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ACTIVITY 1

Pressuresensor

Electricaldiagrams

Fig.3.1Pressure

Fig.3.2InstrumentationAmplifier

Topographicaldiagram

Fig.3.3

Obtainedresults

Positionofthesyringe SensorOutputVoltage

[V]
3

2.5

1.5

3.5

4.5

Tab.3.1

EXPERIMENTATION

ThecircuitthatwillbeusedistheoneinFigure3.1thatrepresentthefunctionthatisperformed
bythePRESSUREblock.
Pressuresensorscontainsensingelementsthatconsistoffourpiezoresistorsburiedinthefaceof
athin,chemicallyetchedsilicondiaphragm.Apressurechangecausesthediaphragmtoflex,
inducingastressorstraininthediaphragmandtheburiedresistors.Theresistorvalueschangein
proportiontothestressappliedandproduceanelectricaloutput.
Inconsiderationoftheverylowoutputvoltageofthebridgeitisnecessarytousetheamplifierof
theINSTRUMENTATIONAMPLIFIERblock.Thisamplifierisofthe"instrumentation"type,
thatis,ithasimpedancesthatareveryhighandequalatbothinputs(invertingandnoninverting),
lowoffsetvoltageandlowbiascurrent.Therefore,itissuitableforthosecaseswhereitis
necessarytooperatewithverylowvoltages.

Furthermore,theamplifieroftheINSTRUMENTATIONAMPLIFIERblockhasthe
characteristicofhavingthegainthatcanbedeterminedthroughthepositionofthedipswitches:
thegaincanassumethevalues1,10,100,1000.
N.B:
TheWheatstonebridgeofthepressuresensorshouldnotbesuppliedfromtheoutside,it's
suppliedbythereferencevoltageof5volts.
Theterminalsserveonlytotakemeasurementsofvoltageandcurrent.

1) InserttheModuleDL3155E25TintheconsoleandsetthemainswitchtoON
2) Connect,throughtwoleads,theterminal4totheterminaloftheinvertinginputandthe
terminal2totheterminalofthenoninvertinginputoftheINSTRUMENTATION
AMPLIFIER
3) Movethepistonofthesyringetotheinitialvalueof3ml
4) Insertthemultimeter,setforthemeasurementofdirectvoltages,betweentheterminalVo
oftheINSTRUMENTATIONAMPLIFIERblockandtheearthandmeasurethevoltage
5) Setthegainoftheamplifiertomaxvalue(1000),eventuallyiftheoutputvoltageistohigh
(over13V)decreasethegain
6) Writethemeasurementthatyouhave,i.ethereadonthemultimeterdividedbythegain
7) MovethepistontonextpositionaswroteinTable3.1
8) WritethemeasurementthatyouhavecalculatedinTable3.1
9) Repeatsuchmeasurementforallthepositionsthatarelistedinthetable
10) Commentthebehaviorofthemeasuredvoltageasafunctionofthepositionofthesyringe
(piston).

ACTIVITY2

P.I.R.sensor

Electricaldiagram

Fig.4.1

ComponentsList

P.I.R.sensorwithFresnellens
Transistor:BC337

RedLED
LED'sResistor:470
Transistor'sresistor:4.7k

Topographicaldiagram

Fig.4.2

EXPERIMENTATION

1) InserttheModuleDL3155E25TintheconsoleandsetthemainswitchtoON
2) Connectamultimeter,setasvoltmeter,asshowinFig.4.2
3) Waitfewseconds(thesensorwillbewarmedup)
4) Nowwhenthesensorwillseeamovementtheledstartsflashing,untilthemovementwill
stop
5) Movefarfromthesensortochecktherange(usuallysomemeters)
6) Commenttheobtainedresults.

ACTIVITY3

MagneticswitchReedsensor

Electricaldiagram


Fig.5.1

ComponentsList

Reedswitch
Reedmagnet
E=redlamp
R=470

Topographicaldiagram


Fig.5.2

EXPERIMENTATION

1) InserttheModuleDL3155E25TintheconsoleandsetthemainswitchtoON
2) Connectamultimeter,setasvoltmeter,betweenjack1andground(Fig.5.2)
3) Adjusttheinputvoltage+Vsotoreadonthevoltmeteravoltageof10V
4) BringnearthemagnetslowlytotheswitchS1,sotoprovokethecontactclosingandthe
consequentswitchingonofthelamp
5) Removeslowlythemagnetsotoprovokethecontactopeningandtheconsequentswitching
offofthelamp

6) Repeatmoretimesthepreviousoperations,byspottingtheminimumclosingdistanceofthe
switch
7) Commenttheobtainedresults.

ACTIVITY4

Hallsensor

Electricaldiagram

Fig.6.1

ComponentsList

HallsensorSS495A
Transistor:BC337
RedLED
LED'sResistor:470
Transistor'sresistor:4.7k

Topographicaldiagram


Fig.6.2

EXPERIMENTATION

Thesensorhavearatiometricoutputvoltage,setbythesupplyvoltage.Itvariesinproportionto
thestrengthofthemagneticfield.

1) InserttheModuleDL3155E25TintheconsoleandsetthemainswitchtoON
2) Connectamultimeter,setasvoltmeter,asshowinFig.6.2
3) Approachslowlythemagnettothesensor,sotoprovokethesensing.Theeffectisalso
identifiablebyalightchangingoftheled
4) Removeslowlythemagnet

5) Turnthemagnetof180,tochangethepolarizationofthemagnet,andrepeatthelasttwo
steps
6) Commenttheobtainedresults.

QUESTIONS:
1. Discusshowaninfraredsensorperformsmotionsensing.
2. Whatistheimportanceoftheinstrumentationamplifierindetectingtheappliedpressure
onthepiston?
3. Usingtheconceptsacquiredinthisexperiment,designasimplecircuitwhereaP.I.R.
sensorisusedtomakeasecurityalarmandsensemovementontoitssurrounding.