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Jayawant Shikshan Prasarak Mandal

Optical Fiber Communication


Resource Manual
Electronics & Telecommunication

Optical Fiber
Communication
Resource Manual

Authors

: - PROF. A.N.PAITHANE, RSCOE, Tathwade.


Dr. P.K. SRIVASTAVA, PVPIT, Bavdhan.
PROF. D.S. BHOSALE, BSIOTR, Wagholi.
PROF. S.M.HAMBARDE, JSCOE, Hadapsar.
PROF. A.A.TRIKOLIKAR, ICOER, Wagholi.
PROF. S.S.DINDE, RSCOE, Tathwade.
PROF. D.K. BARBOLE, BSCOER, Narhe.
PROF. A.T. DESHMUKH, ICOER, Wagholi

Creation Date: - December 2014


Last Updated : - December 2014
Version

:-

JSPM Group of Institutes, Pune. All Rights Reserved. All the information in this Course
Manual is confidential. Participants shall refrain from copying, distributing, misusing/ or
disclosing the content to any third parties any circumstances whatsoever.
3

Table of Contents
S. No.
1
2
3
4
5

Topic
How to Use This Manual
Course Objective
Session Plan
Unit Rationale
Units
I.
Fiber Optic Communications System

Page. No.
08
12
13
21

25

II.

Optical Fiber for Telecommunication

III.

Optical sources and Transmitters

IV.

Optical Detectors and Receivers.

V.

Design Considerations in Optical Links.

VI.

Advanced Optical Systems.

52
80
106
131
151
175

References

Vision: "To Develop Technocrats who will equally responsible for social and competitive growth of Nation
across the Globe"

Mission: "To apply the knowledge and expertise by focusing on the overall development of the students, that
will help them to meet the present and future requirements of the IT Industry in global world."

Quality Policy: We at JSPM Institutes of Technology and Research are always striving to perceive and resolve
student's queries so that the overall personality of the student can be groomed in such a manner that
they pass out as Industry Ready Professionals.

Program Educational Objectives: The graduates will have enriched knowledge in the field of E&Tc and become information
technology professionals in different industries and government organizations involved in
development, maintenance and utilization of computers, databases, operating systems, computer
networks and information systems.
The graduates will reflect their programming and technical skills in order to solve problems related
to information technology industry, transforming them into competent professionals.
The graduates will deliver high level professionalism, ethical and technical standards, having
superlative communication skills and ability to work as team members in different fields utilizing
knowledge achieved during their course work, providing a proper support to the society having
potential to tackle current problems and required innovations.
The graduates will be motivated to pursue higher studies and participate in research programs in the
field, involving their excellence to develop new technical perspective to serve the society.

Program Outcomes: a) A graduate student will apply knowledge of mathematics and engineering
fundamentals to design electronic circuits and systems such as logical circuits, analog
circuits, electrical machines, control and communication systems, digital systems etc.
and test the results.
b) A graduate student will provide the solutions by using the software tools such as
MATLAB, Multi-sim, EDA Tools etc and different software languages such as C,
VHDL etc for interpretation and analyzing problems for different circuits and
systems.
c) A graduate student will demonstrate the ability to design, implement and evaluate a
system, process, component and program to meet desired needs within realistic
constraints.
d) A graduate student will investigate, formulate, analyze and provide appropriate
solution to simple and complex engineering problem.
e) A graduate student will provide the solutions by using the Modern Engineering Tools
and Technologies for practicing Engineering problems.
f) A graduate student will demonstrate the ability to learn the impact of industries on
society by visiting different industries and understand the importance of industrial
products for analog and digital circuits and systems.
g) A graduate student will understand the importance of environmental issues and will
design sustainable systems.
h) A graduate student will understand the professional and ethical responsibilities to
meet the socio economic challenges.
i) A graduate student will demonstrate the ability of self learning during the project
work in individuals and teamwork for successful implementation of project
management.
j)

A graduate student will be able to communicate effectively at different technical and


administrative levels.

k) A graduate student will demonstrate the ability to keep abreast with advance
technologies through lifelong learning.

l) A graduate student will demonstrate the ability to apply the knowledge of project
management and finance to provide better services in the field of electronics and
Telecommunication Engineering.

How to Use This Manual


This Manual assumes that the facilitators are aware of Collaborative Learning Methodologies.
This Manual will only provide them tool they may need to facilitate the session on
Optical Fiber Communication in collaborative learning environment.
The Facilitator is expected to refer this Manual before the session.

Applying
Knowledge

Problem
Analysis

Modern
Tool
Usage

Engineer &
Society

Design & Investigation


Development of problems

Environment
Sustainability

Ethics

Individual Communication
Project
& Team
Management
work
& Finance

Life Long
Learning

Disk Approach- Digital Blooms Taxonomy

Creating
Evaluating
Analyzing
Applying
Understanding
Remembering

PO to PEO Mapping with the help of Articulation Matrix: PEO: 1

PEO: 2

PEO: 3

PEO: 4

CO to PO Mapping with the help of Articulation Matrix: CO: 1


CO: 2
CO: 3
CO: 4
CO: 5
CO: 6
CO: 7

TLO to CO Mapping with the help of Articulation Matrix: -

TLO: 1
TLO: 2
TLO: 3
TLO: 4
TLO: 5
TLO: 6
TLO: 7

CO: 1

CO: 2

CO: 3

CO: 4

CO: 5

CO: 6

CO: 7

10

This Manual uses icons as visual cues to the interactivities during the session.
Icons

Graduate Attributes
Applying Knowledge
Problem Analysis
Design and Development
Investigation of Problem
Modern Tool Usage
Engineer and Society
Environment Sustainability
Ethics
Individual and Teamwork
Communication
Project Management and Finance
Lifelong Learning
Blooms Taxonomy
Remembering
Understanding
Applying
Analyzing
Evaluating
Creating

This icon is used to indicate instructions for faculties.

This icon is used to indicate a statement to be made by faculty.

This icon is used to indicate a list of additional resources.

This icon indicates an activity to be conducted.

This icon indicates questions to be asked by faculty.

11

Course Objectives

At The End Of Course Student Will Able to:


Discuss spectral band, ray theory and different fiber fabrication techniques

Discuss spectral band, ray theory and different fiber fabrication techniques

Explain different optical sources.

Explain different optical receivers

Design and analyze optical fiber communication links


Discuss index optical communication.

12

Session Plan
Date
S. No. Topic Name

References Delivery Method

Unit 1: Fiber Optic Communications System

Electromagnetic
Spectrum & Optical
spectral bands. Key
elements of fiber optic
T1,R1, R2
communications system,
Animation,
Advantages of optical
fiber communication over
other communication
systems

Presentation
Chalk and Talk
Animation
Assignments

Presentation
Ray theory transmission:
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
TIR, Acceptance angle,
Animation Animation
Numerical aperture.
Assignments
Electromagnetic mode
Presentation
theory for optical
propagation: phase and
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
group velocity, cutoff
Animation Animation
wavelength & group
Assignments
delay.
Presentation
Chalk and Talk
Numerical on Ray
T1,R1, R2
Theory & Mode Theory
Animation
Approach.
Assignments
Fiber types according to: T1,R1, R2 Presentation
materials used;
Chalk and Talk
Animation
refractive index profiles
Animation
& mode transmission.
Assignments
Presentation
T1,R1, R2
Optical fibers: Fiber
Animation Chalk and Talk
Fabrication & Cable
Animation
design.
Assignments

13

Signature

Subject
Planned Actual InHOD
charge

State of Art : Fiber


material & fabrication
Technology

Presentation
T1,R1, R2
Chalk and Talk
Animation
Animation
Assignments

Unit 2: Optical Fiber for Telecommunication

Transmission
characteristics of
optical fibers

Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Assignments

Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Assignments
Presentation
Signal Distortion in
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
optical fibers
Assignments
Presentation
Intra modal Dispersion:
Material & Waveguide T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
dispersion
Assignments
Attenuation due to
absorption, scattering
& bending,

Intermodal dispersion

Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Assignments

MMSI, MMGI &


modal noise, Overall
fiber dispersion: MM
& SM fibers. Special
use fibers

Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Assignments

Dispersion shifted
(DSF), NZDSF,
Dispersion flattened

Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Assignments

Polarization maintaining
fibers, Fiber
Nonlinearities. State of
art: Fiber

Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Assignments

Unit 3: Optical sources and Transmitters

Introduction to optical
sources: Wavelength
and Material
Consideration

Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Assignments

14

LEDs: principle of
working & their
Characteristics

Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Assignments

LASERs: principle of
working & their
Characteristics.

Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Assignments

Line coding, Different


modulation schemes

Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Assignments

LED drive circuits for


digital and analog
transmission

Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Assignments

Power launching: Fiber


optic slices

Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Assignments

Power launching: Fiber


optic coupler and
connectors,
State of art: LED and
LASER

Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Assignments

UNIT 4: Optical Detectors and Receivers

Introduction to optical
detectors and Material
Considerations
Principle of working
& characteristics and
relative merits and
demerits of PN, P-i-N
photo diode
Principle of working
& characteristics and
relative merits and
demerits of Avalanche
photodiodes & photo
Transistor
Receiver Noise and
Noise consideration in
PN Photo Diode

Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Assignments
Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Assignments

Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Assignments
Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Animation
Assignments
15

Noise consideration in
P-i-N and Avalanche
Photo Diode

Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Assignments

Receiver structures.
State of art: Optical
detectors

Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Assignments

UNIT 5: Design Considerations in Optical Links.

Point to point Links

Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Assignments

System design
considerations

Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Assignments

Link Power budget,

Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Assignments

Receiver Noise

Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Assignments

Analog Links

Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Assignments

CNR

Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Assignments

Multichannel
transmission techniques

Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Assignments

UNIT 6: Advanced Optical Systems

Overview of WDM, ,

Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Assignments

16

Optical Amplifiers:
Classification of OAs,
Principle of operation
of a Semiconductor
Optical Amplifier
(SOA)
Gain calculations of
Fabry Perot Amplifiers
(FPA). SOA
applications:
advantages and
drawbacks
Principle of operation
of Erbium Doped
Fiber Amplifiers
(EDFA), Gain and Noise
in an EDFA

Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Assignments

Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Assignments

Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Assignments
Presentation
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
Assignments

WDM couplers/splitters:
Excess loss, Insertion
loss, coupling ratio

Presentation
Isolation and uniformity,
properties, state of arts:
T1,R1, R2 Chalk and Talk
WDM components
Assignments

Text Books
T1. Gerd Keiser, Optical Fiber Communications, Tata McGraw Hill, Fourth Edition.
T2. John M. Senior, Optical Fiber Communications-Principles and Practice, Prentice Hall of India,
second Edition

References
R1. Djafar K. Mynbaev and Lowell L.Scheiner, Fiber Optic Communications Technology,
Pearson Education
R2. Govind P.Agrawal, Fiber Optic Communication Systems, WILEY INDIA, Third Edition

17

UNIT PLAN:
Unit 1

Unit2

Unit3

Unit4

Unit5

Unit6

Title

Fiber Optic
Communications
System

Optical Fiber
for
Telecommuni
cation

Optical
Detectors
and
Receivers.

Design
Consideration
s in Optical
Links.

Advanced
Optical
Systems.

Duration
in Hours

Optical
sources
and
Transmitte
rs
7

Session 1

Electromagnetic
Spectrum &
Optical spectral
bands. Key
elements of fiber
optic
communications
system,
Advantages of
optical fiber
communication
over other
communication
systems.
Ray theory
transmission: TIR,
Acceptance angle,
Numerical
aperture.

Transmission
characteristic
s of optical
fibers

Introducti
on to
optical
sources:
Wavelengt
h and
Material
Considerat
ion

Introducti Point to point


on to
Links
optical
detectors
and
Material
Considerat
ions

.Attenuation
due to
absorption,
scattering &
bending,

LEDs:
principle
of
working
& their
Characteri
stics

Electromagnetic
mode theory for
optical
propagation: phase
and group
velocity, cutoff
wavelength &
group delay.

Signal
Distortion in
optical
fibers

LASERs:
principle
of
working
& their
Characteri
stics.

Principle
of
working
&
characteris
tics and
relative
merits
and
demerits
of PN, Pi-N
photo
diode
Principle
of
working
&
characteris
tics and
relative
merits

Session2

Session 3

18

Overview of
WDM, ,

System design Optical


considerations Amplifiers:
Classification
of OAs,
Principle of
operation of
a
Semiconducto
r Optical
Amplifier
(SOA)

Link Power
budget,

Gain
calculations
of Fabry Perot
Amplifiers
(FPA). SOA
applications:
advantages
and

Session 4

Numerical on Ray
Theory & Mode
Theory Approach.

Intra modal
Dispersion:
Material &
Waveguide
dispersion

Session 5

Fiber types
according to:
materials used;
refractive index
profiles & mode
transmission.

Intermodal
dispersion

Session 6

Fiber types
according to:
materials used;
refractive index
profiles & mode
transmission.

Session 7

Optical fibers:
Fiber Fabrication
& Cable design.

Line
coding,
Different
modulatio
n schemes

LED drive
circuits
for digital
and
analog
transmissi
on
MMSI,
Power
MMGI &
launching:
modal noise, Fiber
Overall fiber optic
dispersion:
slices
MM & SM
fibers.
Special use
fibers
Dispersion
Power
shifted
launching:
(DSF),
Fiber
NZDSF,
optic
Dispersion
coupler
flattened,
and
Polarization
connectors
maintaining
,
fibers, Fiber State of
Nonlinearitie art: LED
s. State of
and
art: Fiber
LASER

Session 8

19

and
demerits
of
Avalanche
photodiod
es &
photo
Transistor
Receiver
Rise Time
Noise and budget
Noise
considerat
ion in PN
Photo
Diode
Noise
considerat
ion in P-iN and
Avalanche
Photo
Diode
Receiver
structures.
State of
art:
Optical
detectors

Analog Links

CNR,
Multichannel
transmission
techniques

drawbacks

Principle of
operation of
Erbium
Doped Fiber
Amplifiers
(EDFA), Gain
and Noise in
an EDFA
WDM
couplers/splitt
ers: Excess
loss, Insertion
loss, coupling
ratio
Isolation and
uniformity,
properties,
state of arts:
WDM
components

Unit Rationale:
Unit 1: Fiber Optic Communications System
The first part of unit gives overview of fiber optic communication system with spectral band used.
This unit covers introductory concepts needed for rest the units. Second part of unit introduces
transmission of light signal through optical fiber with the help of mode theory & ray theory
approach. Types of fiber according to material & index profile are also discussed in this unit. The
last part of unit describes different fiber fabrication techniques & cable design.
At the end of unit, the learner will be able to

Explain introductory concept of optical fiber communication system.

Identify different spectral bands of optical fiber communication system.

Describe the propagation of light through optical fiber.

Describe different fiber fabrication technique.

Describe design aspects of fiber cable.

Unit 2: Optical Fiber for Telecommunication


This unit gives different transmission characteristics of optical fiber. It is basically give the
details of signal losses, distortion, noise and signal degradation. Unit describes losses due to
mismatching between the fibers (Fresnel), splices and connectors. Different types of dispersion
losses like intra modal and inter modal dispersion in MMSI, MMGI and SM fiber.
At the end of unit, the learner will be able to

List different types of losses like absorption, scattering ,bending losses, losses due to
coupling the source to the fibers

Identify losses due to mismatching between the fibers (Fresnel) , losses due to splices and
connectors.

Analyze Losses due to deviation of geometrical and optical parameters, losses due to
misalignments, Modal coupling radiation losses, Leaky mode losses

Analyze and calculate different types of dispersion losses like intra modal and inter modal
dispersion in step index and graded index fibers.

20

Unit 3: Optical sources and Transmitters


This unit introduces different optical sources along with principles of working and their
characteristics with different modulation schemes. LED driver circuits for digital and analog
transmission is also described. Details about Fiber optics splices, connectors and couplers and their
losses. This unit ends with state of Art: LED and LASER.
At the end of unit, the learner will be able to
Explain the working of different optical sources.
Select different optical sources.
Analyze different losses in optical fiber.
Design the Driver circuits.

Unit 4: Optical Detectors and Receivers.


This unit introduces the optical detectors and Material Consideration, Principle of
working & characteristics and relative merits and demerits of PN, P-i-N, Principle of
working & characteristics and relative merits and demerits of Avalanche photodiodes &
photo transistors, Receiver Noise considerations in PN, P-i-N photodiodes, Noise considerations
in Avalanche photodiodes, Receiver structures. State of art: Optical detectors & detection scheme
At the end of unit, the learner will be able to
Explain the working of different optical receivers.
Select different optical receiver.
Discuss the merits and demerits of different optical receiver.
Determine the noise consideration in receiver system.
Design the optical receiver system.
Unit 5: Design considerations of optical links
This unit gives different system design. It is basically focus on two types of links-point to
point links and analog links. The link power budget & rise budget analysis of optical link is
discussed .Unit ends with concepts like CNR & multichannel transmission technique related to
analog links.
At the end of unit, the learner will able to

Design and analyze point to point optical link.

Consider the power budget of optical link.

Consider the rise time budget of optical link.

Explain analog link related concepts like CNR & multichannel transmission technique
21

Unit 6: Advanced Optical Systems.


This unit starts with discussion on overview of WDM. Different optical amplifiers like, SOA,
EDFA and FPA are discussed. Dedicated excess losses in fiber optic cable are discussed.

At the end of unit, the learner will able to

Explain the WDM concept.

Select proper optical amplifier for particular optical communication system.

Calculate different losses like excess and insertion loss in optical links.

Describe different WDM component like couplers, Splitters & Isolators.

22

Upon completion Students will be able to: Select proper optical sources, Detectors and receiver

Analyze different losses in fiber optical cable.

Calculate the link power budget for fiber optical Communication system.

To design fiber optic communication system.

Select and Analyse the advanced optical system for OCS design

23

Unit-1
Session I
Electromagnetic Spectrum & Optical spectral bands. Key elements of fiber optic
communications system, Advantages of optical fiber communication over other
communication

24

Session 1: Electromagnetic Spectrum & Optical spectral bands. Key elements of fiber optic
communications system, advantages of optical fiber communication over other communication
system
Session Objectives
At the end of session the learner will be able to:

Explain basic block diagram of optical fiber system.

Recognize different optical spectral band.

List advantages of optical fiber system over conventional system.

Teaching Learning Material

Presentation

Session Plan
Time
(in
Min)

Content

Learning Aid
/Methodology

Faculty
Approach

Typical
Student
activity

Skill/competency
Developed

15

Introduction of
Subject

Quiz,
Presentation

Explains &
discusses

Listen &
Participates
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

10

Introduction of
Electromagnetic
Spectrum &
Optical spectral
bands.

Presentation

Explains ,
Discusses and
facilitates

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

20

Key elements of
fiber optic
communications
system.

Presentation

Explains ,
facilitates, List

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

10

Advantages of
OFC system

Presentation

Explains &
List

Listen &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

05

Conclusion &
Summery

Keywords

List &
facilitates

Identifies

Knowledge
comprehension

25

Session Inputs:
Introduction of Subject

Suggested Activity: Presentation

Before starting the session on Optical fiber communication system, it would be a good
practice to refresh learners knowledge about general communication system & component
used within.

Suggested Activity:

Questionnaires

1. What are different ways of communication?


2. What are different blocks of general communication system?
3. What are advantages & limitations of conventional communication system?
Introduction of Electromagnetic Spectrum & Optical spectral bands.

Suggested Activity:

Presentation

A presentation is given, which describes the different spectral band used for optical fiber
communication with the help of total electromagnetic spectrum.

Key elements of fiber optic communications system.

Suggested Activity:

Presentation

Block diagram of optical fiber system is described with the help of PPT presentation. The
block diagram of conventional communication system is also compared.
Advantages of OFC system

Suggested Activity:

Presentation

Advantages of Optical fiber system is listed & explained in detail with the help of PPT
presentation.
Unit_1_Notes_Session_I
Unit_1_PPT_Session_I

26

Conclusion:
We can conclude the session with some questions.

What are the different blocks of optical fiber communication system?

List advantages of optical fiber communication system?

Summary:
In this session we learn to:

Explain Elements of optical fiber communication system.

Describe spectral band used for OFC.

List out advantages of OFC system.

Topic Learning Outcomes:


The learner will able to identify, different spectral band used for optical fiber communication
& explain different blocks of fiber optic communication system. Also he list out the advantages of
optical fiber communication system over conventional system.

Assignments:
1) The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has designated six spectral bands for
use in optical fiber communication. State the name, designation & spectrum of each
band.
2) State & explain advantages of optical fiber communication system. Draw neat block
diagram of optical fiber communication system. Explain each block in detail

27

Unit-1
Session II
Ray theory transmission: TIR, Acceptance angle, Numerical aperture.

28

Session 2: Ray theory transmission: TIR, Acceptance angle, Numerical aperture.


Session Objectives
At the end of session the learner will be able to:

Explain propagation of light wave through optical fiber

Know about different concepts like TIR, Acceptance angle

Derive expression for numerical aperture of fiber

Teaching Learning Material

Board

Presentation

Session Plan
Time
(in
Min)

Content

Learning Aid
/Methodology

Faculty
Approach

Typical
Student
activity

Skill/competency
Developed

05

Review of
previous lecture

Discussion

Revise &
Discuss

Listen &
Knowledge
Participates Interpersonal &
Intrapersonal

15

Introduction:
Light Ray
Propagation.

Black board
and discussion

Explain &
discuss

Listen &
Knowledge
Participates Interpersonal

20

Ray Theory
approach
acceptance cone,
acceptance
angle.

Black board
and discussion

Explains ,
Discusses and
facilitates

Listen ,
Knowledge
Participates Interpersonal
&
Identifies

20

Expression for
numerical
aperture.

Black board
and discussion

Explains,
Discusses and
facilitates.

Listen &
Identifies

Comprehension
applications

10

Conclusion &
Summery

Keywords

List &
facilitates

Identifies

Knowledge
comprehension,
interpersonal &
intrapersonal.

29

Session Inputs:
Review of Previous Lecture
Suggested Activity: Discussion

A detailed review of what we had taught in earlier lecture is discussed with learners. Teacher
may ask some question based on the earlier lecture.
Introduction: Light Ray Propagation.
Suggested Activity: Black board and discussion

Before starting the session on ray theory approach, it would be a good practice to refresh

learners knowledge related to basic concepts of light ray propagation.


Ray Theory approach acceptance cone, acceptance angle.
Suggested Activity: Black board and discussion:

Describes ray theory approach used for finding propagation of light ray travelling through

optical fiber. Related concepts like acceptance cone, acceptance angle, critical angle, are explained
with the help of neat diagrams.
Expression for numerical aperture.
Suggested Activity: Black board and discussion:

Derive the expression for numerical aperture of fiber with the help of black board. Discuss the
importance of numerical aperture in case of optical fiber communication.
Unit_1_Notes_Session_II
Unit_1_PPT_Session_II
Conclusion:
We can conclude the session with some questions.

What is the condition to be required for propagation of light through fiber?

What are critical angle, acceptance cone & numerical aperture?

30

Summary:
In this session we learn to:

Describe propagation of light through fiber using ray theory approach.

Derive expression for numerical aperture of fiber.

Topic Learning Outcomes:


The learner will able to explain propagation of light wave through optical fiber using ray
theory approach.

Assignment Questions:
1) Using ray theory derive an expression for Numerical Aperture & solid acceptance angle
in terms of physical parameter of step index fiber & explain their importance in
propagation of optical signal through the fiber. Why do we need cladding?
2) Describe with aid of a neat diagram the basic principle of total internal reflection that
enables the fiber work as a light conduit.

31

Unit-1
Session III
Electromagnetic mode theory for optical propagation: phase and group velocity, cutoff
wavelength & group delay

32

Session 3: Electromagnetic mode theory for optical propagation: phase and group velocity, cutoff
wavelength & group delay.
Session Objectives
At the end of session the learner will be able to:

Explain propagation of light wave through optical fiber using mode theory approach.

Know about different concepts like: phase and group velocity, cutoff wavelength & group
delay.

Know about mode field diameter & spot size.

Teaching Learning Material

Board

Session Plan
Time
(in
Min)

Content

Learning Aid
/Methodology

Faculty
Approach

Typical
Student
activity

Skill/competency
Developed

05

Review of
previous lecture

Discussion

Revise &
Discuss

Listen &
Participates

Knowledge
Interpersonal &
Intrapersonal

10

Introduction to
Normalized
frequency,
Gaussian
Distribution

Black board
and discussion

Explains ,
Discusses
and
facilitates

Listen &
Participates

Knowledge
Interpersonal

20

Electromagnetic Black board


mode theory for and discussion
optical
propagation:
phase and group
velocity, cutoff
wavelength.

Explains ,
Discusses
and
facilitates

Listen &
Participates

Knowledge
Interpersonal

20

Mode field
diameter & spot

Explains ,
Discusses

Listen &
Identifies

Comprehension
applications

Black board
and discussion

33

size, group &


modal delay
factor.
10

Conclusion &
Summery

and
facilitates

Discussion

Explains &
summarizes

Listen
Participates

Intrapersonal
Interpersonal

Session Inputs:
Review of Previous Lecture
Suggested Activity: Discussion

A detailed review of what we had taught in earlier lecture is discussed with learners. Teacher
may ask some question based on the earlier lecture.
Introduction to Normalized frequency, Gaussian Distribution
Suggested Activity: Black board and discussion:

Before starting the session on mode theory approach, it would be a good practice to refresh

learners knowledge for concepts like normalized frequency, Gaussian distribution.


Electromagnetic mode theory for optical propagation: phase and group velocity, cutoff
wavelength.
Suggested Activity: Black board and discussion:

Explain mode theory approach related to light wave propagation through optical fiber with

help of concepts like phase & group velocity, cutoff wavelength. Derive expression for cutoff
wavelength for single mode & multimode fiber.
Mode field diameter & spot size, group & modal delay factor.
Suggested Activity: Black board and discussion:

Draw and explain concept of mode field diameter & spot size. The expression for group delay
& modal delay factor is derived with the help of block diagram.
34

Unit_1_Notes_Session_III
Unit_1_PPT_Session_III
Conclusion:
We can conclude the session with some questions.

What is mean by phase & group velocity?

What are mode field diameter, spot size & group delay?

Summary:
In this session we learn to

Describe propagation of light through fiber using mode theory approach.

Derive expression for cutoff wavelength of fiber.

Topic Learning Outcomes:


The learner will able to explain propagation of light wave through optical fiber using mode
theory approach.

Assignment Questions:
1) Explain the terms: mode field diameter, spot size & cutoff wavelength of single mode fiber.
2) With reference to mode theory for optical propagation explain: Phase velocity, Group
velocity & group delay.

35

Unit-1
Session IV
Numerical on Ray Theory & Mode Theory Approach

36

Session 4: Numerical on Ray Theory & Mode Theory Approach.


Session Objectives
At the end of session the learner will be able to:

Calculate the number of guided modes & normalized frequency of step index & graded
index fiber.
Calculate acceptance angle, numerical aperture, critical angle, incidence angle of fiber when
refractive index of core & cladding is given.
Calculate the cut off wavelength of step index fiber.

Teaching Learning Material

Black Board

Session Plan
Time
(in
Min)

Content

Learning Aid
/Methodology

Faculty
Approach

Typical
Student
activity

Skill/competency
Developed

10

Review of
Discussion
concepts used in
ray theory &
mode theory
approach

Discuss

Listen

Knowledge
Interpersonal

40

Numerical on
ray theory &
mode theory
approach.

Black board

Explains ,
and
facilitates

Listen &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

10

Conclusion &
Summery

Discussion

Explains &
summarizes

Listen
Participates

Intrapersonal

37

Interpersonal

Session Inputs:
Review of concepts used in ray theory & mode theory approach
Suggested Activity: Discussion:

Before starting the session on Numerical on Ray Theory & Mode Theory Approach., it
would be a good practice to refresh learners knowledge for different formulas used in ray
theory & mode theory approach.
Numerical on ray theory & mode theory approach.
Suggested Activity: Black board

Different Numerical on ray theory & mode theory approach are solved with the help of
black board. When parameters like, refractive index of core & cladding, relative refractive index
difference & operating wavelength is given then, learner will able to calculate parameters like,
normalized frequency, numerical aperture, diameter of core, acceptance & critical angle.
Unit_1_Notes_Session_IV
Unit_1_PPT_Session_IV
Conclusion:
We can conclude the session with some questions.

How to calculate normalized frequency of fiber when refractive index of core & cladding
relative refractive index difference is given?

How to calculate numerical aperture, of fiber when refractive index of core & cladding
relative refractive index difference is given?

How to calculate number of guided modes in case of step index & graded index fiber when
normalized frequency is given.
Summary:
In this session we learn to:

Calculate normalized frequency of fiber when refractive index of core & cladding relative
refractive index difference is given Derive expression for cutoff wavelength of fiber.

38

Calculate numerical aperture, of fiber when refractive index of core & cladding relative
refractive index difference is given.

calculate number of guided modes in case of step index & graded index fiber when
normalized frequency is given.

Topic Learning Outcomes:


The student will able to solve different problems based on ray theory & mode theory
approach.

Assignment Questions:
1) Calculate number of modes propagating at 820 nm wavelength in graded index fiber having
parabolic refractive index profile. The core radius is 25 m. The refractive index profile at
the center of core is 1.48 & cladding R.I. is 1.46.
2) A step index fiber has core refractive index 1.5 & = 1.3% with core diameter of 100 m.
The operating wavelength is 850 nm. Calculate assuming that the fiber is kept in air; 1)
Numerical Aperture of fiber 2) Acceptance angle 3) Critical angle 4) angle of incidence. 5)
V number & number of modes
3) A silica optical fiber with core diameter large enough to be considered by ray theory analysis
has a core refractive index of 1.5 & cladding refractive index of 1.47. Determine 1) Critical
angle at core cladding interface 2) The NA of fiber 3) The acceptance angle in air for fiber.
4) A graded index fiber with parabolic index profile supports propagation of 742 guided
modes. The fiber has a NA in air of 0.3 & core diameter of 70 m. Determine wavelength of
light propagating in fiber. Further estimate the new maximum core diameter for single mode
operation at same wavelength.

39

Unit-1
Session V
Fiber types according to: materials used; refractive index profiles & mode transmission.

40

Session 5: Fiber types according to: materials used; refractive index profiles & mode transmission
Session Objectives
At the end of session the learner will be able to:

Explain types of fiber according to material used.

Explain types of fiber according to refractive index profiles.

Explain types of fiber according to mode transmission.

Teaching Learning Material

Presentation

Session Plan
Time
(in
Min)

Content

Learning Aid
/Methodology

Faculty
Approach

Typical
Student
activity

Skill/competency
Developed

05

Review of
previous lecture

Discussion

Revise &
Discuss

Listen &
Participates

Knowledge
Interpersonal &
Intrapersonal

15

Types of fiber
according to
refractive index
profile

Presentation
and discussion

Explains ,
Discusses
and
facilitates

Listen &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

10

Types of fiber
according to
mode
transmission

Presentation
and discussion

Explains ,
Discusses
and
facilitates

Listen &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

20

Types of fiber
according to
material.

Presentation
and discussion

Explains ,
Discusses
and
facilitates

Listen &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

10

Conclusion &
Summery

Discussion

Explains &
summarizes

Listen
Participates

Knowledge
Intrapersonal
Interpersonal

41

Session Inputs:
Review of Previous Lecture
Suggested Activity: Discussion

A detailed review of what we had taught in earlier lecture is discussed with learners. Teacher
may ask some question based on the earlier lecture.
Types of fiber according to refractive index profile
Suggested Activity: Presentation and discussion

Types of fiber according to variation in refractive index profile like, step index & graded index
profile are discussed with the help of presentation. The refractive index of core & cladding is
formulated for step & graded index fiber.
Types of fiber according to mode transmission.
Suggested Activity: Presentation and discussion

Types of fiber according to mode transmission like, single mode & multi mode fiber are
discussed with the help of presentation. SMSI, MMSI, MMGI fibers are also discussed.
Types of fiber according to fiber material.
Suggested Activity: Presentation and discussion

Glass fiber, Plastic optical fiber, index guiding fiber, photonic crystal fiber, photonic bandgap
fibers are different types of fiber according to material, they are discussed with the help of features
& block diagrams.
Unit_1_Notes_Session_V
Unit_1_PPT_Session_V
Conclusion:
We can conclude the session with some questions.

Which are different types of fiber according to variation in refractive index?

Which are different types of fiber according to transmission of modes?

Which are different types of fiber according to different fiber material?

42

Summary:
In this session we learn to:

List out types of fiber according to different fiber material.

List out types of fiber according to variation in refractive index.

List out types of fiber according to mode of transmission.

Topic Learning Outcomes:

The student will able to list out & explain different types of fiber.

43

Unit-1
Session VI
Optical fibers: Fiber Fabrication & Cable design.

44

Session 6: Optical fibers: Fiber Fabrication & Cable design.


Session Objectives
At the end of session the learner will be able to:

List out different fiber fabrication techniques.

Explain structure of fiber optic cable.

Teaching Learning Material

Presentation

Session Plan
Time
(in
Min)

Content

Learning Aid
/Methodology

Faculty
Approach

Typical
Student
activity

Skill/competency
Developed

05

Review of
previous lecture

Discussion

Revise &
Discuss

Listen &
Participates

Knowledge
Interpersonal &
Intrapersonal

25

Fiber
Fabrication
techniques

Presentation and
discussion

Explains ,
Discusses
and
facilitates

Listen &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

20

Optical fiber
cable design

Presentation and
discussion

Explains ,
Discusses
and
facilitates

Listen &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

10

Conclusion &
Summery

Discussion

Explains &
summarizes

Listen
Participates

Knowledge
Intrapersonal
Interpersonal

45

Session Inputs:
Review of Previous Lecture
Suggested Activity: Discussion

A detailed review of what we had taught in earlier lecture is discussed with learners. Teacher
may ask some question based on the earlier lecture.
Fiber Fabrication techniques
Suggested Activity: Presentation and discussion

Types of Fiber Fabrication techniques like direct melt method vapor phase deposition
method are discussed. Different subtypes of vapor phase deposition method like, vapor axial
deposition (VAD), outside vapor phase oxidation (OVPO), modified chemical vapor deposition
(MCVD) & plasma activated chemical vapor deposition (PCVD) are discussed.
Optical fiber cable design
Suggested Activity: Presentation and discussion

In this session learner will study different functions of fiber optic cable. The detailed structure
of optical fiber cable is explained with the help of presentation.
Unit_1_Notes_Session_VI
Unit_1_PPT_Session_VI
Conclusion:
We can conclude the session with some questions.

Which are different fiber fabrication techniques?

Which are different The functions of the fiber optic cable?

Explain the structure of fiber optic cable?

Summary:
In this session we learn to:

List out and explain types of fiber fabrication techniques.

List out Different functions of fiber optic cable.

Explain structure of fiber optic cable.


46

Topic Learning Outcomes:

Student will able to list out & explain different fiber fabrication technique & understand design
aspects of fiber optic cable.

47

Unit-1
Session VII
State of Art: Fiber fabrication technique & Fiber material

48

Session 7: State of Art: Fiber fabrication technique & Fiber material.


Session Objectives
At the end of session the learner will be able to:

Discuss, understand & conclude about different fiber fabrication technique.

Discuss, understand & conclude about design aspects of fiber optic cable.

Teaching Learning Material

Keywords

Session Plan
Time
(in
Min)

Content

Learning Aid
/Methodology

Faculty
Approach

Typical
Student
activity

Skill/competency
Developed

30

State of Art :
Fiber
Fabrication
techniques

Keywords

Listen &
Identifies

Explains ,
Discusses and
Demonstrate

Knowledge
Interpersonal

20

State of Art :

Keywords

Listen &
Identifies

Explains ,
Discusses and
Demonstrate

Knowledge
Interpersonal

Discussion

Explains &
summarizes

Listen
Participates

Knowledge
Intrapersonal

Optical fiber
cable design
10

Conclusion &
Summery

Interpersonal

Session Inputs:
State of Art : Fiber Fabrication techniques
Suggested Activity: Discussion and Demonstration
We can ask learners to divide in different teams & each team give demonstration of one fiber fabrication
technique. The activity ends with conclusion led by all teams.

State of Art : Optical fiber cable design

49

Suggested Activity: Discussion and Demonstration


We can ask learners to divide in different teams & each team give demonstration related to fiber optic cable
design. The activity ends with conclusion led by all teams.

Conclusion:
The Teacher can conclude the session with the help of conclusion led by each team of learners &
summarize about,

Different fiber fabrication technique.

Design aspects of fiber cable.

Summary:
In this session learner able to:

List out and explain types of fiber fabrication techniques.

List out Different functions of fiber optic cable.

Explain structure of fiber optic cable.

Topic Learning Outcomes:

Learner will able to list out & demonstrate different fiber fabrication technique & understand
design aspects of fiber optic cable.

50

Unit-2
Session I
Transmission characteristics of optical fibers: Attenuation due to absorption

51

Session Objectives: Transmission characteristics of optical fibers: Attenuation due to absorption


At the end of session the learner will be able to

Explain different Transmission characteristics of optical fibers


Define and remember intrinsic, extrinsic absorption and signal losses

Teaching Learning Material

Time
(min)
15

Board
Faculty
Approach
Introduction
Explain

Typical Student
Activity
Listen &
Participates

Skill/Competency
development
Knowledge
Interpersonal

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Comprehension
applications

Content
Introduction of

Teaching Aid

different
Transmission
characteristics of
optical fibers

Quiz
Board and
discussion

Introduction and
calculation of
attenuation

Board and
discussion

Explains ,

10

Different types of
absorption

Board and
discussion

Explains &
summarizes

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Comprehension
applications

10

Details of
absorption losses in
OFC

Board and
discussion

Explains &
summarizes

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Comprehension
applications

25

Monitors&
discusses

52

Session Inputs:
Introduction of different Transmission characteristics of optical fibers

Suggested Activity : Discussion


Before starting with the session, brief discussion on Transmission characteristics of optical fibers

Suggested Activity :Questionnaires


4. What are the different losses in optical communication system?
5. What are the causes of losses?
6. What are the different types of losses?
Introduction and calculation of attenuation

Suggested Activity :

Discussion

In this session initially we have to discuss basic definition and fundamentals of attenuation with
formula, finally some problems are discuss to calculate attenuation by taking problems on the same
then learner will be able to express how the attenuation are relate with the OFC.
.
Different types of absorption

Suggested Activity : Discussion


In this session we have to discuss and explain the intrinsic absorption, extrinsic absorption, and
their causes and fundamental fiber attenuation characteristics, showing the absorption in ultraviolet
region and infrared region.
Unit_2_Notes_Session_I
Unit_2_PPT_Session_I

Conclusion:
We can conclude the session that the student will be able to calculate attenuation and the different
types of absorption

53

Summary:
In this session the following points are covered:

attenuation

causes of attenuation.

Different types of absorption.

Training learning objective

The learner will be able to define intrinsic, extrinsic absorption and signal losses and
to calculate attenuation

Assignment Question:
1. What is meant by attenuation, gise the causes for it ?
2. Explain the various factors contributing to the attenuation in optical fibers?
3. Explain absorption mechanism and its effect on fiber optics?
4. Explain different types of absorption in detail ?
5. A fiber has a coupled power -8dBm and attenuation of 6 dBm/km, and a length
2 km. Calculate the output power
6. A fiber coupled power -8dBm and attenuation of 6 dBm/km. Find the fiber length if the
output power is -30dBm

54

Unit-2
Session II
Scattering losses

55

Session Objectives: Scattering losses


At the end of session the learner will be able

Define and classify the scattering losses


Causes of scattering losses
Different types of scattering losses

Teaching Learning Material

Board

Time
(min) Content
Recap of attenuation
10
and absorption losses
Introduction and types
of Scattering losses

Teaching Aid
questioning
Board and
discussion

Faculty
Approach
Introduction
Explain

Typical Student
Activity
Listen &
Participates

Skill/Competency
development
Knowledge
Interpersonal

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Comprehension
applications

Introduction and
calculation of
Rayleigh scattering
loss(linear scattering)

Board and
discussion

Explains ,

20

Introduction and
calculation of Mie
scattering and Raman
scattering loss

Board and
discussion

Explains &
summarizes

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Comprehension
applications

15

Problems: calculation
of Mie scattering and
Raman scattering loss

Board and
discussion

Explains &
summarizes

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Comprehension
applications

15

Monitors&
discusses

56

Session Inputs:
Recap of attenuation and absorption losses

Suggested Activity :Discussion


Before starting with the session brief discussion on Transmission characteristics of optical fibers

Suggested Activity : Questioning


1. What are the different losses in optical communication system?
2. What are the causes of losses?
Introduction and types of linear Scattering losses

Suggested Activity: discussion


Define and explain different types of linear Scattering losses
Classify the different types of linear Scattering losses
Explain rayleighs scatteringwith formula. and take the problems

Suggested Activity :Questioning


1. Define linear scattering
2. What are different types of linear Scattering losses ?
3. What are the causes of Rayleighs scattering loss ?
Introduction and types of non linear Scattering losses

Suggested Activity : Discussion

Define and explain the nonlinear Scattering


What are different types of nonlinear Scattering losses
Difference between Mie scattering, Raman scattering

57

Suggested Activity : Questioning


1.
2.
3.
4.

Define nonlinear scattering ?


What are different types of nonlinear Scattering losses?
What are the causes of Mie scattering loss?
What are the causes of Raman scattering loss ?
Unit_2_Notes_Session_II
Unit_2_PPT_Session_II

Conclusion:
We can conclude the session that the student will be capable to know different types of linear and
nonlinear Scattering losses and their causes. The student will be able to calculate Rayleighs
scattering , Mie and Raman scattering losses.

Summary:
In this session the following points are covered :

Linear scattering and their causes.

Nonlinear scattering and their causes


Problems on Rayleighs scattering , Mie and Raman scattering losses.
Causes of Rayleighs scattering, Mie scattering, and Raman scattering losses.
Training learning outcome

In this session the learner will be able to define linear scattering and their causes, nonlinear
scattering and their causes ,find Rayleighs scattering , Mie and Raman scattering losses

Assignment Question:
1. Describe scattering losses
2. Explain Rayleigh scattering losses
3. Briefly describe linear scattering losses in optical fiber with regard to
a) Rayleigh scattering
b) Mie scattering
4. Compaare Brilliouin and stimulated scattering in optical fiber.

58

Unit-2
Session III
Bending losses, Signal Distortion in optical fibers: Intra modal Dispersion

59

Session Objectives
At the end of session the learner will be capable of
Definition of bending losses
Causes of bending losses
Signal Distortion in optical fibers: Intra modal Dispersion
Teaching Learning Material

Time
(min)
10

Board

Content
Recap of Recap of
linear scattering.
nonlinear scattering,
Rayleighs scattering
, Mie and Raman
scattering losses

30

Bending losses
Micro bending,
macro bending

20

Signal Distortion in
optical fibers: Intra
modal Dispersion

Faculty
Approach
Introduction
Explain

Typical Student
Activity
Listen &
Participates

Skill/Competency
development
Knowledge
Interpersonal

Board and
discussion

Explains ,

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Comprehension
applications

Board and
discussion

Explains &
summarizes

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Comprehension
applications

Teaching Aid
Quiz
Board and
discussion

Monitors&
discusses

60

Session Inputs:
Recap of linear scattering. nonlinear scattering
calculate Rayleighs scattering , Mie and Raman scattering losses

Suggested ActivityQ: questioning


1.
2.
3.
4.

Define nonlinear scattering


What are different types of nonlinear Scattering losses?
What are the causes of Mie scattering loss?
What are the causes of Raman scattering loss?

Bending Losses Micro bending, macro bending

Suggested Activity :

discussion

Definition of bending loss


types of bending loss
Micro bending, macro bending

Suggested Activity : Questioning


1. Define bending loss
2. What are the different types bending losses?
3. What are the causes of Micro bending, macro bending?

Introduction and types of Signal Distortion in optical fibers


Intra modal Dispersion

Suggested Activity : Discussion

Definition of dispersion
Causes of dispersion
types of dispersion
types of intramodal dispersion

61

Suggested Activity : Questioning


1. Define dispersion
2. What are different types dispersion?
3. What are the causes of dispersion?
4. What is intramodal dispersion?
Unit_2_Notes_Session_III
Unit_2_PPT_Session_III

Conclusion: :
We can conclude the session that the student will be capable to know different types dispersion and
their causes.

Summary:
In this session the following points are covered :

types

Definition of dispersion
Causes of dispersion
types of dispersion
of intramodal dispersion

Training learning outcome:


Definition of dispersion, Causes of dispersion, types of dispersion, types of intramodal dispersion

Assignment Questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Explain with suitable diagram the macro and microbending losses


What is pulse dispersion
Explain what is meant by critical bending radius for an optical fiber
describe how intramodal dispersion may be minimised within the single mode region
A66.5/125GI parabolic fiber of core and cladding index 1.448 and 1.443 respectively
operating at 1.3um . If the radius of curvature of the turn is 2cm, find the power lost in that
turn
6. Assume a multimode graded index fiber has a refractive index at the core axis of 1.46
with a cladding refractive index of 1.45. The critical radius of curvature which allows large
bending losses to occur is 84 m when the fiber is transmitting light of a particular
wavelength. Determine the wavelength of the transmitted light

62

Unit-2
Session IV
Intra modal Dispersion Material & Waveguide dispersion;

63

Session Objectives
At the end of session the learner will be capable of
Definition of Material dispersion
Definition of Waveguide dispersion
Causes of Material & Waveguide dispersion
To calculate Material & Waveguide dispersion
Teaching Learning Material

Time
(min
)
10

Board

Content
Definition
dispersion

Faculty
Approach
Introduction
Explain

Typical Student
Activity
Listen &
Participates

Skill/Competenc
y development
Knowledge
Interpersonal

Board and
discussion

Explains ,

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Comprehension
applications

Board and
discussion

Explains &
summarizes

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Comprehension
applications

Teaching Aid
of

Causes of dispersion

Quiz
Board and
discussion

types of dispersion
types of intramodal
dispersion

25

Material dispersion
and its derivation
Problems on Material
dispersion

25

Waveguide dispersion
and its derivation

Monitors&
discusses

Problems on
Waveguide dispersion

64

Session Inputs:
Recap of Recap of Definition of dispersion, Causes of dispersion, types of dispersion,
types of intramodal dispersion

Suggested Activity: Questioning


1.
2.
3.
4.

Define dispersion
What are different types dispersion
What are the causes of dispersion
What is intramodal dispersion
Material dispersion

Suggested Activity : discussion

Definition of Material dispersion


Causes of Material dispersion
Derivation and Problems on Material dispersion

Suggested Activity :Questioning


1. Define Material dispersion
2. Derive the derivation of material dispersion
3. What are the causes of Problems on Material dispersion

Waveguide dispersion

Suggested Activity : Discussion

Definition of Waveguide dispersion


Causes of Waveguide dispersion
Derivation and Problems on Waveguide dispersion

Suggested Activity : Questioning


1. Define Waveguide dispersion
65

2. Derive the derivation of Waveguide dispersion


3. What are the causes of Waveguide dispersion
Unit_2_Notes_Session_IV
Unit_2_PPT_Session_IV

Conclusion:
We can conclude the session that the student will be capable to know different types dispersion,
Waveguide dispersion, material dispersion and their causes and also calculate material dispersion,
Waveguide dispersion

Summary:
In this session the following points are covered :

Definition of Waveguide dispersion, material dispersion


Causes of Waveguide dispersion, material dispersion
To calculate material dispersion, Waveguide dispersion

Training learning outcome:

In this session the learner will be able to explain and calculate Waveguide dispersion,
material dispersion and their causes

Assignment Questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Define material dispersion and Waveguide dispersion


Derive the derivation of Waveguide dispersion ?
What are the causes of Waveguide dispersion ?
Explain the waveguide dispersion in single mode fiber ?
A glass fiber material dispersion expressed by 2(d2n1/d2) of 0.025 . It is used with a good
LED source of rms spectral width 20 nm at a wavelength of 0.85um . Estimate

-The material dispersion parameter (factor)


-The rms pulse broadening per kilometer for the used source and also when the optical source is LD
with relative spectral width of 0.0012 at the same wavelength
6. A multimode graded index fiber exhibits total pulse broadening of 0.1us over a distance of
15km. Estimate:
a) The max. possible BW assuming no inter symbol interference;
b) The pulse dispersion per unit length;
66

The BW-length product of the fiber

Unit-2
Session V
Intermodal dispersion: MMSI, MMGI

67

Session Objectives
At the end of session the learner will be capable of

Definition of Material dispersion


Definition of Waveguide dispersion
Causes of Material & Waveguide dispersion
To calculate Material & Waveguide dispersion

Teaching Learning Material

Time
(min)
10

25

25

Board

Content
Teaching Aid
Definition of Material dispersion
Definition of Waveguide dispersion
Quiz
Causes of Material
Board and
& Waveguide dispersion
discussion
To calculate Material & Waveguide
dispersion

Faculty
Approach
Introduction
Explain

Typical Student
Activity
Listen &
Participates

Skill/Competency
development
Knowledge
Interpersonal

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Comprehension
applications

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Comprehension
applications

Intermodal
dispersion: MMSI

Board and
discussion

Explains ,

Intermodal
dispersion: MMGI

Board and
discussion

Explains &
summarizes

Monitors&
discusses

68

Session Inputs:
Recap of Definition of Material dispersion, Definition of Waveguide dispersion,
Causes of Material & Waveguide dispersion,To calculate Material & Waveguide
dispersion

Suggested Activity : Questioning


1. Define Material & Waveguide dispersion
2. What are the causes of Material & Waveguide dispersion
Intermodal dispersion: MMSI

Suggested Activity:

discussion
Definition of Intermodal dispersion
Types of Intermodal dispersion
Causes of Intermodal dispersion
Intermodal dispersion in multimode step index fiber
Intermodal dispersion in single mode step index fiber

Suggested Activity: Questioning


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

What is meant by Intermodal dispersion?


What are the different types of Intermodal dispersion?
What are the Causes of Intermodal dispersion?
Why the Intermodal dispersion is maximum in multimode step index fiber?
Why the Intermodal dispersion is negligible in single mode step index fiber

Intermodal dispersion: MMGI


Suggested Activity: Discussion

Causes of Intermodal dispersion I


How the Intermodal dispersion is less in multimode graded index fiber?

Suggested Activity : Questioning


69

What are the Causes of Intermodal dispersion in multimode graded index fiber
Why the Intermodal dispersion is less in multimode graded index fiber. Explain in Detail
Modal noise

Suggested Activity :

Discussion

Definition of modal noise


Causes of modal noise
How the modal-noise-free transmission may be obtained

Suggested Activity :Questioning

Define modal noise


What are the Causes of modal noise
How the modal-noise-free transmission may be obtained
Unit_2_Notes_Session_V
Unit_2_PPT_Session_V

Conclusion:

We can conclude the session that the student will be capable to know the Intermodal
dispersion is less in multimode graded index fiber as compared to multimode step index
fiber but it is negligible in single mode step index fiber. The student also know the modal
noise, their causes

Summary:
In this session the following points are covered :
Definition of Intermodal dispersion
Types of Intermodal dispersion
Causes of Intermodal dispersion
Intermodal dispersion in MMSI, SMSI, MMGI fiber
Definition and causes of modal noise
Training learning outcome:

In this session the learner will be able to explain intramodal and intermodal dispersion in
optical fiber ,their types and causes

70

Assignment Questions:
1. Explain intramodal and intermodal dispersion in optical fiber,how dispersion affects
transmission bandwidth of optical fiber?
2. Explain intramodal and intermodal dispersion in MMGI and SM fiber?
3. What is pulse dispersion?
4. Describe the mechanism of intermodal dispersion in MMSI?
5. Discuss dispersion mechanism with regard to single mode fibers indicating the dominating
effects. Hence , describe how intramodal dispersion may be minimised within the single
mode region
6. An 11 km optical fiber link consisting of the optimum near parabolic profile
gradedindex fiber exhibits rms intermodal pulse broadening of 346 ps over its length. If
the fiber has a relative refractive index of 1.5%, estimate the core axis refractive index.
Hence determine the numerical aperture for the fiber

Unit-2
71

Session VI
Overall fiber dispersion: MM & SM fibers. Special use fibers: Dispersion shifted (DSF)

Session Objectives
At the end of session the learner will be capable of

Overall fiber dispersion in multimode fiber


Overall fiber dispersion in single mode fiber
Dispersion shifted fiber

Teaching Learning Material

Time
(min)
10

35

Board

Content
Teaching Aid
Recap of ineramodal and intermodal
dispersion, modal noise
Quiz
Board and
discussion

Overall fiber
dispersion: MM &
SM fibers

Board and
discussion

Faculty
Approach
Introduction
Explain

Typical Student
Activity
Listen &
Participates

Skill/Competency
development
Knowledge
Interpersonal

Explains ,

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Comprehension
applications

Monitors&
discusses

72

15

Special use fibers:


Dispersion shifted
(DSF)

Board and
discussion

Explains &
summarizes

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Comprehension
applications

Session Inputs:
Recap of of ineramodal and intermodal dispersion, modal noise

Suggested Activity :Questioning


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

What is meant by Intermodal dispersion and explain their different types ?


What are the Causes of Intermodal dispersion?
Why the Intermodal dispersion is maximum in multimode step index fiber?
Why the Intermodal dispersion is negligible in single mode step index fiber?
Define modal noise What are the Causes of modal noise
How the modal-noise-free transmission may be obtained?
Overall fiber dispersion: MM & SM fibers

Suggested Activity:

discussion

Overall fiber dispersion multimode fibers and their derivation


Overall fiber dispersion single mode fibers and their derivation
Problems on Overall fiber dispersion in single mode and multimode fibers

Suggested Activity : Questioning


1. What is the formula for calculating Overall fiber dispersion in single mode and multimode
fibers
Dispersion shifted fiber

73

Suggested Activity:

Discussion

Explanation of dispersion shifted fiber


Material, waveguide and total dispersion characteristics for conventional and
dispersion-shifted step index single-mode fibers
Refractive index profiles for graded index dispersion-shifted fibers: triangular
profile; depressed-cladding triangular profile; Gaussian profile

Suggested Activity: Questioning

What is meant by dispersion shifted fiber?


What is the difference between conventional and dispersion-shifted step index single-mode
fibers?
Unit_2_Notes_Session_VI
Unit_2_PPT_Session_VI

Conclusion:
2. We can conclude the session that the student will be capable to know difference between
conventional and dispersion-shifted step index single-mode fibers and to calculate Overall
fiber dispersion in single mode and multimode fibers

Summary:
In this session the following points are covered :
Calculation of Overall fiber dispersion in single mode and multimode fibers ,Dispersion shifted
fiber and the difference between conventional and dispersion-shifted step index single-mode fibers
Training learning outcome:
In this session the learner will be able to explain dispersion shifted fiber and the difference
between conventional and dispersion-shifted step index single-mode fibers

Assignment Questions:
1. Describe the technique employed and the fiber structure utilised to provide Dispersion
shifted SM fiber?
2. Draw and explain the refractive index profiles for graded index dispersion-shifted
fiber ?

74

3. A multimode step index ber has a numerical aperture of 0.3 and a core refractive index of
1.45. The material dispersion parameter for the ber is 250 ps nm1 kml which makes
material dispersion the totally dominating chromatic dispersion mech- anism. Estimate (a)
the total rms pulse broadening per kilometer when the ber is used with an LED source of
rms spectral width 50 nm and (b) the corresponding bandwidthlength product for the ber
4. A typical single-mode ber has a zero-dispersion wavelength of 1.31 m with a dis- persion
slope of 0.09 ps nm2 km1. Compare the total rst-order dispersion for the ber at the
wavelengths of 1.28 m and 1.55 m. When the material dispersion and prole dispersion at
the latter wavelength are 13.5 ps nm1 km1 and 0.4 ps nm1 km1, respectively,
determine the waveguide dispersion at this wavelength.

Unit-2
Session VII
NZDSF, Dispersion flattened, Polarization maintaining fibers, Fiber Nonlinearities.
State of art: Fiber

75

Session Objectives
At the end of session the learner will be capable of difference between nonzero-dispersion-shifted
fiber (NZ-DSF) and negative-dispersion fiber (NDF) and their application. In dispersion flattened
fiber, the reduction in the dispersion slope or attening is an important issue in the design of
extended band NZ-DSFs together with the enlargement of the effective core area. The various types
of PM ber, classied in terms of their linear polarization mainten- ance

Teaching Learning Material

Time
(min)
10

Board

Faculty
Content
Teaching Aid Approach
Recap of Dispersion
Introduction
shifted fiber, overall dispersion in SM andExplain
Quiz
MM fiber
Board and
discussion

76

Typical Student
Activity
Listen &
Participates

Skill/Competency
development
Knowledge
Interpersonal

25

25

NZDSF, Dispersion
flattened

Board and
discussion

Explains ,

Polarization
maintaining
fibers, Fiber
Nonlinearities. State
of art: Fiber

Board and
discussion

Explains &
summarizes

Monitors&
discusses

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Comprehension
applications

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Comprehension
applications

Session Inputs:
Recap of Recap of Dispersion shifted fiber, overall dispersion in
SM and MM fiber

Suggested Activity: Questioning


1. What is meant by dispersion shifted fiber?
2. What is Overall fiber dispersion in MM & SM fibers?
Nonzero-dispersion-shifted fibers (NZDSF), Dispersion flattened

Suggested Activity : Discussion

Explanation of Nonzero dispersion shifted fiber


Single-mode fiber dispersion characteristics, comparing the profiles for nonzero-dispersionshifted fiber (NZ-DSF) and negative-dispersion fiber (NDF)
Typical refractive index profiles for nonzero-dispersion-shifted fiber (NZ- DSF) and
negative-dispersion fiber (NDF)

Suggested Activity :Questioning


77

1. What is meant by Nonzero dispersion shifted fiber


2. What is the difference between Nonzero dispersion shifted fiber and (NZ-DSF) and
negative-dispersion fiber (NDF)
3. What are the application Nonzero dispersion shifted fiber

Polarization maintaining fibers, Fiber Nonlinearities.


State of art: Fiber
Fiber birefringence, calculation of modal birefringence BF for the ber, definition and explanation
of Polarization maintaining fibers, Time domain effect of polarization mode dispersion in a short
fiber length
Unit_2_Notes_Session_VII
Unit_2_PPT_Session_VII

Conclusion: :
We can conclude the session that the student will be capable to know the difference between
Nonzero dispersion shifted fiber and (NZ-DSF) and negative-dispersion fiber (NDF) Fiber
birefringence, calculation of modal birefringence BF for the ber, definition and explanation of
Polarization maintaining fibers, Time domain effect of polarization mode dispersion in a short fiber
length
Summary:
In this session the following points are covered :
Fiber birefringence, calculation of modal birefringence BF for the ber, definition and explanation
of Polarization maintaining fibers, Time domain effect of polarization mode dispersion in a short
fiber length
Training learning objective
Training learning outcome:
In this session the learner will be able to explain Fiber birefringence, definition and explanation of
Polarization maintaining fibers, Time domain effect of polarization mode dispersion in a short fiber
length

Assignment Questions:
1. Explain what is meant by
a) Modal birefringence
b)The beat length in single mode fiber
78

2. Describe the technique employed and the fiber structure utilised to provide
a) Dispersion shifted SM fiber
b) Dispersion flattened SM fibers
3. Define and explain in detail polarization mode fiber
4. What is the difference between Nonzero dispersion shifted fiber and (NZ-DSF) and
negative-dispersion fiber (NDF)?
5. Draw and explain typical refractive index profiles for nonzero-dispersion-shifted fiber (NZDSF) and negative-dispersion fiber (NDF)
6. Draw and explain Single-mode fiber dispersion characteristics, comparing the profiles for
nonzero-dispersion-shifted fiber (NZ-DSF) and negative-dispersion fiber (NDF)
7. The beat length in a single-mode optical ber is 9 cm when light from an injection laser with
a spectral linewidth of 1 nm and a peak wavelength of 0.9 m is launched into it. Determine
the modal birefringence and estimate the coherence length in this situation. In addition
calculate the difference between the propagation constants for the two orthogonal modes and
check the result
8. Two polarization-maintaining bers operating at a wavelength of 1.3 m have beat lengths
of 0.7 mm and 80 m. Determine the ber birefringence in each case and comment on the
results.

Unit-3

Unit-3
79

Session I
Introduction to optical sources: Wavelength and Material Considerations

Session 1: Introduction to optical sources: Wavelength and Material Considerations


Session Objectives
At the end of session the learner will be able to

List optical sources.

Learn the concept of Direct and indirect band gap.

Explain light source material.

Teaching Learning Material

Board

Power point presentation

Session Plan
80

Time
(in
Min)

Content

10

Introduction of
Light sources

20

Detail study of
PN junction
diode

Learning Aid
/Methodology

Faculty
Approach

Typical
Student
activity

Skill/competency
Developed

Black board,
questioning

Explains &
discusses

Listen ,
Participates

Knowledge
Intrapersonal

Presentation

Explains ,
Discusses
and
facilitates

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

15

Direct and
indirect band
gap

Presentation

Explains ,
Discusses

Listen

Knowledge
Interpersonal

15

Light source
material

Presentation

Explains &
summarizes

Listen

Knowledge
Interpersonal

Session Inputs:

Introduction of Light sources: Session start with questions based on concept of light source, it
would be a good practice to refresh learners knowledge related to basic concepts of light source.

Suggested Activity
Black board and questionnaires:

What is the use of light sources?

List the types of light sources?

Detail study of PN junction diode:

Suggested Activity
Presentation:-

Explain the concept of PN junction diode with the help of presentation; also it will cover energy
level in diode. Light emission in PN junction diode in forward bias diode.
Direct and indirect band gap:
81

Suggested Activity
Presentation:-

With the help of presentation explain the concept of direct and indirect band gap so it will help
learner to know difference between them.
Light source material:

Suggested Activity
Presentation:-

In this presentation we discussed about material used in light source and wavelengths of light.
Unit_3_Notes_Session_I
Unit_3_PPT_Session_I

Conclusion: we would conclude the session with few questions

What is use of light source?

What are the types of light source?

What is difference between Direct and indirect band gap?

Write short note on light source material?

Summary:
At the end of the session student will learn

Light emission in PN junction diode.

Concept of direct and indirect band gap.

List the material used in light source.

Topic learning outcomes:


The learner will be able to described basic information regarding optical sources.

82

Assignments:

Draw and explain Direct and indirect band gap?

Write short note on Light source material?

83

Unit-3
Session II
LEDs: principle of working & their Characteristics

Session 2: LEDs: principle of working & their Characteristics


Session Objectives
At the end of session the learner will be able to

List and explain types of LED structure

Explain light emission in LED

Analyze LED power and Quantum efficiency.

Teaching Learning Material

Board

Power point presentation

84

Session Plan
Time
(in
Min)
20

Content

LED structure:

Learning Aid
/Methodology

Faculty
Approach

Typical
Student
activity

Presentation

Explains &
discusses

Listen ,
Participates

Knowledge
Interpersonal

Surface and
edge Emitting
LED

Skill/competency
Developed

30

Quantum
efficiency, LED
power and
numerical

Black board,
Presentation

Discusses
Guiding &
Evaluation
of student
activity

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

10

External
Quantum
Efficiency

Presentation

Explains ,
Discusses

Listen

Knowledge
Interpersonal

Session Inputs:

LED structure: This session will start with LED structures and their working with the help of
presentation.

Suggested Activity
Presentation and discussion:-

Described the structure and working of surface and edge emitting LED.
Quantum efficiency, LED power and numerical:

Suggested Activity
Presentation:

Derivation of quantum efficiency

Concept of LED power

Black board:-

Solve the numerical based on quantum efficiency and LED power.


85

External Quantum efficiency:

Suggested Activity
Presentation:-

Concept of external quantum efficiency

Derivation of radiative and non-radiative recombination time.

Solve the problem on radiative and non-radiative recombination time.


Unit_3_Notes_Session_II
Unit_3_PPT_Session_II

Conclusion:
At the end student will learn

Different types of LED structure.

How to calculate and analyze Quantum efficiency and power of LED.

Analyze radiative and nonradiative recombination time, Bulk recombination life time.

Summary:
At the end of the session student will learn

Detailed study of LED and their Parameters.

Topic learning outcomes:


The learner will be able to get information of LED structure.
Analyze radiative and nonradiative recombination time, Bulk recombination life time.

Assignments:

Solve problem on radiative and non-radiative recombination time, Bulk recombination life time
from university paper.

Draw and explain surface emitting LED?


86

Unit-3
87

Session III
LASERs: principle of working & their Characteristics.

Session Objectives : LASERs: principle of working & their Characteristics.


At the end of session the learner will be able to

Explain Basic information of LASER diode like Laser action, Radiation of Laser diode, and
their characteristics.

Described Laser operation and lasing condition.

Teaching Learning Material

Board
Power point presentation

Session Plan

88

Time
(in
Min)

Content

Learning Aid
/Methodology

Faculty
Approach

Typical
Student
activity

Skill/competency
Developed

15

Introduction of Board
LASER, Three Presentation
main
process and animation
for laser action

Explain &
discuses

Listen ,
Participates

Knowledge
Intrapersonal,
Interpersonal
Application

25

Radiation
of Presentation
LASER diode,
Laser
Diode
Characteristics:

Explain,
Discuses
and
facilitates

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

20

Laser Operation Black board,


&
Lasing Presentation
Condition

Explain

Listen

Knowledge
Interpersonal

Session Inputs:

Introduction of LASER, Three main processes for laser action: Session start with discussion
on use of LASER diode, it would be a good practice to refresh learners knowledge.

Suggested Activity
Presentation:

Described the three types of laser action with the help of diagram.

1- Photon absorption
2- Spontaneous emission
3- Stimulated emission
Radiation of LASER diode and their characteristics:

Suggested Activity
Presentation:-

This presentation explains the radiation in LASER diode with the help of diagram and the
characteristics of LASER in detail.
Laser operation and Lasing condition:

89

Suggested Activity
Presentation:-

Explain the lasing condition with the help of graph and mathematical equations also derive
semiconductor laser rate equations.
Unit_3_Notes_Session_III
Unit_3_PPT_Session_III

Conclusion:
We would conclude the session with few questions
Draw and explain the laser action?

What are the characteristics of Laser diode?

Write note on Radiation of laser diode?

Summary:
At the end of the session student will learn

Different types of laser actions.

Radiation in Laser diode.

Semiconductor laser rate equations

Topic learning outcomes:


The student will able to get knowledge about LASER diode.

Assignments:

What are the characteristics of Laser?

Explain radiations in laser diode?

Derive semiconductor laser rate equation?

90

91

Unit-3
Session IV
Line coding, Different modulation schemes

Session Objectives: Line coding, Different modulation schemes


At the end of session the learner will be able to

Explain different types of line coding and block coding techniques.

Give brief overview of modulation schemes in optical system.

Teaching Learning Material


92

Board
Power point presentation

Session Plan

Time
(in
Min)

Content

Learning Aid
/Methodology

Faculty
Approach

Typical
Student
activity

Skill/competency
Developed

Introduction of
Line coding

Black board

Explains

Listen

Knowledge
Interpersonal
Application

20

NRZ & RZ
signal formats

Presentation

Explains ,
Discusses
and
facilitates

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal

15

Block coding &


modulation
schemes

Presentation

Explains ,
Discusses

Listen

Knowledge
Interpersonal

20

Conclusion and
summary

Key words

List
facilitates

Identifies

Knowledge

black board

Comprehension
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal

Session Inputs:

Introduction of Line coding: Session start with discussion on some questions arise in learner
mind like,
Define and list line coding techniques?
Where and why we use line coding techniques?
NRZ & RZ signal formats:

Suggested Activity:
Black board and Presentation:

List different types of line coding techniques.


93

Draw and explain NRZ & RZ signal formats

Block coding & modulation schemes: Explain block coding & modulation schemes used in
optical communication system.

Suggested Activity:
Presentation:

Define block coding

Difference between Line and block coding

Brief overview of modulation schemes in optical communication system.


Unit_3_Notes_Session_IV
Unit_3_PPT_Session_IV

Conclusion:
We would conclude the session with few questions

Define and list line coding techniques?

What are the block coding techniques?

Give overview of modulation schemes?

Summary:
At the end of the session student will learn

Line coding techniques

List out block coding techniques

Give overview of modulation schemes.

Topic learning outcomes:


Learner will able to list and explain different coding techniques and modulation schemes.

Assignments:

Draw and explain different types of line coding techniques?

Write short note on?


1. Block coding techniques?
94

2. Modulation schemes in optical fiber communication system?

95

Unit-3
Session V
LED drive circuits for digital and analog transmission

Session Objectives: LED drive circuits for digital and analog transmission
At the end of session the learner will be able to

List the difference and limitations of LED and LASER diode.

Described different types of LED drive circuits for analog and digital transmission.
96

Teaching Learning Material

Board
Power point presentation

Session Plan

Time
(in
Min)
15

20

Content

Source
limitations

LED drive
circuits for
analog
transmission

Learning Aid
/Methodology

Black board

Presentation

Faculty
Approach

Explains &
discusses

Typical
Student
activity

Skill/competency
Developed

Listen ,
Participates,
List

Knowledge
Intrapersonal

Explains ,
Discusses

Listen ,
Participates

Knowledge
Interpersonal

Interpersonal

15

LED drive
circuits for
Digital
transmission

Presentation

Explains ,
Discusses

Listen

Knowledge
Interpersonal

10

Conclusion and
summary

Key words

List
facilitates

Identifies

Knowledge
Comprehension
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal

Session Inputs:

Source Limitations: Before starting the discussion on transmitter circuits we will discuss on
difference and limitations of LED and LASER diode.

Suggested Activity:
97

Black board:-

There are certain parameters on the basis of which we can discuss the limitations of optical
source in details with the help of graph.

LED drive circuits for analog transmission: With basic knowledge of Optical communication
system, LED drive circuits also play a very important role in optical communication system.

Suggested Activity
Presentation:-

This presentation explain the different types of LED drive circuits for analog transmission,

CE configuration drives circuit.

Darlington transistor drives circuit.

A differential amplifier drives circuit.

LED drive circuits for digital transmission:

Suggested Activity:
Presentation:-

Explain different types of LED drive circuits for digital transmission

Low impedance drives circuits

Common logic interface drives circuits

Conclusion and summary:

Suggested Activity
Discussion:

Recap of difference and limitations of LED and LASER.

List the different types of LED drive circuits for analog and digital transmission.
Unit_3_Notes_Session_V
Unit_3_PPT_Session_V

Conclusion:
We would conclude the session with few questions

98

What is difference between LED and ILD?

Draw and explain Darlington transistor drives circuit?

List the LED drive circuits for digital transmission?

Summary:
At the end of the session student will learn

Difference and limitation of LED and ILD.

Different types of LED drive circuits for analog and digital transmission.

Topic learning outcomes:


Learner will able to design different LED drive circuits.

Assignments:

Write the limitations of LED and LASER diode?

Draw and explain Darlington transistor drives circuit?

List the different types of LED drive circuits for analog transmission?

99

Unit-3
Session VI
Power launching: Fiber optic slices

Session Objectives : Power launching: Fiber optic slices


At the end of session the learner will be able to

100

List types of slicing techniques

Explain losses in power launching techniques.

Teaching Learning Material

Board

Power point presentation

Session Plan
Time
(in
Min)

Content

Learning Aid
/Methodology

Faculty
Approach

Typical
Student
activity

Skill/competency
Developed

10

Introduction

Black board

Explains &
discusses

Listen

Knowledge
Interpersonal

35

Fiber slicing
and Losses

Presentation

Explains ,
Discusses,
facilitates

Listen , List,
Participates,
Identify

Knowledge
Interpersonal

Discusses

Listen , List

Knowledge
Interpersonal

15

Summery

Key words

applications

Intrapersonal

Session Inputs:

Introduction of Light sources: Session start with brief overview of this session,
Suggested Activity
Black board:

Different types of power launching techniques.

List out the optical slicing techniques.

Fiber slicing and Losses: Explain in details types of optical slicing techniques
Suggested Activity:
101

Presentation:

Definition and need of optical slicing.

Two types of slicing techniques, Mechanical and fusion slicing.

Detail study of, types of Mechanical slicing.

Detail study of, types of Fusion slicing.

Summary:

Suggested Activity:

Difference between Mechanical and fusion slicing.

Brief overview of slicing losses.

Topic learning outcomes:


Student will able to list out and described slicing techniques.

Unit_3_Notes_Session_VI
Unit_3_PPT_Session_VI

Conclusion:
At the end of the session student will learn

Definition of slicing.

Need of slicing in OFC system.

Details of mechanical slicing.

Details of Fusion slicing.

Assignments:

What is need of slicing?

List and explain mechanical slicing techniques?

Write difference between mechanical and fusion slicing?

102

Write short note on slicing loss?

Unit-3
Session VII
Power launching: Fiber optic coupler and connectors,
State of art: LED and LASER

103

Session Objectives : Power launching: Fiber optic coupler and connectors,


State of art: LED and LASER
At the end of session the learner will be able to

Learn the concept of optic coupler.

Explain different types of connectors.

Teaching Learning Material

Board

Power point presentation

Session Plan
Time
(in
Min)

Content

Learning Aid
/Methodology

Faculty
Approach

Typical
Student
activity

Skill/competency
Developed

25

Fiber optic
couplers

Presentation

Explains ,
Discusses

Listen ,
Participates,
list

Knowledge
Interpersonal

25

Fiber
connectors

Presentation

Explains ,
Discusses

Listen, list

Knowledge
Interpersonal

10

State of art:
LED and
LASER

Key words

facilitates

identify

Knowledge
Interpersonal

Session Inputs:

Fiber optic coupler:

Session start basic concept of coupler it will be help learner to increase

interest in this topic.

Suggested Activity
104

Presentation:

Use of couplers in optical system.

Different types of optic coupler.

Fiber optic connectors:

Suggested Activity
Presentation:

Different types of optical connectors.

Use of connectors in optical system.

State of art: LED and LASER


Session end with state of art topic in this we distribute a topic to learner and they have to collect the
information like, where the given topic used in practical application or what are the different types
available in market etc.
Unit_3_Notes_Session_VII
Unit_3_PPT_Session_VII

Conclusion:
We would conclude the session with few questions

List the different types of optic couplers?

Draw and explain types of optic couplers?

Write note on optic connectors?

Summary:
At the end of the session student will learn

Need of optic couplers.

Types of optic couplers.

Explain optic connectors.

Topic learning outcomes:


Student will able to list out and described optic couplers and connectors.
105

Assignments:

What are the different types of optic coupler?

Write note on optic connectors?

Unit-4
Session I
106

Introduction to optical detectors and Material Considerations

107

Session 1: Introduction to optical detectors and Material Considerations


Session Objectives
At the end of session the learner will be able to:

Examine material consideration in optical detector

Discus the requirement of optical detector


Identify the optical detector for optical receiver.

Teaching Learning Material

Presentation

Session Plan

Time
(in
Min)

Content

Learning Aid
/Methodology

Faculty
Approach
Explain &
discuss

Skill/competency
Developed
Intrapersonal

Listen &
Participates

Interpersonal

Presentation

Explain ,
Discuss

Listen ,
Participates

Knowledge
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

05
Prerequisite

Typical
Student
activity

Chalk & talk

10

Requirements of
optical detector

20

Details about
materials used for
various optical
Detector

Presentation

Explains ,
List

15

Comparative
study of material
used for optical
detector w.r.t
performance

Presentation

Explains &
List

Listen &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

10

Conclusion

Presentation

Explain

Answer

Knowledge
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal

108

Session Inputs:
Requirements of Optical Detector

Suggested Activity: Presentation

Before starting the session on Optical fiber communication system, it would be a good practice
to refresh learners knowledge about general communication system & component used within
Communication system. The learners will be able to explain following points
7. What is the concept of Detectors?
8. What is the concept of optical Detectors?
9. How optical detectors are useful in optical communication system
10. Basic requirement of optical detector.

Details about materials used for various optical Detector

Suggested Activity:

Presentation

A presentation is given, which describes the different material used in optical detector. The
learners will be able to explain following point.
1. Material selection criteria for optical detector?
Comparative study of material used for optical detector w.r.t performance

Suggested Activity:

Presentation

A presentation is given on the comparative study of material used for optical detector with
respect to performance, characteristics, avaibility, cost etc. The learners will be able to explain
following points

1. Comparative study of material used for optical detector.


2. Performance characteristics of optical material.
Unit_4_Notes_Session_I
Unit_4_PPT_Session_I

Conclusion:

We can conclude the session with some questions.


109

What is the concept of Detectors?

Requirement of the optical detector

Characteristics of the diffent optical material?


Summary:
In this session following points are covered

Concept of optical detector.

Basic requirement of optical detector.

Material used in different optical detector.

Topic Learning Outcome:

The learner will able to decide the requirement of optical receivers, material consideration in optical

detector and identify the optical detector for optical receiver

Assignment Question:
1. Explain the concept of optical detector?
2. Explain the basic requirement of optical detector?
3. List the different material used in optical detector with characteristics.

110

Unit-4
Session II
Principle of working & characteristics and relative merits and demerits of PN, P-i-N,

111

Session 2: Principle of working & characteristics and relative merits and demerits of PN, P-i-N
photo diode.

Session Objectives
At the end of session the learner will be able to:

Explain the working & characteristics PN photo diode.

Explain the working & characteristics P-i-N photo diode

Merits & demerits of PN & P-i-N photo diode.

Examine the spectral response for different material used in P-i-N photo diode

Examine the comparison of responsivity & quantum efficiency with respect to wavelength for
PIN photo-diodes of different materials

Teaching Learning Material

Presentation

Session Plan

Time
(in
Min)

Content

10

Recap: Concept & requirement


optical detector.

15

Working & characteristics PN


photo diode.

15

10

Learning
Aid
Faculty
/Methodolog Approach
y

Typical
Student
activity

Skill/competency
Developed

Explain &
discuss

Listen &
Participates

Knowledge
Interpersonal

Presentation

Explain &,
Discuss

Listen ,
Participates

Knowledge
Interpersonal

Working & characteristics P-iN photo diode

Presentation

Explain &
Discusses

Listen ,
Participates

Comprehension
applications

Comparison of responsivity &


quantum efficiency w.r.t
wavelength for PIN photo-

Presentation

Explain

Listen

Knowledge
Interpersonal

chalk & talk

112

diodes of different materials


Merits & demerits of PN & P-i-N
photo diode

10

Presentation

List &
facilitates

Identifies

Knowledge
interpersonal &
intrapersonal.

Session Inputs:
Recap: Before starting the session type of photo detector, it would be a good practice to refresh learners
knowledge related to basic concepts of photo diode & basic requirement.

Suggested Activity:

Discussion
In this session review has taken about the topics covered in last session, concept of detector,

optical detector and requirement of optical detector. The learners will be able to explain following
points
1.

What is the concept of Detectors?

2.

What is the concept of optical Detectors?

3.

Basic requirement of optical detector.

Working & characteristics PN photo diode.

Suggested Activity: Presentation

A presentation is given, the working, characteristics and material used for PN photo diode. The
learners will be able to explain following points
1. Examine the working of PN photo diode.
2. Examine the characteristics of PN photo Diode
Working & characteristics P-i-N photo diode

Suggested Activity:

Presentation

A presentation is given, the working, characteristics and material used for P-i-N photo diode.
The learners will be able to explain following points
1.

Examine the working of P-i-N photo diode.

2.

Examine the characteristics of P-i-N photo Diode

Comparison of responsivity & quantum efficiency w.r.t wavelength for PIN photo-diodes of
different materials

Suggested Activity:

Presentation
113

A presentation is given the Comparison of responsivity & quantum efficiency w.r.t


Wavelength for PIN photo-diodes of different materials. The learners will be able to explain
Following points.
1. Compare the responsivity & quantum efficiency w.r.t. wavelength for PIN photo diodes
of different materials (Si, Ge & InGaAs)
2. Comparative study of spectral response of PIN photo diode for different material,
different wavelength.

Merits & demerits of PN & P-i-N photo diode

Suggested Activity: Presentation

A presentation is given the merits and demerits of PN and P-I-N photo diode. The learners will be
able to explain following points.
1.

What are the advantages & disadvantages of PN photo diode?

2.

What are the advantages & disadvantages of PIN photo diode?


Unit_4_Notes_Session_II
Unit_4_PPT_Session_II

Conclusion:

We can conclude the session with some questions.

Explain the working and characteristics of PN photo diode?

Explain the working and characteristics of PN photo diode?

Compare the responsivity & quantum efficiency w.r.t. wavelength for PIN photo diodes of
Different materials (Si, Ge & InGaAs)

What are the advantages & disadvantages of PN photo diode?

What are the advantages & disadvantages of PIN photo diode?

Summary:
In this session following points are covered

Working and characteristics of PN & PIN photo diode.


Comparison of responsivity & quantum efficiency w.r.t wavelength for PIN photo-diodes of
Different materials

Merits & demerits of PN & P-i-N photo diode


114

Topic Learning Outcome:


The learner will able to explain the working, characteristics, merits & demerits of PN and
P-I-N Photo Diode.

Assignment Question:
1.

Explain Working and characteristics of PN photo diode.?

2.

Explain Working and characteristics of PIN photo diode.?

3.

Write the Merits & demerits of PN photo diode

4.

Write the Merits & demerits of P-i-N photo diode

5.

Compare the responsivity & quantum efficiency w.r.t. wavelength for PIN photo diodes of
Different materials (Si, Ge & InGaAs)

115

Unit-4
Session III
Principle of working & characteristics and relative merits and demerits of
Avalanche photodiodes & photo Transistor

116

Session 3: Principle of working & characteristics and relative merits and demerits of
Avalanche photodiodes & photo Transistor
Session Objectives
At the end of session the learner will be able to:

Explain the working & characteristics Avalanche photo diode.

Explain the working & characteristics photo transistor.

Merits & demerits of Avalanche photo diode.

Merits & demerits of photo transistor.

Teaching Learning Material

Presentation

Session Plan

Content

Learning
Aid
Faculty
/Methodolog Approach
y

Typical
Student
activity

Skill/competency
Developed

10

Recap: Drawback of PN & PIN


photo diode

Quiz &
presentation

Explain &
discuss

Listen &
Participates

Knowledge
Interpersonal

20

working & characteristics


Avalanche photo diode

Presentation

Explain &,
Discuss

Listen ,
Participates

Knowledge
Interpersonal

15

working & characteristics


photo transistor

Presentation

Explain &
Discusses

Listen ,
Participates

Comprehension
applications

10

Merits & demerits of Avalanche


Presentation
photo diode &photo transistor

Explain

Listen

Knowledge
Interpersonal

05

Conclusion

List &
facilitates

Identifies

Knowledge
interpersonal &

Time
(in
Min)

Presentation

117

intrapersonal.

Session Inputs:
Recap: Before starting the session, discus on drawback of PN & PIN photo diode.

Suggested Activity: Quiz

In this session for better understanding of Avalanche photo diode & photo transistor, first discus on
drawback of PN & PIN photo diode.

1. What are the drawbacks of PN photo diode?


2. What are the drawbacks of PIN photo diode?
Working & characteristics Avalanche photo diode

Suggested Activity:

Presentation

A presentation is given, the working, characteristics and material used for Avalanche photo

diode. The learners will be able to explain following points.


1. Examine the construction & working of Avalanche photo diode.
2. Examine the characteristics of Avalanche photo Diode
3. Comparison of Avalanche photo diode parameter for different materials

Working & characteristics photo transistor

Suggested Activity: Presentation

A presentation is given, the working, characteristics and material used for Photo transistor. The
learners will be able to explain following points.
1.

Examine the construction & working of Photo transistor.

2.

Examine the characteristics of Photo transistor

3.

Comparison of Photo transistor parameter for different materials

Merits & demerits of Avalanche photo diode &photo transistor.


Suggested Activity: Presentation

A presentation is given, the advantages & disadvantages of Avalanche photo diode and
Photo transistor. The learners will be able to explain following points.
118

1.

What are the advantages & disadvantages of Avalanche photo diode?

2.

What are the advantages & disadvantages of Photo Transistor?


Unit_4_Notes_Session_III
Unit_4_PPT_Session_III

Conclusion:

We can conclude the session with some questions.

Explain the working and characteristics of Avalanche photo diode?

Explain the working and characteristics of Photo transistor?

What are the advantages & disadvantages of Avalanche photo diode?

What are the advantages & disadvantages of Photo Transistor?

Summary:
In this session following points are covered

Construction, Working and characteristics of Avalanche photo diode

Construction, Working and characteristics of Photo Transistor.

Merits & demerits of Avalanche Photo diode & Photo Transistor.

Topic Learning Objective:


The learner will able to describe the working, characteristics, merits & demerits of Avalanche
Photo Diode and Photo transistor.

Assignment Question:
1. Explain the working and characteristics of Avalanche photo diode?
2. Explain the working and characteristics of Photo transistor?
3. What are the advantages & disadvantages of Avalanche photo diode?
4. What are the advantages & disadvantages of Photo Transistor?

119

Unit-4
Session IV
Receiver Noise and Noise consideration in PN Photo Diode

120

Session 4: Receiver Noise and Noise consideration in PN Photo Diode


Session Objectives
At the end of session the learner will be able to:

Examine the different noise in Analog & Digital receiver system.

Examine the diffent noise sources in optical receiver.

Examine the noise consideration in PN photo Diode

Teaching Learning Material

Presentation

Session Plan

Time
(in
Min)

Content

Learning
Aid
Faculty
/Methodolog Approach
y

10

Recap: Brief review of Avalanche


photo diode & photo transistor

presentation

15

Different noise in Analog &


Digital receiver system

15
15

Typical
Student
activity

Skill/competency
Developed

Explain &
discuss

Listen &
Participates

Knowledge
Interpersonal

Presentation

Explain &,
Discuss

Listen ,
Participates

Knowledge
Interpersonal

Diffent noise sources in optical


receiver

Presentation

Explain &
Discusses

Listen ,
Participates

Comprehension
applications

Noise consideration in PN

Presentation

Explain

Listen

Knowledge

121

Interpersonal

photo Diode
05

Conclusion

Presentation

List &
facilitates

Identifies

Knowledge
interpersonal &
intrapersonal.

Session Inputs:
Recap: Before starting the session, discus on Avalanche photo Diode & Photo transistor.

Suggested Activity: Quiz

In this session, brief review of last session i.e. construction, working, characteristics
Advantages & disadvantages of Avalanche photo diode and Photo transistor. The learners will
be able to explain following points.
1. What is the working principle of avalanche photo diode?
2. What are the advantages & disadvantages of avalanche photo diode?
3. Explain the optical gain in Photo transistor.

Different noise in Analog & Digital receiver system

Suggested Activity:

Presentation

A presentation is given, the different noise in analog & digital receiver system. Signal to
Noise ratio, Bit error rate. The learners will be able to explain following points.
1. Examine the different noise in analog receiver system.
2. Examine the different noise in digital receiver system
3. Explain the signal to noise ratio and bit error rate in optical receiver.
Diffent noise sources in optical receiver

Suggested Activity:

Presentation

122

A presentation is given, the different noise sources in optical receiver. Different noise sources in
optical receiver are short noise, thermal noise, dark current noise excess noise etc. The learners will
be able to explain following points.
1.

Examine the different noise sources in optical receiver.

2.

Explain the short and thermal noise in optical receiver.

3.

Explain the dark current and excess noise in optical receiver.

Noise consideration in PN photo Diode

Suggested Activity:

Presentation

A presentation is given, the different noise consideration in PN photo diode. The


learners will be able to explain following points.
1. Explain the different noise in PN photo diode receiver?

Unit_4_Notes_Session_IV
Unit_4_PPT_Session_IV
Conclusion:

We can conclude the session with some questions.

1.

Examine the different noise in analog receiver system.

2.

Examine the different noise in digital receiver system

3.

Explain the signal to noise ratio and bit error rate in optical receiver.

4.

Explain the different noise in PN photo diode receiver?

Summary:
In this session following points are covered

Different noise in analog and digital optical Receiver.

Diffent noise sources in optical receiver.

Different noise in PN photo diode receiver.

Topic Learning Objective:


The learner will able to classify and explain the different noise and noise sources in optical
receiver.
123

Assignment Question:
1.

List the different noise in analog and digital optical receiver system.

2.

List the different noise sources in optical receiver system

3.

Explain the signal to noise ratio and bit error rate in optical receiver.

4.

Write a short Note on shot noise, thermal noise & dark current noise in optical receiver.

Unit-4
Session V
Noise consideration in P-i-N and Avalanche Photo Diode

124

Session 5: Noise consideration in P-i-N and Avalanche Photo Diode


Session Objectives
At the end of session the learner will be able to:

Examine the different noise in P-i-N photo diode.

Examine the diffent noise in Avalanche photo Diode.

Teaching Learning Material

Presentation

Session Plan

Time
(in
Min)

Content

Learning
Aid
Faculty
/Methodolog Approach
y

10

Recap: Brief review of noise


sources in Optical receiver system

Quiz

20

Different noise in P-i-N photo


diode

20

Diffent noise in Avalanche


photo Diode

10

Conclusion

Typical
Student
activity

Skill/competency
Developed

Explain &
discuss

Listen &
Participates

Knowledge
Interpersonal

Presentation

Explain &,
Discuss

Listen ,
Participates

Knowledge
Interpersonal

Presentation

Explain &
Discusses

Listen ,
Participates

Comprehension
applications

Presentation

List &
facilitates

Identifies

Knowledge
interpersonal &
intrapersonal.

125

Session Inputs:
Recap: Before starting the session, discus on of noise sources and different noise in optical receiver.

Suggested Activity: Quiz

In this session, brief review of last session, i.e. discus on of noise sources and different noise

in optical receiver. The learners will be able to explain following points.


1. Different noise in analog and digital optical receiver system.
2. Different noise sources in optical receiver system.
Different noise in P-i-N photo diode

Suggested Activity:

Presentation

A presentation is given, the different noise in P-i-N photo diode. The learners will be
able to explain following points.
1. Examine the Different noise in P-i-N Photo diode.
2. Explain the thermal and shot noise in P-i-N photo diode
3. Explain the dark current & excess noise in P-I-N photo Diode.

Diffent noise in Avalanche photo Diode

Suggested Activity: Presentation

A presentation is given, the different noise in Avalanche photo diode. The learners will be
able to explain following points.

1.

Examine the different noise Avalanche photo diode in Avalanche photo diode.

2.

Explain the short and thermal noise Avalanche photo diode.

3.

Explain the dark current and excess noise Avalanche photo diode.

Unit_4_Notes_Session_V
Unit_4_PPT_Session_V
Conclusion:

We can conclude the session with some questions.

1.

Examine the different noise in P-I-N photo diode.

2.

Examine the different noise in Avalanche Photo diode.

126

Summary:
In this session following points are covered

Different noise in in P-I-N photo diode.

Diffent noise sources in Avalanche Photo diode.

Topic Learning Objective:


The learner will able to recognize the different noise present in P-I-N and avalanche photo
diode.

Assignment Question:
1.

List the different noise in P-I-N photo diode..

2.

List the different noise in Avalanche Photo diode

3.

Explain the dark current & thermal noise in P-I-N photo diode.

4.

Explain the shot noise and excess noise in Avalanche photo diode.

127

Unit-4
Session VI
Receiver structures, State of art: Optical detectors & detection scheme

128

Session 4: Receiver structures. State of art: Optical detectors


Session Objectives
At the end of session the learner will be able to:

Examine the different receiver structure in optical fiber communication system.

Block diagram of Optical Detector.

Teaching Learning Material

Presentation

Session Plan

Time
(in
Min)

Content

Learning Aid
Typical
Faculty
/Methodolog
Student
Approach
y
activity

10

Recap: Brief review of noise in


P-I-N and Avalanche Photo Diode

Quiz

Explain &
discuss

Listen &
Participates

Knowledge
Interpersonal

20

Different receiver structure in


optical fiber communication
system.

Presentation

Explain &,
Discuss

Listen ,
Participates

Knowledge
Interpersonal

20

State of art: Optical Detector

Presentation

Explain &
Discusses

Listen ,
Participates

Comprehension
applications

10

Conclusion

Presentation

Explain

Listen

Knowledge
Interpersonal

129

Skill/competency
Developed

Session Inputs:
Recap: Before starting the session, discus on different noise in P-I-N and avalanche photo Diode.

Suggested Activity: Quiz

In this session, brief review of last session i.e. different noise in P-I-N and avalanche Photo
Diode. The learners will be able to explain following points.
1. Which is the different noise present in P-I-N Photo Diode?
2. Which is the different noise present in Avalanche Photo Diode??

Different receiver structure in optical fiber communication system.

Suggested Activity:

Presentation

A presentation is given, the different receiver structure in fiber optical communication


System. Different receiver type: High impedance, low impedance, Transimpedance. The
Learners will be able to explain following points. .
1. Which are the different receiver structures in fiber optical communication system?
2. Explain the High impedance, low impedance and transimpedance type optical
receiver.

State of art: Optical Detector

Suggested Activity:

Presentation

A presentation is given, the block diagram of Optical Detector with optical filter, channel
Filter, quantization and error correction method. The learners will be able to explain
following points.

1. Examine the Block diagram of Optical Detector?


2. Explain the different error correction method in optical receiver.

Unit_4_Notes_Session_VI
Unit_4_PPT_Session_VI

130

Conclusion:

We can conclude the session with some questions.


1.

Different type of receiver structure.

2.

Equivalent circuit diagram of receiver structure.

3.

Different error correction method in optical receiver.

Summary:
In this session following points are covered

Different receiver structure in optical fiber communication system.

Block diagram of Optical Detector.

Different error correction method in optical receiver.

Topic Learning Objective:


The learner will able to memorize the different receiver structure & block diagram of optical
receiver communication system.

Assignment Question:
1.

Explain the Block Diagram of optical Detector.

2.

Explain the equivalent Circuit diagram of optical receiver.

3.

Explain the different error correction method in optical detector.

131

Unit-5
Session I
Overview of Design Consideration in Optical Communication

132

Session 1: Overview of Design Consideration in Optical Communication


Session Objectives
At the end of session the learner will be capable to:

Define basic considerations while designing any optical communication system

Categorize any optical communication system

Teaching Learning Material

Board

Power point presentation

Session Plan
Time
(in
Min)

Content

Learning Aid
/Methodology

Faculty
Approach

Typical
Student
activity

Skill/competency
Developed

15

Recap of optical
communication
system.

Presentation

Explains &
discusses

Listen &
Participates
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

20

Introduction to
basic components
of optical
communication
system

Board and
discussion

Explains ,
Discusses
and
facilitates

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

20

Design
consideration for
each module in
OFC system

Board and
discussion

Explains ,
facilitates,
List

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

133

05

Conclusion &
Summery

Keywords

List &
facilitates

Identifies

Knowledge
comprehension,
interpersonal &
intrapersonal.

Session Inputs:
Recap of optical communication system

Suggested Activity: Presentation


Details of optical communication system are discussed in this as a pre-requisite to optical
communication system.
Introduction to basic components of optical communication system

Suggested Activity:

Board and discussion

This session gives the detail information about different components of basic components of fiber
optic communication system.
Design consideration for each module in OFC system

Suggested Activity:

Presentation

This session gives the detail information about Different design considerations required for fiber
optic communication system.
Unit_5_Notes_Session_I
Unit_5_PPT_Session_I
Conclusion:
We can conclude the session with some questions

What are the basic parameters that are consider while designing optical fiber communication system?

What are the basic modules of an optical fiber communication system?

SummaryIn this session learners are able to:


134

1. Understand basic modules required to design any optical communication system.


2. Get knowledge about parameters of optical fiber communication system.

Topic Learning Outcomes:


The learner will able to Design fiber optic communication system.

Assignments:
1. What is optical communication system?
2. What are the main components of an optical fiber communication system?
3. What are criteria for choosing fiber?

135

Unit-5
Session II
Point-to-point links

136

Session 2: Point-to-point links


At the end of session the learner will be capable to:
1. Identify the types of links used in optical fiber communication system.
2.

List basic functions of a fiber link

Teaching Learning Material

Board
Power point presentation

Session Plan
Time
(in
Min)
05

Content

Recap of design

Learning Aid
/Methodology

Faculty
Approach

Typical
Student
activity

Skill/competency
Developed

Discussion

Revise &
Discuss

Listen &
Participates

Knowledge
Interpersonal &
Intrapersonal

consideration in
optical
communication
system
10

Introduction to
different types of
links in optical
communication
system.

Black board
and discussion

Explain &
discuss

Listen &
Participates

Knowledge
Interpersonal

20

Point-to-point
links in optical
system

Black board
and discussion

Explains ,
Discusses
and
facilitates

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

137

20

System
consideration for
Point-to-point
links

Black board
and discussion

Explains ,
Discusses
and
facilitates

Listen &
Identifies

Comprehension
applications

Conclusion &
Summery

Keywords

List &
facilitates

Identifies

Knowledge
comprehension,
interpersonal &
intrapersonal.

Session Inputs:
Recap of design consideration in optical communication system
Suggested Activity: Discussion

Details of design consideration optical communication system is discussed in this as a pre-requisite to


optical communication system.

Introduction to different types of links in optical communication system.


Suggested Activity: Black board and discussion

In this session the Teacher will give a black board presentation regarding, analog & digital links.
Applications of these links are also discussed.
Point-to-point links in optical system
Suggested Activity: Black board and discussion:

Describes point to point communication in fiber optic communication.


System consideration for Point-to-point links
Suggested Activity: Black board and discussion:

This session gives the design considerations required for the point to point links in fiber optic
communication system.
Unit_5_Notes_Session_II
Unit_5_PPT_Session_II

138

Conclusion-

We can conclude the session with some questions


1. What are the different types of links used in optical fiber communication system?
2. What are the real time applications of links
SummaryIn this session learners are able to
1. Understand basic modules required to design any optical communication system.
2. Identify types of links used in optical fiber communication system.

Topic Learning Outcomes:


The learner will able to understand point to point communication & analysis of point to point
communication.

Assignment Questions:
1. What are the different types of links used in optical fiber communication system?
2. What are the real time applications of links

139

Unit-5
Session III
Link power budget analysis

140

Session 3: Link power budget analysis.


Session objectivesAt the end of session the learner will be capable to:
1.

Explain optimal power loss model

2.

To calculate optical power budget

Teaching Learning Material

Board
Power point presentation

Session Plan
Time
(in
Min)
10

Content

Recap of point-

Learning Aid
/Methodology

Concepts of
Link power
budget analysis

Typical
Student
activity

Skill/competency
Developed

Discussion

Revise &
Discuss

Listen &
Participates

Knowledge
Interpersonal &
Intrapersonal

Black board
and discussion

Explains ,
Discusses
and
facilitates

Listen &
Participates

Knowledge
Interpersonal

to-point links in
optical
communication
system
20

Faculty
Approach

141

20

Problems on

Link power
budget analysis

10

Conclusion &
Summery

Black board
and discussion

Explains ,
Discusses
and
facilitates

Listen &
Participates

Knowledge
Interpersonal

Discussion

Explains &
summarizes

Listen
Participates

Intrapersonal

Session Inputs:
Recap of point-to-point links in optical communication system

Suggested Activity: Discussion

Details of design consideration point to point links for optical communication system is discussed.
Concepts of Link power budget analysis
Suggested Activity: Black board and discussion
The concept of link power budget analysis is discussed with help of black board presentation.

Problems on Link power budget analysis


Suggested Activity: Black board and discussion:

In this session different types of problems on link power budget are discussed & solved.
Unit_5_Notes_Session_III
Unit_5_PPT_Session_III
ConclusionWe can conclude the session with some questions
1. What is need of link power budget analysis?
2. How link power budget analysis can find out faults in links?

142

SummaryIn this session learners are able to:


1. Get knowledge about link power budget analysis.
2. Explain purpose to use link power budget analysis .

Topic Learning Outcomes:


The learner will able to analyze the link power budget.

Assignment Questions:
1. What is need of link power budget analysis?
2. How link power budget analysis can find out faults in links?

Unit-5
Session IV
143

Basics of Analog links

Session 4: Basics of Analog links


Session Objectives
At the end of session the learner will be capable to

Explain analog links in optical fiber communication system

Application of analog links

Teaching Learning Material

Board
Power point presentation

Session Plan
Time
(in
Min)
10

Content

Recap of link

Learning Aid
/Methodology

Discussion

Faculty
Approach

Discuss

power budget
analysis

144

Typical
Student
activity
Listen

Skill/competency
Developed

Knowledge
Interpersonal

40

Concepts of
Black board
analog links and
its applications

Explains ,
and
facilitates

Listen &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

10

Conclusion &
Summery

Explains &
summarizes

Listen
Participates

Intrapersonal

Discussion

Interpersonal

Session Inputs:
Recap of link power budget analysis
Suggested Activity: Discussion:

In this session a brief review of link power budget analysis & related concepts are taken.

Concepts of analog links and its applications

Suggested Activity: Black board


In this session we will study

Basic elements of analog links system

System function using analog links

Unit_5_Notes_Session_IV
Unit_5_PPT_Session_IV

ConclusionWe can conclude the session with some questions


1. What is analog links?
2. What are the basic building blocks in analog links?
SummaryIn this session learners are able to:
1. Define what is analog links.
2. Explain about elements of analog links.

145

Topic Learning Outcomes:


The student will able to solve different problems based on analog link.

Assignment Questions:
1. How to calculate optical power budget?

2. Why to use link power budget analysis?

Unit-5
Session V
146

Rise time budget analysis

Session 5: Rise time budget analysis


Session objectivesAt the end of session the learner will be capable to
1. Explain what is rise time budget analysis?
2. Step to calculate dispersion limitation of an optical fiber link.
Teaching Learning Material

Board
Presentation

Session Plan
Time
(in
Min)
10

Content

Recap on analog
links

Learning Aid
/Methodology

Discussion

Faculty
Approach

Revise &

147

Typical
Student
activity
Listen &

Skill/competency
Developed

Knowledge
Interpersonal &

Discuss

Participates

Intrapersonal

20

Concepts of rise
time analysis

Presentation
and discussion

Explains ,
Discusses
and
facilitates

Listen &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

20

Problems on rise

Black board

Explains ,
and
facilitates

Listen &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

Discussion

Explains &
summarizes

Listen
Participates

Knowledge
Intrapersonal

time budget
analysis
10

Conclusion &
Summery

Interpersonal

Session Inputs:
Recap on analog links
Suggested Activity: Discussion

A detailed review of analog links, its advantages and applications is taken.


Concepts of rise time analysis
Suggested Activity: Presentation and discussion

In this session we will discuss basic concept of rise time budget analysis.
Problems on rise time budget analysis
Suggested Activity: Black board

In this session we will calculate rise time of system using rise time budget analysis.
Unit_5_Notes_Session_V
Unit_5_PPT_Session_V

148

ConclusionWe can conclude the session with some questions


1. What is rise time?
2. What are steps of rise time budget analysis?
3. What are the rise-time budget analysis components?
SummaryIn this session learners are able to:
1. Get knowledge about rise time budget analysis.
2. Explain purpose to use rise time budget analysis.
3. Solve different numerical on rise-time budget analysis components.

Topic Learning Outcomes:


The student will able to solve the numerical based on rise time.

Assignment Questions:
1. What is rise time?
2. What are steps of rise time budget analysis?

149

Unit-5
Session VI
CNR-carrier to noise ratio, Multichannel Transmission Techniques

Session 6: CNR-carrier to noise ratio, Multichannel Transmission Techniques.


Session objectives
At the end of session the learner will be capable to:
1. Define CNR
2. Calculate CNR in digital system and analog system
3. List out different Multichannel Transmission Techniques.
Teaching Learning Material
Board
Presentation
Session Plan
Time
(in
Min)

Content

Learning Aid
/Methodology

Faculty
Approach

150

Typical
Student
activity

Skill/competency
Developed

05

Recap of rise
time budget
analysis

Discussion

Revise &
Discuss

Listen &
Participates

Knowledge
Interpersonal &
Intrapersonal

25

Concepts of
CNR

Presentation and
discussion

Explains ,
Discusses
and
facilitates

Listen &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

20

Multichannel
transmission
techniques.

Presentation and
discussion

Explains ,
Discusses
and
facilitates

Listen &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

10

Conclusion &
Summery

Discussion

Explains &
summarizes

Listen
Participates

Knowledge
Intrapersonal
Interpersonal

Session Inputs:
Recap of rise time budget analysis
Suggested Activity: Discussion

Steps of calculating rise time of system using time budget analysis are discussed.
Concepts of CNR
Suggested Activity: Presentation and discussion

In this session learner will study about carrier to noise ratio and CNR for analog and digital system
in OFC.

Multichannel transmission techniques.


Suggested Activity: Presentation and discussion

In this session learner will study different multichannel transmission techniques.


151

Unit_5_Notes_Session_VI
Unit_5_PPT_Session_VI
ConclusionWe can conclude the session with some questions
1. What are the different multichannel techniques used in fiber optic communication?
2. What is carrier to noise ratio?
SummaryIn this session learners are able to:

Understand the concept of carrier to noise ratio.

List and explain different multichannel techniques.

Topic Learning Outcomes:


Student will able to explain CNR & different multichannel techniques

Assignment Questions:
1. What is carrier to noise ratio(CNR)?
2. How to estimate CNR for analog and digital system?
3. Which are the different multichannel techniques used in fiber optic communication?

152

Unit-6
Session I
Overview of WDM

153

Session 1: Overview of WDM


Session Objectives
At the end of session the learner will be able to:

Explain wavelength multiplexing concepts.

Recognize the difference between frequency and wavelength which is why wavelength
has been used in place of frequency in optical fiber communication.

Advantages of optical fiber system over conventional system.

Teaching Learning Material

Presentation

Chalk & talk

Session Plan

Time
(in
Min)
10

20

20

10

Content

Introduction

Principles of
WDM

WDM standards

Explanation of
Block-diagram

Learning Aid
/Methodology

Presentation

Questionnaires

Presentation

Presentation
and discussion

Faculty
Approach

Typical
Student
activity

Skill/competency
Developed

Explains &
discusses

Listen &
Participates
Identifies

Intrapersonal

Explains ,
Discusses
and
facilitates

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

Explains ,
facilitates,
List

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

Explains &
List

Listen &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

154

Interpersonal

Intrapersonal

Intrapersonal

Session Inputs:
Introduction of WDM

Suggested Activity: Presentation

Before starting the session on WDM, it would be a good practice to refresh learners knowledge about
general multiplexing.
Principles of WDM.

Suggested Activity: Questionnaires

11. What are different ways of multiplexing?


12. What are different blocks of WDM system?
13. What are advantages & limitations of WDM system?
The learner will be able to identify the ways of Multiplexing and the concept of WDM with the help of
its advantages and disadvantages.

WDM standards.

Suggested Activity: Presentation


A presentation describes the different multiplexing for different wavelength in optical fiber
communication. Similarly the students will understand the basics of WDM standards which will
be useful while using the WDM in OCS.
Explanation of WDM Block-diagram

Suggested Activity: Presentation

Block diagram of WDM is described with the help of PPT presentation.


Unit_6_Notes_Session_I
Unit_6_PPT_Session_I

Conclusion:

We can conclude the session with some questions.


What are the different blocks of WDM?
List advantages of WDM system?

Introduction of WDM
Principles of WDM.
WDM standards.
Explanation of WDM Block-diagram

155

Summary:
In this session we learn to:
Elements of WDM.

Describe different wavelength used for WDM.


List out advantages of WDM system.

Topic Learning Outcome:


The learner will be able to classify and explain the different WDM concepts in optical Fiber
Communication and identify offers boost in fiber transmission capacity.

Assignment/ Questions:
3) The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has designated the spectral bands
for use in WDM. State and explain.
4) Explain advantages of WDM system. Draw neat block diagram of WDM system.
Explain each block in detail

156

Unit-6
Session II
Optical Amplifiers: Classification of OAs, Principle of operation (SOA)

157

Session 2: Optical Amplifiers: Classification of OAs, Principle of operation of


SOA.
Session Objectives
At the end of session the learner will be able to:

Explain the use of Optical Amplifiers based on Raman Scattering mechanism.

Describe the principle of operation of OAs like SOA, DFA and Raman Amplifiers.

Teaching Learning Material

Chalk & talk

Presentation

Session Plan
Time
(in
Min)

Content

Learning Aid
/Methodology

Faculty
Approach

Typical
Student
activity

Skill/competency
Developed

10

Recap: About
WDM concept

Black board and


discussion

Explain &
discuss

Listen &
Participates

Knowledge
Interpersonal

20

Introduction of
OAs along with
block-diagrams

Black board and


discussion

Explains ,
Discusses
and
facilitates

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

15

Types of OAs

Presentation

Explains ,
Discusses
and
facilitates

Listen &
Identifies

Comprehension
applications

10

Principle of
operation of
SOA

Black board and


discussion

Explains ,
Discusses
and
facilitates

Listen &
Participates

Knowledge
comprehension,
interpersonal &
intrapersonal.

158

Conclusion

Presentation

Questions

Answer

Knowledge

Session Inputs:
Recap: About WDM concept.
Suggested Activity: Black board and discussion:-

Before starting the session on Optical Amplifiers, it would be a good practice to refresh learners
knowledge about WDM concepts.
Introduction of Optical Amplifiers along with block-diagrams.

Suggested Activity: Black board and discussion:


By making block-diagram, explained of Optical Amplifiers. How in the optical domain to boost the
power levels of multiple lightwave signals over spectral bands of 30nm and more.

Types of Optical Amplifiers.

Suggested Activity: Presentation


Detail discussion about various optical amplifier structures and their operating regions.
Principle of operation of SOA.

Suggested Activity: Black board and discussion.


Explain in detail how it belongs to the travelling-wave (TW) amplifier category .
Unit_6_Notes_Session_II
Unit_6_PPT_Session_II

Conclusion:

We can conclude the session with some questions.


What is the specific difference between Optical Amplifier and Semiconductor Optical
Amplifier?
What are the different applications of Optical amplifiers?

Summary:
In this session we learn to:
Describe the various kind of Optical Amplifiers.

Define the Principle of Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers.

Introduction of OAs along with block-diagrams.


Types of OAs

Principle of operation of SOA

159

Topic Learning Outcome:


The learner will be able to explain uses of Optical Amplifiers that operates several
wavelengths simultaneously.

Assignment Questions:
3) What are the different blocks have been used to describe the Optical Amplifiers?
4) Describe the typical gain versus wavelength characteristics of OAs and SOAs.

160

Unit-6
Session III
Gain calculations of Fabry Perot Amplifiers (FPA). SOA applications: advantages and
drawbacks,

161

Session 3: Gain calculations of Fabry Perot Amplifiers (FPA). SOA applications:


advantages and drawbacks.
Session Objectives
At the end of session the learner will be able to:

Explain the general equation for the cavity gain G of an SOA as a function of signal freq.
f.

Describe how its advantage like most of the applications of the SOA use it as a basic
optical gain block like active cavity gain, G, which is defined as the ratio of output signal
power to input signal power from the cavity

Define the drawbacks is that how it works in the linear region for small signal gain while it
goes into the nonlinear region gain for high signal .

Teaching Learning Material

Chalk & talk

Presentation

Session Plan
Time
(in
Min)

Content

Learning Aid
/Methodology

Faculty
Approach

10

Recap: About
Optical
Amplifiers

Black board and


discussion

Explain &
discuss

Listen &
Participates

Knowledge
Interpersonal

20

Describe the gain


calculation of
FPA.

Black board and


discussion

Explains ,
Discusses
and
facilitates

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

10

Describe the
SOA
applications

Presentation

Explains ,
Discusses
and
facilitates

Listen &
Identifies

Comprehension
applications

15

Presentation and
Explanation
discussion
about
advantages and
drawbacks
of

Explains ,
Discusses
and

Listen &
Participates

Knowledge
comprehension,
interpersonal &

162

Typical
Student
activity

Skill/competency
Developed

facilitates

SOA
5

Conclusion

Presentation

Questions

intrapersonal.

Answer

Knowledge

Session Inputs:

Recap: About Optical Amplifiers.

Suggested Activity:

Black-board and discussion:-

Before starting the session on FPA, it would be a good practice to refresh learners knowledge about
Optical Amplifiers.
Describe the gain calculation of FPA.

Suggested Activity: Black board and discussion:


Describe the general equation for the cavity gain G of an SOA as a function of signal frequency f
and based on this solved one numerical.
Describe the SOA applications.

Suggested Activity: Presentation


Detail discussion about various applications of SOAs.
Explanation about advantages and drawbacks of SOA.

Suggested Activity: Black- board and discussion.


Describe how its advantage like most of the applications of the SOA use it as a basic optical gain
block like active cavity gain, G, which is defined as the ratio of output signal power to input
signal power from the cavity and the drawback is that how it works in the linear region for small
signal gain while it goes into the nonlinear region gain for high signal.
Unit_6_Notes_Session_III
Unit_6_PPT_Session_III

Conclusion:

We can conclude the session with some questions.


How to calculate the gain of SOA?
What are the different applications of SOAs?
What are the advantages and drawbacks of SOA.

163

Summary:
In this session we learn to:
Describe the gain and applications of SOA.
Define the advantages and drawbacks of SOA.
Describe the gain calculation of FPA.

Describe the SOA applications.


Advantages and drawbacks of SOA.

Topic Learning Outcome:


The learner will be able to explain how it works in the linear region for small signal
gain while it goes into the nonlinear region gain for high signal.

Assignment Questions:
1) How an SOA is known as an angled facetflared waveguide Amplifier?
2) Describe the Linear and nonlinear property of of SOAs.

164

Unit-6
Session IV
Principle of operation of Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFA), Gain and Noise in an EDFA

165

Session 4: Principle of operation of Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFA), Gain and Noise
in an EDFA
Session Objectives
At the end of session the learner will be able to:
Explain the use of optical pumping for energy transitions and photon emission in EDFA.
Describe the gain behavior of an EDFA as a function of output signal power for various
pump levels.
Define the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise in EDFA.
Teaching Learning Material

Chalk & talk

Presentation

Session Plan
Time
(in
Min)

Content

Learning Aid
/Methodology

Faculty
Approach

10

Recap: About
SOA

Black board and


discussion

Explain &
discuss

Listen &
Participates

Knowledge
Interpersonal

20

Introduction of
EDFA and its
amplification
mechanism
&architecture

Black board and


discussion

Explains ,
Discusses
and
facilitates

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

15

EDFA power
conversion
efficiency and
gain

Black board and


discussion

Explains ,
Discusses
and
facilitates

Listen &
Identifies

Comprehension
applications

10

Amplifier noise

Presentation

Explains ,
Discusses

Listen &
Participates

Knowledge
comprehension,

166

Typical
Student
activity

Skill/competency
Developed

and
facilitates
5

Conclusion

Presentation

Questions

interpersonal &
intrapersonal.
Answer

Knowledge

Session Inputs:
Recap: Prerequisites of SOA.
Suggested Activity: Black board and discussion.

Before starting the session on EDFA, it would be a good practice to refresh learners knowledge about
prerequisites of SOA .

Introduction of EDFA and its amplification mechanism &architecture.

Suggested Activity: Black board and discussion:

Explanation about the operating regions of this device depend on the host material and the doping
elements. What are the various amplification mechanism have been used for energy transition and photon
emission.

EDFA power conversion efficiency and gain.

Suggested Activity: Black board and discussion:

Detail discussion about how population inversion affects the amplifier gain hence it starts to saturate as
the magnitude of the output signal from an EDFA increases.
Amplifier noise.

Suggested Activity: Presentation.

Explain in detail about optical noise to represent the pump spectrum and ASE noise.
Unit_6_Notes_Session_IV
Unit_6_PPT_Session_IV

Conclusion:

We can conclude the session with some questions.


What are the different possible configurations to achieve the amplification in an EDFA?
Describe the gain behavior of an EDFA as a function of output signal power for various
pump levels?

167

Summary:
In this session we learn to:

Describe the use of optical pumping for energy transitions and photon emission in EDFA
architecture.

Describe the gain behavior of an EDFA as a function of output signal power for various
pump levels.
Define the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise in EDFA

Introduction of EDFA and its amplification mechanism &architecture.


EDFA power conversion efficiency and gain.

Amplifier noise

Topic Learning Outcome:


The learner will be able to explain how EDFA operates in C, S, & L spectral bands for
creating wideband optical amplifiers.

Assignment Questions:
3) What are the different conditions to be followed for amplification in EDFA?
4) Describe the typical gain versus wavelength characteristics of EDFA?

168

Unit-6
Session V
WDM Couplers/ Splitters: Excess loss, Insertion loss Coupling ratio,

169

Session 5: WDM Couplers/ Splitters: Excess loss, Insertion loss coupling ratio.
Session Objectives
At the end of session the learner will be able to:

Explain the use of Optical passive devices in the optical domain to split and combine
light streams like Star Coupler and Fused Fiber Coupler, Waveguide Coupler, Isolators
and Circulators .
Describe some parameters like Coupling Coefficient, Splitting Ratio, Excess Loss,
Insertion Loss and Return Loss.

Teaching Learning Material

Chalk & talk

Presentation

Session Plan
Time
(in
Min)
10

Content

Learning Aid
/Methodology

Recap: About
EDFA

Black board and


discussion

Faculty
Approach

Explain &
discuss

170

Typical
Student
activity
Listen &
Participates

Skill/competency
Developed

Knowledge
Interpersonal

20

Introduction and
Presentation
Description of
Optical
Couplers/Splitters

Explains ,
Discusses
and
facilitates

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

10

Scattering Matrix
Representation

Black board and


discussion

Explain &
discuss

Listen &
Participates

Knowledge
Interpersonal

15

Derive different
Black board and
parameters of
discussion
Optical
Couplers/Splitters

Explains ,
Discusses
and
facilitates

Listen &
Identifies

Comprehension
applications

Conclusion

Questions

Answer

Knowledge

Presentation

Session Inputs:
Recap: About EDFA.
Suggested Activity: Black board and discussion:-

Before starting the session on WDM Couplers/Splitters, it would be a good practice to refresh learners
knowledge about EDFA concepts.
Introduction and Description of Optical Couplers/Splitters.

Suggested Activity: Presentation:


Explain the use of Optical passive devices in the optical domain to split and combine light
streams like Star Coupler and Fused Fiber Coupler, Waveguide Coupler, Isolators and
Circulators.
Scattering Matrix Representation.

Suggested Activity: Black board and discussion

Describe the scattering matrix or propagation matrix for all integrated optics devices .
Derive different parameters of Optical Couplers/Splitters.

Suggested Activity: Black board and discussion.


Describe the parameters like Coupling Coefficient, Splitting Ratio, Excess Loss, Insertion Loss
and Return Loss in Optical Couplers/Splitters.

171

Unit_6_Notes_Session_V
Unit_6_PPT_Session_V

Conclusion:

We can conclude the session with some questions.


What are the different applications of index optical devices for Couplers/Splitters?
Define the wavelength response of different Couplers/Splitters?

Summary:
In this session we learn to:

Describe the various kind of Optical Couplers/Splitters.


Define all the parameters of Optical Couplers/Splitters.

Introduction and Description of Optical Couplers/Splitters.


Scattering Matrix Representation
Derive different parameters of Optical Couplers/Splitters

Topic Learning Outcome:


The learner will able to explain the use of Optical passive devices in the optical domain
to split and combine light.

Assignment Questions:
1. How coupled power distribution takes place in Optical Couplers/Splitters as a
function of the guide length?
2. Describe the wavelength response of different Optical Couplers/Splitters?

172

173

Unit-6
Session VI
Isolation and Uniformity properties. State of art: WDM components.

174

Session 6: Isolation and Uniformity properties. State of art: WDM components.


Session Objectives
At the end of session the learner will be able to:

Explain grating element in WDM system for combining and separating individual
wavelengths.

Describe the Dielectric Thin Film Filters which is used as a band pass filter to allow a
particular very narrow wavelength band to pass and reflects others.

Describe State of art: WDM components.

Teaching Learning Material

Chalk & talk

Presentation

Session Plan
Time
(in
Min)

Content

Learning Aid
/Methodology

Faculty
Approach

Typical
Student
activity

Skill/competency
Developed

10

Recap: About
Black board and
Optical
discussion
Couplers/Splitters

Explain &
discuss

Listen &
Participates

Knowledge
Interpersonal

20

Introduction of
fiber gratings

Presentation

Explains ,
Discusses
and
facilitates

Listen ,
Participates &
Identifies

Knowledge
Interpersonal

15

Explanation of
Dielectric Thin
Film Filters

Presentation

Explains ,
Discusses
and
facilitates

Listen &
Identifies

Comprehension
applications

10

Description
about PhasedArray Based
devices

Black board and


discussion

Explains ,
Discusses
and
facilitates

Listen &
Participates

Knowledge
comprehension,
interpersonal &
intrapersonal.

175

Conclusion

Presentation

Questions

Answer

Knowledge

Session Inputs:
Recap: About Optical Couplers/Splitters.
Suggested Activity: Black board and discussion:Before starting the session on Isolation and Uniformity properties, it would be a good practice to refresh
learners knowledge about WDM concepts.
Introduction of fiber gratings.

Suggested Activity: Presentation


Explain grating element in WDM system for combining and separating individual wavelengths.
Explanation of Dielectric Thin Film Filters.

Suggested Activity: Presentation


Describe the Dielectric Thin Film Filters which is used as a bandpass filter to allow a particular
very narrow wavelength band to pass and reflects others.
Description about Phased-Array Based devices.

Suggested Activity: Presentation.


This device can function as a multiplexer, a demultiplexer, a drop-and-insert element or a wavelength
router .
Unit_6_Notes_Session_VI
Unit_6_PPT_Session_VI

Conclusion:

We can conclude the session with some questions.


How the gratings can be categorized as either transmitting or reflecting gratings?
What are the different FBG applications?

Summary:
In this session we learn to:

Explain grating element in WDM system for combining and separating individual
wavelengths.

Describe the Dielectric Thin Film Filters which is used as a band pass filter to allow a
particular very narrow wavelength band to pass and reflects others.
176

Describe State of art: WDM components.

Introduction Of Fiber Gratings.


Explanation of Dielectric Thin Film Filters.
Description about Phased-Array Based devices.

Topic Learning Outcome:


The learner will be able to describe the DTF Filters which is used as a band pass filter
to allow a particular very narrow wavelength band to pass and reflects others in optical fiber

Assignment Questions:
1. Describe the multiplexing of four wavelengths using three FBG devices and three
circulators?
2. Describe the two common optical-filter pass band shapes?

177

References:
1. Gerd Keiser, Optical Fiber Communications, Tata McGraw Hill, Fourth Edition.
2. John M. Senior, Optical Fiber Communications-Principles and Practice, Prentice Hall of India,
second Edition
3. Djafar K. Mynbaev and Lowell L.Scheiner, Fiber Optic Communications Technology,
Pearson Education
4. Govind P.Agrawal, Fiber Optic Communication Systems, WILEY INDIA, Third Edition

178