmitter to the second receiver. It is this cross section through the positive peaks that is displayed on the VDL track as if viewed from the top of the waveform. Here the horizontal threshold 'cuts through' the positive peaks of the received signal. 11 . The signal will however read deeper into the formation.4.

4.2 Tool diagram and theory of operation CBL/VDL Wave Train 12 .

4.2 Tool diagram and theory of operation VDL movie 13 .

2 Tool Diagram and theory of operation GR-CCL Signal The cased-hole Gamma Ray measurement is used to correlate the service on depth with the open-hole services. the cement and borehole fluids shielding the formation Gamma Rays. The CCL is used to correlate any future Casing guns on depth for perforation purposes.4. it is affected by the casing. The cased-hole Gamma Ray will therefore read lower in amplitude but will have similar character in order to correlate on depth with the open-hole Gamma Ray. 14 . Although it is calibrated.

The 3foot amplitudes were measured for various free pipe signals. different free pipe amplitudes were measured from the original tools. as is the case with the Sonic tool. 15 . As different tools were made.3 Cement Bonding Early CBL tools were not calibrated. The travel time of each signal does not require calibration.4. CBL tools therefore need the signal amplitude to be calibrated for each sized casing.

Halliburton Chart for CBL Tool response 16 .

75 in.4 29. 7.7 33.5 17 20 23 23 26 29 32 35 38 40 26. 7 in.7 39 40 43. 17 15 18 21 15. 9. 5.Schlumberger Chart for CBL Tool response Casing Weight Estimated transit Expected size (lb/ft) time (msec) free-pipe reading 5 in.5 47 53.5 48 51 54 55.5 48 68 SLS-W SLS-C 245 243 241 254 253 251 250 278 276 275 273 272 271 269 288 287 285 283 320 318 317 315 340 339 338 337 336 335 385 380 238 236 234 248 247 245 243 271 270 268 267 265 264 262 282 280 278 276 313 312 310 308 333 332 331 330 329 328 378 373 77mV 71 mV 61 mV 59 mV 52 mV 50 mV 47 mV . 13.375 in.5 45.5 40.625 in.5 in.625 in. 10.

18 CBL Log Presentation .

Track 3 CBL (3 foot) amplitude in mV (0100mV).4. This displays the entire wave train.3 Cement Bonding Presentation Track 1 The GR measurement for correlation to open hole logs. For low amplitudes (better cement bond) the 0-20mV curves comes into the display for accurate measurement. This presentation type is rare. Track 5 TT5 signal is displayed in the pseudo standard VDL presentation. This is a 'Bird's eye view' of the TT5 waveform 'above' the threshold. Track 4 TT5 signal is displayed in a Signature presentation. 19 . The CCL magnetic collar locator spikes opposite every casing collar The TT3 travel time being a function of the casing size.

4.3 Cement Bonding Mnemonics CBL – Cement Bond Log VDL – Variable Density Log SIG – Signature Waveform TT3/TT – Travel Time 3 foot TTSL – Transit Time Sliding Gate TT5 – Travel Time 5 foot CCL – Casing Collar Locator GR – Gamma Ray 20 .

21 CBL Cemented Casing .

5-3310.4. 22 . 4mV.4 Cement Bond Interpretation Good Cement Bonding CBL signal .Good cement to casing bond exists when the CBL signal amplitude is less than about 5mV. See figures below. The interval 3307. Values less than 10mV can be considered to have sufficient bond.5ft has very good bond between cement and casing by virtue of small CBL amplitude in Track 3 of approx. Good zone isolation occurs when there is continuous good bond amplitude of 10 feet or more. Often at these low amplitudes the TT3 travel time will initially stretch and then will cycle skip as the amplitude drops further.

4.4 Cement Bond Interpretation CBL Travel Time Stretching 23 .

4 Cement Bond Interpretation CBL Travel Time Cycle Skipping 24 .4.

Thick 'wavy' VDL response indicates good cement to formation bond.4. 25 . The formation arrivals are depicted by the very thick VDL lines (thick because the amplitude is very high). These formation arrivals should also track closely to the open-hole Sonic transit times (DT).4 Cement Bond Interpretation Good Cement Bonding VDL signal . This indicates good cement to formation bond also.There are good formation arrivals indicated by the VDL display in Track 5.

4 Cement Bond Interpretation 26 CBL Free Pipe Signal .4.

There is no continuous cement seal to the casing.4. 27 .Free pipe signal takes on specific values for different casing sizes. Typically 61mV for 7 inch and 71mV for 5.5" casing. Here you can see that the free pipe signal is reaching a maximum of approximately 75mV. The TT3 is reading 275mSec and the free pipe signal is 71mV both indicating 5.4 Cement Bond Interpretation Free Pipe Signal CBL signal .5 inch casing. There is some cement scattered around the pipe that is reducing the CBL signal in places but essentially this is still free pipe.

Across casing collars there is a distinct “Chevron” pattern or “W” shape on the VDL signal. Further along the wave train.4 Cement Bond Interpretation Free Pipe Signal VDL signal . 28 .At the start of the VDL signal in track 5 there are straight thin lines representing casing arrivals.4. there are thicker but relatively straight arrivals but these are not representative of the formation.

4 Cement Bond Interpretation Minimum Cemented Interval vs Casing Size 29 .4.

4.3 0.1 0 0.8 0.2 0.6 0.9 1 1.4 % CEMENT Percentage of Cement vs CBL Amplitude 30 .7 0.1 1.2 1.4 Cement Bond Interpretation CBL INTERPRETATION 100 CBL AMPLITUDE IN MV FREE PIPE 10 100% CEMENT 1 0.5 0.1 0.4 0.3 1.

Cement Compressive Strength from Chart Book 31 .

CBL Casing Data 32 .

4. Once the cement has been pumped into the casing annulus. Holding of wellhead pressure after pumping should be kept to a minimum. micro annulus can occur when the wellhead pump pressure is held past the setting time of the cement.4 Cement Bond Interpretation Micro Annulus Micro annulus is often a problem when performing a casing cement job. When the pressure is released the casing retracts and a thin break occurs between the casing and the cement. Typically cement sets in 4-5 hours and casing pressure is often held for 3-6 hours. 33 .

34 .4.4 Cement Bond Interpretation Micro Annulus Micro annulus can also be caused by drilling inside a cemented casing – ie vibrations and mud weight decreases causing casing to expand and retract. Another cause of micro annulus occurs if there are any residual coatings left on the outside of the casing during manufacture. The cement job requires a pre-flush chemical fluid to remove any coatings immediately before the cement is pumped outside the casing. When the cement job is run these coatings can inhibit the cement to bond to the casing again leaving a thin micro fracture or break between the casing and cement.

If Micro annulus does occur this is not usually a problem for zone isolation.4 Cement Bond Interpretation Micro Annulus Similarly a pre-flush needs to be run to remove any borehole wall mud cake. This will help ensure good cement to formation bond also. the casing should be pressured to 1000psi well head and the CBL survey run again under the 1000psi pressure.4. If the CBL signal reduces to below 10mV then micro annulus exists. Micro annulus is noticeable when the CBL signal is approximately 10-20mV. 35 . If micro annulus is suspected.

5 in) and 61mV (7 in) casing TT is:.4 Cement Bond Interpretation Summary CBL show free pipe under these conditions a) b) c) d) e) CBL=71mV (5.steady and correct value for casing No formation arrivals on VDL Strong casing arrivals on VDL Chevron pattern opposite collars on VDL CBL show good cement bonding under these conditions a) b) c) d) 36 CBL < 5mV TT is steady or stretched/cycle skipping Strong formation arrivals (P&S) on VDL No casing arrivals on VDL .4.

I not valid. strong formation arrivals Partial bond stable BP < X< FP Mediumcasing & formation arrivals Eccentered sonde Decrease > ± 4 µs TT stretch increase up to 13. Micro annulus stable High (reduced with casing pressure) Casing & formation arrivals Some cement is present (B.4. Use T0 (or Tx) amplitude for calculations TT skip increase step 33 to 55 µs No/weak casing arrivals Strong formation arrivals Good cement. Coverage B.I 37 Anything Blurred arrivals No cement 100% CSG circumf. BI not valid if high mV Fast Formation arrivals Decrease or stable Anything Formation arrivals before or at ± same time as casing arrivals Some cement.I not valid) Channeling stable High amplitude Casing & formation arrivals Some cement is present Free Pipe stable Bonded pipe 100% B.I not valid. Use only T0 amplitude for calculations Concentric casings possible increase 20<X<55µs High amplitude Doubling of casing arrivals frequency Some cement. If formation arrivals "some cement is present" . B.4 Cement Bond Interpretation Effect TT 2 CBL mv (T0 mode) VDL display VDL display (Pictorial) Interpretation FP is High Strong casing arrivals No formation arrivals Chevrons at collars stable … or Stretch / skip BP is low Very weak/no casing arrivals.7µs No/weak casing arrivals Strong formation arrivals Good cement.

It is preferable that a free pipe log be performed in the well. In the event that this is not possible. The TT travel time and the CBL amplitude should read values appropriate for the size of casing used in the well. This should always be available from the service company and it should be insisted upon that it is displayed on the log.5 Log Quality Control The Cement Bond Log must be calibrated to a free pipe signal.4. 38 . an alternative shop calibration in free pipe signal should be made available and displayed on the field print.

If the 3foot travel time is not primarily a straight line.5 Log Quality Control It is critical that the CBL is well centralized. then the CBL tool is poorly centralized and the cement bond will not be accurate. 39 .4. Centralisation can be easily performed.

4. Transit times are correct for casing size. 2. Transit time is steady indicating there is good tool centralisation.5 Log Quality Control Check List: 1. 3. Amplitude correct in free pipe. 40 .

5 Log Quality Control CBL Shop Calibration Equipment 41 .4.

 It is a very cheap. robust tool that has been successfully used for more than 30 years.  Micro annulus can only be confirmed with a second higher pressure logging pass. 42 .4.6 Advantages/ Disadvantages of CBL/VDL Advantages:  CBL/VDL measures the cement bond quality to casing and also to the formation. Disadvantages:  The CBL/VDL tool cannot determine channeling.  Gas detection will also cause the CBL amplitude to read slightly high. If channeling is occurring the CBL amplitude will read slightly high since it is an average measurement around the borehole.

7 Exercises 43 .4.

7 Exercises Q1: What is the value of the free pipe CBL signal in 7 and 5. what do you think it will read in true free pipe and in true good cement bond? Ans: > 71 inches and a bad cement bond respectfully.4. 44 . What does this indicate? Ans: 7inch and that the tool is properly centralised. Q3: If the CBL was calibrated in non-free pipe in 7 inch casing.5 in) and 61mV (7 in) casing Q2: The TT travel time appears to be reasonably steady at 280mSec.5 inch casing? Ans: 71mV (5.

7 Exercises 45 .4.

46 . 3283-86. If a separate pressured CBL log confirmed micro annulus. Good Zone isolation: Bonging intervals with approx 10mV are probably micro annulus. 3297-3304. then there is sufficient zone isolation over these intervals since in 7” casing minimum for isolation is 10ft(or 3m). 3317-19m since amplitude is <= 10mV. 3294-96. good zone isolation and why? Ans: Good bonding: 3278-79.4.7 Exercises Q4: Over which interval(s) do you think there is good bonding. 3314-15. 3307-11.

4. A pressure CBL logging run is unlikely to yield a better cement bond over these intervals. possibly channeling.7 Exercises Q5: Over which interval(s) do you think there is bad bonding and why? Ans: Intervals where amplitude is approaching 20mV and higher: 3275-77. Therefore this is bad bonding. 3280-82. 3311-14. 47 . 3296-97. 3315-17m. 3304-07. 3287-93.

35g/cc 48 .CBL-VDL run 1 – RHOM @ 1.

Q8: Based VDL what can we conclude from cement job quality? Ans: VDL displays both casing and formation arrivals indicating bad bonding Q9: How can we confirm this is not micro annulus? Ans: Run CBL under pressure or CET/USIT 49 .35g/cc Q6: Based on TT readings can we conclude that tool is properly centralised? Ans: Tool is centralised (TT=308us/ft is theoretical value for 9 5/8” casing) Q7: Based on CBL readings what can we conclude from cement job quality? Ans: CBL reads more than 52mV which is free pipe in 9 5/8” casing.CBL-VDL run 1 – RHOM @ 1.

CBL-VDL run 1 – RHOM @ 1.35g/cc 50 .

51 .CET run 1 – RHOM @ 1. therefore perfect cement bond. no casing arrivals only formation arrivals on VDL.35g/cc Q10: What can we conclude about cement job quality? Ans: CBL between 3&10mV.

Drilling inside cemented casing. 2.PET 52 . Insufficient cleaning of casing surface to enable good bonding. Q12: How can you confirm micro annulus? Ans: 1. If CBL amplitude reduces to good cement bond values then it is micro annulus.4. Run Ultra Sonic tool – USIT. 2. Extended time for holding casing pressure after cement job.CET. Ans: 1. Run a CBL log under 1000psi wellhead pressure.7 Exercises Q11: Name the different causes of micro annulus. 3.