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Page 1

2/11/2015

Navier-Stokes Equations

We would like to derive the differential form of the momentum conservation law for

incompressible flows. We shall first choose an infinitesimally small control

V x y z around the point (x, y, z) and then shrink this volume to a point by

allowing V 0. Recall from the Newtons second law of motion:

F F

B

ma

where the left hand side represents the sum of the external forces and the right hand

side represents

the inertia forces. Since we have already derived the expression for

DV

a

Dt

Let us review some facts about stresses. The stress tensor that you were taught in the

strength of materials and represented by the matrix below has 9 components.

Note that represents a normal stress and represents a shear stress. Since stress

xx

yx

zx

xy

yy

zy

xz

yz

zz

is defined as a force over an area, each stress component has two subscripts. For

Fx

example, xx

represents a force in the x-direction that is also acting over an area

Ax

that is in the x-direction. Now, an area may be considered positive or negative,

depending on whether the outward normal to the area points in the positive or

negative coordinate direction. For example, in the diagram below, we have chosen a

positive and a negative y-area.

Qx

Py

y

x

Fy

Ghosh - 550

Page 2

2/11/2015

Thus, the stress due to the force Fy shown on the positive y-face will represent a positive

stress. Similarly, a positive stress on the negative y-face must be due to a force pointing

in the negative y-direction, Py. We may be able to represent shear stresses the same way.

Question: Can you identify the shear stress due to the force Qx shown in the above

diagram? What will its subscript be and will it yield a positive or negative shear

stress?

In the next set of figures we assume that the stress tensor is known at the center of a

small control volume V x y z which is centered at (x, y, z). To eliminate the

stress values on the surfaces of the control volume we apply the Taylor series expansions

as before. We assume the stresses are all positive (i.e., forces act on positive faces in

positive direction, or on negative faces in negative direction.). One such typical

arrangement is shown on two y-faces below.

z

V x y z

yz

y

yx yx

xz

y

2

yz y

xz

y

2

yy y xz

yy

y

2

yy y xz

yy

y

2

yz y xz

yz

y

2

yx y xz

yx

y

2

x

Let us examine the term

yy

yy y

xz

.The

y

2

origin of

yy ( x , y, z )

is at the

center of the volume. However, since we would like to obtain the value of the stress on

y

the -y-face, we must expand yy ( x , y

2

yy ( x , y, z ) and its y-derivatives at (x,y,z):

yy ( x, y

2

yy

y

y 1 yy

y

, z, t ) yy ( x, y, z, t )

( x , y, z , t )

( x , y, z, t ) ( ) 2 ...

2

2

y

2

2 y

2

Ghosh - 550

Page 3

2/11/2015

But this provides only the shear value, the corresponding force in the -y-direction is

given by

yy y

xz

yy

y

2

Now let us focus on only the forces that act in the y-direction (instead of those that act

on y-faces). Once this result is derived we may be able to write similar expressions for

the x- and z-directions. For this purpose, use the following sketch:

Note that the above shown are the only possible surface forces in the y-direction on the

control volume. Therefore:

Ghosh - 550

zy

Page 4

zy z

xy

2/11/2015

z

2

xy x

yz

yy

F x 2

x

y

y xy

yy

xz xy x x2z yz

Sy yy

yy

y

2

y

2

yy y

xz

yy

y

2

xy zx

xy x

yz x

y yz

xy

xy

x

2

x

2

y

yy y xz

yy

y

2

z

zy

zy

xy

xy

zy

z xy 2x zy zy zy

2

yy y

zy xyz

x

2

xz 2

yzy

z 2 z 2 xz

xy

xy yy zy

xyz

y

z

x

Now we are ready to write the y-component of the momentum equation:

FSy FBy ma y

Since the mass of the small control volume chosen is V xyz , and

Dv v

v

v

v

u

v

w

, thus,

Dt

t

x

y

z

xy yy zy

v

v

v

v

xyz B y xyz xyz

u

v

w

x

y

z

y

z

ay

xy yy zy

v

v

v

v

x y z B y t u x v y w z

The first three terms on the left hand side represent surface forces per unit volume

and the fourth one is the body force per unit volume. Similiarly, the right hand side

terms collectively represent the inertia force per unit volume.

Let us examine the term

xy

x

volume that arises due to the net shear force between two x surfaces but acting

Ghosh - 550

Page 5

2/11/2015

along the y-direction. Likewise the second and third terms are due to the normal force

and shear force between two y-surfaces and two z-surfaces respectively.

Note there is a pattern which emerges from the summation of all the y-forces on the

control volume. The stress terms' second subscripts are all y, representing the direction

of the force, but the first subscripts that represent which areas the forces act on, change

from x to z for each successive term. Similarly the derivatives change also from x to z for

each term. The vector component is represented by y, and the velocity component is

accordingly, v. Likewise the x-and the z-equations may also be written rather than

derived. Finally all three equations are represented by:

xx yx zx

u

u

u

u

B x

u v w

y

z

x

y

z

t

x

xy yy zy

v

v

v

v

B y

u v w

y

z

x

y

z

t

x

xz yz zz

w

w

w

w

Bz

u

v

w

The above three equations are collectively called the Navier's equations, named after

their originator. Note that these equations have 4 independent variables (x, y, z, and t) but

v components).

u

12 dependent variables (u, v, w, and the stress

We shall assume that the

xy isusually

to

yx due

body force components (which

gravity in mechanical engineering

y are not solvable since there are

xequations

problems) are known. Therefore, the Navier's

9 more unknowns in these equations than the number of equations.

w aset

v

To make these equations solvable,

proposed

yz Stokes

of constitutive relations given

zy

below. These relations, together with the continuity

derived before make the

z

y equation

Naviers equations solvable. The Stokes relations in Cartesian Coordinates are:

u w

z

x

zx xz

2

u

xx p V 2

3

x

2

v

yy p V 2

3

y

2

w

zz p V 2

3

z

Ghosh - 550

Page 6

2/11/2015

In the above relations, is the dynamic viscosity and p is the thermodynamic pressure.

Also note that since the stress tensor is symmetric (i.e., xy=yx, etc), the first three

relations are written in a more compact form rather than using 6 lines.

Since our focus in this class is incompressible flows, we may be able to set V 0 in

the above relations by the use of the continuity equation for incompressible flows. If we

substitute the above equation into the Naviers equations and repeatedly use the

continuity equation for incompressible flows (this work is left out for you to try as an

exercise), we obtain the simplified form of the Naviers equations as:

2u 2u 2u

u

u

u

u

p

u v w B x

2 2

2

x

y

z

v

v

v

v

p

u v w B y

x

y

z

y

t

w

w

w

w

p

u

v

w

Bz

t

x

y

z

z

2v 2v 2v

2 2

2

x

y

z

2w 2w 2w

x 2 y 2 z 2

In the above equations, popularly called the Navier-Stokes equations, we have only 4

dependent variables (u, v, w, and p), once again assuming Bx, By, and Bz to be known.

Thus adding the continuity equation to this set:

u v w

V

0

x y z

fluid dynamic problems for incompressible flows are now clearly seen to be solvable.

Ghosh - 550

Page 7

2/11/2015

In later chapters, our attempt will be to solve this set of 4 equations in 4 unknowns

analytically for various internal and external flow configurations. Remember that these

equations may not be applied to compressible flow problems. For those, we need to

derive the Navier-Stokes equations without the explicit use of the incompressible

continuity equation.

Often the continuity equation and the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are written

in vector form as:

V 0

2V 2V 2V

V

V

V

V

u

v

w

2 2

B p

2

x

y

z

y

z

t

x

Or, simply:

V 0

(A)

DV

B p 2 V

Dt

(B)

scalar). However, the second equation, (B), hides 3 equations (one each for the x, y, and z

components) into a single equation. Thus we still have 4 equations in 4 unknowns.

We have already discussed the physical significance of the equation (A). Equation (B) is

the vector form of the Newtons second law of motion (except each term has been

divided by V during the derivation). Thus the left hand side represents inertia force per

unit volume, while each of the three terms in the right hand side represents a type of

external force per unit volume (body force, pressure force, and viscous force

respectivily).

Problem:

The velocity profile for fully developed laminar flow between two parallel plates separated by

y 2

b 2

0). Determine the shear force per unit volume on a fluid element in the x-direction.

Find the maximum value of this quantity for this flow, when by =1 m, umax =2 m/s and

=10-1 N sec/m2 (SAE-10W).

umax

Ghosh - 550

Page 8

2/11/2015

Solution:

Given:

Velocity Profile u(y)

At y = 0, u = umax

At y = b, u = 0

Find:

(i)

(ii)

yx

y

zx

z

does not hold otherwise However if the Navier-Stokes form (B) is used, we

must test for incompressibility since (B).

Assume: v = 0 = w since the velocity profile given is only in the xdirection.

u

Check incompressibility: x 0, y 0, z 0 V 0

Thus the problem may be solved by simply calculating 2 u . We shall call this

part Method II)

Method I

Governing equation: Naviers equations x-component, with

0

v u

u

yx

y

x y

0

w u

0

x z

zx

(i)

Ghosh - 550

Page 9

2/11/2015

0

y

z

y

y z

y

2

yx

zx

2u max

2u

y 2

b2

u

2y

u max 2

y

b

yx

y

(ii)

Now,

u

zx

2 max

cons tan t

z

b2

1

Maximum value = 2(10 )

( 2)

.4 N/m3

(1)

Method II

Governing equation: xequation. Find

2 u .

0

2u 2u 2u

2u

u

2 2 2

2

x

y

z

y

The rest of the solution follows the same way as given in Method I above.

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