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Livestock as contributor to global warming and effects of global warming

Muhammad Irfan 07-arid-1716 DVM(5TH)
PMAS UNIVERSITY OF ARID AGRICULTURE UNIVERSITY RAWALPINDI
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Introduction
— Livestock are main contributer to the global

— — —

warming,even the contribution of livestock in global warning is more than the transportation. This is said in a new report from united nation."Lvestock are one of the most significant contrbuters to todays most serous environmental problems" said Henning Steinfeld, a senior UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)official. Livestock contribute in global warming through dfferent ways,by producing dfferent gases like methane,CO2,nitrous oxide, ammonia etc. Livestock also lead to deforestraton whch lead to global warmng, If so..what are its effects on society? And what are the possible solution?

Livestock & global warming
The animals which contribute to global warming are mainly; — Cattle — Buffalo — Sheep and goats. — Camel Among these animals cattle are the main contributer to global warming.

Causes of global warming
— Livestock contribution to global warming is more than

transportation. — Livestock contribute to global warming through different ways like.. By producing certain gases like methane,CO2,nitrous oxide,ammonia ect. By producing a large amount of manure. By the dead animals.

Causes..
— Mainly due to poor quality

forages which throw their digestive system out of balance. — Prevailing method of producing meat,that is crowding animal together in factory farm. — Storing their waste in giant lagoon and cutting down forest to grow crops to feed them. — Missing of certain protein to ruminants diets,can increase methane production.

Livestock's long shadow Environmental Issues and Options
— A recently report from united nation. — According to report livestock production

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worldwide is responsible for 18% greenhouse gas emission. Vast cattle herd emit more nasty greenhouse gases than all kind of transport. Livestock sector accounts for 9% of CO2,65% of nitrous oxide and 37% of methane production. It also generates 64% of human related ammonia. These portion of global warming gases are created by bovine persistent belching,flatulence and from by products.

Sun

Greenhouse Effect

Cont..
— LS flatulence and manure emit more

than 1/3rd of methane which warm the world 20 times more than CO2. — Cattle produce more than 100 other polluting gases,including 2/3rd of the world emission of ammonia,one of the main cause of acidic rain. — LS use 30% of the earth land surface,and more land is used for their feed production. — So forest clearing for LS pasture lead to deforestration,a major source of global warming.

Cont..
— The report notes that contribution LS to global warming

will increase in coming years.. — Because global meat production is projected to more than double from 229 million ton from 1999/2000 to 456 million ton in 2050. — So there is a need to reduce the meat consumption.

Earth atmospheric gases
— Nitrogen — Oxygen — Carbon dioxide — Methane — Nitrous oxide

Methane
— Methane is a large component of livestock related —

green house gas emissions. Methane is produced as a result of anaerobic fermentation in the rumen and the hind-gut. Microbial enzymatic activity in the rumen (and salivary enzymes), hydrolyses much of the dietary organic matter to amino acids and simple sugars. As a contributor to global warming, methane (CH4) is second only to carbon dioxide, and accounts for 16% of all greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. According to FAO, the world livestock population in 2004 comprised of 1,365 million cattle 172 million buffaloes 1,059.8 million sheep, 790 million goats and 943.8 million pigs. The estimated CH4 emission from enteric fermentation is 17 30% of global production. These products are then anaerobically fermented to volatile fatty acids (VFA), hydrogen and CO2.

Methane
— Methane has 21 times more global waming potential than —

— —

CO2. In one day, a cow can emit ½ pound of methane into the air. Imagine 1.3 billion cattle each burping methane several times per minute! Dairy cows produces Methane 118 kg/year. Emissions of methane and nitrous oxide contribute significantly to total greenhouse gas emissions and radiative forcing because each gas is more effective at trapping heat than CO2. Nitrous oxide has been steadily increasing in concentration since pre-industrial times, however, the increase in the methane concentration in the atmosphere has been slowing in recent years

Methane is on the rise since 1750

Carbon dioxide
As living organisms undergo respiration (the metabolism of sugars to produce energy for basic metabolic needs), or as organisms die and decompose, the carbon compounds are broken down and add CO2 to the atmosphere. From fossils fuels. It is a major threat for global warming.

This graph shows the increase of carbon dioxide in the air over the past few centuries

Nitrous oxide
— Nitrous oxide is a greenhouse

gas, accounting for around 6% of the heating effect of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Nitrous oxide gas risen by more than 15% since 1750. Nitrous oxide also causes ozone depletion. A new study suggest that N2O emission currently is the single most important ozonedepleting substance (ODS) emission and is expected to remain the largest throughout the 21st century.

Nitrous Oxide has been on the rise since 1750

Effects of Global Warming
— More health concerns. — As temperatures increase towards the poles,

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similar to farmland, insects and other pests migrate towards Earth's poles. These insects and pests could be allowed to migrate up to 550 Km or 550 miles. Some insects carry diseases such as malaria and dengue fever. This could lead to 50 to 80 million additional cases of Malaria annually, a 10-15% increase. Physician Paul Epstein, of Harvard's School of Public Health, says "Climate change is already a factor in terms of the distributions of malaria, dengue fever, and cholera."

Effects..
— Most obvious health effect is directly from the —

— —

— —

heat itself. With an increase in heat waves, there will be more people who will suffer from heatstroke, heart attacks and other ailments aggravated by the heat. In July 1995, a heat wave killed more than 700 people in the Chicago area alone." Hot conditions could also cause smoke particles and noxious gases to linger in the air and accelerate chemical reactions that generate other pollutants This leads to an increase in risk of respiratory diseases like bronchitis and asthma. If this is happening already from heat, imagine what would occur in the future with global warming???

Effects..
— Global warming causes the oceans to warm and —

expand, inducing a rise in sea level. The rising waters could take away land inhabited by people, forcing them to move,like situation in Bangladesh. Bangladesh cannot afford to build barriers to hold back the sea, so people would have to move inland, increasing the populations density and leading to an increase in hunger and disease. They are a nation of 1190 islands with an average height of about 1.5 meters above sea level. If the sea level rises, more than 200,000 people will have to abandon their homes.

Ice Sheets Melting

Wild life effects
— Polar bear § Require pack ice to live. § Might eventually go — § §

§

extinct in the wild. Sea turtle Breed on same island as their birth. Could go extinct on same island as beaches are flooded. Other species may go extinct as rainfall pattern changes.

Solutions to reduced global warming caused by animals
— Improve the diet of animals. — Livestock nutrition experts have

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demonstrated that by making minor improvements in animal diets (like providing nutrient-laden salt licks) they can cut enteric methane by half. Other practices, like adding certain proteins to ruminant diets, can reduce methane production per unit of milk or meat by a factor of six. Enteric methane emissions can also be substantially reduced when cattle are regularly rotated onto fresh pastures. Selecting forages and concentrates high in non fiber carbohydrates could reduce methane emissions.

Solutions..
— Properly managing and disposing of the — — — —

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animal manure. Properly buried the dead animals. Avoid the excessive feeding of animals. Keep the high producer only. Increasing productivity per cow will reduce methane emissions per kg of milk and total farm GHG emissions. A lower culling rate will reduce farm methane and total GHG emissions. Diets with a high proportion of concentrates that promote a high propionate Type of ruminal fermentation are conducive to reducing ruminal methane production, but the effect on total farm GHG emissions may be less.

References
— http://www.ec.gc.ca/pdb/ghg/1990_00_report/acknow_e.cfm — http://www.ec.gc.ca/pdb/ghg/canada_2001_e.cfm — Baker, S.K. 1995. Method for improving utilization of nutrients by — — — — — — — — —

ruminant or ruminant like animal. International Patent, WO9511041. Abo-Omar, J.M. (1989). Methane losses by steers fed ionophores singly or alternatively. PhD Thesis. Colorado State University. Fort Collins. Asanuma, N., Iwamoto, M. and Hino, T. (1999). Effect of the addition of fumerate on methane production by ruminal microorganisms in vitro. Carmean, B.R. (1991). Persistance of monensin effects in nutrient flux in steers. M.S. Thesis. Colorodo State University. Fort Collins. Boadi, D.A, K.M. Wittenberg and P.W. McCaughey. 2002b. Effect of grain supplementation on methane production of grazing steers using the sulfur hexaflouride tracer gas technique.

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